Translated by: Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
Though Akbar did not enjoy the pathos and sympathy of Hadhrat Mujaddid, his eyes were only fixed at Mogul empire, it is undoubtedly true that he wanted to build his empire on the foundations of mutual unity and solidarity between different sects. Although, he went to an extreme that misled him and thus he was criticised by Ulama, but as far as the matter of solidarity and unity rather sentimental harmony in national affairs is concerned he was so successful that this harmony and solidarity turned in to a symbol of Mogul Empire.
Whether it is an aggressive or defensive war, business or handicraft, cultural or social affair; the Muslims and Hindus both looked intertwined and interlinked in Mogul period. Therefore, this period is matchless as per its peace, prosperity and tranquillity.
In this period, though the European navigators were increasingly spreading their mischief and were growing aggressive, but Muslim rulers were so strong as to give them a fit answer. The Ulama trusted the prosperity and defence power of the country and did not chart out any programme to defend the Europeans. But, as the defence power of country grew weak they engaged themselves to prepare the defence plan.
Whatever you may think about Sultan Aurangzeb Alamgir, but it may not be denied that he was a line of demarcation. Between the peak of rise and starting of decline, after hundreds and thousands years and most possibly first time in history, India got a pride that its political centre was one from Kabul and Qandahar to Assam and from Tibet and Nepal to ports of Surat, Khambat and Malabar. And, this was a result of Sultan Alamgir’s long struggles. But regretfully, his successors were devoid of high ability. After the demise of Alamgir in 1707 (2 Dhul Qadah 1118 Friday), every part of the country started to scatter. Though, to 150 years (till 1857) the Delhi throne was succeeded by any Mogul prince but the power was gone and the system was lifeless.
The history of these 150 years is extremely tragic and regrettable. One can estimate the tragedy that within only 50 years (1707-1757) ten princes were made to sit on Delhi throne. Out of them, only four died natural death while the rest either were beheaded or pierced rod into their eyes and left to die behind bars.
Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlawi
Shah Waliullah was born on 4th Shawwal 1114 H Wednesday (10 February 1707) 4 years before the demise of Sultan Alamgir. Although, all these bloody games were played in his young age but his nature was sensitive, his heart was bestowed anxiety for people and his eyes were granted insight. There was lesson for him in every event. Due to this feeling and anxiety, in his thirties he indented for a journey that may cure his soul and clam down his anxiety, where he cam meet people from all across of Islamic World and interact with them about conditions of their countries. In 1730 (1143 H), he went to Hejaz and stayed in Mecca and Medina for two years. During his stay, apart from his academic and spiritual activities he collected information from pilgrims of Europe, Africa and Asia about their countries. Even though, the Turkish Caliphate was having a number of social lapses but it was the biggest power of Asia having dominion on a good part of Europe and control over whole of Europe.
Shah Waliullah studied the internal conditions of the largest power. He writes in one of his letters:
“The conditions of India are not hidden from us as India is my motherland. Also, I have seen the Arab countries and had the information about Wilayat (European states under Turkish rule) from reliable people of those areas.
Having surveyed his motherland and other countries, his contemplation and mind reached a decision that the root cause of increasing devastation is the system that has encompassed every aspect of individual and social life and that is based on monarchy and autarchy which once had some benefits but now it had decayed and run out of any advantage. Therefore, the first task is ‘Fakku Kulli Nizam’ to dissolve every system and revolutionize it. When, he was in Mecca he heard the voice of his conscience.
In order to get this task done it was necessary to assess the conditions and point out the lapses and backslides, and to draw the attention of the kings, courtiers, feudalists and the rich who were heading this system and to warn them about the bad consequences.
His works, especially Tafheemat-e-Ilahia consists of such matters in which he addressed the ruling class and counted their faults and apprised them of their outcomes in the light of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. But, demolishing a fort or razing a building is not an objective. Deconstruction is valued when it aims at construction. But, what will be the foundations of this construction?
Hadhrat Shah Waliullah in his books (especially in Hujjatullah Al-Balighah), as he has surveyed the circumstances and pointed out the flaws he stated the concepts and principles which can serve as base for future construction plan. This chapter will remain futile to overlook these concepts and principles. So these are:
(1) The basic cause of wealth is labour.
Labourers and farmers are earning faculties. Mutual assistance is the soul of civilization. Until a person is not working for the nation and people he/she has no share in the wealth of the country.
(2) Gambling and profligacy centres should be wiped out as they can not develop a right system of wealth distribution and it cannot guarantee increase in national wealth. The wealth is accumulated by a minor fraction of the society.
(3) The labourers, farmers and those who do mental labour for country and nation deserve the wealth of country the most. Their development and prosperity is synonymous to the development and prosperity of country and nation. A system that suppresses such faculties is bound to be perished.
(4) A society that does not compensate labour or levies huge taxations on artisans and farmers is the enemy of nation and it should be terminated.
(5) The consent of needy labourer is not counted until he is paid for his labour what is compulsory to pay on the principle of cooperation.
(6) Any production or revenue which is not based on the principle of mutual assistance is illegal.
(7) The work time should be confined. The labourers should necessarily be given a time in which they can provide themselves moral and spiritual reformation and can have an ability to think about their future.
(8) Trade is a major source of mutual assistance; therefore it must be functioning on the basis of cooperation only. As it is not allowed for traders to affect the spirit of cooperation by black marketing and undue competitions, the government is also prohibited to impede the progress and prosperity of trade by heavy taxations.
(9) Any business and trade that confines the circulation of wealth in any particular class of people is dangerous for a country.
(10) Such a royal system which intervenes right circulation of wealth due to extravagance and squandering deserves to be put to end as quickly as possible so that the sufferings of the people come to an end and they are given equal life system.
Basic Principles of Politics and Government System
(11) The sole owner of land is Allah and as per the outer look it is the state. The citizens are like those staying in any inn. Ownership means that the other is legally prohibited to interfere in someone’s right of benefiting.
(12) All human beings are equal. None reserves the right to call himself Owner of Country, King of people or consider himself the owner of the people and nation. Neither is it allowed for anyone to call the men of power by these names.
(13) The status of head of state is like that of a manager of an endowment. If the manager of endowment is needy then he can take as much stipend as a common citizen needs to lead his life.
In his books Hujjatullah Al-Balighah and Al-Budoor Al-Bazighah, he discussed the fundamental rights in length under the title of ‘public interests’, the theme of discussion is:
(14) It is birth right of every human being without any discrimination of caste and creed to get bread, clothe, house, right to marry and get his children educated and nourished.
(15) Every citizen, without discrimination of caste, creed and colour, has equal right to justice, security of life and property, protection of honour, freedom of ownership and uniformity in civil rights.
(16) Every sect and group has fundamental right to enliven its language and civilization.
(17) In order to receive these rights it is imperative to form autonomous states which are free in their matters. Every unit should have such power that is sufficient to fight the aggression of the other states of same ranking. These units are attached by an international system which enjoys sovereignty as per military power. This system will not be allowed to attack any unit of particular religion of particular civilization.
(18) (a) The origin of religion and truth is same and their representatives are part of the same chain.
(b) There have been people in every nation and country who invite to Truth. They should compulsorily be respected.
(c) The fundamental principles of every religion and truth are agreed upon. For example, worship of God, charity, fasting etc are considered good acts by every religion. They are only different on practical level.
(d) Everywhere in the world, the social principles and their objectives are homogeneous. For example, every religion dislikes sexual anarchy and brands it as crime. In order to establish sexual relation between men and woman, every religion requires an agreement, but the forms of this agreement differ. Similarly, every religion wants to dispose the dead body, but they only vary in practice, some bury while some burn.
(19) Jihad is a holy duty. It requires man to create a spirit of sacrifice in him for this holy cause until he devotes his existence for the principle.
(1) These were his thoughts! It will not be out of place to state and if you like you can be proud of, that these thoughts were compiled in 1731 when the French Revolution, which is considered as milestone for revolutionists, was to come after half a century in 1789. The first teacher of communism, Karl Marx and his colleague Engels were to be born after a century, while the machine age was to start in Europe after nearly 40 years.
(2) Have a second look at these principles and philosophies. Were these principles laid down only for India? Will the political fabric, which will be erected upon these principles, be confined within Himalaya and Kanyakumari and Indian Ocean? Or, will they march ahead of Himalayan peaks and will encompass the overseas countries as well?
(3) Repeat the words of Hadhrat Mujaddid as well. Could there be any policy better than this one to restrict the effects of the Kafir Frang and to shield Asia from Europe’s domination if not entire Asia but only some Asian countries could have followed these principles in their politics.
(4) Had India adopted the philosophies of its able son, would the communism, socialism and other isms etc have been succeeded? And in this case, who would have to lead the world?
(5) During this warfare, it was easy for Shah Waliullah to pick up sword like other warlords and occupy any area with the help of his army. But, was it sufficient to meet the requirement of sympathy and mercy to mankind?
Method of Revolution
Hadhrat Shah Waliullah did not believe in non-violence. He supported revolution by force. But, a force which is trained at Jihad lines, which does not believe in killing and plundering but having these characteristics: labour, sedulity, patience, forbearing, altruism and sacrifice; setting ones goal of life to fulfil higher objectives by denying ones person and personal interests and then sacrificing every thing of life for this cause.
Such a Jihad can never happen by professional military but by the volunteers who have been trained in an exclusive way and who understand the objectives, make ideas their emotions and mould their emotions according to the principles. Then, they have no objective in their life except to sacrifice themselves for the success of these ideologies.
How should this training be? Who should be the trainers? Where should be the centre? As Shah Waliullah laid down principles he established training centre as well. There is no need to mention all these details here. For details you are advised to see: Shah Waliullah ki Siyasi Tahreek (Political Movement of Shah Waliullah) and Ulama-e-Hind ka Shandar Maazi (The Glorious Past of Indian Ulama) vol. 2.
The elements that turned Delhi throne into a playground of rise and fall, where ten rulers passed within short period of 50 years, were controlling the empire and none was allowed to raise a voice. Every voice which was against them deserved to be crushed.
When Hadhrat Shah Waliullah translated the Holy Quran into Persian which was the official language at that time, the government mullahs turned furious. They argued when the office clerks will start understanding the Quran then who will pay respect to us, our honour will be soiled. Out of this fury, they sought to attack the life of Shah Waliullah which he survived. He was rescued by the hidden hand of Allah who protects all those whom He bestows greatness in the world history.
At a time when Lal Quila (Red Fort) was witnessing a terrible show of crowning, dethroning and beheading, let alone to start a work on right direction, it was difficult to think on right directions and hold a firm opinion. Amid this internal turmoil, there were some more games played in bloody political field which were more horrendous and wild.
(1) The Marathas, who were defeated in Southern India by Alamghir, began to march a head after the demise of Alamghir in 1707. It passed even less than 30 years that they entered Delhi victoriously in 1736, stayed for some days, had agreements with the emperor according to their wishes and returned back.
(2) Then nearly after a year, Nadir Shah’s famous invasion took place in which he massacred in Delhi in February 1738 as if he absorbed the blood of India’s arteries. Delhi was piled up with dead bodies from morning till evening. The victims were estimated from 8000 to 150000. Twenty two crore cash money was looted from the royal treasure while jewels and Takht-e-Taous(Peacock Throne) worth ninety crore were forayed from castles and forts.
(3) Ten years later in 1761, the attack of Ahmad Shah Abdali took place which is known as ‘War of Panipat’.
(4) On 9 May 1752, Suraj Mal Jat looted the Old Delhi. It is stated when the Jats started their attack the inhabitants of Delhi came out of their houses due to fear and anxiety. They used to wander here and there as a broken ship wanders in the waves of water. Everyone looked nervous and worried like an insane.
[Extracted from ‘Tahreek Reshmi Roomal’]
 For details, see 'Ulama-e-Hind ka Shandar Maazi', vol 1, 2 by Maulana Muhammad Miyan
 The coastal region of the western Arabian Peninsula bordering on the Red Sea; includes both Mecca and Madinah; formerly an independent state until it united with Nejd to form the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
 Maulana Obaidullah Sindhi, Kitab-ut-Tamheed
 He has mentioned a lengthy dream in his book 'Fuyoozul Haramain', with reference of Mahmoodiah, p 30
 He wrote the date of the dream as well, it was 11 Zul Qadah 1144 Friday corresponding 5 May 1731
 The book 'Ulama-e-Hind ka Shandar Maazi' vol 2 contains the translations of the texts of Hazrat Shah Waliullah with their explanations which shed light on these principles.
 Shah Waliullah, Hujjatullah-il-Balighah, chapter Al-Siyasat-ul-Madaniah, Albudoor Al-Bazighah chapter Al-Irtifaq & Al-Khair Al-Kaseer
 Hujjatullah-il-Balighah, chapter Ibtigha-ur-Rizq
 Hujjatullah-il-Balighah, chapter Ibtigha-ur-Rizq
 Hujjatullah-il-Balighah, chapter Al-Siyasat-ul-Madaniah & chapter Al-Rusoom Al-Saairah
 Hujjatullah-il-Balighah, chapter Ibtigha-ur-Rizq
 Ibid, chapter Isabat-ul-Irtifaqat, Islah-ur-Rusoom, Zabt-ul-Mubham
 Ibid, chapter Al-Buyoo Al-Manhi Anha
 Ibid, chapter Al-Irtifaq and Al-Buyoo Al-Manhi Anha
 Ibid, chapter Al-Rusoom Al-Saairah
 Ibid, chapter Ibtigha-ur-Rizq
 Maulana Shah Muhammad Ismail, Mansab-e-Imamat
 Shah Waliullah, Izalatul Khifa, vol 2
 Shah Waliullah, Hujjatullah-il-Balighah, chapter Asl-ud-Deen Wahid & Al-Budoor Al-Bazighah
 Shah Waliullah, Al-Budoor Al-Bazighah chapter Al-Irtifaq Al-Salis & Hujjatullah-il-Balighah vol 2, p 157
 For details, see Hayat Wali, Shah Waliullah ki Siyasi Tahreek, Shandar Maazi vol 2 etc.
 Siyarul Mutaakhirin, for details see 'Shandar Maazi' vol 2, p 55
 Shamsul Ulama Zakaullah Khan, Tareekh Hindustan, vol 9, p 258, 259; Imadus Sa'adah, p 31 & Siyarul Mutaakhirin
 In the book 'Shah Waliullah ke Siyasi Maktoobat' (Political Letters of Shah Waliullah) compiled by Khaleeq Ahmad Nizami, one of the letters is addressed to Ahmad Shah Abdali in which he invited Abdali to attack India. But, it should be remembered that only Shah Waliullah and Muslim rulers did not invite Abdali but maharajas of Rajasthan who were soft target of Marathas also resorted to Ahmad Shah Abdali and requested him to invade India. (Siyarul Mutaakhirin, with reference of Shandar Maazi vol 2, p 68)
 Khaleeq Ahmad Nizami, Shah Waliullah ke Siyasi Maktoobat, p 172