By M. Burhanuddin Qasmi*
Freedom of speech or freedom of expression is the phrase popular in the Western part of our planet in the recent weeks. People are dancing, singing and shouting; on streets, market places and at newsrooms, social media for a single thing – they call freedom of speech or freedom of art. They say it is their 'democratic value', some even claim it is their 'lifeline'. It is good for all and it is absolute, they say.
On the contrary, there are some others who are dying because of the same phrase. We see wars, bloodsheds, burnings, lootings and all that is classified as crime or uncivilized linked with this very phrase freedom of speech. If it is good for all then how can it cause violence and disorder among us? Or is it essentially an evil that some sick people are dragging us to hell in guise of freedom? What exactly this freedom of speech is!
Ironically some in the East too started suffering from a kind of untreatable intellectual disorder. They say freedom of speech is absolute. You can speak anything against anybody at anytime, anywhere and in anyway; wow - can you?
Does it mean one can abuse others, can insult, can lie, be it an individual, a society or an entity; be it a government, a god-man or God- and what not, one is 'absolutely' free to speak! Does it mean one can propagate against his own country, his faith and even disrespect his parents who have nourished him with care and abuse his Lord who has created him from a drop of water! May be yes for some, because their freedom of speech is 'absolute' – means unlimited, unchecked, thus, 'divine', isn't it?
They lecture for freedom of speech but forget about freedom of life, freedom of individual choice- what to eat, what to wear and how to dress! They may lynch an innocent human just for eating a particular form of meat, kill a poor passenger onboard for merely not singing their religious slogan and even tore apart women bodies for simply wearing headscarf which they don't like. If you object when they burn the Qur'an, your divine scripture, if you pain when they abuse you and your Prophet (saws) who is dearer to you than your own soul, then they term you nothing less than a terrorist. Amazing ideals of their freedom, tolerance and democratic values, aren't they!
However, our freedom of speech is restricted and all we can speak or do is within certain limits. We are just humans, not God who can do anything and everything, nor animals which do not enjoy the faculty of wisdom. We do not find a place in the civilized world to do and say anything or everything being 'absolutely free' other than in a jungle.
What we understand from freedom of speech is a political right to communicate one's opinions and ideas using one's physical means to anyone who is willing to receive them. Every government and every society in the world restricts freedom of speech to a certain degree. You cannot force into one's house and begin doing filth for your amusement. It is not freedom, instead plain madness and a crime.
Common limitations on speech relate to libel, slander, obscenity, pornography, sedition, hate speech, incitement, abuse, fighting words, classified information, copyright violation, trade secrets, non-disclosure agreements, right to privacy, right to be forgotten, public security, public order, and public nuisance and so on. All these are restricted in all sane societies in some or the others ways.
The term "offense principle" was specially added to expand the range of free speech limitations to prohibit forms of expression where they are considered offensive to society, special interest groups or individuals. For example, freedom of speech is limited in many jurisdictions to widely differing degrees by religious legal systems, religious offense or incitement to ethnic or racial hatred laws.
However, freedom itself is not absolute anywhere in the world, let alone freedom of speech, not even in the USA where laws against anti-Semitism are enforced. Not in Islamophobic France where a burqa-clad Muslim woman is considered to be a 'real' threat to its 'secular democratic' pyramid. It is not in Switzerland either where an RCC structure – a minaret of a masjid is considered to be cruise-missile against its 'democratic values'. And more so it is not in the 'symbol of freedom of speech' (sick) Charlie Hebdo magazine - the Wester media, too which fired its own cartoonist- Sine in 2009 just because he had mocked former President Sarkozy's son converting to Judaism for money through his caricature. It was an "art" - a caricature only against the son of a politician which brought heaven down, yet such cynical minds proclaim to be "free"!
We also know that the right to freedom of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and recognized in international human rights law under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Article 19 of the ICCPR states, "Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference" and "everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression..."
Article 19 goes on to say that the exercise of these rights carries "special duties and responsibilities" and may "therefore be subject to certain restrictions" when necessary "for respect of the rights or reputation of others" or "for the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health or morals".
This is our freedom of speech and is not absolute. It carries certain responsibilities and is not evil or vice.
Killing even a criminal without standard legal proceeding, let alone a common human, is an unjustifiable crime. Each wise and sane person would and should condemn such an act but to ncite 1.9 billion Muslims and insult Prophet Muhammad (saws) is also insanity and criminal provocation; if a state fails to stop it, is a failed or biased state, to say the least.
[*M. Burhanuddin Qasmi is Editor of Eastern Crescent and Director of Markazul Ma'arif Education and Research Centre, Mumbai, India]
By Manzar Imam*
New Delhi: Since Wednesday 2 September, 2020 when Amin Usmani Nadwi, founding member and secretary of Islamic Fiqh Academy (IFA), India, breathed his last, obituary messages have been pouring in from across India and abroad and, both online and offline condolence meetings are being organized to pay tribute to him acknowledging his profound services to research, academics, intellectual discourses and thought leadership. One such online meeting was organized by Institute of Religious and Social Thought, New Delhi on Saturday 5 September in which eminent ulama and scholars from India and abroad participated and expressed their deep sorrow over the passing away of what they termed “a silent servant of Islam” whose contribution to the revival and renewal of Islamic fiqh are vast and varied.
I can never forget the impression he has left on my mind in promoting the Islamic thought, said Prof Ebrahim Moosa, Professor of Islamic Studies at the University of Notre Dame, Indian, USA who has been running the famous Madrasa Discourses program of Contending Modernities Initiative of the University of Notre Dame to promote scientific and theological literary among young scholars. Shaikh Usmani would always inquire about its progress and would be present whenever requested. What kept him thinking was his “constant thought about finding solution to new challenges to Islamic theology in the light of new knowledge”, he said.
Prof Mohsin Usmani, former Dean, School of Arabic Studies, EFL University, Hyderabad, presented a detailed introduction of Amin Usmani’s family which “had come to Bihar from Panipat and was religiously entrenched in the sufi tradition”. His father Shah Isa Usmani Firdausi was a learned man who had written a book Islami Aqida and an article on Prophet Muhammad and Law of War which was published in 1981. Prof Usmani, brother-in-law of late Amin Usmani, said, “the Usmani family led a khanqahi life in which prominent sufis like Shah Zainul Abideen Usmani and Tayyib Usmani are well-known figures.”
Prof Akhtarul Wasey, President of Maulana Azad University, Jodhpur said that since beginning, Amin Usmani became an integral part of IFA. He put in his efforts to face new challenges and always thought about how to improve the system of madrasas. It should be noted that Amin Usmani remained secretary, administrative affairs of IFA since its establishment in 1998 till his demise.
Joining from Kuwait renowned Arabic scholar and author Maulana Badrul Hasan Qasmi said that apparently “Amin Usmani was reticent but he was a man of a brilliant brain” which was a sea of various plans and projects. His mental ability was “unusual”. Despite the fact the many issues and problems in different countries are of a different nature and have a different perspective, he had a good grasp of them which set him apart from other scholars.
During my association with IFA spanning over a decade “I never saw that he was unaware of anything or anyone around”, said Prof Fahim Akhtar Nadwi, Head of the Department of Islamic Studies, Maulana Azad National Urdu University, Hyderabad. He would equally participate in the normal routine work, would sit and eat with others. He would be “the first person to come to the office and the last one to leave it.” He was aware not only of the national issues but had a deep knowledge of global changes and challenges. He crafted people’s talents intellectually and even helped them at very individual levels. He was “a revivalist” in his thinking.
Maulana Muhammad Muzzammil-ul-Haq Al-Husaini, working president of Old Boys’ Association of Darul Uloom Deoband said that Usmani’s academic standing, revolutionary ideas, administrative skills and passion for work were his forte.
Earlier Dr Waris Mazhari, Assistant Professor at Jamia Hamdard, also the organizer of the programme, mentioned his ideational connection with Maulana Usmani stating that he used to think about sensitive issues, focus on them and put people to work on them. He was “unique in his understanding and selection of themes” for writing, research and other academic engagements.
An offline condolence meeting was held earlier on the day at the IFA headquarters, Delhi which was presided over by Dr Zafarul-Islam Khan, ex Chairman of Delhi Minorities Commission. Dr Khan said that Amin Usmani’s demise was a loss not just of IFA, people of Delhi or Indian Muslims but of the global Muslim community. “Whenever he spoke he spoke to the point” and, whenever he wrote or sent an email, they were always about issues and challenges that Muslims faced across the globe, he said. He was a leader and that is how true leaders are. Dr Khan said this after listening to the views of participants who were almost unanimous in their opinion that Amin Usmani avoided taking a centre stage and rather encouraged others to come forward and do some academic and intellectual work. Dr Abdul Qadir Khan, Maulana Raziul Islam Nadwi, Advocate Firoz Khan, senior journalist AU Asif, Maulana Abul Ala Subhani, journalist Abdul Bari Masoud, Dr Fazzur Rahman Siddiqui, Safi Akhtar, Maulana Firoz Akhtar and others paid glowing tributes to late Amin Usmani and remembered his valuable services. Mufti Ahmad Nadir Qasmi of IFA moderated the programme.
Besides being sectary of IFA, Amin Usmani was also an active member of the Shariah Council of Jamaat-e-Islami Hind, member of All India Muslim Personal Law Board, Institute of Objective Studies, New Delhi and other bodies.
It should be noted that Amin Usmani did not author any book but it was during his tenure at IFA since its inception that many profound and seminal works related to contemporary Islamic theological challenges were completed by individual writers as well as group of scholars. Under his administrative capacity and guidance IFA translated and published Mausu’ah Al-Fiqhihyah (A multi-volume encyclopedia of Islamic jurisprudence) in 45 volumes in Urdu. “Other than the famous annual Fiqhi seminars, most other national and local seminars, symposia and conferences of IFA were planned and executed by him”, informs Mufti Imtiyaz Ahmad of IFA. In 1982 Amin Usmani translated Zainab Al-Ghazali’s Ayyamum Min Hayati (Days from my life) from Arabic to Urdu. The Urdu title Zindan Ke Shab-o-Roz was published by Hindustan Publications, New Delhi. It was also published and widely distributed by International Islamic Federation of Student Organizations, Kuwait.
(*Manzar Imam is a senior journalist based in New Delhi)
By: Maulana Shahid Moyeen Qasmi
I feel it my solemn duty to offer a few sentences in tribute and homage to my loved teacher and the teacher of thousands of Islamic scholars. I mean hadhrat Mufti Sa’id sb, Palanpuri (r.h) – the former head teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband, India. Millions of Muslims are grief-stricken due to his demise. He was a multi-dimensional personality and specialist of many areas of knowledge. A single individual, but a walking library of Islamic knowledge. He, in himself, was a complete and comprehensive syllabus. Along with the expertise in Islamic education, he also new different languages. He was endowed with boundless intellect and bestowed with formidable confidence and single-minded dedication to his multiple academic domains. He managed his time with extraordinary strictness. In this regard he was immune to the vicissitudes of life. He did experience sad moments, rough and tough times in several points of his life, but he stood like a rock against all adversities. Nothing could blunt his enthusiasm or dent his confidence.
In spite of being a great personality, he was quite affectionate and kind. His fatherly demeanor in gatherings would encourage scholars to ask him questions on any academic point, his personal life and achievements, to which he would respond in a mellow way.
He would not mind interruption or counter question. Therefore, scholars would not only gain knowledge from him but would also learn from him the art of overcoming the adversities of life. Hadhrat’s daily majlis (gathering) after Asr, at his residence in Deoband always used to be full of students, teachers and guests from across the world, though the residence was far from Darul Uloom. And this was the true of every majlis wherever he was.
On one Firiday, I and Mualana Rashid sb Qasmi Palanpuri (Goregaon, Mumbai) attended his Majlis at his house in Deoband. He was clipping his nails by himself – like the habit of many Islamic scholars to carry on small work while meeting the common people to save their precious time. Maulana Rashid sb sought his permission to clip the nails, but hahdrat mufti sb(r.h) didn’t allow. I saw him with my own eyes clipping his nails while his fingers were shaking when pressing the nail-cutter against the nails of feet. Perhaps, it was the end of 2016 and he was almost 75- year old.
Maulana Rashid sb submitted saying, it is convenient to clip the nails directly after shower when they are soft. Hadhrat said twice, “Yes, you are right. But there is one more point. Tell that too.” It showed that, hadhrat Mufti sb(r.h) had his own reason , but even then he didn’t discourage.
When the majalis was getting over, Maualan Rashid sb extended a packet of sweet through someone else. Hadhrat accepted that and said, “Surely, none other than Maulavi Rashid brought it. He should not have done that”.
There was another occasion of Fiqhi seminar of Jami’at-e- Ulam-e- Hind in 2016 in Chennai, India. We attended his Majlis after Isha, in the room where he was put up. As was usual with his majalis, the room was full of people. Scholars were sitting till the edge of the door.
In that majlis, significantly, hadhrat Mufti Zaid sb Mazahiri, Nadwi asked him questions about his personal attainments. Zaid sb said, “You’re the one upon whom Allah swt has showered many bounties. You have a huge amount of knowledge, many children, popularity, acceptance and wealth”. So hadhrat Mufti sb replied in vivid detail. “In the beginning, we had a little bit financial constraint. So I would dispense with tea and beetle leaves in the last week of the month to maintain the family. After the compilation of Hidayatul Qur’an (his commentary on the glorious Qur’an), blessings started in livelihood.”.
Answering the question on how to make the family content with the financial constraints due to the paltry salaries and poor facilities in madaaris, he illuminated saying: “A person should give what he has to his wife and say to her: “This is what we have to maintain our family. Take it and run the family. When she knows the veritable condition with absolute certitude, and believes that now it is up to her how to adjust, she will be content and cooperative.”.
He further elaborated: “If we are sincere, serious and wise, Allah paves the way. Prosperity is paved with adversities. The entire family is moulded. I exhorted my wife to learn the glorious Qur’an by heart. She commenced, but latter she found it onerous to do on account of domestic chores. I said: You may have someone to assist you or may leave the chores, but you should not let this magnificent attainment evade you. And alhamdulillah , she became a hafizah and many other female children could also follow in her footsteps by her help.”
Uniqueness to lighten weighty matters
Especially in a lengthy and highly academic seminar, he would speak in his unique style. He would dispel the fatigue cased by the length and the subject matter into sheer joy by examples and anecdotes, though the discourse would remain purely academic and intellectual. There would have never been any cheap joke or rumour but the presentation itself used to make the listeners feel fresh and elevated.
On the occasion of the fiqhi seminar in Chennai, Mualana Husain sb Madrasi, Qasmi (a Shaikhul Hadeeth of a Madrasa in Madras), invited him to breakfast. His house was situated at a distance from the Madras Hajj House where the seminar was hosted. Despite that, hadhrat (r.h) accepted the invitation and honoured his house by his blessed arrival. His advent at the house of Maulana Husain sb, was so simple and friendly that I am unable to portray its sublime and awesome picture in my words. While having breakfast, he behaved in an informal manner as if he was in his own home. He ate, fed and taught many relevant things.
Following the breakfast, he came in the personal library of Husain sb. Husain sb said, “Hadhrat! All the books belong to you. Please take whatever you like.". Hadhrat (r.h) replied: “I would have taken some, but nowadays I don’t study any book, I study only the glorious Qur’an and write the commentaries. I have fully read every book of my library! Whatever book I ever took, I studied that. But now, only the glorious Qur’an.”
He further said, “Some people fancy buying good books and aspire to have their own library and they do have, but they don’t study any book.”
Inspiration & Appreciation
Hadhrat (r.h )asked Maulana Husain sb about the books he was teaching. Mualana told, I teach Bukhari Shareef. Hadhrat (r.h ) encouraged him saying: “Bukhari is a book which can be taught by anyone (like you)”. And he affirmed it with a euphoric and benevolent smile.
Likewise, he repeatedly said to the seminar participant Muftiyan- specialists in Islamic jurisprudence, “I participate in this seminar only to meet you, the selected scholars from across the country”. This when he himself was one of the leading lights of the seminar!
His words of appreciation on the books of several scholars reflect his academic generosity and manifest the trait of inspiring the new generation. His overwhelming sentences on the books of Mufti Ishtiyaque sb, teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband, Mufti Zaid sb Mazahiri ,Nadwi teacher of Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama and Mufti Shoaibullah Khan sb, Bangalore, are glimpses of that generous spirit.
Maulana Ejazul Haq sb Qasmi Saharanpuri informed me that he presented my humble effort of a book “Arabi Me Ma’haarat Ke Tareeqe” (written in Urdu) to hadrat Mufti sb(r.h). He reported that when he presented the book to hadhrat mufti sb in his majlis of after Asr, hadhrat himself read one paragraph from it which discusses the ways of reading any Arabic text and the techniques to learn therefrom the usage, vocabulary and phrases. Thereafter hadhrat (r.a.) said to the present students , “Read this! What is written in this book is the main principle.”
Such open hearted recognition from such a learned personage is something which I will always treasure.
During the same night in Madrass, when hadhrat Mufti Zaid sb and others were asking him questions, I, Mualana Rashid sb Palanpuri and other scholars were massaging his blessed heels and feet. He was not allowing us make any effort in that, just permitting a light touch. During these blessed moments, like his other pupils, I too had to report on my activities in detail. Though it was late night, he listened with all attention and stirred me to do more saying: “ This work is the need of hour. Carry on this endeavour!”. I specially mentioned one speech of mine in more detail, he listened to it fully. One of the scholars, who was present in the majlis suggested some addition to that speech, however, hadhrat Mufti sb said: “What Maulawi Shahid spoke was only advisable and relevant to the topic”.
Source on the ancestors life stories
He was very close to his loved teachers and ancestor scholars and had intimate knowledge on their day-to-day practices, profiles and attitudes. He talked about many great scholars on that day, many of whose names I unfortunately forgot. However, one name that I recollect is that of hadhrat Mualana Umar sb Palanpuri (r.h). Hadhrat Mufti sb(r.h) spoke about him in a particular context: “ Mualana Umar sb Palanpuri(r.h) was something different. He was very sincere. He would come to meet the teachers of Darul Uloom Deoband, present gifts to them and seek their blessings.”
Respect for all while retaining his individuality
In some issues, he differed from rest of the scholars, but he respected all and exhorted his pupils and adherents to follow the view of majority. He always represented Darul Uloom’s Darul Ifta publically and advocated its views. His speeches in Masjid-e- Umar Mominnagar, Jogeshwari, Mumbai and other places witness that. He would say, “We ourselves designated these scholars as the Muftis of our Darul Ifta, now how can we oppose their verdicts?”.
His role in keeping Shari’ah pure & safe
He always stood opposed to innovation or addition to “Shar’iah”. In this regard, he didn’t consider anyone’s relation, popularity and status. He would occasionally speak on this during the class. He would not hesitate to pull up anyone, if he found him straying from the right direction on any issue.
He was among the most discussed Personalities
Hadhrat Mufti sb(r.h) was among the most discussed personalities of the contemporary era. About 23 years ago, I was a student of Madrasa Arabia Baitul Uloom Saraimeer Azamgarh U.P, India. The former students of the madrasah used to come from Darul Uloom Deoband and would discuss with the teachers: “ Hadhrat Mufti Sa’id sb spoke so and so on so and so issue”. Thereupon the teacher would reply, “ Yes, Mufti sb deserves to speak so”.
Right now, I recollect the name of Mualuan Iltifat sb, Nandawa from the same area. He would come in vacations and discuss with my beloved teacher hadhrat Mufti Jamal sb (d.b).
My teacher hadhrat Maulana Abdurrasheed sb Sultanpuri, Mazahiri (d.b) would mention hadhrat Mufti sb (r.h), in the class with great respect. He would say with pride, “ I met hadhrat Mufti Sa’id Ahamad sb Palanpuri in so and so programme and discussed with him so and so issue and he replied so and so”.
As I recall now, my beloved teacher hadhrat Mufti Jamal sb Azmi (d.b) said, “If hadhrat Mufti Sa’id sb teaches anyone fully, it will be enough for him. I mean he would not have to go anywhere to learn any further!".
Power of realizing the “munkar” (evil)
In the above mentioned journey of Chennai, he graced a Qur’an completion ceremony of a madrasah and delivered a sermon on the magnificence of memorizing the glorious Qur’an. During his sermon he asserted, “A hafiz student can excel in any subject, but sometimes a hafiz child deviates and does nothing further on account of his self-delusion that he has become supreme and he will reign supreme and some people also misguide him by their unnecessary praise”.
While departing from the Madrasah, he saw some small children wearing “Lungi”. On the spot, he strictly asked the rector not to allow Lungi for any child. He especially stressed on bed time exhorting, “All should sleep in ‘Pa’ijam’ only”.
Hadhrat Mufti sb (r.h) was very humble. His high rank in knowledge and post of the head teacher and Shaikhul Hadeeth of the world famous seminary, Darul Uloom Deoband, did not impede him in getting his high share from morality and humbleness. Once I was sitting in his majlis after Asr, in Deoband. Mufti Ishitiyaque sb the teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband came. Hadhrat Mufti sb (r.h) said to him, “Come on! Come on!”. He sat pretty close to him. Hadhrat Mufti sb (r.h) asked him, “Where were you yesterday?”. Maulana replied, “I was in a programme”. Hadhrat further asked, “On which topic did you address?”. I forgot his answer.
In the same majlis hadhrat(r.h) was informed that hadhrat Maulana Noor Alam Khalil Al-Amini sb (d.b) -senior professor of Arabic literature at Darul Uloom Deoband and the Editor of its Arabic Magazine “Al-Da’i”- is grief-stricken as his father -in- law had passed away. Hadhrat Mualana Noor Alam (d.b) himself was recently discharged from hospital and his wife was fasting that day. Hadhrat (r.h) just waited for Maghrib. Having performed Maghrib he directly walked to visit hadhrat Mualana Noor Alam sb(d.b) to offer his condolences, although their residences were far from each other. Hadhrat Mufti sb climbed the long flight stairs to reach the house of hadhrat Mualana Amini sb to console him.
The memories and experiences associated with Hadhrat Mufti Sa’id sb Palanpuri (r.a.) will be cherished forever. I pay my heartfelt condolences to his entire family and to all those who are in mourning. May Allah swt shower His bounties on hadhrat Mufti sb, grant humanity his better substitute and inspire us to follow his footsteps.
Shahid Moyeen Qasmi
Dr. Md. Ibrahim Qasmi*
Driven by his apathy towards religious realities and its teachings and intoxicated with delusions of false power, grandeur and so- called 'scientific advances', the modern man is heading towards his total doom. According to the Qur'anic description, the near- total majority of mankind now " stands on the brink of Fire". His excessive love for, and fascination with, a purely materialistic fashion of living, has turned man grossly indifferent to his great Creator, the Sustainer and the Only Lord, Who, under His wise scheme of Creation, created mankind as the only creature held morally responsible for all of its actions. Beyond the narrower realms of the present life he is hardly prepared to think of a life after--death where he inescapably shall have to be called to account for all of his deeds he happens to commit during his worldly sojourn , and every man' s 'book of deeds' shall be examined by his Creator Himself. Worse still, the Muslim community, too -- negligent of its specific position of being the Only Divine Witness unto the entire Mankid of Allah' s Chosen Religion, Islam, and of its abiding responsibility of inviting the humanity at large to the messsge of the Qur'an, the Final Divine Word and Warning to mankind through employing all peaceful means --- has unfortunately lost its moal 'immunity' against the epidemic of stark, Godless materialism spread the worldover. An all- pervasive apathetic attitude towards their Islamic and specific ideological commitments has long been tightening its grip over Muslims with a much faster pace. Undeniably,there are many individual as well as somewhat collective efforts that aim at preaching the message of Islam to non-Muslim world ,and restructuring the worldwide Muslim society along the lines of the Islamic teachings. While all such constructive efforts deserve due appreciation and acknowledgement on our part , needs persist as ever before to do more on this incomparably important front with special thrust on the Qur'anic approach to Da' wah illa - Allah. As things stand today, we have to redouble our efforts of inviting the people to Islam and disseminate the purely monotheistic Qur'nic teachings on a much wider scale so as to salvage the humanity from its total destruction which inescapably being the fate of every human being dying without faith in Islam and Qur' an. Also, this way we can avert the displeasure of Allah, earn His pleasure and deliver our community from His wrath.
Qur'an : the only Source of Divine Guidance
It is an undeniable fact that the source of all evils existing in the Muslim community worldwide is its growing indifference to the Holy Book of Allah ; and the worldwide spectacular plight of this community is indubitably the outcome of its unjustifiable negligence towards preaching the message of Qur' an to the world at large.
It is the Qur'an alone which offers an elaborate guidance to the real success, and it is again the Qur'an which is still fully capable of doing miracles as it did in the past.It continues to be full of vigor and vitality as ever before.By preaching the Qur'anic message of truth with wisdom and prudence and calling the world to have faith in the Unseen Realities and the eternal verities as it has propounded, we may expect much better results both here and in the Akhirah.
Wherefrom to start working?
To the best of our thinking, as it has also been put above, the Qur'an holds the pivotal import in our life.First of all,we have to renew our commitment towards Islam by reaffirming our faith in it..For this purpose the Muslim masses are required to reignite their hearts with an overwhelmingly pure love of the Qur'an and refreshing our commitments towards the Qur'an.In order to acieve this end we have to be re-educated and reintroduced with the unalloyed message of the Qur'an and its core teachings. For this purpose we need to go through the Holy Book of Allah and undertake the study of its contents with a wakeful mind.This being the reason why we have embarked upon preparing some powerful Dawah- centric literature in English and Urdu languages so as to widely circulate it among Muslims and non- Muslims alike.
Outlines of the Works in Progress
There exists a vast exegetical literature on the Qur'an in continental and globally- spoken languages,like Arabic,Urdu, English, etc.Notwithstanding the fact that each tafseeri work, in its own right, carries its specific value and therefore merits due appreciation as such, it could hardly be denied that only fewer of them tend to suit purpose of Dawah and inviting the people to Islam. With the Dawah consideration in mind,it was a long overdue task to single out at least one outstanding tafseeri work in order to prepare its abridged version and circulate it on a wider scale at least in the Urdu and English languages.
Talkhees-e-Tadabbur-e- Qur'an (Urdu)
Keeping in view its outstanding features and comparatively greater value in imparting a proper understanding of, and insights into, the Qur'an, the associated studies and the purpose of Dawah, we have carefully marked out Tadabbur-e-Qur'an,a multi-volume and a highly authoritative Qur'anic exegetical work in the Urdu language by the late Maulana Amin Ahsan Islahi of Pakistan, for the purpose of abridgement. A carefully abridged version of this comprehensive exegetical work is expected to serve the purpose of Dawah illa- Allah, facilitate a proper understanding of the Holy Qur'an and open a window into gripping its message in an enhanced way.
English Translation of the Abridged Version
With a view to further the cause of preaching the Qur'anic message to the educated Muslims and reaching out to the English speaking world with the message of Truth on a still wider scale,the English translation of Tadabbur-e-Qur'an's abridged version deems necessary, hopefully a useful tool for the purpose of Dawah and inviting the non- Muslim world to Islam and its teachings.The work on the English translation,therefore,has been initiated and is concurrently going on with diligence.
A Compendious Qur'anic Encyclopedia
In order to facilitate a deeper and more systematic understanding of the Holy Qur'an for those wishing to have a direct access to the contents of the Holy Scripture of Islamic faith, the need to prepare such an encylopaedic work has long been felt.Most of the existing works of this kind are not very much useful for either their insufficiency to quench the thirst of the seekers ,or due to their unauthentic contents serving no substantial. This work is expected to give special care to those Qur'anic terms as denote the primary concepts of Islamic faith and practices and clear the misapprehensions built around due to a number of reasons.
Revisiting the Basic Commands and Directives of Islamic Shari'a Pertaining to the Societal Structure
Due to a blind traditionalism that unfortunately gained foothold into Muslims for reasons lying deep in the history of intellectual development of the Muslim Ummah in the course of the last few centuries, a sizable number of the commands of the Islamic Shari'a pertaining to the societal and the familial structure in Islam has of late become a target of scathing criticism on the part of the non-Muslim world.The proposition of triple divorce, for instance, has particularly been an issue of an unfavorable heated public debate, particularly in India and the subcontinent.The reckless practice of the single-time triple divorce in Muslim society and the insistence of the Ulama, particularly in the subcontinent on the fuller legal effects of it despite branding such a parctice impermissible and an innovation has long been proving a great hurdle in furthering the cause of Dawah, especially with reference to women. The stagnation of the Muslim intellectual stream and unjustifiable rigidity exhibited by Muslim Ulama in recent years has worsened the situation beyond repair.
We are fortunate enough that on the academic front we are almost self- reliant to get these books prepared.The work on the two first works is in full swim.
The Question of Finance
Like all other Dawah programs,this purely Dawah- oriented great academic program, too, will naturally need material means to go ahead.
In order to carry out this great and exhaustive Dawah-oriented academic program no large sums of money are needed.As estimated, it is a matter of a sum ranging from $ 125000 to 150000. People bestowed by Allah Taala with material means and solicitude to Islam and aspire for its ideological supremacy are asked to come forward with generous contributions. We have dedicated ourselves to build the academic front of this Dawah program, you are requested to lend generous material support to let the work progress and bring the expected results. Will one heed this appeal?
Vill. Naglasahu, Meerut , UP , India, 250406
For further queries , contact may be made via the following numbers and e-mail
Prepared by: Mufti Ismail Y Syed*
During Covid19 and mostly likely after that, using traditional library and their sources for Islamic sources for both primary and secondary, may not be the mainstream anymore as it once was. Virtual facility and remote based online searching and researching would become essential.
While it is tempting to go straight to generic search eg Google search for any Islamic terms, Islamic & Arabic studies students are strongly advised to refrain from using Google search (other than Google Scholar), as past experience has shown students are often thrown into irrelevant or second third grade sites including social media and blogging sites –– with materials often copied over/plagiarised from elsewhere as well as ridden with errors –– therefore students must only used the traditional online library sites that can link up with all traceable or verifiable online versions of the original books/sources eg pdfs/scanned hardcopies/ebooks, electronic sources or may use one of the suggested sites I have compiled below. Students MUST NOT use generic search engine like Google, MSN, Yahoo under any circumstances, not at least until they reach advance/graduate level/reaching level 6/final year of honours degree/final year Alimiyya studies. Period.
There are many sites and links to research websites and applications for primary Islamic sources incl utilising metadata. It can take time to getting used to, and no site is perfect; some has features which others don’t. It’s a matter of trial and error. By using the sites/applications below, one would get the gist of it and over a period of time would intuitively build up additional sense of where to locate the sources or which site or application to look up for relevant Islamic Arabic sources and information. Also usages of various sites depends on one’s taste, approach and user friendliness which varies from person to person.
As for secondary/English/orientalist sources, please continue using the normal library and research facilities which is used for any arts and humanities subjects incl Google Scholar, Discover in addition to your university / college library resources available remotely.
Suggested sites and applications for primacy Islamic Arabic sources
One of the most popular (and probably most comprehensive) search facility - Al Shamela:
NB A word of warning, site or destination could be prone to errors hence verification with scanned online PDFs and hardcopy is always advisable.
This is a fantastic addition to the online resources I came across recently than the older website
A cloned version for Al-Shamela which may be more user friendly:
To download books one may use:
Another great one (Application only but may have browser search facility):
Elkirtasse (may not be available on Apple):
Islamic Encyclopaedia portal - Gawami’ al-Kalim (Application):
Traditional online search - virtual library manual search:
For traditional manual search virtually using online PDFs library, Waqfeya is traditional one popular among Arab and South Asian scholars who prefer to use the tradition method to search as if they are in the library going through hard copy:
NB No search facility is available hence one needs to be well informed / have good idea to look up.
The Internet Archive, a digital library of internet sites as well as scanned paper books and hardcopies. Great place –– though manual searching and basic subject knowledge is required to locate the sources. OCR/word search facilities not always available, especially with Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Ottoman Turkish sources.
For Islamic history/tarikh, art and culture, Farabi digital library –– great place to digital online sources –– I liked it. You would have to register first for free access:
This has a few more features like checking up rawis and what Tahqiq there is, but not as broad as the above ones
This is nice one:
Another site, recent site that worked on the major (not all) hadith collections, has search facility:
مشروع السنة: الشبكة العالمية لدراسة الحديث «إحسان»:
This is an Urdu based one which searches through PDF
Another one (helpful for tafsir and hadith):
One of the most comprehensive Quran/Tafsir search facility, Al-Tafsir:
Another site for Quran Tafsir (user friendly, I liked it):
Another decent one, worth trying:
KSU Saudi Arabia Quran Tafsir project (not the best one and sources should be verified/compared with scanned hardcopies/PDFs):
Excellent resource to look up/search Islamic sources incl to locate digitised versions incl manuscripts:
and for manuscripts:
Hath Trust digital library –– an excellent repository of over 50 digital library collections from various locations
Another great one for simple or selective sources (I liked it):
NYU online Arabic search:
Another site for Islamic sources search incl hadith and tafsir:
Qatar National Library with widely available digitised sources:
For Indian subcontinent darse nizami and Deobandi kitabs:
Scanned digitised Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Ottoman Turkish books - project by Indian government, they scanned thousands of books from different libraries. So rare stuff from Ml Azad library in Kashmir, and Jamia Millia library etc is available. If you narrow search results to Urdu/Arabic/Farsi there are thousands of gems here:
Mostafa books online search:
Very interesting info: Al-Kitab project by AGU, has information on further available/efficient sites to search using metadata:
To read up more, look at
Online Catalogues (some with access to direct online material)
Fihrist (UK universities consortium for Arabic Islamic sources –– Catalogue only):
World Catalogue where books and sources can be search to locate across various libraries around the world, often some having links to online versions:
For Islamic and Arabic manuscripts
Online portal for digitised manuscripts:
Manuscripts of the Muslim World, OPENN - open repository by University of Pennsylvania, USA. Fantastic for those who want to dig in and check the manuscripts:
For details, read:
Digital Assets Repository (DAR) project of Bibliotheca Alexandrina or Alexandria library. Great access to thousands of digitised sources with advance search facilities. Most copyright free materials are available online with others giving limited access:
NB Usually used/alongside other search sites, comes handy when other sites fail.
An old information (2013, needs updating) on online collection but worth looking into:
Another materials available here Digital Collection in Early Printed Materials (Arabic), presented in Moscow conference, document can be accessed here:
Graeco-Arabic (Arabic-Greek) sources (classical Arabic and Greek sources)
A portal/corpus on Arabic and hundreds of Greek sources that has been translated into Arabic between 8th-10th centuries.
Persian/Farsi primary sources
Asnad, an online project by Philipps Universitaat Marburg Germany for Persian sources and Central Asian / Indian subcontinent sources (useful when doing research or trying to access original old prints/manuscripts, particularly for Hanafi Fiqh, fatawa/Aqida/ilm kalam and philosophy Islamic metaphysic students):
Another good site (not the best) for Urdu sauces:
تطبيق جامع الكتب التسعة - ادق واشمل تطبيق اسلامي خاص بعلم الحديث النبوي يشتمل على الكتب التسعة المشهورة لدى علماء السنة النبوية:
End note for teachers/lecturers/graduate teaching assistants
A note from a colleague Sh Haroon Rashid Anis:
I compare, Then usually prepare a word document and teach off that
First thing I do before I start looking for sharh is read/compare the chapter from at least 3 good nuskhahs
And note all differences.
I feel just reading the text without any sharh at all gives an 'organic' opinion of the author's work, then I can refer to the commentaries to see what they have said.
Credit and acknowledgements:
I would like to thank everyone who provided various tips and suggestions in preparing the resource list, including but not exclusive to,
Imam Muhiuddin of Enfield, London
Shaykh Haroon Rashid Anis
Br Abdullah Biqai
Some colleagues at Arabic and South Asian studies departments at various institutions who gave some tips and suggestions and prefer to remain anonymous.
I haven’t taken all suggestions / and or inputed my own preferences where it was deemed to be more appropriate or suitable for Arabic and Alimiyya students for their study and research. I have also committed painting and art websites (that may contain art or image from historical times of primary sources which was more of an art type as opposed to substance study).
Lastly I would welcome any suggestions or updates/corrections. Please tweet/tweet message me or alternatively email at:
By: Maulana Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi,
In the blessed month of Ramadhan, a renowned exemplary teacher of Hadeeth and towering scholar of Islamic jurisprudence, Mufti Saeed Ahmad Palanpuri (May Allah have mercy on him and grant him Jannah!) passed away. From the time we started learning from him, we realised and understood his great personality and the value and significance of his teaching. As the scholars from the world expressed their pain and grief over his sad demise, it added more importance and worth to our hearts than ever before. He spent his noble and beautiful life in studying, teaching, lecturing, addressing the gathering of masses and authoring and compiling precious books on several topics of Islamic sciences. He rendered his services within the country and abroad like European and African countries, the USA and Canada etc. Keeping his works in mind, it can be admitted that such personalities are born after a long time.
The Teaching Services:
There are numerous prominent aspects of Mufti Sahib’s services to be covered. He was an able teacher, favourite lecturer, orator, acclaimed author, famous publisher and a businessman too. I am blessed and honoured to say that the Almighty Allah gave me a golden chance to learn two books of Hadeeth: SunanTirmidhi and SharhuMaa’ni Al-Aathar from him. So, for me, he was a great, respected and exemplary teacher and mentor. In this piece of writing, therefore, I would like to highlight his teaching services and characteristics of teaching briefly, In Shaa Allah. He was an ideal teacher with his unique style and typical teaching methodology. One and all appreciated and acknowledged his this quality. The student always desired to emulate him in his teaching methodology, if they were to get a chance for teaching in order to get their students satisfied with their lessons.
Mufti Sahib (Rahimahullah) began his teaching while he was a learner. When he was a student of Iftaa Course at DarulUloom Deoband, in 1382 AH, he started teaching “Hifz Al-Quran Al-Kareem” to his younger brother, Mufti Muhammad Ameen Palanpuri (Hafizahullah). Mufti Ameen Sahib writes: “He (Mufti Saeed Ahmad) took me to Deoband in 1382 AH along with him. He got this humble person (Mufti Ameen) enrolled in the Hifz class of Qari Kamil Sahib Doebandi. I could not benefit from Qari Sahib. Then he took the full responsibility of teaching me Hifz of the Holy Quran. He made me Haafiz within one and a half year.” (Al-Khair Al-Kathir, P: 48)
Teaching Service in Darul Uloom Ashrafiyah, Rander:
Following the completion of Iftaa Course, Mufti Sahib remained as an Assistant Mufti for some period of time at Darul Uloom Deoband. Later, at the recommendation of Allamah Muhammad Ibrahim Baliavi (RA), he was appointed as a teacher in Darul Uloom Ashrafiyah, Rander, Surat, Gujarat in 1384 AH. Over the time of almost nine years, he served in Ashrafiyah as a teacher from Dul-Qa’adah 1384 AH till Shaban 1393 AH. During this period, he taught several books of higher level like: Sunan Tirmidhi, Sunan Abi-Dawood, Tahawi, Muwattein, Sunan Nasa’aee, Sunan Ibn-Majah, Mishkat, Jalalein, Al-Fauz Al-Kabeer, Translation of the Qura’an, Hidayah, Sharh Aqaaid, Husaami etc. (Al-Khair Al-Kathir, P.: 50)
Appointment at DarulUloom Deoband:
Very few people are blessed with such instructive and teaching capability as that of Mufti Sahib. Not only his students, but also his teachers bear witness to this fact. In 1393 AH, when there was a vacancy for teacher in Darul Uloom Deoband, his teacher Sheikh Hashim Bukhari (Rahimahullah), then the teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband, asked him to apply for the said post and he did so. In the month of Shaban of the same year, his application was accepted in the meeting of the governing body of Darul Uloom Deoband and he was informed about his appointment at Darul Uloom Deoband. Then in Shawwal in 1393 AH, he joined Darul Uloom Deoband as a respected teacher. Since then the journey started in 1393 AH in Darul Uloom Deoband, continued till he breathed his last on 19 May 2020.
He served in Darul Uloom Deoband nearly 48 years. The management also appreciated and acknowledged his teaching ability and expertise of the books assigned to him and the academic council continued promoting him. The books that he taught are Sullamul Uloom, Mullah Hasan, Hadyah Saeediyyah, Mebzi, Hidayah, Husami, Musallam Al-Thubut, Al-Fauz Al-Kabeer, Talkhis Al-Itqaan, Sharh Aqaaid, Siraji, Rashidiyah, Musaamrah, Hujjatullahi Al-Balighah, Diwan Al-Mutanabbi, Diwaan Al-Hamasah, Saba’ah Muallaqah, Jalalein, Tafseer Baidhavi, Tafseer Mazhari, Tafseer Madaarik, Nukhbah Al-Fikr, Muqaddamah Ibn Salaah, Mishkaat, Tahawi, Muwatta Imam Malik, Muwatta Imam Muhammad, Sunan Ibn Majah, Sunan Nasa’aee, Sunan Tirmidhi, Sunan Abi-Dawood, Sahih Muslim and Sahih Bukhari. Presently he held the posts of Sheikhul Hadeeth and Head-Teacher.
Some Characteristics of Mufti Sahib in Teaching:
Mufti Sahib was a distinguished figure due to his matchless teaching methodology. There were many characteristics and distinctive features in his teaching which are not altogether found generally in a teacher. Here, I am going to mention few of them as I came across while learning from him:
He was very much punctual of attendance. He used to come to the class on time. His lesson planning was so well that he would teach it within the period and leave the class as the bell rang.
He used to avoid going on a long journey during academic year so that it would not disturb the syllabus to complete during the assigned time.
His lecture carried on at the same pace, be it in the beginning of the year or at its end until he completed the syllabus.
The students were bound to follow his rules and regulations set in the class. The students were not allowed to enter the class, after he has had arrived in the classroom.
Apart from the lesson, he used to spend few minutes every day to make the students memorise some Ahaadith and Asmaaul Husna. He used to advise the students to do the same with their students so that it will become a continuous charity.
In the beginning of the year, he used to deliver some introductory lectures on the science of Hadeeth. During these lectures, he used to cover the topics like: Hadeeth, Tadween Hadeeth, Wahi, Kinds of Wahi, Hujjiatul Hadeeth, Ijmaa, Qayaas, Taqleed etc. These lectures were keys to the treasure of knowledge. Now, it is preserved and recorded in the first volume of “Tohfatul Al-Maee”, Al-Hamdulliah.
He worked hard in studying the books and did not think to waste his precious time at all. He was a favourite and perfect teacher. He knew the psychology of the students and taught them according to their level of understanding. It was, therefore, easy for the students to grasp the lessons easily to their best satisfaction.
He was blessed with such teaching talent that whenever a difficult and complicated topic was raised, he used to cite some examples that even the slow learners used to understand and comprehend his lesson effortlessly.
Due to his teaching methodology, he was a beloved celebrated teacher among the students. They loved him from the bottom of their hearts. They attended his lessons happily with punctuality.
He delivered his lecture with such velocity that the students were easily able to note down his lectures on papers. That is the reason thousands of his students noted down his lectures on Tirmidhi and well preserved it.
Whenever he explains the difference of opinions among the different schools of thought in Fiqh, he avoided giving preference to the opinion of a certain Imam; instead his focus remained on highlighting the basis and reason of the difference, so that the students can understand the reason behind the view of each Imam about the contentious issue.
Every student was not permitted to read the text of Hadeeth in Sunan Tirmidhi class. Whoever wished to do so, he had to pass the test. The criteria of passing the test were reading Ibaarah with proper pause understanding the punctuation, with clear voice, with average speed and without making a grammatical mistake in the Arabic text.
At the end of the year, he divided the graduating students into several categories like: those who would go for further studies, those who will start teaching, those who will do business and those who will go in Tablighi Jama’ah. He used to advise them accordingly.
Mufti Sahib was expert in several sciences of Islamic studies. He was an exemplary teacher as well as a renowned Mufti in the world. He issued hundreds of Fataawa which are documented in the register. He was a good manager too. As a director, he ran “Majlise Tahaffuze Khatme Nabuwwat” at Darul Uloom Deoband. The Majlis played a key role in creating awareness among the masses about our beloved prophet and messenger Muhammad (SAWS) being the last and final prophet and messenger of Allah as the Majlish also made them aware of the false prophet-hood of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiyani. He was a well-known orator and preacher. For this purpose, he was invited from across the world and he would travel within the country and abroad. Specially, in the long holiday of Ramadahn, he used to visit England, USA, Canada and several African countries. The people eagerly gathered in crowd to listen to his speeches. Little bit, I have tried to highlight his prominent service as a teacher in this piece of writing only.
Mufti Sahib was about 80 years old. He used to fall sick frequently for last several years and got recovery. This year too, he fell sick in the month of Rajab. In the last lesson of Bukhari, he became seriously ill. He reached Mumbai. The treatment started. He recovered as well and was able to deliver speeches after Tarawih Salaah regularly. Later on, he fell sick again and was admitted in Sanjeevani Hospital in Malad (East) where he breathed his last in the morning on 25th Ramadhan 1441 AH =19th May 2020. The news of his death was announced by his son. His relatives and the students scattered all over the world were saddened following the news of the demise spread. The social media was abuzz with news of making Duaa, reading the Qura’an and passing the condolences via letters and video and audio clips. On the same day, he was buried in Oshiwara Muslim Qabristan of Jogeshwari (West) in Mumbai. The Janazah Salah was led by his son, Maulana Ahmad Saeed Sahib. May the Almighty accept his services! May Allah grant him Jannatul Firdause! Aameen!
Mufti Muhammad Noman Daji*
Few days after the passing of my Mushfique Ustaz Sheikh-ul-Hadeeth Darul Uloom Deoband Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Palanpuri (RA) the Imam of Masjid-e-Quba Moulana Abdus Salam Lajpuri Sahib contacted me. Moulana is the Imam of the very Masjid in north London that Hazrat-ul-Ustaz spent several Ramadhan and had a long connection that spanned a few decades.
The respected Imām Sahib wanted to inquire if I remembered the response (جواب) of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz to the question (سؤال) I had asked (during the 2016 Ramadhan visit of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz at their masjid) in regards to a Verse in Surat Al-Fatiha. On the call I could not recollect and I said to the Moulana to let me try to recollect after the call as I was confident it will come to me. Anyway after the call I did what I had to (where my confidence was stemming from) and turned to Allah Ta’ala if He could remind me and lo and behold through the mercy and grace of Allah Ta’ala the response came to me within 15-20 mins. And I then shared the response with the Imām Sahib which he responded that it was exactly the same words (ہو بہو) Hazrat-ul-Ustaz had used. الحمد لله حمداً كثيراً
The Imām Sahib had kindly reminded me the happiness and joy Hazrat-ul-Ustaz had expressed from the face and words at my question and the words of praise that were said. Hazrat-ul-Ustaz had said no one had asked him this question and no one will either. Also, what he was about to say (quoting Hazrat Allahmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (RA)) he had read a long time ago and never had the opportunity to share it. This was the first time, he had just recalled it now and he was happy to share and pass on this piece of valuable knowledge and insight.
I am grateful to the Imām Sahib for reminding me of this incident (question and answer with my respected and learned Ustaz) as it was not on the forefront of my mind. Also, the Imām Sahib has kindly shared the incident via the Masjid addresses and speech too in the Urdu language.
However, I would like to share the question in English in my words too (with some introduction to put context to the question for the benefit of the wider audience) and then the response so it is preserved and the scholarly fraternity and students of knowledge can benefit from this valuable rule of Fasahat (فصاحت) and Balaghat (بلاغت) and keep it in mind when studying the beautiful Quran.
Fasahat in easy terms usually relates to the beauty of the words and Balaghat relates to the depths of the meanings. These two are a key component in the overall I’ajaz (اعجاز) of the Holy Quran i.e. in its ability to defeat (مُعجِز) anyone to produce anything remotely similar (مُعجِز) to the text of the Holy Quran. It is a complex and an in depth topic which requires at minimum a good level of knowledge and understanding of the various Arabic sciences and subjects. Hence, every word in the Holy Quran is in the right place and is perfect to convey the message in that context.
The Holy Quran consists of 114 Surat (Chapters). Surat Al-Fatiha is the first Surat, the opener of the Holy Quran, hence, the name Al-Fatiha. It is unique and it’s significance is clear from the fact that it is an integral part of every Rakat of Salah. No Salah is complete or valid without its recitation. So it is recited (verbally or heard or read in the mind) a minimum of 20 times in the 20 rakats of Fara’iz and Wajibaat (فرائض و واجبات) and 12 times in 12 Sunnah Muakkadah rakats during the day. It should also be noted that Salah is the best and complete form of worship (Ibadat / عِبادة).
Surat Al-Fatiha consists of seven (7) Verses (Aayats / آيات) and each one holds immense treasures and beauties. However, the question was related to the 5th Verse of Surat Al-Fatiha (or the 6th Verse according to those scholars who regard Tasmiyah (تسمية) i.e. بسم الله الرحمٰن الرحيم a part of every Surat and by default Surat Al-Fatiha too). The Verse is:
اهدنا الصراط المستقيم
Translation: (O Allah, Rabb Al-Aalameen, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Raheem, Maliki Yawm-ud-Deen) Take us on the straight path.
The question was that in the Holy Quran to convey the meaning of path, etc words like Sabeel (سبيل) and Tareeq (طريق) are also used so why is the word الصراط (As-Sirat) used in this significant Surat and in this significant Verse which is in essence the crux of Surat Al-Fatiha. Supplication and supplication of guidance is the core (مغز) of worship.
Hazrat-ul-Ustaz didn’t actually reply to the specific question (after the expressing of happiness and joy) but actually went further by providing me with a rule that can be employed in the entire Holy Quran. Hazrat-ul-Ustaz quoted Allahmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (RA) by saying that “Hazrat Shah Sahib has said to understand the Fasahat (فصاحت) and Balaghat (بلاغت) of a Word in the Holy Quran try replacing it with a similar word in its place and then see if the same level of Fasahat (فصاحت) and Balaghat (بلاغت) is produced”. (اگر اس لفظ کی جگہ وہ دوسرا لفظ رکھ دیا جاۓ تو اس سے اسی درجہ کی فصاحت اور بلاغت ادا ہوتی ہے یا نہی).
It wont and it will give you the reason why it was used. So in this case try placing the other two words that have the meaning of path in them and see and analyse the difference.
Also, additionally to the above reflection as part of my personal reflections (Tafakkur / تفكّر and Tadabbur / تدبَر) on the beauties of the Holy Quran and to gain further insights I have studied during my recitations the usage of those two words (Sabeel (سبيل) and Tareeq (طريق)) too throughout the Holy Quran.
When I was in my Daurat-ul-Hadeeth (دورة الحديث) year at Darul Uloom Deoband I studied فيض البارى - the dictates (امالى) and commentary of Allahmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (RA)) on Saheeh Bukhari. If I recall correctly it is in there somewhere that Hazrat Shah Sahib mentions that “in the past history 4 people (great scholars - از راقم) have reached the heights and pinnacle of this subject of Balaghat (بلاغت) and he was one of them”. I have no doubt on this observation of Hazrat Shah Sahib.
I asked this same question some years later to a Mufassir of the Holy Quran from India who has written a Tafseer and the response I was given was that he had not thought on this Verse from this perspective. The point is the question was not something many would dwell on or their minds would wander towards.
I have hinted to some hacks as part of my article titled “Power of Surat Ar-Rahman to Instil Gratitude through Repetition“. Those hacks can go a long way in developing insight into the Fasahat (فصاحت) and Balaghat (بلاغت) of the Holy Quran with less effort for anyone who has decent knowledge on the various pre-requisite sciences to the study of the Holy Quran. Those hacks are good starting points. I suggest reading the article and applying the hacks.
O Allah Ta’ala! Continue to keep us with steadfastness on the straight path till we meet You.
O Allah Ta’ala! Continue to shower us with the blessings of your intense and immense mercies, guidance, knowledge and recognition of You.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the deep understanding of the Holy Quran and open our hearts and minds to the knowledge (Uloom / علوم) and insights (Ma’aarif / معارف) in the Holy Quran related to both its words (Alfaaz /ألفاظ) and meanings (Ma’aani / معانى). Aameen Ya Rahman, Ya Raheem, Ya Kareem!
(After Fajar Friday 29th May 2020 – 6th Shawwal Al-Mukarrram 1441 A.H)
By: Mufti Muhammad Noman Daji, Batley, UK
6. Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil (الامر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر)
Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz was always fearless in speaking out on issues regarding the boundaries of Deen (Hudood / حدود); regarding practices that fell foul to Bidah and contravened the Sunnah or were on the perimeters of Bidah and spoke out publicly without fear of loss of ‘respect’ or loss of any material gains.
Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz spoke up against anything that he thought was contrary to the teachings of the Deen or overstepping the boundaries whether it was committed by Madaris management; scholars; lay people; people engaged in any form of Deeni work; etc. The motivation was always that they amend their ways so the right practices are followed and they do not distort the teachings of Deen or introduce Bidah. Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz was far sighted in many things.
The take and lesson from this trait for all the students of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) in particular and all scholars in general is to speak the truth (Haq) wherever it is needed and against any movement, group, organisation or anyone without fearing any reprisals. Speak up in the right manner where the boundaries of Shariah are violated and where Bidah is taking place or there is real potential of acts becoming bidah in our communities by the lay people, by scholars or anyone from the followers of our Maslak too due to ignorance.
To effectively engage in this duty learn the required knowledge on the boundaries and etiquettes of الامر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر so it can be effectively carried out.
7. Steadfastness on the Maslak of Ulama Deoband (مسلك علماء ديوبند پر تثبّت)
Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz always emphasised the need and importance to sticking with steadfastness to the Maslak of Ulama Deoband and would not accept any compromise on this. Hazrat-Ul Ustaz pointed out the safety and protection of our Deen was in that.
Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz would point out publicly to what he was observing in the scholars and lay people who are moving away from the Maslak of Ulama Deoband. Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz could see the dangers of how that could potentially totally leave the Deen open to the following of whims and desires based on ignorance of the Deen. It will give them a ticket to follow whatever ‘Islamic scholar’ or person from any school of thought or orientation that suited their desires. This is something we are observing too and is rapidly growing. Allah protect us all! Aameen.
Another great title of Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz and is well deserving is that of Ameen Uloom Qasmi (امين علوم قاسمى) - the custodian of the knowledge of Hazrat Nānowtwī (RA) - the founder of Darul Uloom Deoband. This is something the high calibre scholars of the Qasmi family (خانوادہ قاسمی) like Hazrat Moulana Salim Qasmi sb (RA) used to acknowledge and mention.
The take and lesson from this trait for all the students of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) in particular and all those scholars and Muslims who subscribe to the Ahlus-Sunnah in the manner explained by the great scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband is to stick to the teachings of these great scholars and the guidelines they have given us in all the areas of Deen at all cost whether you understand or not (due to it being a lack in your intellectual capacity or due to your lack into the insights of the beautiful Deen. Do not let inferiority complex get the better of you due to the various niceties or worldly benefits that can be gained by subscribing to new ways or ways of other groups that are springing up or school of thoughts, etc who misconstrue the Deen or by individuals influenced by them whether they claim they are associated with the Maslak of Darul Uloom Deoband.
There is an alarming rate of unhealthy influence from the above dubious groups and people occurring in young scholars or scholars who lack connection to the great scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband.
This indicates many thing. It is based on ignorance of Deen, ignorance of the teachings of the great scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband, lack of connection to them and realising the great and vast knowledge they had coupled with the highest level of integrity and Taqwa, is based on inferiority complex and also based on following the whims and desires.
To remain firm on the Maslak of Ulama Deoband has safety of your Deen and the Deen of your children and the whole world. Otherwise, you will regret it but it might be just too late.
You can remain firm on the Maslak of Ulama Deoband and strengthen your connection with them by engaging in the following practices:
- Study the Maslak of Ulama Deoband and what that means.
- Study the biographies of the great scholars of Ulama Deoband like Hazrat Nānowtwī, Hazrat Gangohi, Sheikh-ul-Hind, Hazrat Moulana Yaqoob Nānowtwī, Hazrat Thanvi, Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Hazrat Madanī (Allah Ta’ala send abundant mercies on their graves and elevate their status). Aameen!
- Study the numerous and invaluable books written on Tafseer; commentaries on Hadeeth; Fiqh and Fatawa; Tazkiyah; Aqeedah and all the Islamic sciences. You will appreciate the depth more when you can compare them with books and works of other reputable scholars. These new deviants are of no comparison. Some are just that as there is no scope to justify any disrespect to any one Companion (Sahabi / صحابى) of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) - Allah be pleased with them all.
- Stay connected with the current senior scholars of the Maslak of Ulama Deoband locally and from the sub-continent. Both are very important.
- Avoid falling into this illusion and deluding yourself that you know and understand the Deen better than these host of great scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband. Each one is of such calibre that you can only dream of if you studied their life and works and saw how incredibly smart, intellectual giants; aware of the world and the current needs and understanding of human psychology and needs they possessed.
There is no blind following blind in this as is the case that is happening to people from our maslak due to their own ignorance who are opting to follow others from different inclinations. That is a typical case of blind following blind.
I pray Allah Ta’ala grant us all the taufeeq to internalise and characterise these seven great traits into our lives and that we continue to pass it over to our future generations of scholars and followers. Aameen!
Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz died as he lived i.e. in the study and teaching of Islamic knowledge and by serving and propagating the Deen of Islam.
Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz is survived by his Deendar children who are Hafiz, Alim and Muftis. Masha Allah! I pray Allah Ta’ala grant them all beautiful patience and the taufeeq to continue the legacy of their great father.
Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz also leaves behind students in their tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands.
Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz also leaves behind a collection of valuable books and works that the Muslim Ummah can benefit for a long time to come.
I would request the readers to at least recite Surat Ikhlas three times and grant the reward to Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz (RA). This is the least we can do and also to do this whenever you can.
Also, another great way to benefit Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz (RA) is by practicing and internalising these great seven traits and passing them over to your students.
O Allah Ta’ala! Reward Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz (RA) on our behalf for all the selfless services he has provided to the Deen his entire life.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant the students, our Darul Uloom Deoband and the Muslim Ummah a better replacement (ni’m-al-badl).
O Allah Ta’ala! Accept all the tireless efforts of Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz (RA) for Your Deen over his entire lifetime. And continue his Faiz till the Day of Judgement.
O Allah Ta’ala! Forgive the shortcomings of Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz (RA) and have mercy on him.
O Allah Ta’ala! Make the resting place of Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz (RA) a garden of
Paradise and shower him with your eternal and intense mercies.
O Allah Ta’ala! Be please with Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz RA) and make all the stages of the Hereafter easy for him.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant the family of Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz, students, those connected with him and the entire Muslim Ummah (RA) with patience and strength at this difficult time.
O Allah Ta’ala! Protect Darul Uloom Deoband and the Muslim Ummah at large from all types of Fitnah.
آمین یارب العلمین بجاہ سیدالمرسلین علیہ الصلوۃ والتسلیم
و صلى الله على النبى الحبيب الشفيع الرؤوف الرحيم
By: Mufti Muhammad Noman Daji, Batley, UK
3. Expertise in Teaching (ملکہ تدریس)
The expertise Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) showed in his unique teaching style is something widely recognised and appreciated by both students and peers. The style to deliver lessons and explain difficult concepts in an easy and logical manner was the norm and habit (i.e. Ifham & Tafheem / إفهام و تفهيم). Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) was in a league of his own.
Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) remained an extremely successful ustaz (کامیاب مدرس) and on top of his game throughout his teaching career. Very very few could match or come close to this. It is a sign of a great ustaz (کامیاب مدرس) that even the not so smart students or those who are lacking the aptitude would understand difficult concepts due to the easy way it was explained. Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) was the epitome of this. And another sign of a successful and great ustaz (or a great sheikh) is that you not only benefit from them in the subject they are teaching you but you get to learn about and create depths in other subjects and sciences too as part of their expert teaching and guidance style. I studied Jāmī Tirmiz by Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) but the benefits I gained was far reaching and covered many sciences and arts. To me I personally feel I have studied many sciences and arts (علوم و فنون) by Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) due to the immense expertise of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA).
To understand knowledge or difficult concepts is one thing and then to be able to express that in an easy and logical manner others can grasp and understand is a totally different skill and demands a lot of mental aptitude and a certain way of thinking and specific skills set.
It was a frequent plea of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) to the students and ustaz of all Madaris associated and linked with Darul Uloom Deoband that they pay attention and develop this skill of Ifham & Tafheem (إفهام و تفهيم) so they can do justice to themselves, their students and can effectively pass on the knowledge to the future generations of scholars and torch bearers of Islam and Muslims. Teaching is a big responsibility and it demands certain skills and all teachers need to develop these skills so they can effectively discharge their teaching duties.
The take and lesson from this trait for all the students of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) in particular and all those teaching at the Darul Ulooms or already graduated is to that they develop this skills of Ifham & Tafheem (إفهام و تفهيم) and work towards achieving this and doing whatever it takes so it can be achieved. For example, investing in learning this skill by getting the required training from those who are masters of this skill.
# It should be noted that the take away and lesson mentioned in the first trait is a pre-requisite to developing this skill i.e. having the aptitude and capacity (استعداد) and depth of knowledge in all the sciences and arts and the ability to dissect and analyse the text.
# The ustaz needs to study prior to coming to the class to teach i.e. should have done the Muta’lah / مطالعة) and should have prepared adequately for the class. Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) used to say that just turning up to the class is not sufficient and just teaching in a Darul Uloom will not increase knowledge. For knowledge to increase the ustaz needs to read. The students will notice when the ustaz has turned up to teach and not studied adequately prior to teaching.
# The ustaz needs to focus on solving the textbook (Hall Kitab / حلِّ كتاب). Just giving a speech (ہوائ تقریر) that had no grounds is not sufficient. Also, it is important on the ustaz to provide relevant contextual and introductory knowledge on the subject to the students.
# The ustaz need to make sure that even the weakest (کمزور) student is able to grasp and understand the lesson and the difficult concepts. The smart (ذہین، فطين و لبيب) students with good aptitude (استعداد) and who come prepared (i.e. have done Muta’lah / مطالعة) after a time understand the lesson before the class starts and sometimes even better that the teachers. Hence, the focus should be at the weak students.
# Students should be developing insights as a result of your (ustaz) lesson. It should not be that even the smart and keen students do not get anything from the class. That would be an injustice and travesty.
# The ustaz should be open and frank if they do not know an answer to a question the student has asked. There is no need to give vague answers to deflect the questions and pretend you know. Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) was very frank in this area. If he didn’t know an answer to a question then he would plainly say he didn’t know. If after some thought he reached to an answer or found the answer then he himself would mention that the question you asked the answer to that is this. This only instills more confidence in the knowledge you impart to the students that they know you are confident on that and it also develops the habit in the students to say they don’t know if they don’t have an answer as that’s what they observed from their ustaz. This is a sign of a good ustaz and it displays integrity, maturity and humility. The reality is only Allah Ta’ala is Al-Aleem (العليم) and knows absolute everything. So face up to this reality.
# The management of Darul Ulooms should facilitate the right kind of training for new ustaz or those lacking in the required skills to teach or lack the required expertise in the subject.
4. Style and Expertise in Authoring Books (ملکہ تصنیف)
I have been used to reading the books and works of Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) since my early teens. In it every sentence is a pearl, a gem and a nugget of wisdom. You read a sentence and you come out of it a bit wiser. Your mind has developed and your understanding increased a notch further. The books of Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) - over a thousand - are pure wisdom. They are not just to have a number next to the name that he has authored x number of books. They serve a purpose and add value and enhance the rich Islamic literature collection. The point is that in the art of authoring books it has to add value and serve a purpose. It should just not regurgitate information from one book and source to your book without adding value or providing a new and fresh insight and perspective to a matter, etc.
I have observed and seen this trait in the books and works of Hazrat-Ul Ustaz. Any topic Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz has decided to pen and write it has added value and has shown and led by example to other prospective writers how to write and how to add value as he has done justice to the topics he wrote on. I think something Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz learnt from Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) as he was highly inspired by, admired and had love for him. It was evident.
Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz has many books and works and they cover all the Uloom Aaliyah with Ayn and many of the Uloom Aaliyah with Alif. Each one is adding value and unique in its approach and serves a purpose that was not there before its existence.
I don’t intent to discuss them individually here as that’s beyond the scope of this piece as as my focus is to draw collective lessons from them so current and future writers and authors can learn from the lessons of this trait of Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz.
Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz wrote on complex topics, some topics no one had written on and did justice to it. The commentary of the master piece of Hazrat Shah Waliullah (RA) - Hujjatullah Al-Baaligah - titled Rahmatullah Al-Wasiah is one example. It is a masterpiece of its own. One great title of Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz was ‘Sharih Uloom Waliullahi’ (شارح علوم ولى اللهی) - a well deserved and unique title.
At the end of this section on books I want to mention آسان بیان القرآن which is a work of a student of Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz to simplify and make بيان القرآن more accessible. Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz was reviewing and editing (نظرِ ثانى) this with great passion and really desired to complete it and Alhamdulilah it was completed. Due to the review and editing by a scholar of Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz calibre in the required Uloom to fully grasp بيان القرآن it has added tremendous weight to this valued and well needed piece of work. Anyone with interest in Tafseer appreciates and values the masterpiece Tafseer بيان القرآن by Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA). This revision and Tasheel (تسهيل) has made it accessible to more scholars and more people.
The take and lesson from this trait for all the students of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) in particular and all those scholars interested in embarking on writing, authoring and publishing books and works is to only engage in this if you are adding real value. And it is worth engaging in writing and is required and will always be required but the key is to acquire the required knowledge and expertise in the subject and then write in a manner that is adding value and fulfilling the needs of your targeted audience and of the current times. Don’t engage in writing books to fulfil your interest (Shawq / شوق) or you can say you are an author or people will say you authored a book. These are naive and immature reasons and not worth writing for. The aim is to address a gap, fill a need and add value to the already rich Islamic literature.
I suggest maybe using a gradual approach by starting off by translating some useful small works of our great scholars that is easy to translate and require translating into the needed language like English or Urdu and then progress to bigger and then to more complex translation works. Once you are confident, you have the required skills and you can add value through your own writings then start with short pieces in the subject you are most familiar with but also keeping in mind that you are addressing a gap, a need or adding some form of value and not just to add one more book to the market.
5. Propagating the Deen (Tableegh / تبليغ)
Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz has travelled extensively in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and to many countries of the world for the sole purpose to propagate the Deen. Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz had a close connection to the UK since the 80s.
Despite the sickness and ill health in the latter years Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz has been spending his entire Ramadhan and holidays away from his family for the past 40 plus years to propagate the beautiful Deen. This demands great passion and is motivated by great worry and concern about the Muslim Ummah.
One of the topics Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) was passionate about was the Aqeedah of Khatme Nubuwwat (The finality of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him). It so happened that Allah Ta’ala made him talk about this on his departing and final speech before his meet with his Merciful Creator.
The take and lesson from this trait for all the students of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) in particular, all scholars in general and all the believers that to engage and to engage sincerely in propagating the Deen of Islam to Muslims and non-Muslims is a duty on everyone. It will and can take different forms and will be carried out at different levels based on the authority you have due to your level of Islamic knowledge, etc. However, the base duty of propagating the Deen of Islam to Muslims and non-Muslims is a duty on everyone and all should carry it out.
To effectively carry this duty out learn the required knowledge on the etiquettes of Dawah so it can be discharged in the correct and prophetic manner. This is a poignant advice Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) used to emphasise and give to those engaging in the propagating of the Deen.
Scholars can also engage in this duty by delivering Tafseer Dars, Hadeeth Dars, Seerat Dars, etc in their localities and in the neighbouring ones at the very least.
Also, some form of Dawah work needs to be propagated and engaged with the non-Muslims too.
to be continued......
By: Mufti Muhammad Noman Daji, Batley, UK
I believe the below seven distinguishing and pivotal traits provide a good summary and overview of the life of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz Sheikh-ul-Hadeeth & Sadr-ul-Mudarriseen of Darul Uloom Deoband Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Palanpuri (RA).
I seem to have a close relationship with the number seven as it’s the number that has come up a few times as part of my recent articles like the ‘7 Characters’, the ‘7 Pearls of Reflection on the Holy Quran’, etc and now with the traits of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz. The number seven is a good medium number.
These seven powerful traits embed many lessons in particular for the scholarly fraternity and students of Islamic knowledge which I will try to shed light on. The seven powerful traits are:
1. Depth of Knowledge (تعمق فى العلم)
2. Introspection (فكرِ باطن)
3. Expertise in Teaching (ملکہ تدریس)
4. Style and Expertise in Authoring Books (ملکہ تصنیف)
5. Propagating the Deen (Tableegh / تبليغ)
6. Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil (الامر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر)
7. Steadfastness on the Maslak of Ulama Deoband (مسلك علماء ديوبند پر تثبّت)
I will briefly discuss on all these with a view to deriving lessons from them. There are many other facets to Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) that could be written on and hope others will be writing on them but leaving them out to focus on these important traits.
1. Depth of Knowledge (تعمق فى العلم)
Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) was an expert in all the Islamic sciences both Uloom (sciences) and Funoon (arts) -
(علوم و فنون) - that are taught in the Darul Ulooms. In my title to this piece on Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) I have only stated four big titles for him. They are:
1) Mufassir (مفسّر)
2) Muhaddith (محدّث)
3) Faqeeh (فقيه)
4) Mutakallim (متكلِّم)
They denote the expertise in the four key Uloom (sciences) which are known as Uloom Aaliyah with Ayn (علوم عالية / the higher sciences) as they are the destination for studying and mastering all the sciences and arts before them. The first two titles are referring to the knowledge and expertise on the primary sources of Islam i.e. Al-Quran and As-Sunnah. The third title - Faqeeh (فقيه) - is referring to the knowledge related to the practical life (Far’a / فرع) of a believer i.e. Fiqh which in this context covers both Fiqh Zahir and Fiqh Batin. And the fourth title - Mutakallim (متكلِّم) - is referring to knowledge related to the beliefs (Aqeedah / Asl / اصل) of a believer i.e. the foundation.
The expertise in all these four key sciences is evident to all the students, readers of the books and works of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) and scholars that know him.
Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) was also an expert in all the related subjects to the above 4 sciences (i.e. all the Usools - Usool Hadeeth, Usool Tafseer, etc and the related subjects) and also all the arts (Funoon / فنون) like Mantiq, Falsafah, Nahw, Sarf, Balaghat, etc. These are termed as Uloom Aaliyah with Alif (علوم آلية) i.e. they are tools for the Uloom Aaliyah with Ayn. Without a good grasp on علوم آلية the student of knowledge and the scholar cannot get the deep insights into the actual texts (عبارة النص) of the the Holy Quran and Sunnah. The sad reality is there is a lot of weaknesses in the students of knowledge in these areas nowadays. I believe and based on the mindset I learnt of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) that was the motivation to write the Tafseer based on the Ibarat-un-Nass (عبارة النص) of the Holy Quran. Acquiring knowledge (in this case the term is Maloomaat / معلومات) of the Holy Quran or the Sunnah from secondary sources is very different than from gaining it directly from the text. Yes, the direct knowledge needs to be backed up by the interpretations and commentaries done by the great scholars of the past. Hence, I believe Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) kept the Tafseers of Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) and Allamah Shabbir Aḥmad Usmani in His study for this purpose.
Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) had developed depths in all these sciences and arts and had expert command on them. As they say in Urdu Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) had علم میں گیرائ i.e. depths and deep understanding in these subjects and not just superficial and high level knowledge.
The take and lesson from this trait for all the students of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) in particular and all those studying at the Darul Ulooms or already graduated is to develop or work towards developing expertise and depth in all these sciences and arts.
# The expertise will develop post graduation but during the study period at the Darul Uloom develop the aptitude and Isti’dad (استعداد) that you have the ability to study any book on the subject taught at Darul Uloom whether you have studied it or not.
# Then post graduation continue your engagement with the sciences and develop expertise.
# Do not remain shallow or just focus on some subjects whilst neglecting others.
# It is important to gain a good command on all these to truly appreciate and benefit from the primary Islamic sources - Holy Quran and the Sunnah. This involves total immersion in the study and acquiring of knowledge as was the habit of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA).
# One key way and sign of depth of knowledge is to develop the essential skill that you can dissect and pull apart (i.e. Hall-e-Ibarat / حلِّ عبارت) the text of the taught textbooks (متون و كتب درسية) properly. This is vital to understanding the texts and the depths of the texts of the Holy Quran and the Sunnah. This is something many graduates and scholars overlook or dismiss its importance due to their own lack of understanding and immaturity. Maybe it is inferiority complex.
2. Introspection (فكرِ باطن)
I noticed throughout my contact with Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) he continuously remained in introspection and engaged in developing himself from all angles including the inner (Batin / باطن) and remained firm on the outward practices of Islam. Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) had connection with various Mashaikh and was given Ijāzah and Khilafat from Hazrat Mufti Muzaffar (RA) who was the khalifah of Hazrat Moulana Asadullah (RA). Both these great scholars were the Nazim (rector and principle) of Mazahir-Ul-Uloom in Saharanpur. Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) would visit Hazrat Mufti Muzaffar (RA) when I was a student at the Darul Uloom and I was aware of this. This area of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) was not something he would mention much but it existed and was there fully. All scholars have different personalities and some don’t share this aspect of them. The key is that it is present and the expression is up to the individual. وللناس فيما يعشقون مذاهب
I noticed throughout my contact Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) didn’t take interest in what his peers at the Darul Uloom or contemporaries (معاصرين) were doing or not doing. His focus was centred on what he had to do and how best he can achieve that for the benefit of the Ummah. Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) lived a bit farther away from the Darul Uloom so could avoid unnecessary distractions and focus on the task at hand. Teaching and being successful at the best seat of learning and the Ummul Madaris (أم المدارس) Darul Uloom Deoband can bring with it trials and tribulations from within and outside and to remain humble and in the manner Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) remained is testament to his great inner character.
Also, time keeping, attending lessons on time and utilising time effectively was something Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) did extremely well.
Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) was full of humility and simplicity which was my first observation and remained till the end.
The Taqwa and Zuhd (abstinence) of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) was exemplary too. Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) returned all the salary back to the Darul Uloom where he had taught for nearly half a century and stopped taking salary as his income from his books and published works was sufficient. Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) then started to spend on his daily needs from the income he gained in particular from his Tafseer work - Hidayat-ul-Quran (هداية القرآن).
During my last visit to Darul Uloom Deoband and attending the after Asar majalis the feeling (رنگ) in the presence of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) was very different. I felt the ruhaniyyat (spiritual connection) of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) was orbiting (عروج پر تھا). It felt like seeing a space rocket in the sky orbiting high into space.
The take and lesson from this trait for all the students of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz (RA) in particular and all those studying at the Darul Ulooms or already graduated is that no matter what heights in the outward knowledge a person reaches they still need to develop this introspection and worry to rectify the inner and conform and synchronise their knowledge with their practice and their inner. This is best achieved through sincere connection and practice on the teachings of a reputable and expert Sheikh in the field of Tazkiyah.
Mufti Muhammad Noman Daji, Batley, UK
The news of the passing away of my Mushfique Ustaz Sheikh-ul-Hadeeth & Sadr-ul-Mudarriseen of Ummul Madaris (أم المدارس) and Azhar-ul-Hind (ازهر الهند) Darul Uloom Deoband Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Palanpuri (RA) on the morning of the 25th of Ramadhan 1441 (19th May 2020) based on the Indian Ramadhan date - struck me with grief and immense sadness. It is a personal loss due to the close student-ustaz relationship and the level of benefit I had acquired from the vast expertise of my Mushfique Ustaz in all the Islamic sciences.
إنَّا لله وإنا إليه راجعون
إن العين تدمع والقلب يحزن، ولا نقول إلا ما يرضی ربنا،
وإنا بفراقك يا أستاذنا الشفيق لمحزونون
Verily we belong to Allah, and verily to Him do we return. Indeed, to Allah belongs what He took, and to Him belongs what He gave, and everything with Him has an appointed time. Hence, we observe patience and hope for reward.
The eyes are crying and the heart is full of grief. However, we do not say anything but that pleases our Rabb.
O Our Mushfique Ustaz we are certainly grieving at your departure.
You were the jewel of the crown (i.e. Darul Uloom Deoband). You were the heart of the Darul Uloom fraternity.
You have left us to meet your Rabb but you will not be forgotten.
Incidentally, the day of the passing of our Mushfique Ustaz Hazrat Mufti Saeed sb ra coincides to be a day after (albeit after a number of years) the passing of his beloved Ustaz Hazrat Allamah Ebrahim Balyawi (RA) which was on the 24th of Ramadhan 1387 AH who he used to mention a lot with love, affection, reverence and who he greatly admired. I believe Hazrat-ul-Ustaz was his true successor in all aspects. Hazrat-ul-Ustaz displayed literally most if not all of the traits that are described and written about Hazrat Allamah Ebrahim Balyawi (RA), who was also an esteemed student of Sheikh-ul-Hind (RA). The similarities between the teacher and student are amazingly striking. The depth of knowledge in similar sciences - both Uloom and Funoon; mastery in the teaching style; teaching similar books at the Darul Uloom; deep insight into the knowledge of Qasim-ul-Uloom Wal-Khairaat Hazrat Nānowtwī (RA); etc.
I would like to share some of my beautiful memories of my Mushfique Ustaz and then share the seven distinguishing and pivotal traits in my view (and those who know Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz closely will attest) with the hope that the readers can take lessons from the life of this great scholar who was without doubt an asset of the Muslim Ummah. The loss is felt by all and in particular the scholarly fraternity. The reason I believe we write and read about such great scholars, true believers and friends of Allah Ta’ala is so that we take a leaf out of their lives and act on it and also gain lessons and strength from their experiences and achievements. This is the reason one of the key topics and themes in the Holy Quran is on Stories (قِصص). It would be a great injustice if the beautiful and inspiring aspects (Mahasin / محاسن) of Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz were not shared with the world so they can also follow and learn from his life that is full of inspiration and devotion to the Deen of Islam and to the service of Muslims the world over.
The seven distinguishing and pivotal traits of Sheikh-ul-Hadeeth & Sadr-ul-Mudarriseen Darul Uloom Deoband Hazrat Aqdas Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Palanpuri (RA) will be of benefit to the following categories of people:
- Direct students of Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Palanpuri (RA)
- Students in Darul Ulooms all over the world
- Scholars currently teaching in a Darul Uloom anywhere
- Scholars regardless of their occupation
- Those involved in the work of Deen (in any form) whether scholars or not
- Those who attribute themselves to the Ahlus-Sunnah based on the understanding shared by the Akabir Ulama of Darul Uloom Deoband.
My first meet with Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Palanpuri (RA) was in the late 80s in Tayyibah Masjid in Bolton when I was barely in my teens. Hazrat Hafiz Patel (RA) - the Ameer of Tableegh in the UK and Europe out of Shafqat and kindness took me along to Bolton with him to meet Hazrat (RA). For someone whose vessel of the heart was overflowing with the love and admiration of the great scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband (أكابر علماء ديوبند) - and still is - and also harbouring the desire to study at this great, unique and inspirational seat of learning this was a great opportunity to meet a scholar from there. I still clearly and vividly remember the meet. We met Hazrat Mufti sb in his room he was staying in at the Masjid and I saw when we entered the room he was in the middle of making his pan (betal leaf). I observed the simplicity in Hazrat Mufti sb during the meet and the absence of Takalluf (تكلّف / pretending and acting). I liked that and have always admired that in the scholars who possess this great Sunnah.
After this first meet until the time Allah Ta’ala granted me the taufeeq and the opportunity to go and study at Darul Uloom Deoband I listened to any bayans of Hazrat Mufti sb when I had the opportunity. Then in 1996 I studied Tirmizi Sharif by Hazrat Mufti sb at Darul Uloom Deoband. The Dars was full of in depth knowledge on the Ahadeeth and the subject at hand focusing on Dirayat-Ul-Hadeeth and solving the text. The Dars was full of unique features which I will hint on later.
From the time I reached my childhood dream seat of learning
Darul Uloom Deoband (affectionately just known as Darul Uloom as it is the Ummul Madaris and the others are Madaris and it’s children) I made a habit to attend the Majlis of Hazrat Mufti sb which used to take place after Asar at his home. They were insightful and a joy.
During my Takhassus years at Darul Uloom a couple of days a week I used to sit with Hazrat Mufti sb After Fajar where Hazrat-Ul-Ustaz would read an English newspaper and I would listen, correct if required and answer any questions on the structure, composition or words. Hazrat Mufti sb was trying to gain familiarity and understanding of the English language. On completion we would have breakfast together and after that I would head back to the Darul Uloom. This was a beautiful time.
At the time I had started writing an explanatory note (Sharah / شرح) on Mirqat (مرقاة فى فن المنطق) - still pending for completion - that focused on solving the text (حلِّ عبارات) properly without skipping the hard bits or leaving sections vague. After I had written my take and commentary on a few pages from the text book I showed it to Hazrat Mufti sb so he can provide me with unadulterated and frank feedback (as was his personality) and whether I was doing it right and whether it was worth continuing. Hazrat Mufti sb read my commentary very carefully (as was his nature) and then responded to me “continue writing” (لکھتے رہو). After some time a scholar from the UK came to Deoband and visited Hazrat Mufti sb. Hazrat Mufti sb pointed at me and said to the scholar “یہ منطقی بن گیا ہے” (his become a Mantiqi). I thought that was a really nice compliment from an expert in the field and subject of Mantiq to say that to me.
After the completion of my studies from Darul Uloom till now I would make an effort and meet Hazrat Mufti sb during his visits to the UK. Then in 2019 I spent a month in Darul Uloom Deoband and attended the Bukhari Sharif Dars of Hazrat Mufti sb and attended the after Asar majalis. It was a very beneficial experience and investment in time.
By: Faiyaz Ahmad Nadwi*
He was one of the intellectual and genius personalities of twenty century of Indian subcontinent, prominent product of Darul Uloom Deoband India and its ex professor of Arabic Language& Literature , Tafseer& Hadis, head of education department and acting vice chancellor, compiler of modern Arabic dictionary in India ,well known writer& orator of Urdu and Arabic ,successful teacher of Arabic language& literature, Hadees and Tafser and as well as vary good administrator and having a extensive knowledge and information of Madrasa education System but he has famed as Arabic linguistic scholar and teacher because he introduced the modern techniques, tools and skills of Arabic teachings in non Arabic spoken students and he was a symbol of earliest Muslims in life style, god fearing, knowledge and practice in his daily life .
He was born in his hometown town"Kiranah" and received primary education in Deoband Madrasa then traveled to «Hyderabad» in 1946 and learnt the Arabic language from Sheikh Mamun Damascus, and again enrolled in Darul Uloom in1948 and completed his graduation course in Islamic shariah and Arabic literature in 1952.
After the graduation he first worked as secretary to Maulana Habib Rahman Ludyanvi founder of Majlis Ahrar in 1956 and he visited to Saudi Arabia along with Haj delegation as a member speaker of deligation under the chairmanship of Maulana Ludhyanvi what was contained on nine prominent Islamic scholars of India and performed the Haj and Umra and visited the holy places and represented a delegation while staying in Makkah and Medina and also directly interacted with Arab scholars and shared the bilateral information of Muslim and Arab world .
After performing the Haj and Umra, he left the secretarial job and returned back to his educational land Deoband and adopted the scholarly life and here he founded the cultural form "Darol Fikr " in 1957 and its aims and objectives were to introduce and promote the education of modern Arabic along with English among Madrasas students and to provide them an opportunity for learning an Arabic and English and to create Arabic spoken environment among the students of Deoband.
Hence under the above aims and goals he released the Urdu monthly magazine" Al Qasim" and motivated the graduates of Madrasas for learning a Arabic and English and modern journalism and also introduced the aims and goals of Darul Uloom Deoband and highlighted its teachings and religious services, scholars and theologians, lifestyle, religious, understanding system of Qoran,Hadis and Fiq and during this period he has compiled and published his famous modern Arabic into Urdu and Urdu into Arabic dictionary in 1958 what has played vital role in understanding a new terms and term logy of Arabic journalism and scientific words and it boomed among the Arabic learners of Indian subcontinent and first time his personality emerged as a linguistic scholar among the circle of Arabic teachers and students and this dictionary became need of Arabic teachers and students while studying and understanding the word meanings of Arabic journalism and scientific words and rapidly famed in Indian subcontinent .
Advisory committee of Darul Uloom Deoband offered him for teaching and appointed as a professor of Arabic language& literature and Qoran&Hadis in 1963 and after joining the teaching services, he felt the need to release Arabic magazine and lunched Arabic quarterly magazine "Dauatul Haque" in 1965 by DarulUloom then he established the "Arabic Literary Club for students "in 1964 so that students exercise and express their habitual actions in Arabic interacted each other while speaking and he compiled and published his famous Arabic reader " Al Qiratul Waziha" during this period and it famed among the Arabic learners and students.
In 1977 he has visited to Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and the UAE and observed closely system of education and interacted the prominent personalities, educationists, thinkers and social activists and also propagated the message of Darul Uloom Deoband and put upon them the current religious, educational and economic condition and status of Indian Muslim and launched an Arabic monthly magazine "Al Kifah " from Darul Uloom Deoband and it continued to publish till 15 yrs and .
After visiting to gulf states, he put his education formula and system upon the advisory committee and requested it to adopt and introduce in curriculum and syllabus and he tried to combine the syllabus of India and gulf in Deoband so he is only one man who combined modern and traditional system of Madrasa education through his motivated the mind of extensive experience and knowledge what he was gained while visiting, meeting and interacting.
He played goden role on occasion of century convocation of Darul in 1980 and he was the chief this committee what formed by Darul Uloom / Deoband and in 1981 stroked by the students and he provided them a temporary shelter and food and arranged the classes in terrible and horrible situation till that condition became the normal and in 1983 appointed head of education department and this year visited many countries of the world including Europe and Africa and popularized the message of Darul Uloom and in 1985 he became acting VC and this year he released the Urdu monthly magazine " Aena Darul Uloom " and this is publishing still now and all contents and articles of magazine are informative and comprehensive and it also presents the ideology, outlook and view of Darul Ullom Deoban and interprets.
in 1987 he resigned from the post of Acting V.C Darul Uloom due to some personal reasons and conditions and in 1988 established a cultural institution "Darulmoallafin and in 1988 he chosen the present of Jamiat Ulema Milli of India and in 1990 Shura Council of Darul Uloom conveyed him to the pension.
Same year, he visited on the invitation of the Ministry of Hajj and Endowment to Saudi Arabia and performed Haj and Umra and in 1992 he attended the World Conference of Islamic for the release of Kuwaiti prisoners of war. In the period of between 1993 and 1994 he involved and spent major time to compile his huge Arabic dictionary" Alqamos Alwahid" what published after his death.
After short illness he died in Delhi on 15 April 1995 and buried in Deoband Graveyard and survived behind him family members and large number of his pupils what reached to thousands and Darul Uloom Deoband is his performing place for what he spent his gold age of his life and left dept effect on the students of DaruUloom and put it up line of development and improvement and Al Qamosul Zadeed is a property of his entire life and Darul Uloom is the performing place of his educational activities and services and his life story is uncoupled without mentioning of Darul Uloom Deoband because he reached it on the pick of development and improvement and famed its name among Arabic people and he proved during the his services that Darul Uloom Deoband is a great movement of Muslim renaissance in world what is playing a key role in spreading the message of Islam and teachings of Islam.
*Ex Prof in Arabic-Al Ameen Institute of Management Studies Bangalore.
By: Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
First of all, I would like to greet our respected Principal, our respected teachers, and my fellow classmates with a very good morning. I’m delighted to have the privilege to share some words regarding Republic day of our glorious nation. I would like to take this opportunity to greet all of you a very Happy Republic Day.
It is an auspicious day of our life that we celebrate 26 January. The Constitution of India came into force on this day in 1950.
Republic Day is our national festival day. We celebrate this day as an Indian and feel proud to be a citizen of India. The Constitution is the living spirit of our democracy. The Constitution is the backbone of the country. The Constitution gives all India equal rights and privileges. The Constitution guarantees freedom to all Indians. The Constitution promotes equality and justice to all individuals, irrespective of their caste, colour and creed.
At this occasion, I would like to read out the Preamble to the Constitution. The preamble very clearly outlines the great Idea of India that binds us together. It reads:
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA,
Having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a
SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
And to secure to all its citizens
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
Our beloved country achieved independence from British on 15 August 1947 following the long freedom movement. We must not forget architects of this freedom and the builders our nations. They held aloft the torch of freedom and lighted up the darkness that once surrounded us. We must not the countless unknown volunteers and soldiers of freedom who, without praise or reward, have served India even unto death.
The best complements we can pay to these freedom fighters is to protect our Constitution. The best homage we can pay to them is to safeguard the true spirit of the democracy. The best memorial is to them to protect the idea of India that they dreamed of. An India that embraces its arms to each and every citizen of the country. An India that wants to all its children flourishing and prospering. An India that is full of justice, equality and fraternity.
At the end, I repeat the words of Jawaharlal Nehru which he spoke on the eve of India's Independence, he said:
“We are citizens of a great country, and we have to live up to that high standard. All of us, to whatever religion we may belong, are equally the children of India with equal rights, privileges and obligations. We cannot encourage communalism or narrow-mindedness, for no nation can be great whose people are narrow in thought or in action. …… And to India, our much-loved motherland, the ancient, the eternal and the ever-new, we pay our reverent homage and we bind ourselves afresh to her service. Jai Hind.”
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
(An Extract from A GIFT TO THE HUSBAND AND WIFE )
Friends! since Allah Ta'ala Himself has instituted the rights of women, who has the authority to change them? If the husband fails to fulfil their rights, he will be guilty of trampling the rights of fellow humans. Men should ponder over the most exquisite manner of how Allah Ta'ala intercedes on behalf of the women. Allah Ta'ala says: "And treat them (the women) with kindness, if you take a dislike to them, it may be that you dislike a certain thing and (whereas) Allah Ta'ala brings about through it a great deal of good."
Obviously, many factors can contribute to disliking them. However, the main factor which brings about a dislike towards them is their offensive character. And this is really disturbing and obnoxious to a man. However, it is as though Allah Ta'ala promises you, the men, that He will ensure that their offensive character etc. will be a great deal of goodness for you. Allah Ta'ala is all-wise; He has the capability of doing everything. For instance, Allah Ta'ala may bring forth from this woman some
children who will assist you on the day of judgement.
Examine very closely the verses I have recited on this topic and judge for yourself the clarity with which Allah Ta'ala institutes the women's rights. (At-Tableegh Kisaaun-Nisaa volume 7 page 120 & 126)
Summary of a wife's rights
The following is a list of a wife's rights over her husband:
(1) To confront with exceptional character and to treat her with kindness.
(2) To endure patiently, albeit with moderation, all her excesses and harassment.
(3) To be moderate in one's ghairat. In other words don't become suspicious of her nor remain totally ignorant. (Ghairat is an arabic word which refers to a spfrit of possessiveness or sense of honour particularly when the wife speaks to or is involved with strange men. This attribute, although scorned upon by the western world, is quite acceptable in Islam.)
(4) To be moderate in spending upon her; avoid being niggardly nor permit her to be extravagant.
(5) To learn and teach her the Masaail (propositions) of Haidh (and other masaail exclusively related to women) and to emphasise the institution of Salaah and other tenets of Deen and to prevent her from Bid'aat (innovations) and religious prohibitions.
(6) To maintain equality between the wives.
(7) In keeping with her needs, to have sexual intercourse with her.
(8) To refrain from coitus interruptus without her permission.
(9) To provide her with her house sufficient enough to attend to her needs.
( 1 0) To allow her to meet her close relatives such as her parents, father's brothers, father's sisters, her own brothers and sisters etc.
(11) To abstain from disclosing her intimate and personal habits, such as her sexual preferences etc.
(12) To refrain from beating her excessively. (This in no way implies thai he must beat her. Although he is permitted to beat her, the best is to abstain from lifting the hand upon this weak creation of Allah Ta'ala.)
(13) To desist from divorcing her unnecessarily. Both spouses have numerous rights upon one another. I have written down whatever has come to mind. I have extracted these from lhyaaul-Uloom etc. (Imdaadul-Fataawaa volume 2 page 185 question 278)
Why the wife's maintenance is Wajib
The Fuqahaa (jurists) are explicit over the fact that maintenance is also awarded in lieu of confinement or restraint. In other words, a person who is confined to the services etc. of another person and due to this confinement he is unable to earn a living for himself, the person confining him is compelled to attend to his upkeep and expenses. This can be likened lo the meals provided to the witnesses. The witnesses arc confined to the task of testifying on beha'f of the defendant or plaintiff. Hence, they will be provided wih meals during those limes. The rulers of today have retained this Islamic law until this present day. In short, the maintenance awarded to the wife is in lieu of the restraint placed upon her. (Islaahe-lnqilaab page 191)
When docs maintenance became obligatory?
The only condition for the obligation of maintenance is the surrender of the wife before her husband. In other words, she wholly submits herself to her husband without any shortcoming on her part. However, on valid grounds if she refuses to do so, for example, the husband has not as yet paid the agreed cash mahr, she will still be eligible to claim maintenance because the shortcoming is on the side of the husband, not the wife. Nonetheless, if she defiantly leaves the husband's home, she will
not be eligible to claim until she returns. Some women flee to their parent's home following a row or contention with their husbands. Whilst there, they claim maintenance. Remember, maintenance is not Wajib (obligatory) upon the husband whilst she defiantly remains at her parent's home. (Islaahe-Inqilaab page 1 82)
Minor or senior - the wife's maintenance is obligatory
If the wife is so young (physically immature) that she is unable to endure intercourse but she is big enough to stay with her husband, amuse him and carry out some odd jobs for him, he is compelled to financially maintain her if she submits herself to him.
However, if she has not as yet reached such an age - as prevalent amongst certain nations where the children are married off at a very young age - her maintenance is not compulsory upon her husband whilst she is still a child. A minor girl who is not physically fit for intercourse and she is presently only fit to offer her husband congenial company and a bit of odd jobs, her husband is not compelled to keep her in his own house. He is at liberty; he may keep her whereupon he is compelled to maintain
her or else he may not keep her whereupon he is not compelled to pay her maintenance.
Amongst some nations, a minor boy is married off to a senior woman. The boy is presently not fit for anything but since the woman has submitted herself and the shortcoming is on the part of the boy, maintenance will be compulsory upon the boy. In this case, if the boy owns property or cash, the maintenance will be paid from his own wealth. (Durre-Mukhtaar - Islaahe-Inqilaab page 182)
Maintenance is Waajib regardless of the wife's affluence or poverty
Some people are of the opinion that the wife's maintenance will only be Waajib if she is poor and if she is wealthy, she is not eligible to receive maintenance. This is totally erroneous on their part. Maintenance is compulsory irrespective of her condition of affluence or poverty. The only condition for the compulsion of maintenance is that there is no shortcoming on her part in respect of submitting herself over to her husband. (Islaahe-Inqilaabpage 182)
Separate accommodation also falls within the purview of maintenance
One of the constituents of maintenance is separate accommodation. There is a general misconception amongst many people, even amongst religious people, that it is not compulsory to provide separate accommodation for the wife. She is dumped amongst the husband's relatives or parents. The Shariah decrees that if she is willingly prepared to stay with her in-laws it is fine. However, if she wishes to stay alone, the husband is compelled to provide separate accommodation.
"Willingly" in the above context refers to total pleasure and satisfaction of the heart. If the husband, on some indication or the other, perceives that she wishes to remain separately but she does not express herself verbally, then too he is not permitted to keep her with other members of his family. Nowadays, even if the wife is willing to stay with the husband's relatives and the relatives are dissatisfied with the couple living separately, then too circumstances and prevailing conditions require that it is best for them to live separately. This will put a plug on numerous problems and complications. The relatives might feel offended for a few days, but they will be satisfied with this arrangement after a few days once they witness its benefits.
However, if he is unable to provide a complete house for her, he may, within a big house, provide just one room sufficient for her needs. In this room she should be able to keep her personal possessions under lock and key and feel free to sit, converse and sit with her husband in total privacy. Such a provision is sufficient to fulfil the Waajib obligation.
The stove (kitchen) in particular should most definitely be separate as the fires of dissension rage from this very stove (kitchen). Some people consider it their great fortune to Keep their wives subjected to their mothers. To achieve this end, she is subjected to various forms of cruelty and hardship. Remember well! A woman is not compelled to serve her mother-in-law. If you are noble, serve her yourself or employ a servant to serve her. (Islaahe-Inqilaab volume 2 page 188)
Maintenance according to the affluence and poverty of the husband and where possible, provision of a maid is also waajib
According to your financial capacity, just as you spend upon yourself, permit her to spend upon herself as well. This is the injunction of Shariah.
Some people, in spite of affluent circumstances, tend to be niggardly in the expenses of their wives. They provide so little maintenance that it may only suffice if she prepares the food with her own hands. The scant maintenance provides no scope whatsoever to employ a maid. In fact, if the husband can afford it, he is compelled to provide the expenses of a domestic servant as well.
In destitution, the wife is compelled to do all the housework herself
Some women display erratic behaviour in that they demand a domestic servant in spite of the husband's poverty. The husband is not compelled to provide a servant if he cannot afford it. If the wife is able to prepare the food etc. she should prepare her own meals as well as the meals of her husband. (Dune-Mukhtaar - Islaahe-lnqilaab page 183)
If the wife is incapable of doing household work
II, on the other hand, she is unable to perform household work - either due to some illness or because she hails from a very affluent family - neither is the husband compelled to provide a maid nor is the wife compelled to prepare the meals. In fact the husband wi-ll be ordered to provide cooked meals either from the shops (restaurants etc.) or wherever else, (Ibid)
Extra expenses for fruit, paan etc, is not binding upon the husband
Some women tend to squander their husband's wealth mercilessly. They consider it compulsory upon the husband to provide the money for their useless expenses and luxuries such as paan and betel-nut etc. Some women have a habit of tea or coffee and they not only consume themselves but provide these luxuries, from the husband's wealth, to their friends as well. They consider such provisions to be binding upon the husband whereas the Fuqahaa (jurists) have explicitly mentioned that the piovision of coffee, tobacco, seasonal fruit etc. is not necessary upon the husband. If she has the habit of coffee, tobacco etc. and quitting the habit will, be detrimental to her, then too she should not demand the money for these habits from her husband.
Whatever expenses the husband gladly assumes and takes the responsibility to provide wholeheartedly, it is his favour unto you. Nonetheless, the honour of the husband demands that if he
is financially favoured by Allah Ta'ala, he should not be reluctant to provide certain comforts for his wife. However, it does not befit the wife to harass her husband in return of his favours upon her.
The exigency of polite behaviour
According to the financial status bestowed upon you by Allah Ta'ala, spend upon her just as you spend upon yourself. Shariah decrees that as far as possible, make her comfortable and keep her gratified. Don't impose any difficulty whatsoever upon her. When giving her money (as maintenance, or household expenses etc.) be very lenient and liberal with her. Endeavour to please and console her and exercise tolerance upon her tormenting excesses. Muslims should always endeavour to treat their wives according to the Sunnah of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam. (At-Tableegh volume 7 page 140)
Provision of extra clothing for Eid, weddings etc. is not compulsory upon the husband
Another deficiency very common amongst women is that they will have heaps of clothing in their trunks (or cupboards) but (his wouldn't deter them from requesting their husbands to get more clothes made for them. Remember that as long as you have (old) clothing provided by your husband, he is not compelled to get a new set of clothing made for you. Similarly, making new clothing for Eidul Fitr, Eidul Adha and weddings etc. is not the responsibility of the husband. However, if he does provide for you, it is a great favour of him upon you. (Islaahe-Inqilaab volume 2 page 185)
Zakaat, Sadaqatul-fitr, Qurbaani etc- on behalf of the wife is not compulsory upon the husband
The husband is not compelled to pay Zakaat on his wife's jewellery or to pay her Sadqatul-Fitr, make Qurbaani etc. on her behalf. However, in view of such occasions, it is most appropriate for the husband to give his wife, according to his financial capability, a little more than the necessary expenses.
This extra amount will enable the wives to pay their Waajibaat (compulsory dues). However, he is not compelled to do this. If he does not provide extra money, she should sell part of her jewellery to meet these compulsory expenses. Without her husband's consent, she is not permitted to spend any part of his wealth in fulfilment of her monetary dues. Women are very apathetic towards this. In fact they don't even doubt its prohibition in the least bit. (Islaahe-Inqilaab page 1 86)
Prohibition regarding the disbursement of charity from the husband's wealth without his consent
According to the Hadith, Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam says, it is not permissible for the wife to give anything without the consent of the husband. According to another Hadith, in her husband's home, a woman should nol give away anything (in charily) without his consent. Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam was then asked: "She is not even permitted to give food to anyone?" He replied: "Food is (he most superior form of wealth." (Jam'ul-Fawaaid)
In another Hadith, whilst encouraging the women to give in charity, Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam employed the words; "from their own jewellery." He did not say "from the jewellery of their husbands." In other words, the encouragement of charity applied to the women's own wealth and not the wealth of the husband. (At-Tableegh volume 7 page 39)
From the above we deduce that even on occasions of religious disbursements, like giving from the husband's wealth to a beggar, donations to a madrasah etc. or to financially serve an aalim, lecture, orphan, widow etc. is not permissible without the husband's consent. In fact such charities are not even accepted in the court of Allah Ta'ala. According to the Hadith, Allah Ta'ala is pure and He only accepts pure (charities etc.) [Islaahe-lnqilaab volume 2 page 185)
Purchasing from the husband's wealth without his consent is prohibited
Similarly, some women have a penchant for unnecessary and . frivolous things. The moment they take a liking to something, they purchase the item and continue to amass a whole heap of unnecessary possessions. However, what is quite surprising is that those items are never put to any use nor are they cared for, ending up in those items being "wasted away and ruined. She will be taken to task on the day of Qiyaamah for squandering her husband's wealth in this manner. Similarly, she is not permitted to make clothing for the occasions of Eidul Fitr, Eidul Adha, weddings etc. from his wealth without his consent. (Islaahe-lnqilaab volume 2 page 185)
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
Alim: One who has attained a considerable amount of Islamic knowledge. He could also be referred to as an Islamic scholar.
Barakah: Literally means "blessings". It refers to the experiencing of abundance in things, which are apparently insignificant or little, both in value and amount.
Bid’ah: Literally means "innovation". In Islam it refers to introducing new things into religion which have no basis in the Quran or Sunnah, and in addition to this, to regard these new things as acts of ‘ibadah. A bid'ah is a major sin in Islam.
Dua ul-maghfirah: Supplicating to Allah Ta'ala and asking Him for His forgiveness.
I’la: Annulment of a marriage after the husband's sworn testimony to have refrained from sexual intercourse with his wife for a period of at least four months. For further details, refer to the chapter on ‘i la’.
Fard: Literally means "compulsory". In Islam it refers to those acts and things which are compulsory on a Muslim. Abandoning or abstaining from a fard act is a major sin. Rejecting a fard act amounts to kufr.
Fatwa: A formal legal opinion or verdict in Islamic law.
Ghayr mahram: Refers to all those persons with whom marriage is permissible. Based on this, it is incumbent to observe purdah with all ghayr mahrams.
Ghibah: Slander or backbiting.
Hayd: Monthly periods or menstruation experienced by a woman.
Hajj: Literally means "pilgrimage". In Islam it refers to the annual pilgrimage to Makkah.
Halal: That which is lawful or permissible in Islam.
Haram: That which is unlawful or prohibited in Islam.
Hur: Refers to the large-eyed women of jannah, promised to the believers.
Ibadah: Literally means "worship". In Islam it refers to all those acts of worship which one renders to Allah Ta'ala.
Iddah: A period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced. For further details, refer to the chapter on iddah.
Ihram: Two pieces of unstitched cloth donned by the person performing hajj or umrah.
Jama’ah: A group, party, community.
Kafir: Literally means "a disbeliever". In Islam it refers to one who rejects Allah and does not believe in Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as the final messenger of Allah.
Kaffarah: Literally means "penance, atonement, expiation". In Islamic law it refers to redemption from the omission of certain religious duties by a material donation or a ritual act. For further details, refer to the chapter on kaffarah.
Khula: Divorce at the instance of the wife who must pay compensation. For further details, refer to the chapter on khula.
Kuffar: Plural of kafir.
Li'an: Sworn allegation of adultery committed by either husband or wife. For further details, refer to the chapter on li'an.
Madrasah: Literally means "a school". Also used to refer to a religious school.
Maghrib: Literally means "evening or sunset". Also refers to the time of sunset and the salat that is offered thereafter.
Mahr: Dower or bridal money.
Mahram: Refers to the person with whom marriage is not permissible and with whom strict purdah is not incumbent.
Mahrul mithl: The dower or bridal money that is equal to or similar than that which was given to a girl's paternal grandmothers. For further details, refer to the chapter on mahrul mithl.
Masa'il: Plural of mas'ala.
Mas'ala: Literally means "an issue, problem or question". In Islamic jurisprudence, it refers to a rule or regulation.
Mustahab: Literally means "preferable or desirable". Refers to that act which was carried out by Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam or the Sahabah occasionally. Carrying out these actions entails reward and leaving them out does not entail punishment.
Nadhr: A vow or solemn pledge.
Nifas: Refers to the flowing of blood after child-birth.
Perdah: An Urdu word meaning "seclusion". It is an equivalent of the Arabic word "hijab". Refers to the seclusion of women from strangers. There are different stages of purdah, the highest of which is that the woman should not come out of her home except for a valid Islamic reason.
Qada: Literally means "carrying out or fulfilling". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to fulfilling or completing those duties that one may have missed out due to some reason or the other.
Qadiani: A heretical sect which regards Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani as a prophet of Allah. Qadianis are regarded as disbelievers.
Qiblah: The direction in which one faces when offering salat.
Qurbani: Literally means "sacrifice". In Islam it refers to the sacrificing of animals solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala on the day of idul-Ad'ha and the two days following it.
Ramadan: The ninth month of the Islamic calendar which is regarded as the most sacred month.
Salam: Literally means "peace".
Shari‘ah: The Islamic Law.
Shaytan: Satan or the devil.
Shi’ah: A heretical sect found primarily in Iran.
Sunnat-e-Mu’akkadah: Refers to those actions which Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam carried out continuously. It is a sin to leave out such a sunnah without any valid excuse.
Sunni: Refers to those who belong to the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama'ah. This term is generally used as an opposite to Sh i ‘ah.
Surmah: Antimony. A black powdery substance that is applied to the eyes. It is sunnah to apply surmah.
Talaq-e-kinayah: A divorce that is issued in vague terms without clearly uttering the words of talaq.
Talaq-e-sarih: A divorce that is issued in clear terms without leaving any vagueness or doubt.
Talaqul ba'in: A divorce, which causes the annulment of the marriage. If a person wishes to retain his wife to whom he had issued a talaqul ba'in, he will have to remarry her, i.e. their nikah will have to be re-performed.
Talaqul mughallazah: A divorce which not only causes the annulment of the marriage, but if the couple wish to remarry, the woman will have to marry another person first, when he divorces her or passes away, only then can she remarry her first husband.
Talaqur raj'ai : A revocable divorce.
For further details with regard to all the above forms of talaq, refer to the relevant chapters.
Ulama: Plural of alim.
Ummah: Literally means "community or nation". Here it refers to the Muslim community and nation.
Wajib: Literally means "obligatory". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to that act which has not been established by an absolute proof. Leaving out a wajib without any valid reason makes one a fasiq and entails punishment.
Wali: In the context of marriage or divorce, it refers to the legal guardian of a minor.
Walimah: Refers to the feast that is organized after a marriage. It usually takes place after the bride and bride groom have spent a night together.
Zihar: Likening one's wife to one's mother. It is a form of divorce. For further details, refer to the chapter on zihar.
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
Rights of Husband
Allah TaAla has given great rights to the husband and has attached a lot of virtue to him. Pleasing the husband and keeping him happy is a great act of ‘ibadah and displeasing him or keeping him unhappy is a major sin.
One of the rights of the husband is that the wife should not keep any optional fasts nor offer any optional salat in his presence without his permission. Among the rights of the husband is that she should not remain in an untidy, dishevelled state. Instead, she should always remain clean and beautiful for her husband. In fact, if she remains untidy and dishevelled despite her husband ordering her to remain clean, he has the right of beating her (lightly) in order that she may obey him. Another right of the husband is that she should not leave the house without his permission irrespective of whether it be the house of a friend, relative or anyone else.
The Rights of Parents
Meet her with respect. If she is in need of money and you are able to help her, then help her.
Since she is an associate of your father, and we have been commanded to be kind and friendly to our parents' associates, the step-mother, therefore, also has certain rights over you as mentioned previously.
The elder brother
In the light of the Hadith, the elder brother is similar to one's father. From this we can deduce that the younger brother is similar to one's children. Based on this, they will have rights similar to those of parents and children. The elder sister and the younger sister should also be treated in the same manner.
If any of your blood relatives is in need and is unable to earn, help him out with his expenses according to your financial position. Go and meet them occasionally. Do not cut-off relations with them. In fact, even if they cause you harm, it will be best for you to exercise patience.
In the Quran, Allah Ta'ala has mentioned the in-laws together with one's lineage. We learn from this that the father-in-law, mother-in-law, wife's brother, sister's husband, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, the previous children of the wife, the previous children of the husband - all of these have certain rights. Therefore, you have to be more considerate to them as opposed to others.
The Rights of Muslims
Rights of the Neighbour
Rights of the Traveling Companion
Rights of the Weak and Old
Those people who are in need, such as orphans, widows, the weak, the poor, the sick, the cripple, travellers, beggars, etc. have additional rights. They are:
Rights of Human beings
Rights of Animals
If there is any shortcoming in fulfilling the rights of a person, fulfil that which can be fulfilled or else, ask for forgiveness. For example, you are still owing someone some money or you cheated someone, etc. (In such a case you should try and pay the debt, but if you cannot do so, then seek forgiveness from the person). As for the right which can only be forgiven, seek forgiveness for it, e.g. you spoke ill of a person or beat him (In such a case, it is obvious that you cannot pay him anything. Instead, you will have to seek his forgiveness).
If, due to some reason, you cannot fulfil their rights nor can you seek their forgiveness, then you should continue making dua for these people. It is possible that on the day of judgement Allah Ta'ala will try and influence them to forgive you. However, later if you are in a position to fulfil their rights or seek their forgiveness, then do not hesitate in doing so.
As for the rights that are due to you and there is a hope of their being fulfilled, then be lenient when asking for them. As for those where there is no hope of their being fulfilled or, they are such that they cannot be fulfilled, such as ghibah, then although there is the hope of your receiving rewards in return for them on the day of judgement, however, more reward has been mentioned with regard to forgiving them in this world. It will be much better if you forgive them completely or absolve them completely. This is especially when the person earnestly seeks forgiveness from you.
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
The Marriages of the Kuffar
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
The person who has the power or choice of getting a boy or girl married is called a wali.
The Question of Compatibility or Kufu1. The Shar i ‘ah has taken great precautions in ensuring that nikah with an incompatible person or a person of a lower social standing does not take place. In other words, do not perform the nikah of a girl with a man who is not equal to her in status or who is of no match to her.
2. Compatibility or equality is considered in several factors: (1) lineage, (2) Islam, (3) piety, (4) wealth, (5) profession or occupation.
Equality in Lineage
1. Equality in lineage is that the Shaykh, Sayyid, Ansari, and ‘Alawi are all equal to each other. In other words, although the status of a Sayyid is more than the others, if the daughter of a Sayyid marries a Shaykh boy; it will not be said that she did not marry someone who is of her family relations. Instead, it will also be regarded as if she has married one of her relatives.
2. In matters of lineage, the lineage of the father is considered and not the mother. If the father is a Sayyid, the son is also a Sayyid; and if the father is a Shaykh, the son is also a Shaykh - irrespective of what the mother may be. If a Sayyid marries a woman who is not a Sayyid, their son will be regarded as a Sayyid. This son will be equal in status to all other Sayyids. Although the son whose father and mother are both from a noble family is respected more, according to the Shariah they will all be regarded as relatives or of the same social standing.
3. The Moghuls and Pathans are regarded as one nation and are not of the same class as that of the Sayyids and Shaykhs. If the daughter of a Sayyid or Shaykh gets married with one of them, it will be said that she married someone who is of a lower social standing than her.
Equality in being a Muslim
1. Equality in being a Muslim is only considered among the Moghuls, Pathans, and other non-Arab nations. There is no consideration of this among the Shaykhs, Sayyids, ‘Alawis, and Ansaris. A man who accepts Islam and his father was a kafir cannot be on par or equal to a woman who is a Muslim and her father was also a Muslim. The man who is a Muslim, his father is also a Muslim, but his grandfather was a kafir; cannot be equal to a woman whose grandfather was also a Muslim.
2. A man whose father and grandfather were Muslims, but his great grandfather was a kafir will be regarded as equal to a woman whose several forefathers were Muslims. In short, this equality is only considered till the grandfather. Equality beyond the grandfather, such as the great grandfather and beyond him is not considered.
Equality in Piety
Equality in piety means that a man who does not follow the dictates of the Shar i ‘ah - who is a wicked person, a scoundrel, an alcoholic, a shameless person - will not be considered to be equal to a pious, chaste and religious woman.
Equality in Wealth
Equality in wealth means that a person who is an absolute pauper cannot be compatible to a rich woman. If the man is not an absolute pauper, but is capable of giving that amount of mahr that is normally given on the first night and is also capable of giving her maintenance, then he will be regarded to be equal to her in status even if he is unable to give the entire amount of mahr. It is not necessary for the man to be in exactly the same financial position as that of the woman. Nor is it necessary for him to be close to that financial position.
Equality in Occupation
1. Equality in occupation is that, e.g. weavers are not regarded as equal to tailors and are accorded a status that is lower than that of tailors. Similarly, barbers, washermen, etc. are not regarded as being equal to tailors, but are regarded as being lower than tailors.
2. A mad, lunatic person cannot be equal to an intelligent, understanding woman.
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
1. It is mentioned in a Hadith that this world has been created to be utilised and that of all the things that are utilised in this world, there is nothing better than a pious woman. In other words, if a person is fortunate enough to get a pious wife, it will be a great blessing. It is also a mercy from Allah Ta'ala that she is actually a comfort for the husband and a means for his success in this world and in the hereafter. A person enjoys comfort from such a woman for his worldly needs and she also assists him in fulfilling his religious duties.
2. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said : "Marriage is my way and my sunnah." "The one who does not act upon my sunnah is not of me." That is, there is no relationship between him and me. This is actually a warning and a threat to the one who does not practice on the sunnah and a mention of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam anger on such a person. It is therefore necessary to be extremely cautious in this regard. Furthermore, how can a Muslim bear to have Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam displeased with him for even a moment. May Allah Ta'ala grant us death before that day comes when a Muslim is able to bear the displeasure of Allah and His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.
It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "Marry so that I can be proud (of your numbers) on the day of judgement over the other nations." In other words, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam likes his ’ummah to be in large numbers and more than the other nations. If this happens, his ummah will be carrying out more good deeds, and in so doing he will receive more rewards and gain closer proximity to Allah Ta'ala. This is because whoever from his ummah does good deeds, does so through his teachings. Therefore, the more people who act on his teachings, the more reward he will receive for conveying those teachings. We also learn from this that whenever and however possible, we should undertake to carry out those tasks and actions that will take us closer to Allah Ta'ala, and that we should not display any laziness in this regard.
It is mentioned in a Hadith that on the day of judgement the people will be standing in 120 lines. Out of these, 40 lines of people will be from the other nations while 80 lines of people will be from the ummah of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. Glory be to Allah! How beloved Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is to Him.
The one who is able to (fulfil the rights of a wife) should marry. As for the one who does not have sufficient wealth (to fulfil the rights of a wife), he should fast. That is, he should fast so that there will be a decrease in his desires. Fasting is actually a means of curbing his desires. If a person does not have a very dire need for women, and instead has an average need, and he is able to pay for her necessities, then nikah is sunnat-e-mu’akkadah for such a person. As for the person who has a very urgent need, nikah will be fard upon him. This is because there is a fear that he will commit adultery and thereby get the sin of committing a haram act. If a person has a very urgent need but is financially incapable of maintaining a wife, then such a person must fast abundantly. Later, when he has sufficient funds to maintain a wife, he must get married.
3. It is mentioned in a Hadith that children are the flowers of jannah. This means that the amount of joy and happiness one will experience on seeing the flowers of paradise, that same amount of joy and happiness is experienced when he looks at his children. And we know fully well that children can only be obtained through marriage.
4. It is mentioned in a Hadith that when the status of a person is increased in jannah, he asks out of wonder: "How did I receive all this?" (That is, "How did I receive such a high status when I hadn't carried out so many good deeds to deserve such a status?") It will be said to this person that this high status is on account of your children asking for forgiveness on your behalf. In other words, your children had asked for forgiveness on your behalf. In return for that, you have been accorded this status.
5. It is mentioned that the child who is born out of a miscarriage (i.e. it is born before the due date) will "fight"(wrangle) with its Creator when its parents are entered into jahannam. In other words, this child will go to extremes in interceding on behalf of its parents and will ask Allah Ta'ala to remove its parents from jahannam. Through His bounty, Allah Ta'ala will accept the intercession of this child and He will be soft and lenient towards it. It will be said to this child: "O siqt (which means, miscarried foetus) who is quarrelling with its Lord! Enter your parents into jannah." So this child will draw its parents out of jahannam with its navel cord and enter both of them into jannah. We learn from this, that children of this sort, who are actually a by-product of marriage, will also be of help in the hereafter.
6. It is mentioned in a Hadith that when the husband and wife look at each other (with love), Allah Ta'ala looks at both of them with mercy.
7. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Allah Ta'ala has taken it upon Himself (i.e. out of His mercy, He as taken the responsibility) of helping the person who gets married in order to attain purity from that which Allah has made haram. In other words, the person who marries in order to save himself from adultery with the intention of obeying Allah Ta'ala, Allah will help and assist him in his expenses and other affairs.
8. It is mentioned in a Hadith that two rak‘ats of salat performed by a married person is better than 82 rak‘ats performed by an unmarried person. In another Hadith, 70 rak‘ats have been mentioned instead of 82 rak‘ats. It is possible that this means that 70 rak‘ats are written in favour of the person who fulfils the necessary rights of his wife and family, and that 82 rak‘ats are in favour of the person who apart from fulfilling their necessary rights, serves them more with his life, wealth and good habits.
9. It is mentioned in a Hadith that it is a major sin for a person to be neglectful with regard to those whom he is responsible for (and to have shortcomings in fulfilling their needs).
10. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "I have not left behind any test and tribulation on men more harmful than women." In other words, of all the things that are harmful for men, women are the most harmful. This is because, out of his love for a woman, a man loses all his senses, so much so that he does not even take the commands and orders of Allah Ta'ala into consideration. Therefore, a person must not fall in love with a woman in such a way that he has to act contrary to the Shari‘ah. For example, her demands for her food and clothing are more than what the husband can afford. In such circumstances, never accept any bribes in order to supplement your present income. Instead, give her from the halal earnings, which Allah Ta'ala has blessed you. You should continue teaching your womenfolk and inculcate respect and good manners in them. Do not allow them to become impudent and disrespectful. The intellect of women is deficient; it is therefore incumbent to take special measures in reforming them.
11. It is mentioned in a Hadith that you should not propose to a girl when your fellow Muslim brother has already proposed to her until he gets married or gives up this proposal. In other words, when a person has sent a proposal to a particular family and there is a likelihood of their replying in the affirmative, another person should not send a proposal to that same family. However, if they reject this first person, or he himself changes his mind, or they are not too happy with him and are still hesitant in giving a reply, it will be permissible for another person to send a proposal for the same girl.
The same rule applies to the transactions of buying and selling. That is, if a person is busy buying or selling something, then as long as they do not separate or abandon the transaction, another person should not enter into their transaction and should not offer a price above or below that which has been already offered when there is an indication that they are about to come to an agreement. Understand this well, and know that a kafir is also included in this rule.
12. It is mentioned in a Hadith that a woman is either married because of her Din, her wealth or her beauty. Choose the one with Din, may your hands become dusty. In other words, a man may prefer a woman who is religiously inclined. While another may prefer one who is wealthy. While yet another may prefer one who is beautiful. However, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam says that one should choose a religiously inclined woman and that it is preferable to marry such a woman. However, if the circumstances are such that a woman is very pious but at the same time she is so ugly that one's nature does not find her acceptable and there is a fear that if he marries such a woman there will be no mutual understanding between them, and that he will be neglectful in fulfilling her rights, then in such a case he should not marry such a woman. "May your hands become dusty" is an Arabic mode of expression, which is used on different occasions. In this context, it is meant to create a yearning and a desire for a pious woman.
13. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the best wife is one whose mahr is very simple. That is, it is very easy for the man to fulfil her mahr. These days, there is the habit of specifying a very high mahr. People should abstain from this.
14. It is mentioned in a Hadith that you should look for a good place for your sperms because a woman gives birth to children that resemble her brothers and sisters. In other words, marry a woman who comes from a pious and noble family because the children generally resemble the maternal relations. Although the father also has some influence over the child's resemblance, we learn from this Hadith that the mother's influence is greater. If the wife is from a disreputable and irreligious family, the children who will be born will be similar to that family. But if this is not so, then the children who will be born will be pious and religious.
15. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the greatest right that a woman has to fulfil is to her husband, and that the greatest right that he has to fulfil is to his mother. In other words, after the rights of Allah and His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam the woman has a very great right to fulfil to her husband, so much so that the husband's rights supersede the rights of her parents. As for the man, after the rights of Allah and His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the greatest right that he has to fulfil is to his mother. We learn from this that the right of the mother supersedes that of the father.
16. It is mentioned in a Hadith that if anyone of you wishes to engage in sexual intercourse with his wife, he should recite du‘a. The virtue of du‘a is that if a child is conceived through this intercourse, shaytan will not be able to harm this child in any way.
17. There is a lengthy Hadith in which Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam addressed Abdur Rahman bin Auf radiyallahu anhu asking him to have a walimah even if it is with one sheep. In other words, even if you possess very little, you should spend. It is preferable to have the walimah after engaging in sexual intercourse with one's bride. However, many ulama have permitted it immediately after the nikah as well. It is mustahab to have a walimah.
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Blessed Birth: Allah’s last and final Messenger, Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was born on Monday 12th Rabiu al-Awwal in the year of the Elephant corresponding 20th April 571 AC to Abdullah son of Abdul Muttalib and Aminah daughter of Wahab son of Abdu Manaaf in Makkah, the city where holy Ka’bah is situated.
Golden Lineage of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS): The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim bin Abd Munaaf bin Qusei bin Kilaab bin Murrah bin Ka’ab bin Lawei bin Ghalib bin Fehr bin Malik bin Nadhr bin Kinanah bin Khuzaimah bin Mudrakah bin Ilyas bin Mudhar bin Nazaar bin Ma’add bin Adnan. (Seerate Mustafa 1/22)
Father’s Death: The father, Abdullah died before the Prophet’s blessed birth.
Blessed Names: On seventh day of his birth, Abdul Muttalib performed his Aqiqah and invited all the members of the Qureish. Abdul Muttalib gave him unique name “Muhammad”; while his mother named him “Ahmad”. Both the names were unique traditionally for the peoples of the Qureish as such names were not given to anyone before by their elders. (Seerate Mustafa 1/61-62)
Five Names: According to one narration in Sahih Bukhari, the Prophet (SAWS) described his five names: Muhammad, Ahmad, Maahee, Haashir and Aaqib. (Seerate Mustafa 1/66)
Kunniyah: Abul Qasim and Abu Ibrahim (SAWS). (Seerate Mustafa 1/67)
Nursing: Firstly the Prophet (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was breastfed by his mother for 3/4 days. For few days more, he (SAWS) was also breastfed by Thuweibiyah, the girl-slave of his uncle Abu Lahab, who was set free by Abu Lahab as soon as she informed him about the blessed birth of Muhammad (SAWS). (Seerate Mustafa 1/68)
According to the Arab custom, the prominent Arab used to send their newly born babies to the rural area during the breastfeeding period, so that they will be brought up in clean envirounment and they will have command over eloquent language. Muhammad (SAWS), therefore, was also taken by Halimah Sa’adiyah (RA), a blessed lady from “Bnu Sa’ad Tribe” for upbringing and breastfeeding. (Seerate Mustafa 1/69)
When the Prophet (SAWS) turned two years, Halimah Sa’adiyah weaned him from breastfeeding and brought him (SAWS) back to his mother, Aaminah. But she remembered the blessing which she was bestowed upon because of him (SAWS), so she requested to his mother to give him back for further upbringing for little longer. She was given back. After some months, he started going with his foster brothers for grazing the goats. (Seerate Mustafa 1/72)
Shaqqus Sadr: When he (SAWS) was four years old still in Banu Sa’ad Tribe, once he went for grazing the goats with his foster brother. Two angels, Jabraeel and Mikaeel (AS) dressed in white clothes descended in form of the human beings and caught him. They split his chest open, took out the heart, cleaned it, put it back at its place and stitched it. (Seerate Mustafa 1/72)
Second Shaqqus Sadr: The second time Shaqqus Sadr took place when he (SAWS) had turned 10. The third time Shaqqus Sadr took place at the time of the Prophethood when he was 40 years old. Fourth Shaqqus Sadr took place at the time of Miraaj; (while he was 51 years old.) (Seerate Mustafa 1/75-76)
Mother’s Demise: Because of the incident of Shaqqus Sadr, Halimah and her husband got frightened and hastily brought him back to his mother. Now he (SAWS) was in the care of his beloved mother. When he (SAWS) was 6 years old, his mother took him to Madinah to visit the relatives. His mother died, while coming back from Madinah at a place called “Abwa”. (Seerate Mustafa 1/83)
In Charge of Grandfather: The doubly orphaned Muhammad (SAWS) was put under the charge of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib who took care of him. After two years, Abdul Muttalib died. (Seerate Mustafa 1/84)
In Charge of Uncle Abu Taalib: When he was just 8 years old, he was in charge of his uncle Abu Talib as Abdul Muttalib confided to his son Abu Talib the charge of the little double orphan on his deathbed. (Seerate Mustafa 1/84)
First Journey to Syria: When the Prophet (SAWS) was 12 years old, he started his journey to Syria with his uncle Abu Talib. When they reached nearby Busra, they met a Christian Priest, Jarjees, who informed the Qureish about his being Prophet in the future and suggested to not take him to Syria. Then he was returned back to Makkah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/85-87)
Participation in Harbul Fijaar: Following the Event of the Elephant, the War which took place between Qais and Qureish is called “Harbul Fijaar”. The Qureish won the battle. The Prophet (SAWS) participated in the battle on insistent of his uncles. (Seerate Mustafa 1/90)
Hilful Fuzul: On behest of Zubair bin Abdul Muttalib, the people from Bnu Hashim and Bnu Tameem gather together at the place of Abdullah bin Jada’an and they agreed upon to assist and help the oppressed ones either they are from their own people or some else. The Prophet (SAWS) participated in this agreement. This time he was 15. (Seerate Mustafa 1/91)
As the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) used to go for grazing goats when he was in Banu Sa’ad tribe in his childhood, in the same way he also grazed the goat in Makkah when he was a youth. (Seerate Mustafa 1/94)
The 2nd Journey to Syria: Siyyidah Khadijah (RA) was a pious, rich and businesswoman of Arabia. When he (SAWS) turned 25, he was offered by Khadijah (RA) to go Syria for her business. Because of poor economic condition of his uncle Abu Talib, he (SAWS) accepted this offer. He went Syria with her slave Meisarh. (Seerate Mustafa 1/96-97)
Wedding with Khadijah (RA): Following the 2 months and 25-day of the Syria trip, Sayyidah Khadijah (RA), then 40, proposed the Prophet (SAWS), then 25, for marriage. After consultation with his uncle, he (SAWS) got ready. Date was fixed. On the date, the Prophet (SAWS) reached Khadijah’s home in the company of his uncles: Abu Talib, Hamzah and other elders of the family and Nikaah was performed by Abu Talib. (Seerate Mustafa 1/107-108)
Hakam (Mediator/Judge): When the Prophet (SAWS) was 35, the Qureish wanted to reconstruct the Holy Ka’abah. When the construction of the holy Ka’abah reached the level at which the Hajar-e-Aswad (Black Stone) was to be placed, a dispute erupted among the tribe of the Qureish regarding whom to grant the honour of placing the Stone back on its corner. Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah Makhzumi suggested that the first person to enter the Haram the following morning would be made Hakam (Judge) to give the final decision. They agreed upon it. The Next day in the morning, it was the Prophet (SAWS) who entered the Haram first. Then he (SAWS) was made Hakam. He told the people to put the Black Stone in his Sheet and asked the Chiefs of each tribe to lift it up to the level. Then he (SAWS) himself placed it at its place. (Seerate Mustafa 1/111-112)
In the Cave of Hiraa: When the Prophet (SAWS) turned 37-year old, he started visiting the Cave of Hiraa repeatedly and loving seclusion and loneliness to worship Allah the Almighty.
Prophethood: When the Prophet (SAWS) turned 40, once he was in the Cave of Hiraa, Allah the Almighty selected him as His Nabi (Prophet) and Rasool (Messenger) sending the Frist Revelation (Wahee). (Seerate Mustafa 1/128) The Prophet (SAWS) was blessed with Prophethood and Messenger-hood on Monday, 8th Rabiul Awwal. (Seerate Mustafa 1/138-139) Following the Prophethood, Sayyidah Khadijah (RA), Warqah bin Naufal, Ali bin Abi Talib, Zaid bin Harathah and Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/148-49)
Because of the invitation of Siyyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA), some prominent members of Qureish, like Uthman bin Affan, Zubeir bin Awwam, Abdur Rahman bin Awf, Talha bin Obaidullah and Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/151)
2nd Year of Prophethood: He (SAWS) announced about his Prophethood secretly and almost 40 people embraced Islam. The Home of Arqam (RA), situated at mount Safaa, was selected as the Revert Center. The Muslims used to get together there as long as Sayyiduna Umar had not embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/165)
4th Year of Prophethood: For the first three years, he (SAWS) used to call the people towards Islam secretly. After 3-year, the Prophet (SAWS) announced his Prophethood openly and invited his relatives towards Islam from the mount Safaa. (Seerate Mustafa 1/165-66)
Some Personal Enemies of the Prophet (SAWS) and Muslims: Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab, Aswad, Harith bin Qeis, Waleed bin Mughirah, Umayyah bin Khalf, Uqbah bin Abi Muaeet etc. (Seerate Mustafa 1/203)
5th Year of Prophethood: When the polytheists felt that the number of the people embracing Islam is growing, they started torturing and oppressing them ruthlessly. When the torture and oppression of the polytheists of Makkah against the Muslim became unbearable, the Prophet (SAWS) suggested the newly reverted Muslims to migrate to Habsha (Ethiopia). The first time 11 males and 5 females and the 2nd time 86 males and 16 females migrated to Habsha secretly. (Seerate Mustafa 1/234-41)
6th Year of Prophethood: (Sayyiduna Hamzah and) Sayyiduna Umar (RA) embraced Islam. Then the Muslims started offering Salaah in the Holy Ka’abah openly. (Seerate Mustafa 1/251)
7th Year of Prophethood: While on the one hand the King of Ethiopia, Najashi rejected the demands of the Qureish’s ambassadors and gave high respect to Jafar (RA) and his friends, Hamzah and Umar (RA) embraced Islam on the other. Then the polytheists became hopeless and agreed upon to boycott the Prophet (SAWS), Banu Hashim and his Supporters socially. They were detained in the Valley of Abu Talib and had to stay 3-year there in the Valley in worst condition. (Seerate Mustafa 1/257)
10th Year of Prophethood: Social Boycott came to an end and the Muslims took the sigh of relief. (Seerate Mustafa 1/261)
The 10th Year of Prophethood is known as “Aamul Huzn”, because uncle, Abu Talib and Sayyidatuna Khadijah (RA) passed away. After their death, the Prophet (SAWS) was apparently helpless. He (SAWS), therefore, made a journey to Ta’if and presented Islam to famous three brothers: Abd Yaa Leil, Masood and Habib of Ta’if; but in return, he (SAWS) was tortured and attacked by the unfortunate folks of Ta’if until he got wounded and his shoes were full with blood. (Seerate Mustafa 1/264-67)
Miracle of Splitting the Moon: When the polytheists: Waleed bin Mughirah, Abu Jahl, Aas bin Waail etc. demanded the Prophet (SAWS) to prove his Prophethood by splitting the moon into two, if he was a Prophet. The Prophet (SAWS) did so with the help of Allah the Almighty, but they didn’t embrace Islam rather they said that he had been a magician and had played magic. (Seerate Mustafa 1/230-31)
11th Year of Prophethood: On 27th Rajab, the Prophet (SAWS) was taken on a unique tour of the Kingdom of the Universe, which is known as Miraaj. He proceeded from Masjide Haram to Masjide Aqsa. Then from Masjide Aqsa, he was taken up to the skies until he reached heavenly tree known as Sidratul Muntaha. The polytheists negated this tour; while Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) accepted it without a doubt. (Seerate Mustafa 1/279)
Islam in Yathrib (Madinah): A group of Khazraj from Yathrib (Madinah) came to Makkah in the Hajj season. The Prophet (SAWS) invited them towards Islam and recited few verses of the Glorious Qura’an in front of them. As they saw the Prophet (SAWS) recognized him and they started whispering that this is the same Prophet about whom we heard from the Jew of Madinah. Then they embraced Islam in the same gathering. They were six people (RA) who embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/319)
12th Year of Prophethood: From Yathrib, next year 12 people came to Makkah to meet the Prophet (SAWS). Five of them were those who had already embraced Islam in the previous journey and seven people were new. They embraced Islam and took pledge on the hands of the Prophet (SAWS). When they were going back to Madinah, the Prophet (SAWS) sent Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Ummu Maktoom and Mus’ab bin Umeir with them to teach the Qura’an and the Islamic rulings. (Seerate Mustafa 1/320-21)
Jumuah Salaah in Madinah: In the same year, As’ad bin Zurarah (RA) encouraged the Muslims to establish Jumuah Salah and it took place. After few days, a letter from the Prophet (SAWS) to Musab bin Umeir came, where he (SAWS) had instructed to establish Jumuah Salaah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/324)
13th Year of Prophethood: Sayyiduna Mus’ab bin Umeir came from Madinah to Makkah with a group of Muslims to perform Hajj. In this group there were 73 males and 2 females who took the pledge on the hands of the Prophet (SAWS) in Valley. This pledge is called “Beiate Aqabah Thaaniyah”. (Seerate Mustafa 1/325)
Selection of Chiefs: Following the completion of the Pledge, the Prophet (SAWS) informed them that the Prophet Musa (AS) had selected 12 Chiefs from the children of Israel; therefore he (SAWS) also selected 12 leaders and chiefs from them on behest of Jabraeel (AS) and guided them to lead and head their people. (Seerate Mustafa 1/332)
Beginning of Hijrah (Migration) and Welcome in Madinah: In the beginning, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Aleih Wa Sallam) was shown the Hijrah place, a land of date palm trees, between two mountains, the two stony tracts, in a dream. Up to the time, he (SAWS) was undecided about the place of Hijrah, until it was confirmed and the place was decided through Wahi (Revelation). Then the Prophet (SAWS) directed his followers to migrate to Madinah with the command of Allah, the Almighty. They were received and welcomed in Madinah with enthusiasm and much hospitality. (Seerate Mustafa 1/340)
The Polytheists Plot to Kill the Prophet (SAWS): The polytheists, after observing the Hijrah of the Sahabah (RA) one after another, thought that Rasulullah (SAWS) will migrate today or tomorrow as well. So, they started thinking seriously to prevent him from the Hijrah. They met in all haste. After several milder expedients had been rejected, Abu Jahl opined that he should be killed and for killing one man should be chosen out of every tribe and that each man should strike a blow at him with his sword so that responsibility of the guilt would rest equally on all tribes. The Banu Abd Manaaf was much inferior and therefore would not be able to revenge their kinsman's death. Iblis, who participated in the meeting pretending to be a Sheikh from Najd, conquered with this opinion.
Following the meeting, Jabraeel (AS) came and informed Rasulullah (SAWS) about the polytheists’ plot. The Prophet (SAWS) informed Abu Bakr (RA) about his plan to migrate. A number of youths were selected for the bloody deed. As the night advanced, the assassins posted themselves round the house of the Prophet (SAWS). They watched all night long, waiting to murder the Prophet (SAWS) when he should leave his house at the early dawn. By some the Prophet (SAWS) had warned of the danger, and he directed Ali (RA) to lie down in his place and wrap himself up in his green clock, which he did. The Prophet (SAWS) miraculously escaped through the window and he appeared to the house of Abu Bakr (RA), unperceived by door. In the meantime, they, looking through a crevice and seeing Ali (RA), whom they mistook for Muhammad (SAWS) himself, asleep, continued watching there until morning.
When Ali (RA) arose, they found themselves deceived. The fury of the Qureish was now unbounded. The news that they would be assassins had returned unsuccessful and Muhammad (SAWS) had escaped aroused their whole energy. A prize of a hundred camels was set upon Muhammad's head. (Seerate Mustafa 1/344-49)
Then Rasulullah (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) reached a cave on the mountain of Thaur and stayed there for three nights. Abdullah Ibn Abi Bakr who was an intelligent and sagacious youth, used to stay with them overnight. He used to leave them before daybreak so that he would be with Qureish in the morning as if he had spent the night in Makkah. He would keep in mind any plot made against them and when it became dark, he would go and inform them of it. Aamir Ibn Fuhaira, the freed slave of Abu Bakr (RA), used to bring the milch sheep (of Abu Bakr) to them a little while after nightfall in order to rest the sheep there. So they always had fresh milk at night, the milk of their sheep, and the milk which they warmed by throwing heated stones in it. Aamir Ibn Fuhaira would then call the herd away when it was still dark (before daybreak). He did the same in each of those three nights. Rasulullah (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) had hired a man from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dail from the family of Banu Abd Ibn Adi as an expert guide, and he was in alliance with the family of Al-As Ibn Wail As-Sahmi and he was in the religion of the infidels of Quraish. The Prophet (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) trusted him and gave him their two she-camels and took his promise to bring their camels to the cave of the mountain of Thaur in the morning after three nights later. And when they set out, Aamir Ibn Futhaira and the guide went along with them and the guide led them, along the seashore." (Sahihul Bukhari, Hadith: 3905)
When the Prophet (SAWS) was on his way to Madinah, Suraqa Ibn Ju'sham followed to get the prize of 100 camels. After approaching them, his horse stumbled and he fell down. He stood up and took out the divining arrows and drew lots as to whether he should harm them or not, and the lot which he disliked came out. Despite that he continued his plot. When he was close to them, suddenly the forelegs of his horse sank into the ground up to the knees and he fell down. The horse got up, but could hardly take out its forelegs from the ground. When it stood up straight again, its forelegs caused dust to rise up in the sky like smoke. Latter, he called upon them to feel secure. At this point, he felt that the cause of Rasulullah (SAWS) would become victorious. He informed them the plans of the Qureish concerning them. The Prophet (SAWS) said: 'Do not tell others about us.' Then Suraqa requested him to write a statement of security for him. He (SAWS) ordered Amir Ibn Fuhaira, who wrote it on a parchment. Then Rasulullah (SAWS) proceeded on his way." (Summarised from Sahihul Bukhari, Hadith: 3906)
The Prophet (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) were also followed by Buraidah Aslami who was with 70 peoples. But at the end, all of them embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/382)
The news of the Prophet’s Hijrah was spread already in Madinah. The Ansaar were waiting eagerly for him and ready to receive with enthusiasm. Anyway, the Prophet (SAWS) reached the place called Qubaa on Monday, 12th Rabiul Awwal 13th year of Prophethood. He stayed for few days in Qubaa, at the home of Kulthoom bin Hadm and constructed Masjidut Taqwaa. After leading Jumuah Salaah, he (SAWS) left for Madinah. In his Khutbah, he didn’t mention any point about his perpetual enemies and didn’t condemn them; rather he highlighted the topic of Taqwaa and the preparation for the Hereafter. When he reached Madinah, everyone was wishing to make him a guest; but he (SAWS) stayed at the home of Abu Ayyub Ansari (RA) according to the will of Allah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/383-93)
1st Hijrah: After Hijrah reaching in Madinah, the Prophet (SAWS) was interviewed by some Jew scholars. Some prominent Jews and great Jew scholars like, Maimoon bin Yaameen, Abdullah bin Salam, Abul Qeis embraced Islam. Sayyiduna Sarmah bin Abi Anas, a monotheist embraced Islam. The place was bought and the price was paid by Abu Bakr (RA) and Masjide Nabawi was built. The Prophet (SAWS) constructed the homes for Ummahaatul Moomineen. He made Brotherhood between Ansar and Muhajireen because the Muhaajireen had left their homes, properties and relatives in Makkah. To create familiarity among the Ansaar and Muhaajireen, the brotherhood between them was made. 45 Muhaajireen were made brothers of other 45 Ansaar. Ansaar played the role with their Muhajireen brothers was matchless. This relation of brotherhood was so strong that when an Ansari died, his Muhajir brother used to be his inheritor (later it was abrogated.). Adhan was introduced to call the Muslims for Salaah. To protect Muslims from the mischief of Jews, the written treaty was made between Muslims and Jews of Banu Qainqa’a, Bani Nadheer and Bani Qureizah. Battle of Wuddan took place. In brief, the migration marked the beginning of new era in their lives. (Seerate Mustafa 1/396-442)
The Prophet (SAWS) sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Sayyiduna Ubaidah bin Harith (RA) towards Rabigh to follow the caravan of polytheists in Shawwal. He (SAWS) also sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas towards Kharrar. (Seerate Mustafa 2/49)
2nd Hjirah: Before Hijrah, Rasulullah (SAWS) used to offer Salaah in the way that it was easy to face both the Qiblahs: Beitullah nad Beitul Maqdis; but when he (SAWS) migrated to Madinah, it was not possible. So, he faced the Beitul Maqdis in Salaah only as it was impossible to face both the Qiblahs. Following 16-17 months, Allah the Almighty altered the Qiblah from Beitul Maqdis to the Holy Ka’abah permanently as it was also the desire of the Prophet (SAWS). In the last ten days of Sha’baan, the fasting in the month of Ramdhan was made compulsory. In the month of Ramadhan, the rulings regarding the Sadqatul Fitr and Eidu Fitr were revealed. The ruling regarding Eidul Adhhaa and the Sacrifice was revealed. Invoking Durud upon the Prophet (SAWS) was revealed. Zakaah (Alms) was made compulsory. (Seerate Mustafa 1/444-54)
The Sariyyah was sent under the leadership of Sayyiduna Hamzah (RA) towards Seiful Bahr to follow the Caravan of polytheists coming from Syria under the leadership of Abu Jahl. The Prophet (SAWS) himself participated in the Battle of Abwa/Wuddan. The battles of Buwaat and Oshairah, Badr Sughra, Sariyyah of Abdullah bin Jahash and famous battle of Badr (Badr Kubra) occurred. In Badr Kubra, Muslims got clear victory, 70 enemies were killed and 70 were arrested who were released after paying ransom. The battles of Qainqa’a and Saweeq took place. Siyyadah Fatimah (RA) was married to Sayyiduna Ali (RA). (Seerate Mustafa 2/48-166)
3rd Hijrah: Battles of Ghtfaan, Buhraan took place. Sariyyah of Zaid bin Hartha took place. Because of the attack from the Polytheists of Makkah, the Battle of Uhah took place. The tooth of the Prophet (SAWS) got martyred. Sayyidna Hamzah and Hanzalah along with other 70 sincere Sahabah got martyred. The body of Sayyiduna Hamzah (RA) was mutilated. The Battle of Hamraul Asad occurred. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Hafsah bint Umar (RA). The Prophet’s daughter Ummu Kulthoom (RA) got married with Sayyiduna Uthman (RA). Sayyiduna Ali and Fatimah (RA) were blessed with baby boy, Hasan (RA). Alcohol was made Haraam (Prohibited). (Seerate Mustafa 2/167-246)
4th Hijrah: The Prophet (SAWS) sent different Sariyyah towards several tribes when he (SAWS) came to know their planning to attack. It was Sariyyah of Abu Salmah Abdullah bin Abdul Asad (RA) and Sariyyah Abdullah bin Uneis (RA). The Tragedy of Rajee’ occurred. Actually some people from Adhl and Qaarah came to the Prophet (SAWS) and asked him to send some scholars to teach them Islamic Rulings as they had embraced Islam. The Prophet (SAWS) sent 10 Sahabah under the leadership of Aasim bin Thaabi (RA), but they betrayed and killed 7 of them. Three of them: Abdullah, Zaid and Khubeib (RA) were arrested who were killed latter. Tragedy of Beeru Maunah: On the request and guarantee of Abu Barra, the Prophet (SAWS) sent 70 Sahabah towards Najd to preach Islam under the leadership of Mundhir bin Amr (RA). They stayed at Beer Maunah. On the conspiracy of Aamir bin Tufail, nephew of Abu Barra, the Ra’al, Asiyyah and Dhakwaan tribes killed the Sahabah (RA) except two of them. On this incident and tragedy, the Prophet (SAWS) started reading Qunut Naazilah and cursing those killers. Battles of Bnu Nazeer, Dhaatur Riqaa and Badr Mau’ad took place. Sayyiduna Husain (RA) was born. The Prophet (SAWS) married with Umme Salmah Makhzumiyah (RA) and Zainab bin Khuzaimah (RA). The Prophet (SAWS) ordered Sayyiduna Zaid bin Thaabit to learn Jew’s language, Hebrew. Ruling regarding Hijaab was revealed. (Seerate Mustafa 2/246-67)
5th Hijrah: Battle of Domatul Jandal occurred; because the Prophet (SAWS) came to know that the people of Dumatul Jandal wanted to attack on Madinah, due to that the Prophet (SAWS) went in the company of one thousand Sahabah. As the people of Dumatul Jandal came to know, they ran away. The battle of Bani Mustaliq occurred and the whole tribe of Mustaliq embraced Islam. While returning from the battle, the story forged statement (Slander-Ifk) against Ummul Moomineen Aaisha (RA), fabricated by the hypocrites, took place. The Almighty Allah gave verdict through the holy Qura’an that she was innocent. According to some narrations, the ruling regarding Tayammum was revealed. The battle of trench occurred, because Hai bin Akhtab and Kinanah bin Rabee’ provoked the Qureish and Banu Ghatfa respectively to attack on Madina. About ten thousand people left for Madinah to finish Muslims. When the Prophet (SAWS) came to know it, he called a Meeting of Sahaba, where Sayyiduna Salman Farsi (RA) suggested digging Trench and it was done. This battle continued for 15 days. Three non-Muslims and six Muslims were killed. The battle of Quraizah occurred. On the occasion of the battle of Trench, Banu Quraizah broke the agreement; this was why this battle occurred. The people of Banu Quraizah were detained for 25 days, until they agreed upon to accept any decision of the Prophet (SAWS). He (SAWS) made Sayyiduna Sa’ad bin Mua’ad a judge of this case. He gave verdict to kill the male and to arrest the female. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Zainab bint Jahash (RA). On the occasion of Walimah, the ruling regarding Hijab was revealed. (Seerate Mustafa 2/267-320) A delegation 400 people of Muzainah Tribe came to visit the Prophet (SAWS) and they embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/120)
6th Hijrah: Sariyyah Muhammad bin Maslamah: Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) sent thirty Sahaabah (RA) towards Qurtaa, under the leadership of Sayyiduna Muhammad bin Maslamah. The chief of Banu Hanifah, Thumamah bin Uthaal (RA) was arrested. Latter he was released with the order of the Prophet (SAWS). Following release, he took bath and embraced Islam in Masjid Nabawi. The Battle of Bani Lahyaan: The Prophet (SAWS) wanted to take revenge of the Martyrs of Rajee’, Khubaib, Aasim (RA) etc. but when the Prophet (SAWS) reached, they ran away. He (SAWS) and Sahabah came back after two days, without any fight. The battle of De Qarad (Qarad: Name of a spring in Ghtfaan): Abdur Rahman bin Oyainah, in the company of 40 riders, raided the pasture and confiscated the camels of the Prophet (SAWS) killing the son of Abu Zar (RA), caretaker of the camels. Hence, this battle occurred. The Prophet (SAWS) and the Sahabah followed them. Two of them were killed and remaining ran away. Sariyyah Okashan bin Muhsin, Sariyyah Muhammad bin Maslamah, Sariyyah Abu Obaidah, Sariyyah Jamoom, Sariyyah Aeis, Sariyyah Tarif, Sariyyah Hasma, Sariyyah Waadil Qura, Sariyyah Domatul Jandal, Sariyyah Fidak, Sariyyah Umme Qirfah, Sariyyah Abdullah bin Atik, Sariyyah Abdullah bin Rawaha and Sariyyah Kazr bin Jabir occurred. Umratul Hudaibiyyah and later the treaty of Hudaibiyyah took place. Following the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the Prophet (SAWS) felt ease and started sending the letter to non-Muslim rulers of the world; like Qaisar of Rome through Dahya Kalabi, Kisra of Iran through Abdulllah bin Huzafah Sahmi (RA), As’hamah, the king of Ethiopia (Najashi) through Amr bin Umaiyyah (RA), Muqauqis, the King of Egypt through Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah, Munzir bin Sawaa, the king of Bahrain through Alaa bin Hazrami (RA), (Julandi and his sons,) Jaifar and Abd, Jaifar was the king of Oman, through Amr bin A’as (RA) (8th Hijrah), Hauzah bin Ali, the chief of Yamamah through Saleet bin Amr (RA), Harith Ghassani, the Ameer of Damascus through Shuja’ bin Wahab (RA), wherein he invited them towards Islam. Sayyiduna Ashamah (RA) embraced Islam and died in 9th Hijrah. The Prophet (SAWS) offered his Janazah Salaah. Munzir, the king of Bahrain also embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 2/321-397)
7th Hijrah: Khaibar Victory: With commandment of Allah, the Almighty, the Prophet (SAWS) left for Khaibar in the company of 1,600 Sahabah (RA) against the rebellious Jews who had provoked and supported the Qureish in the battle of Trench. The first and foremost, the Na’aim Fort was conquered. Then Qamoos Fort was conquered at the hands of Ali (RA) following the struggle of 20 days. Then Sa’ab bin Mua’adh fort was conquered. Then Qullah Fort was conquered following the big struggle. At this point, almost all forts were conquered except two forts: Wateeh and Salalim. The fort was being conquered one after another, until the Jews requested to let them go in exile and it was granted. Victory of Fidak: When the dwellers of Fidak learnt about Khaibar’s difficult situation, they also requested to let them go in exile, it was also accepted. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Safiyyah (RA). Zainab bint Harith gifted the Prophet (SAWS) a roasted poisoned goat. The Prophet (SAWS) was informed. He stopped eating and stopped his friends too. On the request from the Jews, latter the deal was made on share-cropping contract on the basis of dividing the yield into halves. Muta’h was prohibited. Some Immigrants to Ethiopia came back the day Khaibar was conquered. Waadi Al-Quraa was conquered after four days detention. The Prophet (SAWS) performed Umrah in the company of 2000 companions. Wedding of the Prophet (SASWS) with Maimunah bint Harith was made. Sariyyah Akram bin Abil Awjaa took place. Polytheists of Makkah broke treaty.
(Seerate Mustafa 2/400-434)
8th Hijrah: Sayyidna Khalid bin Waleed, Uthman bin Talha and Amr bin Aas (RA) embraced Islam. The battle of Mauta: The Prophet (SAWS) sent Haarith bin Umair with a letter to Sharahbeel, the Ameer of Syria. When he had reached in Mauta, a place in Syria, Sharahbeel made him killed. This was why, the Prophet (SAWS) sent three thousand Sahabah. The Sahabah (RA) invited them to Islam firstly, but they didn’t accept Islam until the group of three thousand Muslims started fighting against 2 hundred thousand non-Muslim army. One after another, three Commanders in Chief: Zaid bin Haritha, Jafar bin Abi Talib and Abdullah bin Rawaha, along with other nine Sahabah (RA) got martyred. At the end, the battle was won under the leadership of Khalid bin Waleed (RA) and the warriors were welcomed by the Prophet (SAWS) and other Muslims on return near Madinah. Sariyyah Amr bin Aas: The Prophet (SAWS) came to know that the people of Qadha’ah tribe want attacking Madinah. The Prophet (SAWS), therefore, sent a Sariyyah towards Datus Salaasil. They attacked on Qadha’ah tribe. The people of the tribe ran away and it was won easily. A group of army was sent towards Seiful Bahr to fight against Juhainah tribe under the leadership of Abu Obaidah bin Jarrah. (Seerate Mustafa 2/434-52) The Delegation of Asharee Tribe from Yemen came to visit the Prophet (SAWS) (Seerate Mustafa 3/117-18)
The victory of Makkah: In accordance with the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the other tribes had choice to ally with any group. Banu Bakr, therefore, allied itself with the Qureish and Banu Khuza’ah allied itself with the Rasoolullah (SAWS). Once the Banu Nafathah from the Banu Bakr, with the support of the Qureish, attacked on Banu Khuza’ah and killed some people. This was clear breach of the agreement. Then the Prophet (SAWS) sent a message to the Qureish asking them to pay blood-money to Khuza’ah, to separate Banu Nafatha from the agreement or end the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah. They preferred to break the treaty. Hence, the Prophet (SAWS) left for Makkah on 10th Ramadhan, in the company of 10 thousand Sahabah. Before entering Makkah, the Prophet (SAWS) had announced about Makkah people that those who entered in the Holy Ka’abah are safe, those who entered in Abu Sufyan’s home are secured and those who closed the doors of their homes are protected. This news was publicized by Sufyan (RA) in Makkah. The people followed it. Two Muslims got martyred and almost 12/13 polytheists were killed. Makkah was conquered easily. After the victory, Rasulullah (SAWS) entered Majid Haraam and made Tawaaf of Holy Ka’abah. Sayyiduna Abbas and Sayyiduna Abu Sufyan embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/1-34) The Battles of Hunain, Auwtaas and Taaif occurred. Sayyiduna Ibrahim was born to the Prophet (SAWS) and passed away in the same year. (Seerate Mustafa 3/62-74)
9th Hijrah: Sariyyah Oyainah towards Banu Tameem: Rasulullah (SAWS) sent Bashr bin Sufyan (RA) to collect Zakaah (Alms). All the people got ready to pay it, but Banu Tamim refused, rather got ready to fight. On this, Rasulullah (SAWS) sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Oyainah (RA). They raided in the night and 11 men, 21 women and 30 children were arrested. Latter, they embraced Islam and all the arrested people were released. Sariyyah Abdullah bin Awjsah was sent with the letter of the Prophet (SAWS) to invite Bani Amr bin Hartha to Islam, but they refused. Sariyyah Qutbah bin Aamir was sent to Khath’am. The fight took place and the Khath’am was defeated. Sariyyah Zahhak bin Sufyan was sent to invite Banu Kilaab towards Islam. They refused to embrace Islam and started insulting and got ready to fight. When the fight started the Banu Kilaab was defeated. Renowned poet of Arabic language, Ka’ab bin Zuhair (RA), who had run away from Makkah on the Victory day, embraced Islam arriving in Madinah. (Seerate Mustafa 3/79-89)
The Battle of Tabook: Heracles, the King of Rome prepared 40 thousands army and wanted to attack on Madinah. When the Prophet (SAWS) came to know it, he (SAWS) commanded his companions to get ready at once and fight against them at the boarder of Tabook. The economic condition of the Muslims was not good, so the Sahabah started donating whatever they can manage. Uthman (RA) donated 300 camels and one thousand Danaanir. The prophet (SAWS) left for Tabook with Sahabah and Muhammad bin Muslamah (RA) was deputed charge of Madinah. The prophet (SAWS) stayed in Tabook for 20 days; but the fight didn’t take place. Some tribes themselves came and agreed upon paying Jizyah (Tax). Then the Prophet (SAWS) sent 420 Muslims under the leadership of Khalid bin Waleed (RA) towards Akeedar, the ruler of Domatul Jandal from Heracles. He was arrested and brought to Rasulullah (SAWS). A deal was made on paying 2000 camels, 800 horses, 400 armors and 400 spares. Hajj was made Fardh. A good number of people went for Hajj and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was made Ameerul Hajj. The Najashi passed away and his Salatul Janazah was offered by the Prophet (SAWS). Riba (usury) was prohibited. (Seerate Mustafa 3/90-105) Thaqeef delegation visited the Prophet (SAWS). (3/110) Those who didn’t accept Islam, Jizyah was imposed on them. Delegation of Bani Hanifah came. Musailam Kazzab was also a member of this delegation. He insisted to be nominated. The Prophet (SAWS) refused and they went back. (3/114-115) When the Prophet (SAWS) came back from Tabook, a delegation of Hamdan from Yemen came to visit the Prophet (SAWS), while already they had accepted Islam at the hands of Sayyiduna Ali (RA) (3/120) A delegation of Christian of Najran from Yemen came to Madinah, but they didn’t accept Islam and got ready to pay Jizyah. (3/121) A delegation of Bani Asad visited the Prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam with the guidance of the Almighty Allah. (3/133) In brief, many delegations, like: delegation Ghudara, delegation of Baliyy and delegation of Bani Murrah etc. visited the prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam (Seerate Mustafa 3/134-35)
10th Hijrah: Several delegations, which started from 8th Hijrah, from different tribes visited the Prophet (SAWS). Amongst them were the delegation of Hawaazin, consisting 14 people, the delegation of Bani Aamir bin Sa’sa’ah and delegation’s two members: Aamir bin Tufail and Arbad bin Qeis talked in very bad manner. They died also in bad manner without embracing Islam, delegation of Abdul Qeis from Bahrain also visited the Prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam, a delegation of Tai arrived and embraced Islam. Delegation of Kindah from Yemen arrived to visit the Prophet (SAWS). A delegation Azad Tribe consisting 15 people came and embraced Islam. The Prophet (SASW) sent Khalid bin Waleed (RA) to Banu Harith, a tribe of Najran to preach Islam. They accepted Islam at once and latter a delegation of the said tribe, in the company of Khalid bin Waleed (RA), came to visit the Prophet (SAWS). A delegation of Bahra’a from Yemen came to Madinah and stayed at the home of Sayyiduna Miqdad (RA) and after learning the Masa’il and rulings of Islam went back. Briefly, many delegations, like: Delegation of Khaulan from Yemen, delegation of Muhaarib, Delegation of Ghassan and the delegation of Salaamaan etc. visited the Prophet (SASWS) and embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/107-137)
Before Hijrah, the Prophet (SAWS) performed two or so Hajjs. But after Hijrah, the Prophet (SAWS) performed the first and last Hajj in the 10th Hijrah which is called Farewell Hajj (Hajjatul Wada’). He (SAWS) left for Makkah on 25th Dul-Qaadah and reached on 4th Dul-Hijjah. Almost 114,000 people performed Hajj in the company of Rasulullah (SAWS). The Prophet (SAWS) gave his last Sermon, which includes the important issues along with several points protecting the Human Rights.
Few Sentences from his Farewell Hajj’s Sermon: “O people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take interest; therefore, all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all interest due to Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib shall henceforth be waived.” (Seerate Mustafa 3/147-48)
11th Hijrah: The delegation of Nakha’ visited the prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam. (3/140) The Prophet (SAWS) sent the last Sariyyah under the leadership of Usamah bin Zaid towards Romans on Monday, 26th Safar. The Prophet (SAWS) fell sick on Wednesday. One Thursday he (SAWS) fell seriously sick. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (RA) was selected for leading Salaah. One Monday (12th Rabiul Awwal), the Prophet (SAWS) passed away and was buried in the home of Aaisha (RA) where he (SAWS) passed away. (Seerate Mustafa 3/152-53)
While the Prophet (SAWS) was sick, he came to know that while on the one hand Aswad Anasi, Musailmah Kadhdhaab and Tulaiha Asadi had claimed Prophethood falsely, some Muslims had forsaken Islam on the other. Rasulullah (SAWS), therefore, sent a Sariyyah to follow Aswad Anasi and he was killed just a day before his sad demise. May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him! (Seeratul Mustafa 3/156) ***
*Head Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa.
Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi,
Moon Rays Trust School,
By M. Burhanuddin Qasmi
The Babri Masjid and Ram Janam Bhomi dispute has been an unparalleled and extraordinary case in the entire history of India. For last more than one century, the matter has been a source of Indian polity including this post independence past 50 years where it took a centre stage in Indian's divisive and polarising political chessboard. Hundreds of political figures rose, shined or paled; half a dozen political parties formed, won or simply fell to dust, thanks to Babri Masjid - Ram Temple issue. Formation of governments both in the Centre and in the state of Uttar Pradesh were heavily influenced by this emotive issue in post 1992 India. Previously less popular political formation came to power riding on temple yatras and some other, on the other hand, lost chairs owing to Babri issue polarized majority for their opponents.
Lengthy legal battle is on since independence between parties of India's two major faith holders - - Hindus and Muslims. In the post 1992, Babri Masjid demolition case and it's land ownership suit, combined, has been the single major case for whole of India's judicial system. Babri linked cases are still date under regular causelists in the Allahabad High Court as well as in the Supreme Court of India.
Thousands of human lives, directly or indirectly, lost or affected because of this dispute. Billions of rupees spent, enormous energy utilized; ASI, history archives and modern scientific methods from within India and abroad put to use to prove claims and counter claims by the parties involved. India's core value of unity in diversity had major setbacks due to this uncalled for incidence. The whole world has been carefully observing our businesses in the apex court.
Of late this title suite became a battle of secular, democratic and constitutional principle of India. Stronger muscle power group always tried to use force against the weaker side. Constitutional safe-guard in protection of the Babri structure proved to be in vain. Thus, it is time now to deliver by the honourable Court that in India judiciary is on straight path and it is the "Supreme" power in our system of republic and democratic governance.
Having all these, aforementioned, to the credit of Babri Masjid - Ram Temple saga, the apex court of the country took a good initiative to give it's verdict on the land suit case sooner than later. Of course, the present ruling dispensation might have asked or pave the way for this fast-tracking legal stride, may be as display of it's political adventurism.
Nevertheless, following the failed out of the Court settlement attempt, regular hearing by a Special Bench in the Supreme Court of India, headed by the Chief Justice himself is going on for last a few months. The case is about to be locked this week, a judgment is expected soon, as the hearings and arguments from all concerned parties are nearly completed.
Here comes one new twist from a few so-called goodwill shooters from among the Muslim Indians. One gentleman reported to proclaim that Muslim should donate the Babri Masjid land to Hindus even if they win the title suit. The other argues that the judgment on the title suit need not be delivered, instead Muslim should handover the land voluntarily to their Hindu counter part.
To me, these are planted players to derail the on going and smooth constitutional and legal process in the dispute. It may be not in the interest of some political power houses if the honourable apex court gives a verdict on merits. Thus agents are out on streets to sabotage the whole process ensuring further confusion among the masses and prolonging the political mess for future elections.
Muslims were ready for out of the court settlement which did not come out to be fruitful. Muslims have unanimously stated, what may come, they will respect the court verdict.
Then where this goodwill gesture theory is coming from now, why and who are these people? Answers are but individual guesses. Are they party in the case in anyway or did they make any contribution in the matter in the past? Answers are No in both cases. Who should make a goodwill gesture? Obviously the opposite party in the case which is battling for it.
I think, without slightest ambiguity, Muslim should wait for the final judgment. Let the constitutional supremacy prevail in India - be it in favour or not, by all parties. How can one speak about donating a piece of land when it is yet not clear whose land is this! However, goodwill gestures are very much in demand given the present boiling condition in India. But a goodwill gesture is a goodwill only when done with equal respect, mutual share and on the basis of equal justice. Else it becomes indirect fear mongering and plotting tactics of blackmailing to meet interests of the stronger player in the race.
If the Muslim party wins the Babri title suit in the apex court in the upcoming days then only they will be in a position to think and decide about its use in view of the sentiments of majority fellow citizens of India.
However, if the Court verdict goes in favour of Hindus, then the Muslim party already stated will accept the order. Thus, speaking about donating the land and goodwill gesture in this case makes no sense.
It is expected that the urgently called meeting of the All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) in Nadwatul Ulama Lucknow this week will deliberate on this issue too and take a wise and respectable stand for minority Muslims in India. We cannot make a whole long constitutional process undone simply for wishful good wills of a few agents. Contribution to keep India peaceful, it's constitutional values are guaranteed, citizens' rights are respected and it's good image in the international stages is protected is everybody's duty as citizens of India.
By following Gandhiji's principles, the atmosphere of violence and intolerance within the country can be changed
Dr. Mohammad Najeeb Qasmi Sambhali
A member of the Hindu Muslim Alliance who also played an important role in the country's independence, Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi was born in Gujarat on October 2, 1869, 150 years ago. Gandhiji employed the Satyagraha as his weapon. Satyagraha means to raise public voice against oppression in a peaceful way. This process led the campaign for India's independence and the spirit of human rights and freedom movements for the world. He is respectfully called Mahatma Gandhi and Bapu. He was awarded the title of “Father of the Nation” by the Indian Government. Gandhiji's birth day, known as “Gandhi Jayanti”, is a national holiday across the country and is celebrated worldwide as a Day of Non-Violence. Gandhiji's constant struggle with the Hindu-Muslim alliance forced the British to leave India and our country was finally liberated on August 15, 1947.
While advocating in South Africa, he used Civil Disobedience for the first time to fight for the rights of Indians. After his return to India in 1915, he protested against the indiscriminate discrimination of land with farmers and labourers.
After taking over the leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhiji launched a campaign to eradicate poverty from the country, exercise women's rights, religious and ethnic well-being, abolish untouchability and economic self-reliance. He vowed to liberate India from foreign control. Mahatma Gandhi led the Non-Cooperation Movement, after which in March 1930, a 400-kilometer long journey (Dandi Yatra) was launched to oppose the British for imposing tax on salt. Then in 1942, he started Quit India Movement “ Bharat Chodo Aandolan” civil disobedience movement with the demand for independence. Mahatma Gandhi spent many years in prison in both Africa and India. As a leader of non violence, Gandhiji vowed to speak the truth and appealed others to do the same. He lived a simple life in the Sabarmati Ashram ands adopted a traditional Indian dhoti and a another piece of cloth to cover his upper body, both woven with yarn spun by him on spinning wheel. He used to eat green vegetables and was a devotee of spiritual purity and social protest for which he observed fasts.
Among Gandhiji's main achievements are the Hindu-Muslim unity and the philosophy of non-violence (ahimsa) that if they were to be treated with integrity even today, the atmosphere of violence and intolerance created within the country could be removed.
Given the prevailing situation in the country, it is imperative that social workers, who are in accordance with the thoughts of Gandhiji, should come forward and follow the principles of Gandhiji and strive for Hindu-Muslim unity and put maximum potential on the education of the nation, that is need of the hour.
Gandhiji's principle was "Sarva Dharma Sadbhav" i-e- freedom of all religions to flourish or in easy words "Live and let live". This is that principle which can guarantee the development of our country even today. According to Indian laws, every person has complete freedom to practice his own religion. When we examine Gandhiji's speeches, it is clear that he has tried to create harmony between different classes on the basis of caste, religion, regionalism, color, race and language.
Mahatma Gandhi realized that India could not get freedom until the two major classes of people living in the area, namely, Hindus and Muslims, learned to live together. Even if freedom is granted, it would not be the freedom that we want. That is why Gandhiji was a staunch supporter of the Hindu-Muslim unity. He believed that if Hindus and Muslims did not learn to live peacefully, then the existence of this country, which we know as India, would be ceased.
Gandhiji studied books of different religions and ideas of notable intellectuals of the world. He is said to have studied the Quran and the Gospel with the Gita, daily in the morning. In his famous book "The Story of My Experiments with Truth" he himself confesses that he had many good relations with many Muslims during his stay in South Africa, which was very useful for him in understanding the Islamic teachings. When he was asked what kind of government he would like to establish as the “Ram Rajya”, he replied, "It will be in the style of the second Caliph Hazrat Omar Farooq (RA)". During his stay in England, he also tried to understand the teachings of the Pharisees by by mixing with the Parsi people while practicing Christianity and advocacy. He respected all religions even though he had a deep connection to his native Hindu religion.
While Mahatma Gandhi's concern was that the British should leave India and go back to their country, he also wanted to engage the people of the country with the adoration of education and take them towards development.
When Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founded an educational institution under the patronage of the British, those who fought for the independence of India from the British also founded Jamia Millia Islamia under the patronage of Sheikh al Hind Maulana Mahmood al-Hassan in which Mahatma Gandhi's services to cultivate can never be forgotten. I too got a doctorate from Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, which is now a Central University and one of the few prestigious universities in India, so I have a moral obligation that I should remember Gandhiji's services on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti. The University is the only university in India with the majority of the founders sacrificing in the country's independence.
Gandhiji was a strong opponent of communal riots. When there was a riot in Bihar's Nawakhali area, he himself went there and stayed for a long time trying his best to normalize the situation. Gandhiji also looked very sad over the communal riots that broke out after India's independence. Some misunderstood people have interpreted it as anti hindu which is certainly wrong. Rather, the fact is that, Gandhi's sensitive heart did not tolerate oppression against anyone and he was forced to raise his voice against it.
All of Gandhiji's ideals, whether it be Non-violence (ahimsa), Satya- graha or brotherhood, have become popular not only in India but all over the world and have been praised by international thinkers, writers and artists. On the other hand, it is also a fact that the efforts of Gandhi's Hindu-Muslim unity were hated by some who tried to spread corruption and these elements cost India to lose its great hero . Finally, the country also saw that Mahatma Gandhi, a member of the Hindu Muslim League and a prominent figure in the country's independence, was shot on Friday, January 30, 1948. Not even six months had passed since the country was liberated, and the lamp that lit up the whole country with its light and taught us that we should not think that we are only Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs or Christians, but we are Indians and true Indians had extinguished. We all have a responsibility to remember Mahatma Gandhi and to continue to play his role in the development of our country by adopting his valuable principles and to provide our services for Hindu Muslim unity.
One of the secrets of Gandhiji being a successful leader is that after the independence of the country, he took no part in the power but vowed to serve the nation without having any office of government. This distance from power also made him a great leader and he became an example of Allama Iqbal's poem:
“Religion does not teach us to have enmity among ourselves; we are Indians and India is our nation.
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Markazul Ma’arif as an NGO:
Inspired by his father’s charitable work, then a young graduate of Darul Uloom Deoband, Mualana Badrudding Ajmal Qasmi, founded Markazul Ma’arif (NGO) in 1983 to work for the needy people. It’s a social-welfare Non-Government Organization with the sole aim and motto of striving for the upliftment of economically and educationally backward section of the society, with its headquarter located in Hojai town of Assam. From its inception, the NGO laid special emphasis on Education by establishing dozens of schools and colleges. It also works in several important fields by establishing, hospitals, orphanages, providing houses to homeless people, distributing reliefs at the time of natural disasters and extending financial assistance for marriage. The NGO is not only serving in Assam vicinity, but it also works in different parts of India through its branch offices located in Assam, Manipur, New Delhi, Deoband and Mumbai. One of its noteworthy works is to equip fresh Ulama with English language under Markazul Ma’arf Education and Research Center (MMERC).
Need of English Language for Ulama (Islamic Scholar):
No doubt, English language is an international language in our age. If one wants to communicate with international community or just wants to use a commonly understood language to convey his messages at large, he must learn English language. Ulama being the suitable people to represent Islam and convey the peace messages of Islam, throughout the world, were not aware of the ABC of English language. It was difficult for them to present their thoughts at global level to reach international community, where much misunderstanding has been spread against Islam due to biased media houses. The English language has become essential and crying need of the hour; but Ulama were not able to understand, speak and write English language properly. Need of English language for Ulama (Islamic Scholars) was felt by many individuals; but no one knew how to materialize this dream.
Markazul Ma’arif Education & Research Center Establishment:
Comprehending the importance of English language and apprehending the need of the hour, Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Center (MMERC) was established in 1994 by a Darul Uloom Deoband graduate and a successful businessman, Muhsin-e-Millat Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi. Maulana Qasmi is a member of Darul Uloom Deoband’s governing body, President of a political party: AIUDF and Lok Sabha MP for Dhubri constituency of Assam. The mission of this institution was to equip the young promising Ulama with English language, computer science etc. so that they can face the current challenges and play a pivotal role in preaching Islam and serve the nation and international community at large. Thus, MMERC became the first institution of its kind in India, which started training Ulama in accordance with the need of hour.
Initially the MMERC was established in New Delhi. Mr. Mohammad Umar Gautam, ex-Lecturer of Jamia Millia Islamia and famous Da’aee was given the charge to work on the MMERC project and to run it as its first director. A two-year course was designed and named, “Diploma in English Language & Literature (DELL)”. Under Mr. Gautam stalwart directorship, this course started its journey. The newly graduated Ulama were selected after entrance exams. It was first time in the history that more than a dozen Ulama gathered under one roof to learn English language and computer science. It functioned well. Following some years, it was shifted to Mumbai. Maulana M. Burhanuddin Qasmi, an alumnus of MMERC’s first batch, was assigned to take the charge of its daily affairs as its second director. Under the dynamic leadership of Mr. Qasmi, some more activities were added to this programme. Each year, a good number of Ulama are benefiting and graduating since more than two decades and the MMERC is moving ahead.
MMERC Silver Jubilee Celebration:
The MMERC has completed 25 years. Now it’s going to celebrate its “Silver Jubilee Celebration and a 3-Day International Seminar on Muslim Youth, Ulama and Contemporary Challenges with Special Reference to DELL Course and Post-Madrasa Education” on 4th-6th October, 2019, in New Delhi. The period of 25 years is not a small one; but to get a tremendous success, this period is not too long as well. Anyway, within 25 years of its commencement, the MMERC got tremendous success and big achievement in its mission of equipping fresh Ulama with English language and computer science. A just and fair historian will surely endorse and record the services of the MMERC for equipping the Ulama with modern tools and removing the hindrance from their paths to face any challenge of this age.
MMERC has produced almost 450 graduates armed with modern tools like English language, computer science etc. By completing two-year Diploma in English language & Literature, Ulama, in moving forward, find no obstacles which stop them. They find themselves fully equipped to choose whichever field they intend to serve the Ummah and the nation. The MMERC Alumni chose different fields and have played important role in their chosen fields be it teaching, research, Dawah, social work, journalism or administration, etc. Whichever field they stepped in, their success is remarkable. Due to their talent, quality and outstanding performance, they have been respected and embraced by their administration and colleagues with enthusiasm.
For instance, I mention here few names of the MMERC products. Maulana M. Burhanuddin Qasmi is the present serving director of the MMERC, a freelance writer and Editor of the Eastern Crescent, a Mumbai based monthly English magazine. Maulana Mohammad Atiqur Rahman Qasmi is the Coordinator: DIPR of Markazul Ma’arif and Environmentalist Awardee from UNEP. Maulana Dr. Ansar Azmi Qasmi, professor Malik Saud University, Riyadh, KSA. Maulana Iftikhar Ahmad Qasmi is the bilingual English and Arabic writer and teacher of Hadith at Jamia Akkalkuwa. Maulana Dr. Md. Rafiq Qasmi is a research associate at MANNU, Hyderabad. Mufti Dr. Md. Obaidullah Qasmi is Assistant Professor and Head of Arabic Department in Zakir Husain College, University of Delhi and ex-Head of English Department, Darul Uloom Deoband. Maulana Mohammad Afzal Qasmi is Teacher of Hadith at Aljamiatul Islamiyyah, Bolton, Lecturer at Blackburn College, UK and ex-teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband’s English Department. Mufti Abdur Rasheed Qasmi is a teacher of Hadeeth and V-Chairman of Haq Education & Research Foundation, Kanpur. Mufti Dr. Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi, freelance writer, is Head: Internet Department and Coordinator: Online DarulIfta, Darul Uloom, Deoband. Mualana Shamsul Huda Qasmi is the Head of English Department and Editor of The Light, an English magazine published form Jamia Islamia, Akkalkuwa. Late Maulana Ismail Moosa Makrod (May Allah grant him Jannah!), the founder of Markaze Islami Education & Research Center, Ankleshwar, Gujarat. Maulana Manzar Imam Qasmi (PhD) is a bilingual freelance journalist, research scholar on International Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi and Contending Modernities from University of Notre Dame, USA. Maulana Dr. Rafiqul Islam Qasmi is Assistant Professor at UG, GS: AIUDF and an ex-MLA of Assam. Maulana Dr. Gufran Najeeb (BUMS) is a medical practitioner. Maulana Dr. Abdur Rahman Qasmi is currently on post-doctoral fellowship and had worked as News Reader in All India Radio. Maulana Dr. Rahmat Ali Qasmi is Assist-Editor of Hajj Magazine in Hajj Committee, Gov. of India. Maulana Ghufran Sajid Qasmi is the Founder and Chief Editor of Baseeratonline and Milli Baseerat Weekly. Maulana Mohammad Sajid Qasmi (M Ed. From American College of Education, USA) is administrator of Darul Uloom, Atlanta, USA. Maulana Mohammad Khalid Qasmi is teacher of Hadith at Jamia Abdullah bin Masood and ex-Head-Imam Al-farooq Masjid, Atlanta, USA. Maulana Muddissir Ahmad Qasmi is the Assistant Editor of the Eastern Crescent, a columnist of Urdu leading daily Inquilab and director of Al-Ghazali International School, Araria, Bihar. Maulana Tauqeer Ahmad Qasmi is a gifted speaker and Head of English Department, Darul Uloom Deoband. Maulana Dr. Hifzur Rahman Qasmi is a research scholar at JNU, New Delhi and translator of several books.
These individuals have performed tremendously in different fields as it’s understood from their designations. They have also authored and translated several books. It’s truth that the English language, which they learned in the MMERC under the patronage of Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi and the directorship of Mr. Gautam and Mualana M Burhanuddin Qasmi, played a key role in their successes and achievements.
Launching of the Eastern Crescent:
In 2006, MMERC launched its monthly magazine, in English language, with beautiful name “Eastern Crescent” (EC) with the motto of “Alternative Media, People’s Choice”. The first issue was published in May 2006. It’s published under able editorship of MMERC director, Maulana M. Burhanuddin Qasmi from the day one. As it publishes the articles and stories of the MMERC alumni, it gives spaces to the modern educated scholars, without any discrimination, as well. It’s a good platform for the MMERC alumni to share their ideas, views and opinions with the English knowing people. Keeping focus on Indian issues and Islamic topics, the magazine covers current affairs and issues related to Indian Muslim community mostly. Because of its opining making articles, stories and beautiful printing, the magazine has been appreciated by several learned people and research scholars. This magazine is being published since last 14 years without fail. It’s a big achievement for the MMERC in the field of journalism.
Maktab Markazul Ma’arif:
The importance of Makaatib for Muslim children is acknowledged by one and all. As it imparts basic Islamic teachings to young children, it inculcates moral values in their minds. The pupils who go to the Makaatib in the early age of their lives are able to understand the significance of their faith and religion. They learn how to make Wudhu and how to perform five times daily Salaah etc. Bearing the aforesaid points, it’s necessary to establish Makaatib. It must be appreciated that the MMERC authorities are running a successful Maktab namely “Maktab Markazul Ma’arif” for the children under the supervision of the eligible teachers. Currently, about 170 children are enrolled in the Maktab. The success of the children of this Maktab is distinguished. The authorities must be thanked for this service to the community.
Workshop for School Pupils:
It’s very necessary to be informed of essentials of Deen. When one is aware of essentials of Deen, it provides spiritual strength and it gives confidence in the life to practice it. Currently our pupils who go to the schools are hardly taught adequately about Islamic teachings and values. Most of them don’t know the articles of faith. Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Center holds workshops on the occasion of school’s vacations. It’s held completely in an Islamic environment to promote the values of Islamic teachings and inculcate them in the minds of young learners coming from different schools. This workshop assists and encourages the pupils to practice Islamic teachings in their day-to-day lives.
MMERC’s DELL Embracement:
In the initial stage, when this MMERC’s Diploma in English Language and Literature (DELL) course was introduced, two and a half decades ago, none would have thought that this course would be as successful as it’s observed today. But the hard work, sincerity, dedication, devotion, commitment and enthusiasm of the management, teachers and learners bore fruits and paid fully. Today, it’s a model successful course to enhance the ability of the newly graduates of Madaaris. Following the success, this course has been widely embraced and introduced not only in the campus of some celebrated Islamic seminary or Madrasas in India, but also in a certain university like Aligarh Muslim University. This programme is known as “Bridge Course” in the university.
Really the MMERC has played a significant role in shaping the young Madrasa graduates for the service of the nation and the Ummah at national and international levels. As an institution, the MMERC is a role model to be followed. Currently, almost a dozen of such institutions are found in India following the footsteps of the MMERC. For a country like India where thousands of Ulama are produced from several Madaaris, it’s need of the time to introduce the DELL programme in a big number as the existing institutions do not seem to be enough comparing to the number of the graduating Ulama annually. In these institutions, along with the DELL programme, one special lecture in a moth, on an important topic, should be also arranged as it will be much beneficial for the learners, in my view. ***
*Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By Manzar Imam -
Madrasas in India have contributed immensely to Muslim education. They are still doing so. However, the madrasa syllabi have for long been in discussion both in the media and academia for being outdated, orthodox and irrelevant. Further, the madrasa system of education is often blamed by certain quarters of being rigid, typically traditional, promoting sectarian hatred among madrasa graduates with spillover effects in the larger Muslim society. There is some truth in these claims but there are more allegations than realities.
That most madrasas have avoided modern subjects is true to a large extent. If not aversion, then at least a discomfort with English language is another problem afflicting the madrasa education system, affecting prospects of career growth and advancement for madrasa graduates.
While this has been the case on the one hand, on the other hand majority of the college-going Muslim youth lack knowledge of Deen (religion) and Islam. Many of them can’t even read the Qur’an with proper Arabic phonetics, leave aside knowing its meaning and exegesis. And, there is a general tendency of shifting the blame from both sides, thus missing a balance.
Markazul Ma’arif Education & Research Centre (MMERC), a part of northeast India-based Markazul Ma’arif NGO, was set up to narrow this gap and achieve some balance. Under the guardianship of famous ‘aalim (plural, ‘ulama i.e. scholar, theologian), renowned perfume-baron and successful businessman Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Al-Qasmi, presently a Member of Parliament for a consecutive third term, the Markaz started a centre namely Markazul Ma’arif Education & Research Centre in New Delhi in 1994 with the objective to select a batch of 10 to 20 students (‘ulama) from different madrsas to mainly train them in English language and computers. The impact of this unique initiative was so powerful that a senior lecturer of English of Jamia Millia Islamia, who visited the MMERC in 1994 and interacted with students of its first batch, called it an “enthralling experience” which will undoubtedly be counted as a “yeoman’s service” in educating the ‘ulama. His words have come precisely true.
Within a span of less than a decade around 50 ‘ulama started to show great promises. Their oratorical skills were acknowledged and appreciated by senior academicians. Soon many of them also began writing in English. This captured readers’ imagination, something which journalist Syed Ubaidur Rahman aptly described in these words: “They have everything to surprise anyone believing in the orthodoxy of madrasa graduates.”
This year the MMERC completes 25 years of its establishment and, it is celebrating its Silver Jubilee with a-three-day international seminar in New Delhi from 4 to 6 October, 2019. It is also bringing out a souvenir titled Ulama, Post-Madrasa Education, Muslim Youth and Contemporary Challenges which contains well-written and researched papers on important socio-political and religious topics by the alumni.
Over these 25 years the prevailing misconception about ‘ulama not knowing the global English language of academics, business and communication has evaporated like a non-entity. Other changes are also taking place, thanks to MMERC. Presently there are about 15 such centres of language training across India.
The bearded-‘ulama are gradually becoming kings of the Queen’s language. Many of them have established themselves as journalists, interpreters, translators and authors having their works published in prestigious publication houses in India and abroad.
Although a lot remains to be done in terms of contents taught in madrasas, the English language has opened for the madrasa graduates new avenues of post-madrasa education. MMERC has been a trend-setter and its products are now shining with new knowledge and confidence. Kudos to MMERC and its founder Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi!
(Author is a senior journalist based in New Delhi. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org)