By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Markazul Ma’arif as an NGO:
Inspired by his father’s charitable work, then a young graduate of Darul Uloom Deoband, Mualana Badrudding Ajmal Qasmi, founded Markazul Ma’arif (NGO) in 1983 to work for the needy people. It’s a social-welfare Non-Government Organization with the sole aim and motto of striving for the upliftment of economically and educationally backward section of the society, with its headquarter located in Hojai town of Assam. From its inception, the NGO laid special emphasis on Education by establishing dozens of schools and colleges. It also works in several important fields by establishing, hospitals, orphanages, providing houses to homeless people, distributing reliefs at the time of natural disasters and extending financial assistance for marriage. The NGO is not only serving in Assam vicinity, but it also works in different parts of India through its branch offices located in Assam, Manipur, New Delhi, Deoband and Mumbai. One of its noteworthy works is to equip fresh Ulama with English language under Markazul Ma’arf Education and Research Center (MMERC).
Need of English Language for Ulama (Islamic Scholar):
No doubt, English language is an international language in our age. If one wants to communicate with international community or just wants to use a commonly understood language to convey his messages at large, he must learn English language. Ulama being the suitable people to represent Islam and convey the peace messages of Islam, throughout the world, were not aware of the ABC of English language. It was difficult for them to present their thoughts at global level to reach international community, where much misunderstanding has been spread against Islam due to biased media houses. The English language has become essential and crying need of the hour; but Ulama were not able to understand, speak and write English language properly. Need of English language for Ulama (Islamic Scholars) was felt by many individuals; but no one knew how to materialize this dream.
Markazul Ma’arif Education & Research Center Establishment:
Comprehending the importance of English language and apprehending the need of the hour, Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Center (MMERC) was established in 1994 by a Darul Uloom Deoband graduate and a successful businessman, Muhsin-e-Millat Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi. Maulana Qasmi is a member of Darul Uloom Deoband’s governing body, President of a political party: AIUDF and Lok Sabha MP for Dhubri constituency of Assam. The mission of this institution was to equip the young promising Ulama with English language, computer science etc. so that they can face the current challenges and play a pivotal role in preaching Islam and serve the nation and international community at large. Thus, MMERC became the first institution of its kind in India, which started training Ulama in accordance with the need of hour.
Initially the MMERC was established in New Delhi. Mr. Mohammad Umar Gautam, ex-Lecturer of Jamia Millia Islamia and famous Da’aee was given the charge to work on the MMERC project and to run it as its first director. A two-year course was designed and named, “Diploma in English Language & Literature (DELL)”. Under Mr. Gautam stalwart directorship, this course started its journey. The newly graduated Ulama were selected after entrance exams. It was first time in the history that more than a dozen Ulama gathered under one roof to learn English language and computer science. It functioned well. Following some years, it was shifted to Mumbai. Maulana M. Burhanuddin Qasmi, an alumnus of MMERC’s first batch, was assigned to take the charge of its daily affairs as its second director. Under the dynamic leadership of Mr. Qasmi, some more activities were added to this programme. Each year, a good number of Ulama are benefiting and graduating since more than two decades and the MMERC is moving ahead.
MMERC Silver Jubilee Celebration:
The MMERC has completed 25 years. Now it’s going to celebrate its “Silver Jubilee Celebration and a 3-Day International Seminar on Muslim Youth, Ulama and Contemporary Challenges with Special Reference to DELL Course and Post-Madrasa Education” on 4th-6th October, 2019, in New Delhi. The period of 25 years is not a small one; but to get a tremendous success, this period is not too long as well. Anyway, within 25 years of its commencement, the MMERC got tremendous success and big achievement in its mission of equipping fresh Ulama with English language and computer science. A just and fair historian will surely endorse and record the services of the MMERC for equipping the Ulama with modern tools and removing the hindrance from their paths to face any challenge of this age.
MMERC has produced almost 450 graduates armed with modern tools like English language, computer science etc. By completing two-year Diploma in English language & Literature, Ulama, in moving forward, find no obstacles which stop them. They find themselves fully equipped to choose whichever field they intend to serve the Ummah and the nation. The MMERC Alumni chose different fields and have played important role in their chosen fields be it teaching, research, Dawah, social work, journalism or administration, etc. Whichever field they stepped in, their success is remarkable. Due to their talent, quality and outstanding performance, they have been respected and embraced by their administration and colleagues with enthusiasm.
For instance, I mention here few names of the MMERC products. Maulana M. Burhanuddin Qasmi is the present serving director of the MMERC, a freelance writer and Editor of the Eastern Crescent, a Mumbai based monthly English magazine. Maulana Mohammad Atiqur Rahman Qasmi is the Coordinator: DIPR of Markazul Ma’arif and Environmentalist Awardee from UNEP. Maulana Dr. Ansar Azmi Qasmi, professor Malik Saud University, Riyadh, KSA. Maulana Iftikhar Ahmad Qasmi is the bilingual English and Arabic writer and teacher of Hadith at Jamia Akkalkuwa. Maulana Dr. Md. Rafiq Qasmi is a research associate at MANNU, Hyderabad. Mufti Dr. Md. Obaidullah Qasmi is Assistant Professor and Head of Arabic Department in Zakir Husain College, University of Delhi and ex-Head of English Department, Darul Uloom Deoband. Maulana Mohammad Afzal Qasmi is Teacher of Hadith at Aljamiatul Islamiyyah, Bolton, Lecturer at Blackburn College, UK and ex-teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband’s English Department. Mufti Abdur Rasheed Qasmi is a teacher of Hadeeth and V-Chairman of Haq Education & Research Foundation, Kanpur. Mufti Dr. Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi, freelance writer, is Head: Internet Department and Coordinator: Online DarulIfta, Darul Uloom, Deoband. Mualana Shamsul Huda Qasmi is the Head of English Department and Editor of The Light, an English magazine published form Jamia Islamia, Akkalkuwa. Late Maulana Ismail Moosa Makrod (May Allah grant him Jannah!), the founder of Markaze Islami Education & Research Center, Ankleshwar, Gujarat. Maulana Manzar Imam Qasmi (PhD) is a bilingual freelance journalist, research scholar on International Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi and Contending Modernities from University of Notre Dame, USA. Maulana Dr. Rafiqul Islam Qasmi is Assistant Professor at UG, GS: AIUDF and an ex-MLA of Assam. Maulana Dr. Gufran Najeeb (BUMS) is a medical practitioner. Maulana Dr. Abdur Rahman Qasmi is currently on post-doctoral fellowship and had worked as News Reader in All India Radio. Maulana Dr. Rahmat Ali Qasmi is Assist-Editor of Hajj Magazine in Hajj Committee, Gov. of India. Maulana Ghufran Sajid Qasmi is the Founder and Chief Editor of Baseeratonline and Milli Baseerat Weekly. Maulana Mohammad Sajid Qasmi (M Ed. From American College of Education, USA) is administrator of Darul Uloom, Atlanta, USA. Maulana Mohammad Khalid Qasmi is teacher of Hadith at Jamia Abdullah bin Masood and ex-Head-Imam Al-farooq Masjid, Atlanta, USA. Maulana Muddissir Ahmad Qasmi is the Assistant Editor of the Eastern Crescent, a columnist of Urdu leading daily Inquilab and director of Al-Ghazali International School, Araria, Bihar. Maulana Tauqeer Ahmad Qasmi is a gifted speaker and Head of English Department, Darul Uloom Deoband. Maulana Dr. Hifzur Rahman Qasmi is a research scholar at JNU, New Delhi and translator of several books.
These individuals have performed tremendously in different fields as it’s understood from their designations. They have also authored and translated several books. It’s truth that the English language, which they learned in the MMERC under the patronage of Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi and the directorship of Mr. Gautam and Mualana M Burhanuddin Qasmi, played a key role in their successes and achievements.
Launching of the Eastern Crescent:
In 2006, MMERC launched its monthly magazine, in English language, with beautiful name “Eastern Crescent” (EC) with the motto of “Alternative Media, People’s Choice”. The first issue was published in May 2006. It’s published under able editorship of MMERC director, Maulana M. Burhanuddin Qasmi from the day one. As it publishes the articles and stories of the MMERC alumni, it gives spaces to the modern educated scholars, without any discrimination, as well. It’s a good platform for the MMERC alumni to share their ideas, views and opinions with the English knowing people. Keeping focus on Indian issues and Islamic topics, the magazine covers current affairs and issues related to Indian Muslim community mostly. Because of its opining making articles, stories and beautiful printing, the magazine has been appreciated by several learned people and research scholars. This magazine is being published since last 14 years without fail. It’s a big achievement for the MMERC in the field of journalism.
Maktab Markazul Ma’arif:
The importance of Makaatib for Muslim children is acknowledged by one and all. As it imparts basic Islamic teachings to young children, it inculcates moral values in their minds. The pupils who go to the Makaatib in the early age of their lives are able to understand the significance of their faith and religion. They learn how to make Wudhu and how to perform five times daily Salaah etc. Bearing the aforesaid points, it’s necessary to establish Makaatib. It must be appreciated that the MMERC authorities are running a successful Maktab namely “Maktab Markazul Ma’arif” for the children under the supervision of the eligible teachers. Currently, about 170 children are enrolled in the Maktab. The success of the children of this Maktab is distinguished. The authorities must be thanked for this service to the community.
Workshop for School Pupils:
It’s very necessary to be informed of essentials of Deen. When one is aware of essentials of Deen, it provides spiritual strength and it gives confidence in the life to practice it. Currently our pupils who go to the schools are hardly taught adequately about Islamic teachings and values. Most of them don’t know the articles of faith. Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Center holds workshops on the occasion of school’s vacations. It’s held completely in an Islamic environment to promote the values of Islamic teachings and inculcate them in the minds of young learners coming from different schools. This workshop assists and encourages the pupils to practice Islamic teachings in their day-to-day lives.
MMERC’s DELL Embracement:
In the initial stage, when this MMERC’s Diploma in English Language and Literature (DELL) course was introduced, two and a half decades ago, none would have thought that this course would be as successful as it’s observed today. But the hard work, sincerity, dedication, devotion, commitment and enthusiasm of the management, teachers and learners bore fruits and paid fully. Today, it’s a model successful course to enhance the ability of the newly graduates of Madaaris. Following the success, this course has been widely embraced and introduced not only in the campus of some celebrated Islamic seminary or Madrasas in India, but also in a certain university like Aligarh Muslim University. This programme is known as “Bridge Course” in the university.
Really the MMERC has played a significant role in shaping the young Madrasa graduates for the service of the nation and the Ummah at national and international levels. As an institution, the MMERC is a role model to be followed. Currently, almost a dozen of such institutions are found in India following the footsteps of the MMERC. For a country like India where thousands of Ulama are produced from several Madaaris, it’s need of the time to introduce the DELL programme in a big number as the existing institutions do not seem to be enough comparing to the number of the graduating Ulama annually. In these institutions, along with the DELL programme, one special lecture in a moth, on an important topic, should be also arranged as it will be much beneficial for the learners, in my view. ***
*Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By Manzar Imam -
Madrasas in India have contributed immensely to Muslim education. They are still doing so. However, the madrasa syllabi have for long been in discussion both in the media and academia for being outdated, orthodox and irrelevant. Further, the madrasa system of education is often blamed by certain quarters of being rigid, typically traditional, promoting sectarian hatred among madrasa graduates with spillover effects in the larger Muslim society. There is some truth in these claims but there are more allegations than realities.
That most madrasas have avoided modern subjects is true to a large extent. If not aversion, then at least a discomfort with English language is another problem afflicting the madrasa education system, affecting prospects of career growth and advancement for madrasa graduates.
While this has been the case on the one hand, on the other hand majority of the college-going Muslim youth lack knowledge of Deen (religion) and Islam. Many of them can’t even read the Qur’an with proper Arabic phonetics, leave aside knowing its meaning and exegesis. And, there is a general tendency of shifting the blame from both sides, thus missing a balance.
Markazul Ma’arif Education & Research Centre (MMERC), a part of northeast India-based Markazul Ma’arif NGO, was set up to narrow this gap and achieve some balance. Under the guardianship of famous ‘aalim (plural, ‘ulama i.e. scholar, theologian), renowned perfume-baron and successful businessman Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Al-Qasmi, presently a Member of Parliament for a consecutive third term, the Markaz started a centre namely Markazul Ma’arif Education & Research Centre in New Delhi in 1994 with the objective to select a batch of 10 to 20 students (‘ulama) from different madrsas to mainly train them in English language and computers. The impact of this unique initiative was so powerful that a senior lecturer of English of Jamia Millia Islamia, who visited the MMERC in 1994 and interacted with students of its first batch, called it an “enthralling experience” which will undoubtedly be counted as a “yeoman’s service” in educating the ‘ulama. His words have come precisely true.
Within a span of less than a decade around 50 ‘ulama started to show great promises. Their oratorical skills were acknowledged and appreciated by senior academicians. Soon many of them also began writing in English. This captured readers’ imagination, something which journalist Syed Ubaidur Rahman aptly described in these words: “They have everything to surprise anyone believing in the orthodoxy of madrasa graduates.”
This year the MMERC completes 25 years of its establishment and, it is celebrating its Silver Jubilee with a-three-day international seminar in New Delhi from 4 to 6 October, 2019. It is also bringing out a souvenir titled Ulama, Post-Madrasa Education, Muslim Youth and Contemporary Challenges which contains well-written and researched papers on important socio-political and religious topics by the alumni.
Over these 25 years the prevailing misconception about ‘ulama not knowing the global English language of academics, business and communication has evaporated like a non-entity. Other changes are also taking place, thanks to MMERC. Presently there are about 15 such centres of language training across India.
The bearded-‘ulama are gradually becoming kings of the Queen’s language. Many of them have established themselves as journalists, interpreters, translators and authors having their works published in prestigious publication houses in India and abroad.
Although a lot remains to be done in terms of contents taught in madrasas, the English language has opened for the madrasa graduates new avenues of post-madrasa education. MMERC has been a trend-setter and its products are now shining with new knowledge and confidence. Kudos to MMERC and its founder Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi!
(Author is a senior journalist based in New Delhi. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org)
By: Manzar Imam*
New Delhi: Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind, the largest and probably the oldest organization of Indian ulama, founded against the backdrop of freedom struggle in 1919, has been celebrating 100 years of its completion. In a series of events, national level conferences and seminars are being organized at its headquarters in Delhi and elsewhere in the country. One such two-day seminar was held on 21-22 September in New Delhi in memory of two of its founding members Maulana Ahmad Saeed Dehlawi and Maulana Abdul Bari Firangi Mahalli.
Scholarly papers were presented on the two personalities in different sessions. The papers highlighted the stellar role played by Maulana Ahmad Saeed and Maulana Firangi Mahalli in freedom struggle and in mobilizing the masses for it. A paper presented by a young Deoband scholar Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi marked the “historic churning” simultaneously taking place in two North Indian cities Lucknow and Delhi during the receding Mughal power which took revolutionary form.
The centre of Lucknow’s movement was the Firangi Mahal family of Mulla Nizamuddin Sahalwi (d. 1748) whereas the gravity of the Delhi movement was Madrasa Rahimiya started by Shah Abdur Rahim (1644-1719), father of the eighteenth century great Islamic scholar and reformer Shah Waliullah Dehlawi. Following the crushing defeat of 1857, the two movements were continued by the ulama of Deoband and Firangi Mahal. Among the proud sons of the Firangi Mahal family is Maulana Qayamuddin Muhammad Abdul Bari Firangi Mahallhi (1868-1926) who was not only an ‘aalim (scholar, theologian) of great stature but founder of several movements. He treaded in the thorny path of national and social service.
Among his remarkable religious services is the establishment of Madrasa Aliya Nizamia on 12 July 1905 under the auspices of Anjuman Mu’ayyid-ul-Uloom. Khalili said that the 37 principles which Maulana Firangi Mahalli formed are the benchmarks of pedagogy which could not be fully implemented by him due to his engagement in other activities and his death in 1926.
Maulana Firangi Mahalli was in close contact of many nationalist leaders including Mahatma Gandhi who sought his advice to continue the freedom struggle. Scholars maintained that the credit for encouraging Gandhi to leave his suit-boot and British lifestyle by wearing dhoti, to a large extent, goes to him.
A paper of Mahmood Jamal, grandson of Maulana Firangi Mahalli, living in London, focused on the letters written by Gandhi to Maulana Firangi Mahalli. Most of these letters are in English but a few of them were written in Urdu by Gandhi himself. These correspondences, according to Jamal, “give us a glimpse of a unique moment in the history of Indian Independence when the Non-cooperation Movement and Khilafat Movements worked in unison.”
Maulana Ahmad Saeed Dehlawi (1888-1959) was an outstanding politician, a great orator, a committed nationalist and author of several books. He started participating in national movements in 1919 and became the first General Secretary of Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind, its Vice-President and President after the demise of Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madani. According to Dr Mohammad Ajmal, an Assistant Professor at Jawaharlal Nehru University, if one read about religious and social issues in the books of scholars of those times one would easily get bored. However, the writings of Maulana Ahmad Saeed on those issues are different which make an interesting reading because of his facility of language and style of writing. They “inform about the prevalent socio-cultural conditions of his time”.
Dr Abdul Malik writes that Maulana Ahmad Saeed was arrested at least eight times by the British and in all he spent seven years in jail. One can understand his political stature with the fact that when he died on 4 December 1959, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi and other senior leaders not only came for his last glimpse but many of them including Indira Gandhi accompanied his janazah (dead body) till the graveyard.
Journalist Nurullah Jawaid made a special mention of Ahmad Saeed’s exegesis of the Qur’an, Kashfur Rahman which was written painstakingly over a period of 18 years. He also mentioned about Maulana Saeed’s concerns about the need for change in the syllabus of madrasas. However, one of his biggest services could be his stand on the Palestine and Kashmir issue. For Jawaid, Kashmir is going through a difficult phase and the stand of many organizations on it remains vague and beyond description. He quoted from Maulana Saeed’s historic speech delivered in a conference on “Islamic unity and the issue of Kashmir” held in Delhi. Maulana Ahmad Saeed had then said, “The Kashmir issue is being seen with a communal lens. The day when decisions on the Kashmir issue and about people of Kashmir are taken on the basis of humanity, there is no reason that the crisis cannot be solved and the people of Kashmir cannot join the national stream.”
Earlier, Maulana Mahmood Madani, General Secretary of Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind said that from the beginning of the movement for freedom to its culmination the role of Jamiat and its leaders and elders cannot be denied. Maulana Asghar Ali Imam Mahdi Salafi expressed happiness for holding the seminar on such eminent personalities.
Prof Saiyid Zaheer Husain Jafri, a senior professor of history of the University of Delhi remarked that books of history of freedom struggle that are generally taught in universities give a different sense from what is written in Urdu books. Therefore, there is need to highlight the ulama’s role in India’s freedom struggle and do fresh research on them. Scholars put various suggestions to underscore the role that Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind and ulama had played in the country’s freedom struggle.
Dr Abdul Malik Rasoolpuri, Maulana Imranullah Qasmi and Mufti Muhammad Affan Mansurpuri coordinated the proceedings of different sessions of the seminar. The two-day seminar ended with concluding remarks and prayers for world peace and peace and stability of India by Qari Muhammad Usman Mansurpuri.
*(A graduate of Darul Uloom Deoband, Manzar Imam is a senior journalist based in New Delhi)
Maulana Burhanuddin Qasmi*
We generally expect most of our religious, social and educational work be done by ulama. We consider them incapable on the other hand! We generally do not support them, instead criticize them in most cases. Aren't these, kind of contradictions within us?
What our modern educated class is doing right now?
A man from Hindu Sena has written a letter to the home ministry dated 29 July 2019, which is viral now, demanding a complete ban on the Qur'an citing security concern for India! We may agree or disagree with Mr Azam Khan but Jauhar University is an educational institution, an asset for India, which is being targeted and may be severely harmed. NRC issue in Assam, Talaq Bill, RTI amendment bill, UAPA amendment bill, citizenship amendment bill, new education policy of India, and many such issues on which our non-ulama intellectuals who are graduated from some of the Muslim established universities with objective as "science in one hand and the Qur'an in other" could lead the poor Muslim masses socially as well as politically. Generally they aren't in the scene. Or there are some who again blame "mullas" are not allowing them to work or they have issues with being Muslims!
Harassment of Muslim youths in the name of love jehad, lynching in the name of cows and now brutality and killing for jai sri Ram. Muslims are feeling clueless and youths are psychologically getting affected. Lack of confidence is apparent. Some even started to hide their Muslim names. Some began to curse their being Muslims!
Aren't these issues better to be addressed by those who are educated, well of and more knowledgeable about the modern world order? Or aren't these all issues serious enough to work on them? What have we done individually to at least light a single candle to do our part?
Assam, Bihar and part of WB are severely affected by floods right now. Why mainly organizations led by ulama are on relief and humanitarian work? Aren't these our work too? Or aren't those suffering human beings not enough human to help them in calamities?
The polygamy case and Muslim inheritance case will come in the Supreme Court, sooner or later, just as follow up to talaq cases, on the basis of gender justice and equality before the law in reference to article 14 and 15 of Indian Constitution.
Should ulama deal with all these alone and can they probably do it? Why not there are a group of able Muslim lawyers, experts who understand Islam as well as modern laws vis-a-vis international laws still not ready from modern educated Muslims in India who should help the community in these issues? How many law colleges have we established so far? Why the legal battles of all Muslim youths who are innocent but arrested under terror charges be fought by ulama led organizations like Jamiat etc in the courts? Why a Muslim need to hire a non-Muslim lawyer to better fight his case in the courts?
One Dr Zafar Mahmood can give us dozen plus successful UPSC candidates each year. Why not many Zafar Mahmood? Why couldn't we produce a bunch of good journalists from within our community? Why not even a single strong media house owned by a Muslim in India? Our representations in arm and police forces are very low. Have we seriously done anything about it? Do those teach in universities and colleges ever speak about all these things in their classes? Some do, most do not.
Have we ever counted how many schools, colleges are established by those who are working with religious organizations or ulama and how many by those who blame ulama for everything? Ulama established madaris and makatib in each nook and corner of the country for religious education, why couldn't we do so by establishing schools and colleges for modern education of Muslims in India?
What contribution are we all offering to the community for it's social, educational and economic development having being posted in prestigious and handsomely paid positions in India and abroad following our education?
Let's ask our inner human honestly, have we seriously responded to the aims and objectives of the founders of AMU and JMI etc.?
I am sure, some of course did respond but is or was it enough? Why can't the north Indian Muslims with same resources available make an educational revolution like that of South Indian ones? Why there is no very visible division between ulama and non-ulama in the southern part of India?
I do feel the questions above are bit direct and too many. May be not so easy reading for some of my friends here. However, I dare to put them in public to bring some of you with me in my self-introspection.
Today we the Muslim Indians are surely not in a position to remain divided anymore and keep blaming each other. We need to work hard together with Muslims as well as all fellow citizens to save our country from destruction and the future of our own children as Muslim Indians.
*Editor: Eastern Crescent, Mumbai
By Mufti Taqi Usmani
- First Ten Days
- The 9th day of Zulhijjah
- The Fast of Youmul 'Arafah
- On the Eid day
- How to Perform Eid Prayers (Hanafi School)
- Khutbah: The Address of Eidul-Adha
- Sacrifice or Qurbani: Philosophy and Rules
- The Time of Qurbani
- Who is Required to Perform Qurbani?
- No Alternate for Qurbani
- The Animals of Qurbani
- Rules about Defective Animals
- The Sunnah Method of Qurbani
- Distribution of the Meat
Zulhijjah is the last month of the Islamic calendar. Literally, it means "hajj." Obviously, this name of the month indicates that the great annual worship of "hajj" is performed in this month, which gives it special significance. Some specific merits and rules relevant to this month are mentioned below:
First Ten Days
The first ten days of Zulhijjah are among the most magnificent days in Islamic calendar. The Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, has said, "One fast during these days is equal to the fasting of one complete year, and the worship of one night during this period is equal to the worship in the "Lailatul-Qadr".
Every Muslim should avail of this wonderful opportunity by performing during this period as much Iba'dah (acts of worship) to Allah as he or she can.
The 9th day of Zulhijjah
The 9th day of Zulhijjah is called 'Youmul - "Arafah' (The Day of 'Arafah). This is the date when the Hujjaj (Haji pilgrims, plural of Haajj) assemble on the plain of 'Arafat, six miles away from Makkah al-Mukarramah, where they perform the most essential part of the prescribed duties of hajj, namely, the 'Wuqoof of'Arafat (the stay in 'Arafat).
The Fast of Youmul 'Arafah
For those not performing hajj, it is mustahabb (desirable) to fast on this day according to their own calendar. It sometimes occurs that 9th Zuihijjah falls on different days in different countries according to the sighting of the moon. In such cases, Muslims of each country should observe 'Youmul 'Arafah according to the lunar dates of their own country.
For example, if 'Youmul 'Arafah' is being observed in Saudi Arabia on Friday, and in Pakistan on Saturday, Pakistani Muslims should treat Saturday as 'Youmul 'Arafah' and should fast on that day if they desire to benefit from the fast of 'Youmul'Arafah'.
The fast of 'Youmul 'Arafah' has been emphasized by the Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, as a mustahabb (desirable) act. According to a hadith, the fast of this day becomes a cause, hopefully so, of forgiveness for sins committed in one year.
Beginning from the Fajr of the 9th Zulhijjah up to the 'Asr prayer of the 13th, it is obligatory on each Muslim to recite the Takbir of Tashriq after every fard prayer in the following words.
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar,
La Ilaha Illallahu, Wallahu Akbar,
Allahu Akbar wa lillahilhamd.
(There is no god but Allah and Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest and to Allah belongs all praise.)
According to authentic Islamic sources, it is obligatory on each Muslim, to recite this Takbir after every fard salah. For women also, it is commendable though not obligatory. Whether you are performing salah with Jama'ah (collectively) or on your own (individually) makes no difference. You must recite the Takbir. However, male Muslims should recite it in a loud voice, while females should recite it in a low voice.
On the Eid day
The following acts are sunnah on the day of Eidul- adha:
1. To wake up early in the morning.
2. To clean one's teeth with a miswak or brush
3. To take bath.
4. To put on one's best available clothes.
5. To use perfume.
6. Not to eat before the Eid prayer.
7. To recite the Takbir of Tashriq in a loud voice while going to the Eid prayer.
How to Perform Eid Prayers (Hanafi School)
The Eid prayer has two raka'at performed in the normal way, with the only addition of six Takbirs, three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah, and three of them just before ruku' in the second raka'ah. The detailed way of performing the Eid prayer is as follows:
The Imam will begin the prayer without Adhan or iqamah. He will begin the prayer by reciting Takbir of Tahrimah (Allahu Akbar). You should raise your hands up to the ears, and after reciting the Takbir, you should set your hands on your navel. The Imam will give a little pause during which you should recite Thana' (Subhanakallahumma .:.). After the completion of Thana', the Imam will recite Takbir (Allahu Akbar) three times. At the first two calls of Takbir you should raise your hands up to the ears, and after reciting Takbir (Allahu Akbar) in a low voice, should bring your hands down and leave them earthwards. But, after the third Takbir, you should set them on your navel as you do in the normal prayers.
After these three Takbirs, the Imam will recite the Holy Qur'an, which you should listen calmly and quietly. The rest of the raka'ah will be performed in the normal way.
After rising for the second raka'ah, the Imam will begin the recitations from the Holy Qur'an during which you should remain calm and quiet. When the Imam finishes his recitation, he will recite three Takbirs once again, but this time it will be just before bowing down for ruku'. At each Takbir you should raise your hands up to the ears, and after saying 'Allahu Akbar', bring them down and leave them earthwards. After these three takbirs have been called and completed, the Imam will say another takbir for bowing down into the ruku' position. At this takbir you need not raise your hands. You just bow down for your ruku' saying, 'Allahu Akbar'. The rest of the salah will be performed in its usual way.
Khutbah: The Address of Eidul-Adha
In this salah of Eid, Khutbah is a sunnah and is delivered after the salah, unlike the salah of Jumu'ah where it is fard and is delivered before the salah. However, listening to the khutbah of Eid salah is wajib or necessary and must be listened to in perfect peace and silence.
It is a sunnah that the Imam begins the first Khutbah by reciting takbir (Allahu Akbar) nine times and the second Khutbah with reciting it seven times.
The way of Eid prayer described above is according to the Hanafi school of Muslim jurists. Some other jurists, like Imam Shafi'i, have some other ways to perform it. They recite Takbir twelve times before beginning the recitations of the Holy Qur'an in both the raka'at. This way is also permissible. If the Imam, being of the Shafi'i school, follows this way, you can also follow him. Both ways are based on the practice of the Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam.
Sacrifice or Qurbani: Philosophy and Rules
The Urdu and persian word Qurbani (Sacrificial slaughter) is derived from the Arabic word Qurban. Lexically, it means an act performed to seek Allah's pleasure. Originally, the word Qurban included all acts of charity because the purpose of charity is nothing but to seek Allah's pleasure. But, in precise religious terminology, the word was later confined to the sacrifice of an animal slaughtered for the sake of Allah.
The sacrifice of an animal has always been treated as a recognized form of worship in all religious orders originating from a divine book. Even in pagan societies, the sacrifice of an animal is recognized as a form of worship, but it is done in the name of some idols and not in the name of Allah, a practice totally rejected by Islam.
In the Shari'ah of our beloved Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, the sacrifice of an animal has been recognized as a form of worship only during three days of Zulhijjah, namely, the 10th, 1lth and 12th of the month. This is to commemorate the unparalleled sacrifice offered by the Prophet Sayyidna Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, when he, in pursuance to a command of Allah conveyed to him in a dream, prepared himself to slaughter his beloved son, Sayyidna Isma'il, Alayhi Salam, and actually did so but, Allah Almighty, after testing his submission, sent down a sheep and saved his son from the logical fate of slaughter. It is from that time onwards that the sacrifice of an animal became an obligatory duty to be performed by every well to do Muslim.
Qurbani is a demonstration of total submission to Allah and a proof of complete obedience to Allah's will or command. When a Muslim offers a Qurbani, this is exactly what he intends to prove. Thus, the Qurbani offered by a Muslim signifies that he is a slave of Allah at his best and that he would not hesitate even for a moment, once he receives an absolute command from his Creator, to surrender before it, to obey it willingly, even if it be at the price of his life and possessions. When a true and perfect Muslim receives a command from Allah, he does not make his obedience dependent upon the command's reasonability' as perceived through his limited understanding. He knows that Allah is All-knowing, All-Wise and that his own reason cannot encompass the knowledge and wisdom underlying the divine command. He, therefore, submits to the divine command, even if he cannot grasp the reason or wisdom behind it.
This is exactly what the Prophet Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, did. Apparently, there was no reason why a father should slaughter his innocent son. But, when came the command from Allah, he never asked about the reason for that command, nor did he hesitate to follow it. Even his minor son when asked by his father about the dream he had seen, never questioned the legitimacy of the command, nor did he pine or whine about it, nor did he ask for one good reason why he was being slaughtered. The one and only response he made was:
'Father, do what you have been ordered to do. You shall find me, God willing, among the patient".
The present-day Qurbani is offered in memory of this great model of submission set before us by the great father and the great son. So Qurbani must be offered in our time emulating the same ideal and attitude of submission.
This, then, is the true philosophy of Qurbani. With this in mind, one can easily unveil the fallacy of those who raise objections against Qurbani on the basis of economic calculations and depict it to be a wastage of money, resources and livestock. Unable to see beyond mundane benefits, they cannot understand the spirit Islam wants to plant and nourish among its followers, the spirit of total submission to Allah's will which equips man with most superior qualities so necessary to keep humanity in a state of lasting peace and welfare.
Qurbani is nothing but a powerful symbol of the required human conduct vis-a-vis the divine commands, however "irrational" or "uneconomic" they may seem to be in their appearance. Thus, the distrustful quest for mundane economic benefits behind Qurbani is, in fact, the negation of its real philosophy and the very spirit underlying it.
No doubt, there are in every form of worship ordained by Allah, certain worldly benefits too, but they are not the main purpose of these prescribed duties, nor should they be treated as a pre-condition to submission and obedience. All acts of worship, including Qurbani, must be carried out with a spirit of total submission to Allah, irrespective of their economic, social or political benefits. This is what Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, did, and this is what every true Muslim is required to do,
Keeping this in view, we are giving here some rules governing the worship of Qurbani in our Shari'ah according to the Hanafi School.
The Time of Qurbani
Qurbani can only be performed during the three days of Eid, namely the 10th, Ilth and 12th of Zulhijjah. It is only in these days that slaughtering of an animal is recognized as an act of worship. No Qurbani can be performed in any other days of the year.
Although Qurbani is permissible on each of the three aforesaid days, yet it is preferable to perform it on the first day i.e. the 10th of Zulhijjah.
No Qurbani is allowed before the Eid prayer is over. However, in small villages where the Eid prayer is not to be performed, Qurbani can be offered' any time after the break of dawn on the 10th of Zulhijjah.
Qurbani can also be performed in the two nights following the Eid day, but it is more advisable to perform it during daytime.
Who is Required to Perform Qurbani?
Every adult Muslim, male or female, who owns 613.35 grams of silver or its equivalent in money, personal ornaments, stock-in-trade or any other form of wealth which is surplus to his basic needs, is under an obligation to offer a Qurbani. Each adult member of a family who owns the above mentioned amount must perform his own Qurbani separately. If the husband owns the required quantity, but the wife does not, the Qurbani obligatory on the husband only and vice-versa. If both of them have the prescribed amount of wealth, both should perform Qurbani separately.
If the adult children live with their parents, Qurbani is obligatory on each one of them possessing the prescribed amount. The Qurbani offered by a husband for himself does not fulfil the obligation of his wife, nor can the Qurbani offered by a father discharge his son or daughter from their obligation. Each one of them should care for his own.
However, if a husband or a father, apart from offering his own Qurbani, gives another Qurbani on behalf of his wife or his son, he can do so with their permission.
No Alternate for Qurbani
Some people think that instead of offering a Qurbani they should give its amount to some poor people as charity. This attitude is totally wrong. Actually, there are different forms of worship obligatory on Muslims. Each one of them has its own importance and none of them can stand for the other. It is not permissible for a Muslim to perform salah instead of fasting in Ramadan, nor is it permissible for him to give some charity instead of observing the obligatory Salah. Similarly, Qurbani is an independent form of worship and this obligation cannot be discharged by spending money in charity.
However, if somebody, out of his ignorance or negligence, could not offer Qurbani on the three prescribed days (10th, 1lth and 12th Zulhijjah) then, in that case only, he can give the price of a Qurbani as sadaqah to those entitled to receive Zakah. But during the days of Qurbani no Sadaqah can discharge the obligation.
The Animals of Qurbani
The following animals can be slaughtered to offer a Qurbani:
1. Goat, either male or female, of at least one year of age.
2. Sheep, either male or female, of at least six months of age.
3. Cow, ox buffalo of at least two years of age.
4. Camel, male or female, of at least five years of age.
One head of goat or sheep is enough only for one person's Qurbani. But as for all other animals like cow, buffalo or camel, one head of each is equal to seven offerings thus allowing seven persons to offer Qurbani jointly in one such animal.
If the seller of animal claims that the animal is of the recognized age and there is no apparent evidence to the contrary; one can trust his statement and the sacrifice of such an animal is lawful.
Rules about Defective Animals
The following defective animals are not acceptable in Qurbani:
1. Blind, one eyed or lame animal.
2. An animal so emaciated that it cannot walk to its slaughtering place.
3. An animal with one-third part of the ear or the nose or the tail missing.
4. An animal that has no teeth at all, or the major number of its teeth are missing.
5. An animal born without ears.
The following animals are acceptable in Qurbani:
1. A castrated he - goat. (Rather, its Qurbani is more preferable).
2. An animal that has no horns, or its horns are broken. However, if the horns of an animal are uprooted totally so as to create a defect in the brain, its Qurbani is not lawful.
3. An animal the missing part of whose ear, nose or tail is less than one third.
4. A sick or injured animal, unless it has some above mentioned defects rendering its Qurbani unlawful.
The Sunnah Method of Qurbani
It is more preferable for a Muslim to slaughter the animal of his Qurbani with his own hands. However, if he is unable to slaughter the animal himself, or does not want to do so for some reason, he can request another person to slaughter it on his behalf. In this case also, it is more preferable that he, at least, be present at the time of slaughter. However, his absence at the time of slaughter does not render the Qurbani invalid, if he has authorized the person who slaughtered the animal on his behalf. It is a Sunnah to lay the animal with its face towards the Qiblah, and to recite the following verse of the Holy Quran:
I, being upright, turn my face towards the One who has created the heavens and the earth, and I am not among those who associate partners with Allah. ( Al-An'am, 6:79)
But the most essential recitation when slaughtering an animal is: Bismillah, Allahu Akbar. (In the name of Allah, Allah is the greatest). If somebody intentionally avoids to recite it when slaughtering an animal, it does not only make his Qurbani unlawful, but also renders the animal haram, and it is not permissible to eat the meat of that animal. However, if a person did not avoid this recitation intentionally, but he forgot to recite it when slaughtering the animal, this mistake is forgiven and both the Qurbani and the slaughter are lawful.
If somebody is unable to recite "Bismillah Allahu Akbar" in the Arabic language, he can recite the name of Allah in his own language by saying, "In the name of Allah".
Distribution of the Meat
If an animal is sacrificed by more than one person, like cow or camel, its meat should be distributed equally among its owners by weighing the meat strictly and not at random or by mere guess. Even if all the partners agree on its distribution without weighing, it is still not permissible according to shari'ah.
However, if the actual weighing is not practicable due to some reason, and all the partners agree to distribute the meat without weighing, distribution by guess can be done with the condition that each share necessarily contains either a leg of the animal or some quantity of its liver.
Although the person offering a Qurbani can keep all its meat for his own use, yet, it is preferable to distribute one-third among the poor, another one-third among his relatives and then, keep the rest for his personal consumption.
All parts of the sacrificed animal can be used for personal benefit, but none can be sold, nor can be given to the butcher as a part of his wages. If somebody has sold the meat of the Qurbani or its skin, he must give the accrued price as sadaqah to a poor man who can receive Zakah.
The most important way of worship performed in this month is "hajj", one of the five pillars of Islam. The Muslims from every part of the world assemble in Arabia to perform this unique way of worship. Hajj is a worship, which requires at least five days to be performed in its proper way. There are detailed rules for different acts of hajj for which separate books are available, and the present article does not aim at explaining all these details. However, some basic information about its obligation is being given here:
1. Hajj is obligatory on every adult Muslim who can afford to go to Makkah during the hajj season, whether on foot or by any other carriage.
2. If a person can travel to Makkah to perform hajj, but he cannot travel to Madinah, hajj is obligatory on him also. He can perform hajj without visiting Madinah.
3. A Muslim woman cannot travel for hajj unless she is accompanied by a mahram (i.e. husband or relative of a prohibited degree like son, father, brother etc.) If she does not find any mahram to accompany her, hajj is not obligatory on her until she finds one. However, she must make a will that in case she dies before performing hajj, his heirs should arrange for her hajj-e-badal out of her left over property.
4. Hajj is obligated only once in one's life. After performing the obligatory hajj; one is not required to perform it again. However, he can perform the nafl (optional hajj as many times as he or she wishes.)
by: Maulana Hussain Ahmad Qasmi*
Hajj is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world. It is a demonstration of the solidarity and harmony of the Muslim people, and their submission to Almighty Allah. It is the fifth pillar of Islam, an obligation that must be carried out at least once in the life time of every Muslim who can afford to do it. The holy Quran makes it mention:
And pilgrimage to the House is duty unto Allah for mankind, for him who can find a way thither. (Quran: 22: 97)
Hajj is an Arabic word which literally means “to set out” with the intention of devotion or reward to a sacred place. However, Islamically, it means travelling for the purpose of visiting the Holy Kaba – the House of Allah - in Mecca, the direction which Muslims turn to in Prayer, in order to perform a series of rituals that are based on the actions and words reported in tradition of the holy Prophet's Hajj, such as Tawaf (walking around the Holy Kaba seven times), Sa`i (running between the hills of al-Safa and al-Marwah seven times), standing at the mountain of Arafat, and throwing pebbles at the Jamarat in Mina.
Truly, Hajj and its rites first were ordained by Allah in the time of the Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) and he was one who was entrusted by Almighty Allah to build the Holy Kaba – the House of Allah – along with his beloved son Hadhrat Ismail (PBUH) at Mecca. The holy Quran says:
And (remember) when We prepared for Abraham the place of the (holy) House, saying: Ascribe thou no thing as partner unto Me, and purify My House for those who make the round (thereof) and those who stand and those who bow and make prostration. And proclaim unto mankind the Pilgrimage. They will come unto thee on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every deep ravine. (Quran: 22: 26-27).
After building the Kaba, Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) would come to Mecca to perform Hajj every year, and after his death, this practice was continued by his son.
The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the 12th month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, eleven days shorter than the Gregorian calendar used in the Western world, the Gregorian date of the Hajj is eleven days earlier from year to year. The Hajj is associated with the life of the holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered to stretch back to the time of Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) and his beloved son Prophet Ismail (PBUH), the prominent figures in both Islam and Judaism.
One who intends to perform Hajj should first make taubah (repentance to Allah), settle his debts, prepare sufficient provision for his journey and for his family until his return, give back trust to their rightful owners, and meet his expenses by lawful means. He is recommended to accompany righteous men to help each other in their journey. If there is a group of people going out for Hajj, they should choose one of them to be their leader during their journey so as to set their affairs in order.
Mecca is the center of true and pure monotheism, and the place where Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH), The Friend of God, left as a monument for all the true believers of the world throughout history a symbol of monotheism which is the subjugation of one's carnal desires and complete submission before the divine command by bringing his beloved to the altar. Here is the place where the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) raised the flag of monotheism against the wishes of the arrogant and bullying elements and the wealthy of his time.
Hajj maintains the spirit of unity among Muslims, individuals and communities and educates Muslims, and even non-Muslims, about the true meaning of equality, which is manifested in the pilgrims' unified dress code and their observance of the rituals irrespective of their race, language, gender, or social positions. Hajj is full of lessons for Muslims whereby we can affect real changes in the way we practice Islam as well as in the way we behave. Hajj teaches us to break the barriers that separate people from one another: barriers of race, nationality, ethnicity, color, and language. Hajj instills in us the great values of faith, surrender, trust, and sacrifice for the sake of Allah the Almighty and for the truth.
Islam lays emphasis on the very principle of equality between all people. It makes it clear that people are as equal as the comb teeth. The holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) declares:
“O people! Your Lord is One, your father is one. You are all sons of Adam and Adam is created from dust.” (Abu Dawood, No. 4452)
In prayer, a person may wear his own traditional costumes and thus may be distinguished. In Hajj, it is totally different as all people put on two pieces of white cloth that resemble a shroud. This is the highest form of equality. In Hajj, man enters into a state of total sanctity that prevents him from violating the life or the safety of any human being. Hajj is the sign of the universality of this Divine message. All people come from all parts of the globe celebrating the praises of the One true God, no colors, races, regional borders. All barriers are removed and all pilgrims are molten in one brotherhood that gathers their hearts and strengthens their bonds and sense of belonging to one religion. Hajj is, above all, a revolution against all usual matters.
Hajj experience promotes peaceful coexistence, equality, and harmony. Hajj increases belief in equality and harmony among ethnic groups and Islamic sects, and the Hajis - those who have performed the Hajj - show increased belief in peace, and in equality and harmony among adherents of different religions.
Hajj is the opportunity to review and revisit these great lessons. Each and every corner of Hajj is the embodiment of unity and solidarity among the believers where natural and contractual differences fade away and the significance of the true and monotheistic unity and brotherhood is upheld. Hajj is one of the best means of Islam for the elimination of negligence. As if the universality of this ritual imparts the message that the Muslim Ummah in their collective identity, besides the individual duty of every Muslim, is duty-bound to remove negligence from them. On the other hand, the glory and grandeur of this unique congregation acquaints us with the reality of the great Islamic Ummah, which transcends the nations, races, colors and languages. This intertwined and harmonic congregation, these tongues all chanting a single word, these bodies and hearts all marching towards a single Qiblah and these human beings representing tens of countries and nations all belong to a great unit and collection, that is, the Islamic Ummah.
*The author is Web Organizer with Internet Dept, Online Darul Ifta, Darul Uloom Deoband. He can be reached at: email@example.com
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
13th January 2019, was a shocking day for me and many others. Early in the morning, we received the heartbreaking news of the demise of well-versed scholar of Fiqh and Hadeeth after his prolonged illness which he had been fighting for about three years. As he was famous for his deep knowledge and understanding of Fiqh, he was also well-known for his academic quality of the science of Hadeeth. Due to his knowledge and sound opinion in the field of Fiqh specially, he was held in high esteem by several towering contemporary personalities. His opinions were valued and respected by the authentic scholar of Fiqh like Qazi Mujahidul Islam Qasmi (1936-2002). These words refer to the grieving death of my revered teacher Faqihe Millat Maulana Zubair Ahmad Qasmi, in a hospital in Madhubani district of his hometown, Chandarsainpur in Bihar.
Faqihe Millat’s Birth:
Faqihe Millat was born in a middle class family of a famous village known as Chndarsainpur of district Madhubani in Bihar province of India on 1st January 1936 to late Abdush Shakur. The father passed away when he was a child. This village is well-known in the area because of being the birthplace several pious and expert Islamic scholars.
Faqihe Millat began his basic education in a Maktab (nursery school) in his village. He completed reciting the Glorious Qura’an and reading basic Urdu books in the village from Maulana Ameerul Haq Miftahi (Rh.A). After the completion of the nursery level education, he left for Madrasa Basharatul Uloom which is situated in his neighbouring town Khirayan Pathra of Darbhanga district.
In Madrasa Basharatul Uloom, Khirayan Pathra, Faqihe Millat started from the primary level education of Persian language. Following the completion of the Persian language, he stared the basic of Aalim Course until he finished the first two parts of Hidayah, a celebrated book of jurisprudence of Hanafi school of thought and Jalalain, a famous book of Tafseer in that Madrasa. It must be noticed here that he learned from Persian language up to Jalalain from only one teacher, his uncle Maulana Saeed Ahmad Qasmi, an expert teacher of Darse Nizaami and student of Sheikhul Islam Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani (1879-1957).
Following the primary and secondary level education at Madrasa Basharatul Uloom, he moved to Deoband to get admission in the great revolutionary seminary Darul Uloom Deoband to quench his thirst of knowledge of the sciences of Tafseer and Hadeeth. He got admission in 1377 AH and remained two years in Darul Uloom Deoband until he completed his Fazilat-Graduation in Islamic Studies in 1379 AH. In Darul Uloom, he learnt from the expert scholars of Tafseer and Hadeeth like Sheikh Allamah Fakhruddin (1307-1393 AH), Allamah Muhammad Ibrahim Baliawi (1886-1967), Sheikh Basheer Ahmad Khan (D. 1966), Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi (1897-1983), Sheikh Zahoor Ahmad Doebandi (1900-1963), Sheikh Jalil Ahmad Kairanvi (D. 1968), Sheikh Fakhrul Hasan, Sheikh Sayyid Hasan, etc.
After completing his graduation, in the same year 1379, Faqihe Millat was appointed as a teacher at Madrasa Basharatul Uloom, Khirayan Pathra. Following almost one and half year, he resigned from this Madrasa on 15th Rabiul Awwal 1380 and joined Madrasa Islamia, Mughla Khar in Nawadah District in Bihar. As the pupils in this Madrasa were of primary level, it was unsatisfactory and he had to resign just after few months and again he joined Madrasa Basharatul Uloom and taught till Jumadal Ukhra 1387 almost 6 years then he resigned.
In Ashraful Uloom as Head-Teacher:
In Shawwal 1387, Faqihe Millat was appointed in Jamia Ashraful Uloom, Kanahwan, Sitamarhi (Bihar) as head-teacher by its long serving pious and sincere rector, Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib. With his struggles and efforts, he took the educational standard to high level. In his headship, Jamia progressed by leaps and bounds from each angles. The progress was observed everywhere. One and all valued him and praised the standard of Jamia where he took it. After serving for 10 years tirelessly as head-teacher, he resigned in Dhul Hijjah 1397 AH.
In Jamia Rahmani:
In Muharram 1398 AH, Faqihe Millat was called by Sheikh Minnatullah Rahmani (1912-1991) to teach in Jamia Rahmani, Munger. He taught the books of Fiqh and Hadeeth in Jamia. Sheikh Rahmani had every confidence in his teaching ability and appreciated his teaching methodology. He enjoyed teaching in Jamia and served here about 9 years. Then due to some internal circumstances and situations, he resigned on 10th Shawwal 1406 AH unwillingly.
In Miftahul Uloom:
After Jamia Rahmania, he reached Jamia Miftahul Uloom, Maunath Bhanjan on 16th Shawwal 1406 AH where he was called to teach Bukhari Shareef. He requested the authority to let the Bukhari Shareef being taught by another teacher and he would teach it in the coming year. He taught here completely one year. Next year, he resigned from Miftahul Uloom on 5th Shawwal 1407 as the environment was not suiting him.
From Sabilus Salam to Jamia Rahmani:
Maulana Rizwanul Qasmi (1944-2004), the rector and Maulana Khalid Saifullah Rahmani, the head-teacher of Darul Uloom Sabilus Salam, Hyderabad requested him several times to arrive in Sabilus Salam as Sheikhul Hadeeth. He left for Hyderabad on 15th Shawwal 1407 AH. But Daurah Hadeeth had not then started, so he couldn’t manage to be there, but for few months and he came back and again he joined Jamia Rahmani, Munger on 17th Muharram 1408, following the directive of Sheikh Rahmani.
In Sabilus Salam as Sheikhul Hadeeth:
In the next academic year, in Shawwal 1408, as Daurah Hadeeth had started in Sabilus Salam, Hyderabad, the rector and head-teacher were insisting him to arrive again. So, he joined Sabilus Salam the second time on 21st Shawwal 1408 AH as Sheikhul Hadeeth. He taught in Sabilus Salam as Sheikhul Hadeeth 4 years. In this period, he was requested several times to join Jamia Ashraful Uloom, Kanahwan as head-teacher as the situation of Ashraful Uloom was deteriorating. He decided to join Jamia Ashraful Uloom, so he resigned from Sabilus Salam on 14th Sha’aban 1412 AH. In the next academic year, Shawwal 1412, he joined Jamia Ashraful Uloom with his own terms and conditions which were accepted by the governing body of Ashraful Uloom.
Rector of Ashraful Uloom:
After few years, Hazrat Maulana Anwarul Haq, the rector of Ashraful Uloom, passed away. Now, Faqihe Millat was made Rector. He served Jamia Ashraful Uloom for a long period of time. Almost three year back, he suffered from a heart illness. He underwent a heart operation on 7th October, 2016 in a hospital in Patna, the capital city of Bihar. After operation, he continued suffering from different illness. Actually, he didn’t recover after heart operation fully. Then he decided to remain at his home in Chandarsainpur, Madhubani, Bihar, but frequently he used to visit Ashraful Uloom for a week or so to know and observe the activities taking place and to guide the teachers and pupils wherever the guidance was required.
When he was sick, he got proper treatment in Madhubani, Patna and New Delhi, but due to the old age, he grew weaker as well as the health continued deteriorating. Last time again his family members took him to a Hospital in Madhubani where he breathed his last in the hospital at 07:30 am, on 13th January 2019. As his death news went viral on social media, the people started gathering in his home village, where his funeral prayer was to be offered. A delegation from Ashraful Uloom reached his village under the leadership of recently selected rector of Ashraful Uloom, Maulana Izharul Haq Mazahiri to attend his funeral. One another delegation came from Imarat Shariah to attend his funeral prayer. Similarly, from different Madaaris the Ulama and other people visited his village to participate in his funeral prayer. His funeral prayer was led by his elder son, Maulana Owais Qasmi on the same day following Asr Salaah. Before the funeral prayer, Maualan Izharul Haq Mazahiri delivered a brief speech. Thousands of people participated in his funeral prayer and they laid him in his ancestral graveyard to rest. May Allah forgive his all human shortcomings and grant him eternal peace in Jannah!
Following the completion of his education, Faqihe Millat got married with the daughter of late Haji Muhammad Idris of Parsauni, Dist.: Madhubani. He is survived by his wife, two daughters and five sons. Maulana Hafiz Owais Anzar Qasmi is working in KSA. He was present at the time of his beloved father’s death. He led the funeral prayer. Hafiz Usaid Anzar is teaching in a certain Madrasa in his area. Muhammad Sajjad resides at home. Maulana Hafiz Zafar Siddiqi Qasmi is teaching in Delhi in Madrasa Talimul Qura’an. He had been a classmate of this writer. During the period of learning, he was a intelligent pupil. He is a remarkable calligrapher, though he didn’t choose it as his profession. His last born is Mr. Afzal Husain, who completed school following his basic Islamic education in a Madrasa. Currently he is in Saudi Arab. •••
* Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
A noted Islamic scholar, a remarkable Urdu columnist, a popular orator and a leading educationist, Sheikh Mohammad Asrarul Haque Qasmi passed away on 7th December 2018, at 03:30. At night he was in Tappu, a small town of Kishanganj where he addressed a gathering of the students and teachers in Darul Uloom Suffah, Tappu which is founded by him. Subsequently he went to rest at Kishanganj Circuit House and got up at around 03:00 hours in the night. When he was getting ready for Tahajjud, he felt chest pain and died of heart attack. He was 76. Because of his social, educational, religious and journalistic works and services, his death is a tremendous loss for the nation in general and for the minority community in particular. He will be recalled profoundly for his works, easily accessibility, soft-spoken and gentle approach.
Birth and Education
Sheikh Qasmi was born in Tarabari village of district Kishanganj in Bihar to late Mr. Munshi Umed Ali and Amna Khatoon on 15th Febriary 1942. Following the completion of his primary education, he got admission in the world renowned Institute of Islamic thoughts Darul Uloom, Deoband and graduated in Islamic Studies from Darul Uloom in 1964. He got married on 16th May 1965. His better-half passed away on 9th July 2012. He is survived by three sons: Mr. Suhail Asrar, Mr. Saood Asrar Nadvi Azhari and Mr. Fahad Asrar and two daughters.
Following graduation in Islamic Studies from Darul Uloom, Deoband in 1964, Mr. Qasmi chose teaching as his career. Firstly he joined Madrasa Rahimia in Madhepura as a teacher. After resigning from Rahimia, in 1968 he joined Madrasa Badrul Islam of Begusarai district in Bihar. Although he was a teacher imparting religious education in the Madrasa; he didn’t confined himself within the four walls of Madrasa only. He involved himself in social and religious activities in the vicinity along with teaching. Whenever a social issue arose, he took it in his hand sincerely and wanted to resolve or to make sure that issue is in priority to be resolved by the concerned authority. In 1973, he resigned from Madrasa Bahrul Islam.
Due to Mr. Qasmi’s talent and social services on the ground, Jamiat Ulamai Hind (JUH) selected him in 1974 to render his services from Jamiat’s platform. The JUH being an old and respected organization in Indian society, he had chance to reach one and all on national level. He seized the opportunity and performed well the responsibilities assigned to him; until he became a valued and trusted member of the JUH. Later in 1980, he was elected as General Secretary of Jamiat Ulamai Hind. Under the umbrella of JUH, he played a conspicuous role in “Mulko Millat Bachao Movement”, “Protection of Aligarh Muslim University Movement” and “Protection of Muslim Personal Law Movement”.
Being in the JUH, he visited many villages, towns and cities of India to render his services throughout the country at the time of need on innumerable critical occasions fearlessly. As he served the community under the able leadership of his mentor Maulana Sayyid Asad Madani (1928-2006), ex-President of the JUH, for a long time being a member as well as the General Secretary of Jamiat, his works and services will be lauded for a long period. For his works and services, he was loved by the elders and members of Jamiat. In 1991, he separated his path from Jamiat.
All India Talimi-Wa-Milli Foundation
Later on, Sheikh Qasmi joined newly founded 'All India Milli Council' under the leadership of Qazi Muhahidul Islam Qasmi (1936-2002) ex-President of All India Muslim Personal Law Board. Working in the JUH and All India Milli Council, Qasmi had experienced that the main cause of Muslim community’s sufferings is lagging behind in the educational field. He, therefore, founded “All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundation” in 2000. The main objective of the Foundation was serving the nation working on the key issues of education and literacy. From the beginning, he started serving the people establishing religious and modern educational institutes. He set up dozens of educational institutes. He founded “Milli Girls School” especially for girls in Tappu, Tarabari Chowk, Kishanganj. About 500 girls are getting quality education in the school. This school is with hostel and all the modern facilities required. It is an exemplary and the first school of its kind in the area. It is playing a key role in imparting education amongst the girls.
Under All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundation, Mr. Qasmi also distributed relief materials among the victims of Tsunami and flood on several occasions. In last year flood of Bihar, when Kishanganj district and its vicinity were badly affected, he did his best in providing reliefs and personally meeting the victims to console them. It is clear crystal that setting up dozens of Madaaris and schools by Qasmi, under All India TalimiWaMilli Foundation, is great and prominent work which is unforgettable.
Columns and Write-ups
Sheikh Qasmi was a well-known Urdu columnist. As he was famous for his public talks and oratory, he was equipped with writing skills as well. When he was a learner at Darul Uloom, Deoband, he started writing articles and essays. His first and formal work which was published was “Muslim Personal Law Aur Hindustani Musalman” (Muslim Personal Law and Indian Muslims), as far as I know. He authored this book when he was educational in-charge at Madrasah Badrul Islam, Begusarai. When he was in Jamiat, along with performing other activities, he was the editor of its organ “Al-Jamiat” as well. He had been Chief Editor of “Milli Ittihad”of All India Milli Council for a long. He was so prominent Urdu columnist that his write-ups were being published almost in all Urdu newspapers and monthly magazines throughout India. Due to his significant view and thought, his articles sometimes found place even in some leading Arabic and English magazines after translation.
He compiled some books which are very useful and much relevant to the age. They include “Muslim Personal Law Aur Hindustani Musalman” “Mua’ashirah Aur Islam” “Islam Aur Musalmanon Ki Zimmedariyan”, “Sulagte Masa’ail”, “Hindustani Musalman: Masa’ail Aur Muzahmaten” and “Aurat Aur Muslim Mua’ashirah”. He wrote thousands of columns. If these are compiled, it will be in volumes. Especially if his religious and social columns are compiled, without doubt, it will serve the community a lot.
Public Talks and Speeches
Qasmi was one of the best public speakers. He was a brilliant and fluent orator. He was invited in several religious or social programmes as a speaker. The first time I listened to him in Daru lUloom, Deoband, when he was invited in a programme of “Sajjad Library” as a guest speaker in 2001. Currently, any big programme was not thought without his presence. His presence in a programme was the guarantee of the programme’s success. Because of his sincerity and pain for the community in his speeches, the people used to travel from a town to another one to listen to him. It was easy to invite him as he was very simple, humble and soft-spoken. Whenever he had time, he didn’t refuse to attend a programme either it was in a city or a remote village. He was seen attending programmes in the cities and villages alike. He had deep knowledge of the current affairs. Either he was speaking in the Parliament or a religious or social programmes, he used to speak with full understanding and confidence.
Politics is also a way where one finds the required resources to serve the nation. He, therefore, contested Lok Sabha elections several times from Kishanganj constituency. But luck was not with him, so he lost with a small margin of votes. In 2009 Lok Sabha elections, he emerged as a strong candidate for Indian National Congress (INC). He got Lok Sabha ticket from the INC to contest and won the Kishanganj MP seat on its ticket. Currently he was a sitting MP as he retained the Kishanganj seat once again in 2014 defeating the BJP candidate, Dr. Dilip Kumar Jaiswal by a margin of 194,612 votes despite Prime Minister Mr. Modi’s wave was across the country.
As the MP, he made full effort to establish the branch of Aligarh Muslim University in Kishanganj. In the beginning, he had to struggle to acquire the required land for the branch. He was forced to give call to the public for agitation against the then Bihar state government of Nitish to get the land. The public listened to his call and participated in the agitation for seeking land for the branch. Even the public went on “MahaDharna” on 12th October 2010 in Kishanganj where lakhs of people gathered from different parts of Seemanchal under his leadership. Then Nitish government agreed to grant almost 224 acres land for the branch and the branch’s foundation stone was laid in the presence of the then Congress President, Mrs Gandhi, Nitish Kumar, CM of Bihar and other political and social leaders.
Humble and Selfless Servant
In his long life of social and educational works, Sheikh Qasmi had strong relation with many prominent people of different fields. But he never took the advantage of such relation by getting some favours or privileges for himself or for his near and dear ones. He himself held several prestigious posts; but he lived a very simple life. Either he was President of All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundarion, General Secretary of the JUH or Member of Indian Parliament, the people could not differentiate in his day-to-day life. He never liked a luxurious life. He remained always simple. His principle was “simple living and high thinking”.
It is suitable to mention here that Sheikh Qasmi took the oath of allegiance to Mufti Muzaffar Husain Mazahiri, ex-rector of Mazahir Uloom Waqf, Saharanpur, for his spiritual rectification. Mufti Sahib blessed him with Khilafa and authorized him to administer an oath of allegiance also. Following the death of Mufti Sahib, he joined Sheikhe Tariqat Sheikh Qamruz Zaman Allahabadi (Hafizahullah). Sheikh Allahabadi also granted him Khilafah. By these two of his mentors, he was trained in the way that he was hardly experienced showing pride and arrogance. In clear words, he was simple, humble, selfless and altruistic servant of the community.
The Tribute & Homage
Cutting a long story short, he worked sincerely in different fields as a social worker, an educationist, a religious guide, a columnist, an orator etc. His works and services were recognized. To pay tribute to his services and benefit from his wide experiences, many organisations and institutes selected him as its member. He was a member of Governing Body of prestigious Islamic University Darul Uloom, Deoband which is also his seat of learning. He was Court Member of Aligarh Muslim University. He was a valued member of All India Muslim Personal Law Board, Vice-President of All India Milli Council and founding President of All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundation. He has been twice Member of Indian Parliament from his home constituency, Kishanganj. He was patron of innumerable schools and Madrasas. He served the nation in general and the minority community in particular for more than half a century. May Allah reward him and grant him Jannah! It’s a short write-up to pay my tribute and homage and to present a glimpse of his life and services.
Learning the Mr. Qasmi’s death news, Bihar Chief Minister, Mr. Nitish Kumar paid his homage through a press release. Lauding his contributions and giving due respect, Mr. Kumar also announced that Qasmi’s last rites would be performed with full state honours; which was refused politely by his family members to follow his will as he had wished to be buried with simplicity.
His funeral was led by Sheikh Anwarul Haque, rector of Darul Uloom, Bahadurganj in Milli Girls School, Talimabad, Tappu of district Kishanganj in Bihar. About two/three lakh people performed the funeral prayer. He was buried in his ancestral graveyard of his hometown. May the Almighty Allah forgive his human shortcomings and grant him eternal peace and the highest place in Jannatul Firdaus! My deepest condolence to the bereaved family! May Allah grant them patience and courage to bear this tremendous and irreplaceable loss! Ameen!
*Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa.
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Demise is such a naked truth that no one could deny it so far; be it a brave or a pure atheist. Death has held many towering personalities and low profile people down alike and will keep on doing the same to all living beings. When the fixed time of one’s life is over, he has to depart; willingly or unwillingly; he is busy reciting the Qura’an or performing Salaah in a Masjid. One will be defeated by the death either he is much beloved to Allah, liked by thousands of Allah's slaves or cursed in the sight of Allah. When the time of life is over, the angel of death finds its wanted man and he has to taste death; even if he is between two deep valleys of tall mountains, on the peak of Himalaya, living in a glass-built bungalow or is protected in a stone-built fort. The Almighty Allah mentions in His glorious Qura’an: “Every soul has to taste death.” (Aale-Imran, Verse: 185) The Exalted Allah further mentions in another place in His miraculous book: “Wherever you are, death will make its way to you, even if you are in fortified castles.” (Al-Nisaa, Verse: 78)
Following the order of the Supreme Lord, Haji Muhammad Abdul Wahhab Sahib left the mortal world for heavenly abode on Sunday, 18th November 2018. Haji Sahib was considered one amongst the most pious people. He spent more than two third of his life in the path of Allah worrying and struggling to guide His servants to the right path. Though he was not graduated formally from any Islamic institute, however worry, concern and pain in his heart -for the sake of the Ummah- were not less than what is found in the hearts of certified Islamic scholars. He spent his days and nights concerned about the well-being of the Ummah. The goal of his life was how to make people understand that whatever happens in the world happens with the will and command of Allah and nothing can take place without His will. The Almighty Allah had blessed him with height of popularity among the learned people and the masses equally. Allah had filled the hearts of His servants with love and affection for him. So he was loved and respected wholeheartedly by one and all.
Haji Sahib was a man of religious mind from the beginning of his life. He met Sheikh Ilyas Kandhlavi (1885-1944) -May Allah have mercy upon him!- in 1944. Then he devoted the rest of his life for the service of Dawah and Tabligh work started by Sheikh Kandhlvi in 1920. He worked almost six months in the company of Sheikh Kandhlavi. When Sheikh Kandhlavi passed away, he worked with his successors. He was so much influenced by this work of Tabligh that later he resigned from his job and dedicated full time to it.
After India’s partition, he migrated to Pakistan. Following the migration, he didn’t only work for Tabligh; rather it had become part and parcel of his life. In the beginning, he went to visit every province and villages of Pakistan; big or small for the purpose of Tableegh. He taught the common and illiterate people “Kalimah Tayyibah” and its meaning, the method of Wudhu, the significance and method of Salah. He also preached to them about the value of Ilm (Knowledge) and Zikr (remembering Allah), respect and honour for a Muslim and sincerity of intention. He also encouraged them to spare some time to go in the path of Allah to learn Deen, to practice and preach what they have learnt.
With the effort of Haji Sahib, headquarter of Tabligh was established in a remote, inaccessible and unknown place; Raiwind, situated 45 km far from Lahore. Before establishment of the Tablighi headquarter, Raiwind was a forested place. Basic facility of day-to-day life was unavailable there. It was difficult to find the eatable and drinkable things. The place, where Tabligh Headquarter is standing today, was earlier full of acacia as well as other different types of thorny trees. Now it is national headquarter of all Tabligh centers of Pakistan.
With the efforts of Haji Sahib the people, who were not well-versed in Islamic knowledge, understood the value of the noble work of Tabligh and started participating in its daily activities to learn and practice Deen. As a result of it, this noble work started almost in all mosques of Pakistan. Regional center of Tabligh came into existence in each city with his effort. Due to the hard-work and struggle of the people of Tabligh, uncountable men and women were guided to the right path of Deen.
Obviously it was the concern of Tablighi people which brought about a sea change in the lives of thousands of worldwide renowned personalities; like famous cricketer Saeed Anwar and well-known rock star singer Junaid Jamshaid, and instilled in them the interest of practice of Deen and revived the powder to act upon Islamic rulings and teachings.
Haji Sahib led the movement of Tabligh as third Ameer (Chief) continuously for 25 years until he breathed his last. In Pakistan the first person to be selected as Ameer was Haji Muhammad Shafi (1903-1971). Following his death, Haji Babu Basheer Ahmad (1919-1992) had been selected as the 2nd Ameer. After his sad demise, Haji Abdul Wahhab had been selected as the third Ameer unanimously. The third Ameer of Tablighi movement in Markaz Nizamuddin in India, Sheikh Inamul Hasan (1918-1995) made an International Governing Body comprising of 10 members from different countries for Tabligh activities to keep on functioning smoothly, as the efforts of Tabligh had spread all over the world. Haji Sahib had been nominated as a prominent member of the governing body by Sheikh Ina’amul Hasan (RA). Not only he visited the small or big villages of Pakistan; but he also travelled dozens of countries in the world for the work of Tabligh.
This would be surprising for many people to know that Haji Sahib used to address the gathering in Raiwind Headquarter almost five hours every day in different times. It was his daily schedule to address the gathering following Fajr Salah, instruct the people who are going in Jama’ah and to guide those coming back from Jama’ah. With punctuality, he participated in daily Mashwarah. Later he had stopped addressing the gathering on his health ground only. However when he was physically fit, he used to perform all duties of Jama’at as usual without complaining of his old age, tiredness or exhaustion.
Currently we met a Jama’at (No. 764) from Bhawalpur. They also described as eye witness that for all his old age and weakness, when Haji Sahib used to be physically fit, he attended all Tabligh activities and discharged all responsibilities. He participated in Mashwarah, guided the Jama’at which was going and talked to the Jama’at which came back from a Tabligh journey. They further said that currently when they started their seven month-long journey on 28th August 2018, Haji Sahib guided and instructed them regarding their objectives of going out in the path of Allah as he was then physically fit. It should be noted here that this Jama’at is working in the “Northern Province” of Zambia, Africa under the leadership of Mr. Khalid. The members of this Jama’at comprise of Mr. Shareef, Mr. Basheer, Mr. Abdur Razzaq, Mr. Qasim, Mr. Ali, Mr. Sajid and Mr. Yasir (a pharmacist). As they are eager to learn and practice Islam in their daily lives, they are also worried about how to raise the degree of Muslims’ faith, how to reform them and how to guide them to practice Islam fully in their lives.
Haji Sahib was not only involved in Tabligh activities; but he also worked for different Islamic organizations whenever he got chance. He participated in the movement of “Khatme Nubuwwah”. Similarly he worked as a member of “Majlise Ahrare Islam”. Then he was made the president of a chapter of Majlise Ahrare Islam in Buriwala.
“The Muslim 500” is an annual publication which gives place in its book every year to 500 most influential Muslim leaders from across the world. It was first published in 2009. Socially, educationally, economically, politically and religiously 500 most influential Muslim leaders from all over the world are selected every year, ranked and mentioned in the book. In 2014, Haji Sahib was ranked number 10th in the book. This ranking has nothing to do in the sight of Allah; but it is a clear mark that his sacrifices and struggles to please Allah are recognized, rather than a mere appreciation in this world only.
When Haji Sahib was a student at Islamia College, Lahore, he took the oath of allegiance to Sheikh Ahmad Ali Lahori (1887-1962), a famous commentator of the Glorious Qura’an for the sake of his self rectification and spiritual development. Later on, he took the oath of allegiance to Sheikh Abdul Qadir Raipuri (1878-1962). He was authorized by Sheikh Raipuri to administer an oath of allegiance and was counted one among his distinguished disciples.
Haji Sahib was originally from “Karnal” district of “Haryana” state in India. He was born in 1923 in Delhi, the capital city of India. Following completion of his primary religious education, he joined “Islamia College”, Lahore, a famous city of Pakistan. Following graduation, he started his career in civil service as Tahsildar (executive magistrate).
He was not blessed with any child. His wife had passed away several years back. Due to his old age and a physical unfitness, he had been unwell from time to time in the recent past years. He could not attend the annual Ijtima of 2018 because of his poor health. He was seriously ill as he was suffering from the diseases of kidney, breathing etc. He also suffered from Dengue fever few days ago. At that time he was admitted in a private hospital and kept in great care of specialists. As his worldly time was over, he breathed his last on Sunday, 18th November 2018 early in the morning in the hospital after protracted illness. He died 96 years old. His funeral prayer was led by Sheikh Nazrur Rahman after Maghrib Salah in Ijtima hall of Raiwind. Approximately 1,200,000 people participated in his funeral prayer and he was laid to rest in the graveyard of Raiwind. Now he is no more among us; however his invaluable services will always be remembered by one and all. May Allah accept his good deeds and grant him Jannatul Firdaus! Aameen!•••
*Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa.
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- DELL Entrance Test 2019
- Book Sellers in Deoband
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- Quran Online
- Tablighi Jamat and Darul Uloom