By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Hind, son of Abi Haalah, (RA) used to describe a lot about the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Aleihi Wa Sallam)’s blessed physical features, looks and the characteristics many a times. Once describing the way the Prophet (SAWS) used to remain in grief and busy thinking, he said: “The Prophet (SAWS) would constantly remain in grief (about hereafter) and would always remain busy thinking. There was no respite for him.” (Shamaail-e-Tirmidhi: 226) Mufakkire Millat Mualana Abdullah Kapodravi left for heavenly abode on 10th July 2018 in the afternoon. He was almost 85 years old. He was blessed with the ample portion of the quality of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) “remaining always busy thinking” about the attributes of Allah and the betterment of the Ummah. He, therefore, used to remain busy thinking for the progress of the Ummah in general and for the betterment of the academic quality of the Ulama and the students in particular. Those who have been in his company, be it for few days or few hours, will bear witness that he was always busy thinking how would this Ummah progress and how the Ulama and the students would improve their academic qualities as they are the real guides, leaders and mentors of this Ummah. It was either his special gathering or a general programme, wherever he had a chance to address, he used to talk about the lack of attention of Ulama in the education and the deteriorating educational system of Madaaris. Observing his thoughts and views, this can be said that “he was the patron of the Ulama and the students” who was always concerned about them.
It is very true that if the Ulama are equipped with ability and skill, they are sincere, honest and qualified; they can lead this Ummah in proper way. If the Ulama and the students are weak, they are lacking in sincerity and quality, who is going to guide the Ummah? The main reason behind this thought is that the Almighty Allah has put the responsibility of leading this Ummah on the shoulders of the Ulama as they are true inheritors of the Prophets (SAWS).
Maulana Kapodravi was a perfect and competent scholar of the holy Qrua’an and Sunnah. He had deep knowledge. He was Allah-fearing scholar. He was very strict in following the Qura’an and the Sunnah in his daily life. His life was an ideal and role model. While talking, he used to present the Qura’anic verses, Ahaadeet commonly and the beautiful proverbs and idioms of the Arabic language occasionally. He liked academic conversation and dialogue. In whichever gathering he was, mostly he used to be its eloquent speaker and the president. In spite of that, he was very simple, humble and down-to-earth. Elder or younger, whoever came to meet him, with no excuse of being busy, he used to meet him at the same time without any protocol. Whenever a learned man came to meet him, he felt delighted. When he knew about any knowledgeable and qualified person visiting the vicinities of Bharuch or Surat, he would invite, host, made him stay at his home and had fruitful academic discussion with him.
This humble writer spent almost five years in Markaze Islami, Ankleshwar in Bharuch district as a learner and later as a teacher. During this period, I had opportunity to listen to his talks in the several programmes and functions. His each talk gave me impression that he is the patron of the Ulama and the students and he thinks sincerely about them. Due to his humbleness, knowledge and sincerity, he was loved by the masses and the learned people alike. None was heard complaining about him.
When I was perusing my “Diploma in English Language & Literature (DELL)” at Markaze Islami Education and Research Center, Ankleshwar, I wrote an article on the significance of English language and its learning. The rector of Markaze Islami, Maulana Moosa Mankrod (May Allah protect him!) informed him about the article and requested him to review and correct wherever necessary. Sheikh Kapodravi responded in positive happily and asked him to meet in Kapodra. Maulana Mankrod told me to get ready. Then we went with the article. When we reached, he welcomed us warmly and hosted us happily. The first and foremost, he wanted my introduction as I was a new person for him. I introduced myself. Then he asked me to read the article. I read the article which was consisting of 5000 words almost. He listened to the complete article carefully. Wherever he felt necessary for correction, he told me and I did it at the same time. When I completed the article, he appreciated, encouraged me and advised me to continue writing. It was my first meeting with him. May Allah give him the best reward and grant him Jannah!
Maulana Kapodravi used to stay few months in India and few months in Canada. When he was in India, we used to go to Kapodra to meet him. Once, Maulana Ismail Mankrod (May Allah protect him!), Director: Markaze Islami Education and Research Center and I went to Kapodra in the month of Ramadhan, in the night just after Taraweeh Salah to attend his gathering in Masjid Aisha. The gathering started with forty Durood upon the beloved prophet Muhammad (SAWS). Then he gave his talk. We listened to him attentively. We came back at the end of the gathering.
Once, Sheikh Kapodravi organized a programme in Masjid Aisha, near by his home in Kapodra on Thursday 27th November 2008. He sent invitation letter to each Madrsa of Gujarat and requested to send the representative. The representatives of almost 45 institutions attended the programme. Maulana Yusuf Bhadkodravi, Maulana Ibrahim Falahi and I attended the programme from Darul Uloom Markaze Islami according to the suggestion of Markaz’s rector. What was the objective and aim of the programme? Please read the following paragraphs to know his sincerity, concern, worry and love for the Ulama, students and Madaaris. It will also make clear the purpose behind organizing the programme.
The theme of the programme was “Educational Decline and the Educational Progress of the Students in the Modern World”. Avoiding teachers from mutual discussion among themselves on some academic topics was also discussed. The participants presented their views and had discussion.
As the president of the programme, the suggestion and message given by Sheikh Kapodravi were very important. He suggested that in each Madrasa, there should be a teachers’ association. Under the association, there should be a library for the teachers where the books on all subjects must be available. The important magazines and newspapers of Urdu and Arabic languages publishing from India and abroad should be also arranged. The teachers should fix a time for opening the library and they should come and read the books, magazines and newspapers available. If a teacher finds an important point during his reading and he thinks that it is important for the students, he should make a photocopy of that portion and handover the students to read it. Under the association, every week, a topic should be decided for teachers’ discussion and dialogue. The teacher should prepare on that decided topic and come for open discussion. Sheikh gave dozens of books to the representative of each institution as gift and suggested to start the library with those books.
Please ponder over the aim of the programme! To spend a good amount of money, to invite the Ulama, to arrange food for them, to give them priceless suggestion, to give them dozens of books as gift and at the end to see them off with respect! SunhanAllah! What sincerity! It is a sample of the worry, concern and sincere efforts of Sheikh for the betterment and educational progress of the Ulama and the students. I don’t see anyone currently who can think so much and can go so far for the progress of the Ulama. May Allah give him the best reward!
After coming back from the programme, I gave the report of the programme to Maulana Moosa Mankrod, the rector of Markaze Islami. I also mentioned the suggestion of Sheikh Kapodravi. The rector was very pleased with the suggestion and gave approval to start the association. Then the teachers’ association was launched in Markaze Islami.
After few days, Maulana Ismail Mankrod and I reached Kapodra to meet Sheikh. He presented the tea etc. and started talking to us. During the talk, as I mentioned about the association, he became happy. Then he talked about studies and mentioned many important points about it. During the talk, he also mentioned the famous scholar of Hadith of the last century, Sheikh Abu Abdur Rahman Muhammad Nasiruddin Albany (1914-1999) and his work on Mishkatul Masabih. He also said that apart from the difference opinion, we should acknowledge one’s academic work and appreciate it.
What Sheikh Kapodravi said that is a golden point. When Allah has blessed the people with the wisdom, they may have different opinions. When they will have different opinions, the difference will arise certainly. The difference of opinion should remain as the one, but it should not change into enmity and hostility. Due to differences of opinion or due to some deficiencies, ignoring the day-night efforts and struggles of a personality is unjustified. It is a fact that Sheikh Kapodravi’s heart was neat and clean from any type of prejudice and malice. He used to appreciate the work of any scholar. It was his habit to admire the services of the elders and encouraged the efforts of the youngers.
Sheikh Kapodravi continued sending the books for the library of the Teachers’ Association latter. The books like: “Jang: Seerate Rasool Ki Raushani Men”, “Asaatidah Keliye Tarbiyati Waqiaat”, “Tafseer Azizi”, “Nasihatul Muslimeen” etc. were received in the library on his behalf.
I had chance to meet him in December 2009 in Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia. In those days, he was on a journey in Zambia. I participated in his one gathering after Isha Salaah. I met him after the gathering. He started saying that these African countries need struggles. Those who are working here will have to struggle and then it will bear fruits. During his talk, he mentioned about an Islamic school which is founded in a village: Anosa, near Petauke of the Eastern Province. He said that he had a chance to visit the school in the company of the celebrated orator, Maulana Abdul Majeed Nadeem some years back. He happily described about the discipline and education of the indigenous pupils. He praised the way they read Na’at and Nazam in Urdu language in front of him. He appreciated the efforts of Hafiz Ismail Munshi (1950-2015), who was the founder of the said school. Hafiz Ismail had completed his education of Hifz and Tjaweed from Darul Uloom Falahe Darain under the supervision of Sheikh Kapodravi. May Allah grant him Jannah!
Sheikh Kapodravi was a widely travelled and experienced person. He used to travel Asian, Arab, African and European countries. Wherever he went, he used to meet academic persons. He used to visit the libraries of those places. He used to get information about the newly published books and used to buy his loved books. Whichever places he visited, these were his preferable activities. His personal library in Kapodra is full with the books of several subjects and topics.
Along with buying books, he was also very habitual and interested in reading books. He used to motivate the Ulama and the students for reading the books. When he came to know about the publication of any valuable new book, he mentioned it among the Ulama and the students and recommended to read. His love for the books and recommendation for reading was not limited just in his meeting and gathering, but he used to do it suitably in his articles and the letters as well. He writes in his travelogue of Reunion: “Aatash Fishan Ke Mulk Reunion Men”: “I present the names of the following books with the intention of informing our students as these books are very informative on the topic of Masjid”. After recording eight books’ names with its authors, he writes: “God willing, any book loving student may buy these new books and go through them; because the knowledge increases with reading the books. (Afkare Pareshan, P.: 259)
Mentioning the residence of Maulana Dr. Muhammad Taqiuddin Nadvi Mazahiri in “Alain” city of Abu Dhabi, he writes in his travelogue: “Muttahidah Arab Imarat Men Chand Din”: “I saw some new books in Maulana’s library. Some of those books are very useful for our Madaris.” Then he mentions eight Arabic books’ names, authors and publishers on Hadith and biography published from Arab countries. (Afkare Pareshan, P.: 209)
Sheikh Kapodravi was very much aware of the magazines published from different institutions and places. He used to read the magazines regularly. He also used to suggest the Ulama and the students to read it. Allah the Almighty had blessed him with the writing skill. Occasionally, he used to write in the Arabic and Urdu languages to express his views. His writings used to get published.
Once Sheikh was talking in reference to the magazines, during his talk, he gave the detailed introduction of the “Urdu Book Review” published from Delhi. He talked about the reviews getting published in the magazine and the standard language which is used. He recommended that library of each Madrasah should get this magazine. The librarian should read the magazine and try to get the beneficial and necessary books for the library. It will add a value to the library.
It is an important point to be noted that reading the articles on social, political and religious topics published in the magazines is very significant. It gives ample material and knowledge to the readers on different topics in arranged manner in a few hours. The readers are able to understand the views and opinions of the number of writers on the current affairs.
In spite of being busy in teaching and administrative duties and being occupied in the journey of different countries, Sheikh authored several books such as (1) Azwaun ‘Ala Taarikh Al-Harakah Al-Ilmiyyah Wa Al-Ma’ahid Al-Islamiyyah Wa Al-Arabiyyah Fee Gujarat, Al-Hind, (2) Allamah Badruddin Aeini Awr Ilme Hadith Men Un Ka Naqshe Dawaam, (3) Allamah Qutbuddin Awr Un Ki Ilmi Khidmat, (4) Allamah Yusuf Banuri Awr Khidmat Hadith, (5) Rushdo Hidayat Ke Minar…, (6) Haji Imdadullah Awr Un Ke Namwar Khulafa, (7) Deewane Imam Shafaee (Translation and Explanation), (8) Afkare Pareshan (2 Volumes) (9) Sadaye Dil (4 Volumes) etc.
Sheikh Kapodravi passed away on Tuesday 10th July 2018. His funeral prayer was led by Mufti Ahmad Khanpur (May Allah protect him!), Sheikhul Hadeeth: Jamia Talimuddin, Dabhel and Member of Governing Body of Darul Uloom Deoband. Thousands of Ulama and students participated in the funeral prayer. He was buried in Kapodra. Now, he is no more among us, but his good manner, humbleness, concern, worry and sacrifice for the Ulama and the students will be remembered for long. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah!
Sheikh Kapodravi’s Biographical Sketch
Sheikh Kapodravi was born in 1933 in Heho, Myanmar where his father was working and staying with his family. The family came back to India in 1935 and resided in Kapodra, Surat, Gujarat. He acquired the basic education of the Holy Qura’an and Urdu language in Madrasa Islamia, Kapodra. He got admission in Jamia Talimuddin, Dabhel in 1944 and studied from Farsi Class to the Mukhtasarul Quduri (3rd year of Fazilah Course). Then he got admission in Darul Uloom Deoband in 1948. He started from Kanzud Daqaiq (4th year of Fazilah Course). In next year, he learnt the books like, Noorul Anwar, Al-Maqaamat Al-Haririyah (5th year of Fazilah Course). Then he fell sick and had to come back home. When he recovered, he started his education again in “Talimuddin, Dabhel”. He completed his education from Talimuddin in 1953.
Sheikh Kapodravi learned from the following Ulama: Hafiz Ibrahim Umadwadvi, Maulana Dawood Kafletavi, Maualan Abdul Hay, Qari Bandah Ilahi, Qari Hasan from Meerut, Maulana Ibrahim Sufi, Maulana Nasir Ahmad Khan (ex-Sheikhul Hadeeth of Darul Uloom, Deoband), Maulana Fakhrul Hasan, Maulana Muhammad Naeem Deobandi, Maulana Merajul Haq Deobandi, Maulana Mahmood, Maulana Abdur Rawuf, Maulana Abdul Jabbar, Maulana Fazlur Rahman Deobandi, Maulana Fakhruddin, Mufti Mahdi Hasan and Sheikh Mahmood Tantavi from Egypt (May Allah grant them Jannah!).
His Services in the field of Teaching and Management: Following the completion of his graduation, he joined “Majlis Khuddamuddin, Simlak” and “Jamia Talimuddin, Dabhel” as a teacher. Following the resignation from those institutions, he worked as the Sub-Editor of “Tabligh”. Again he left for Darul Uloom Deoband, stayed two years and learnt from the senior scholars. Coming back from Deoband, again he joined Jamia Talimuddin, Dabhel and served as a teacher from 1961 to 1965. He got offer from “Darul Uloom Falahe Darain” in Tarkeshwar, Surat in January 1966 to teach. Latter, in March 1966, he was appointed as the rector. As the rector, he appointed numerous qualified teachers, created the suitable environments of teaching and learning and established the best system of cleanliness etc. He made “Falahe Darain” a model institution. From 1966, he served as a teacher and the rector of Falahe Darain continuously for 27 years beautifully. When the institute reached at the peak of success, he resigned willingly; but his love remained the same for “Falahe Darain” as he had as the rector. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah! ●●●●
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa Email: email@example.com
Jamia Husainia Rander, Surat in 1952. He completed his Fazilat course 1959 from Jamia. He learnt Sahihul Bukhari from Maulana Ahmad who was a student of Sheikhul Islam Mualana Husain Ahmad Madani. May Allah grant them Jannah! Following graduation from Jamia, Maulana Makrod left for Darul Uloom, Deoband to benefit from the elder scholars of Darul Uloom. He remained almost two years in Deoband. He used to participate particularly in the lectures of Allahmah Ibrahim Baliawi, Allamah Fakhruddin Muradabadi, Qari Muhammad Tayyib (May Allah grant them Jannah!) etc. While being in Deoband, he used to take part in the special gathering of elder scholars of Darul Uloom to benefit from them.
Oath of Allegiance and Khilafah
The first and foremost, Maulana Makrod took the oath of allegiance to Maulana Maseehullah Khan of Jalalabad, UP. Following his death, Maulana Makrod again took the oath of allegiance to Maulana Moinuddin Gondavi (Ex-Sheikhul Hadeeth: Madrasah Imdadia, Muradabad, UP). After his death, Maulana Makrod joined Maulana Qamruz Zaman Allahabadi (Hafizahullah!). He was blessed with Khilafah from Maulana Allahabadi and Maulana Muneer (Hafizahullah!).
Allah the Almighty has blessed Maulana Makrod with three sons and four daughters. His son Maulana Ismail Makrod, deputy rector of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami and director of MIERC, Ankleshwar passed away on 17th November 2018 in a car accident. He was very much hopeful about Maulana Ismail that he would shoulder the responsibility to take Markaz ahead. But Allah Ta’ala had decided something else. As long as Maulana Ismail was alive, he assisted him in most of the activities. Maulana Moosa Makrod was much grieved after his death. Whenever I talked to him after the death of Maulana Ismail Makrod, he used to talk about him.
Following the death of Maulana Ismail Makrod, he was survived by his wife, two sons and four daughters. One of his sons is Mr. Iqbal Moosa Makrod who was resident in Leister, UK. But after his younger brother’s death, he came back to his hometown and started serving in Darul Uloom Markaze Islami to assist his elderly father and he is still serving. May Allah accept his services and grant him the best reward!
Maulana Makrod’s another son is Mr. Zubair Moosa Makrod who is settled in New York, USA with his family. One of his daughters is Bilqis Yusuf Topia, a house wife and a resident of Gloucester, England with her family members. The second daughter is Nafisah Saeed Hejazi who is a resident in New York, USA with her family members. The third daughter is Hajirah Javed Jogiat who is resident in UK with her family members. His last born daughter is Khadiajah Saeed Patel. She is resident in New York, USA. May Allah keep them happy and well!
Maulana Moosa Makrod’s Services in Educational Field
Career and Practical Life
After coming back from Deoband, Maulana Makrod taught seven years in the Maktab of Diva. Then he established a Maktab namely: Maktab Noorul Islam in 1975, in Ankleshwar Musafir Khana. Then he established Darul Uloom Markaze Islami in Ankleshwar in 1984. Then he also established a school in Goya Bazar of Ankleshwar namely Markaz Islami School. Then he established Markaze Islami Education and Research Center in the campus of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami in 2003 to equip newly graduate Ulama from different Madaaris with English language and computer science.
Establishment of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami:
Maulana Moosa Makrod offered his services in several fields. I am trying to present his services in the field of education briefly. His great and memorable service is establishment of Darul Uloom Makraze Islami. He ran this institution beautifully from the first day it was founded as its rector until he breathed his last. Briefly, I am going to shed light that when, how and why this institution was established? Then the services of this institution will be also presented to let the readers know the background of establishment of this institution.
Darul Uloom Markaze Islami, Ankleshwar is a well-known institution in Gujarat. Maulana Moosa Makrod used to tell about the foundation of this Darul Uloom that he left his village’s Maktab and started a stationary shop in Ankleshwar. Then he was suggested by his teacher, Maulana Saeed Ahmad, Rector: Jamia Husainia, Rander to start a Maktab in Ankleshwar and teach the children basic of Islamiyyat along with running his shop. Following the suggestion, he started a Maktab: Noorul Islam in Ankleshwar Musafir Khana in 1975 and started teaching along with running his shop.
After few years, due to the growing number of the pupils, Musafir Khana was not enough to accommodate all the pupils. Then with suggestion of some his friends, he decided to arrange a piece of land and found an institution. With the help of Allah, he was successful in arranging the land for Madrasah nearby the GGCL (Gujarat Gas Company Limited) in Ankleshwar. In 1405=1984, the foundation stone was laid by two great personalities of the time, Maulana Ahmad Raza Ajmeri, (Ex-Sheikhul Hadith: Darul Uloom Ashrafiyyah, Rander, Surat) and Maulana Moinuddin Gondavi (Ex-Sheikhul Hadith: Madrasah Imdadia, Muradabad) and the institution was named: Darul Uloom Markaze Islami.
After the foundation, Sheikh Ahmad Raza Ajmeri took care of Markaz as its patron. Following his death, Maulana Moinuddin was made the patron. After his death, Sheikhe Tariqat Maulana Qamruzzaman Allahabadi was made the patron of Markaz. From the foundation day, the institution is progressing by leaps and bounds. May Allah arrange the better substitute for Markaz and may it continue progressing.
Markaze Islami provides the education from the basic classes of Urdu to the final year of Alimiyyah Course. With a bit changing in the known syllabus of Darse Nizami, the English language and the computer science have been included up to the 4th standard as this is the crying need of the time. Up to now, almost 500 students have completed their Aalimiyyah course form this institution and they are serving within and outside the country. May Allah accept their services!
The memorization of the holy Qura’an is called Hifz. If a person has memorized the whole Qura’an from cover to cover, he is called Hifzul Qura’an. There is a Hifz Department in Markaz as well. There are 11 Hifz classes running under 11 expert teachers of Hifz. There are about 260 pupils in Hifz Classes currently. Almost 536 pupils have completed Hifz course up to now from Markaz.
It is essential to recite the holy Qura’an with correct pronunciation of the Arabic alphabets caring the rules of Tajweed. If a person fails to recite the Holy Qrua’an with Tajweed, he is sinner. Maulana Moosa Makrod was very careful about it, so he established a department for Tajweed and Qira’at. The department has produced 120 students who completed Hafs, 94 students who completed Sab’ah and 42 students who completed Thalathah and 9 students who completed Ashrah Kabeer and received the certificates of Qaari. These students are serving within the country and abroad as the teachers, Imams etc.
Realizing the interest of the graduating students in Islamic Jurisprudence, “Department of Specialization in Islamic Jurisprudence” (Iftaa) was introduced in 2010. Following the admission in the department, the students get expertise and proficiency in Fiqh. Up to now, 29 students have completed the course and were granted the certificates of Mufti. The statistics mentioned here are according to the annual report of 1440 AH.
For the perfection of the writing and speaking skills of the enrolled students, there are three Anjumans (Students’ unions) working under the supervision of the teachers. Under those unions, weekly programmes are held regularly. Under “Anjuman Tarbiyatut Talbah”, the pupils practice to develop their oratory and writing skills in Urdu language. For practice to develop their Arabic speaking and writing skills, they participate in the weekly progrmme held under “Al-Nadi Al-Adabi”. Under “Anjuman Tahseen Al-Qura’an Al-Kareem” the pupils practice how to recite the holy Qura’an beautifully applying the rules of Tajweed, they get trained for Khutbah of Jumah and to lead Salah etc.
Maulana Moosa Makrod established this institution with few pupils and the teachers in 1984. The Almighty Allah accepted this institution and currently about 550 pupils are getting free education and they are trained for good moral and character. After graduation, they play a constructive role in guiding the public to follow the straight path as the responsible citizens. To educate and train the students, there are 44 teachers who are working day and night. There are also 15 other auxiliary staff providing additional duties as cook, launderer, cleaner etc. All these are happening with Allah assistance, the good arrangement by the rector and the generous public donations. May Allah accept their services and grant them abundant reward! May Allah protect this institution from all types of evils!
Establishment of Markaze Islami School:
None can deny the need of Islamic school in this current age; rather the thinkers, writers and scholars are writing and speaking on the need of the establishment of Islamic schools. They ask the Muslim community, the organizations and the trusts to found Islamic school if they have resources to bear the expenses. Al-Hamdulillah, Maulana Moosa Makrod realized this need of the community decades ago and established an Islamic school namely: Markaze Islami Gujarati School, under the management of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami in Goya Bazar of Ankleshwar. The pupils are receiving modern education in Islamic environment. The school is recognized up to the 10th standard from the Gujarat government. Almost 432 pupils are learning under 15 qualified teachers. Following completion of the school, the pupils go to the different colleges and universities for higher modern education, Al-Hamdulillah.
Establishment of Markaze Islami Education & Research Center (MIERC)
The significance and need of English language in the modern age to understand the newly invented things or for preaching the true messages of Islam are not hidden for any sensible person. That was the reason that Maulana Moosa Makrod sent his son Maulana Ismail Makrod Delhi to learn English language in Markazul Ma’arif Education & Research Center. When he came back after learning English language, he tried to expand the chain of Markazul Ma’arif and requested his father to found an institution like that to educate newly graduated Ulama.
Maulana Moosa Makrod also realized the fact that thousands of Ulama are graduating each year from different Madaaris. One Markazul Ma’arif is not enough to meet the need; but establishing more institutions like that is crying need of the hour so that more Ulama after equipping with English language, can address the need of the people and can preach Islamic messages simply as English is easily understood. So, he got ready to establish an English Department. But before establishing, he thought proper to seek the opinions of the scholars, then finally to go ahead following their opinions. The scholars responded in affirmative and acknowledged the need of the English language. Then Maulana Moosa Makrod finalized to materialize this programme under the campus of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami.
Foundation of the Center
After getting positive replies, he started planning to found a center for the said purpose. According to the plan, he founded the institution namely: Markaze Islamic Education and Research Center, in 2003, under the management of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami within its campus. It was first time in the history that a two-year Diploma in English Language & Literature course was introduced in the campus of a Madrasa. Maulana Ismail Makrod was given the charge as director to run it. After the entrance exams, the newly graduated Ulama from different Madaris, who had interest in preaching the true messages of Islam as well as learning English language, were selected as the students of the first batch. Then the center started functioning practically.
The Services of the Graduates of the Center A good number of Ulama graduated from different Madaaris try to get admission in this department being keen to learn the English language. The department is equipping the Ulama with English language and literature as well as computer science for last 17 years. In this period, the number of the students who have graduated from this institution is 270. Most of those Ulama are busy in teaching. Dozens of those Ulama are serving in other countries like: England, America, Canada, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Australia etc. May Allah accept their services and make it continuous charity for the both Maulana Moosa and Maulana Ismail Makrod! May Allah grant them Jannatul Firdaus!
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
"World Children's Day" is celebrated on 20th November worldwide. It is because the United Nations General Assembly, through a resolution, has approved 20th November as "World Children's Day". The motive behind it is to promote international togetherness, awareness among the children worldwide and to improve children’s welfare. Furthermore, World Children’s Day offers each of us an inspirational entry-point to advocate, promote and celebrate children’s rights, translating into dialogues and actions that will build a better world for children as it has been mentioned at www.un.org. Now, let us see how the rights of the Palestinian children are violated. This year, just one day before World Children's Day, on Saturday, 19th November, 2022, Palestinian Prisoners Society (PPS), presented the data regarding the Palestinian children’s detention that this year (November 2022), the usurping Israeli’s occupying army have arrested 750 Palestinian children so far. This data does not cover the full current year of 2022; as there is still a period of more than a month left to complete it. The PPS report also has highlighted that some of these children were injured; while some others were sick at the time of the detention. The report has also mentioned that “Most of the children were subjected to all sorts of physical and psychological torture during their detention in violation of international agreements and conventions on the rights of children.” Even in such situation, the tyrant prison authorities do not provide proper treatment facilities to the children. This report, on the occasion of World Children's Day, highlights a key aspect of the usurping Israeli government's tyranny, oppression and cruelty against the Palestinian children and the violation of their fundamental rights.
According to another report, this year (2022), 40 Palestinian children have been martyred by the inhumaneness of the Israeli occupying army so far. This large number of children being injured and martyred by the army of the Zionist Israel state, on the Palestinian land, in front of their near and dear ones, is alarming for any civilized nation and human-loving people. This is the current year's report; while to complete this year, still one month and ten days are left. If we look at the previous year's report in this regard, we find that in the year 2021, 78 children were martyred by the armed forces of the Zionist state. Those martyrs belonged to the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. According to the data of a local Palestinian organization, "Palestinian Child Organization", 17 of these martyred children were directly targeted and killed by the Israeli army.
Following the report of almost 11 months on the innocent Palestinian children being arrested by the army of the Zionist state of Israel, the readers can understand the number of the Palestinians as a whole being arrested by the Zionist army. To know the number of the Palestinians who have been arrested just in the last one month, i.e. October, let’s see a report of “Palestine Center for Prisoners Studies” below. This report makes clear the number of the Palestinians who have been arrested by the Zionist soldiers in just one last month.
In the beginning of November 2022, the Palestine Center for Prisoners Studies has mentioned in its report that 595 Palestinians were arrested by the Israeli army in the last month, October 2022 alone. Amongst those arrested, 76 minors, 22 women and girls are included. Riyad Al-Ashqar, the director of the center, said that more than 290 arrests were made in Jerusalem, including 41 children, 18 women and girls, 110 arrests were made from Al-Aqsa Mosque, its surroundings and nearby streets. Then Palestinians were also arrested from the town of Shufat, Al-Aissawiya and Silwan.
This is the shocking story of the Zionist state’s armed forces regarding the arrest and killing of the innocent Palestinian children, elders and women. The brutality of the Zionist army is not only limited to arresting and killing of the Palestinians; but they are also not behind in destroying the property of Palestinians. Whenever the Zionist army and the Zionist settlers find a chance, they do not hesitate to demolish the houses of the Palestinians, burn the crops in their fields and uproot their gardens. It was reported this month on 8th November that occupying Israeli army and terrorist Jewish settlers demolished the properties of the Palestinians in the West Bank and occupied Jerusalem. In the presence of the Israeli occupying army, Ahmed Isa's bakery was demolished in the Shufat camp of the northeast of occupied Jerusalem. The bakery is located on an area of one hundred and ten square meters. Ahmed Isa had built this bakery by spending one hundred thousand Shekels (about 24 lakh rupees). In another report, the Israeli army arrived in a big number with a bulldozer in the village "Qibya" located in the west of Ramallah city and demolished a two-story house belonging to a Palestinian citizen. The owner of the house fulfilled all the legal requirements and the documents; but these documents were ignored and the house was demolished.
It has been reported this month (November 2022) that the Israeli occupying army unearthed the valuable agricultural land of the Palestinians in "Salfit", the northern city of West Bank. In this place, there was an olive garden of the Palestinians, which was uprooted by the army. It is said that there were two thousand fruit bearing olive trees in the garden, which were destroyed by the army. Nowadays, due to global warming, the people avoid cutting the trees and the plantation is encouraged in the world. Those who plant trees are awarded by a government. In contrary to that the Israeli Zionist army uproots two thousand olive trees at a time. If a person tries to find out its reason, he doesn’t find any reason except that the owner of these trees is a Palestinian Muslim. It very crucial point which must be noted here that the settlers’ violence against the Palestinians – the real native of Palestine including today’s so-called Israel – and their properties is a routine. Despite that rarely they are prosecuted by the biased and unfair authorities of usurping Israel. We thank Allah that He created us as the followers of a religion in which planting tree is encouraged.
Some organizations say that the action of the Israeli police in terms of arresting and detaining the Palestinian children is in violation of the international agreements and conventions on the rights of children and their protection. The Zionist Israeli police sometimes would pick up the children from their homes at night, sometimes a child goes out to buy some goods and he would not return home. Latter, it is learned that the child has been arrested by the Israeli police. After arresting these children, the police beat them up. Then the police take these arrested children to the investigation center. They are investigated about a certain incident which they never committed. Israeli police allegedly treat these children with violence during investigation and they use brutal and nasty method against these children. The police have also been accused of blindfolding and handcuffing the arrested children during the investigation. Then the police send these children to the jail after their so-called investigation – for crimes which they never committed – is done.
The Israeli army always claims that the Palestinian children who are imprisoned and detained in the Israeli jails are a threat to their national security. The children's rights group says that Israel is allegedly committing the crimes against these children which are internationally prohibited. Following the arrest, these children are kept in the detention in an inappropriate and inhumane environment. They are deprived of their basic rights. The fact is that the Israeli army uses such deadly weapons and forces against the Palestinian civilians, children and women that is a clear violation of international human rights law. The Israeli jails in which the Palestinians are kept are itself a kind of punishment. The fact is that there is an attempt to instill terror and fear in the minds of the Palestinian prisoners and to control an entire community through oppression and brutality so that after their release, they would not raise their voices for Palestine.
Definitely the Palestinians are undergoing a great loss of their lives and properties at the hands of the occupying army of the Zionist government since the illegal establishment of Israel. Any Palestinian who raises his voice for his sovereignty and the freedom of Al-Aqsa Mosque has to face the hardship of imprisonment. It is duty of the United Nations and other international organizations to investigate the arrest of Palestinian children and the atrocities against them. It is also their duty to include the Zionist Israeli government in the list of governments that violate the children's rights; rather on the top of the list. The member countries of the United Nations General Assembly would pass a resolution that would compel the usurping Israeli government to compensate for the losses of the lives and the properties. But currently, there is no such hope; because the oppressive Israeli government has the backing of the United States of America and some Western countries. The second important point is that no country has any materialistic interest in Palestine. However, we hope that the terrorist Israeli government, its armed forces and the oppressive Zionist police will have to pay for the crimes they commit regularly against the Palestinians a day and the Palestinians will be successful, In Shaa Allah. ●●●●
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
Nullifying Act of Charity by Boasting
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Wealth in the Qura’an:
The wealth is the great bounty of Allah. There are several verses in the glorious Qrua’an wherein the wealth has been mentioned in the positive meaning. Allah says: “Then We gave you your turn to overpower them, and increased your strength with wealth and sons, and made you greater in number.” (Isra: 06) While mentioning the story of Nooh (AS)’s activity of calling his nation towards Allah, the several bounties of Allah All-Merciful are noted. One among them is increasing wealth. The Qura’an speaks: “He will send (much-needed) rain to you in torrents. Increase your wealth, your sons and make orchards and rivers for you.” (Nooh: 11-12) At another place the Glorious Qura’an speaks: “When the Salaah has been completed then (you are free to) disperse in the land, seek from Allah's bounty and remember Allah abundantly (engage in Dhikr wherever you may be) so that you may be successful.” (Jumuah: 10) Ibn Kathir writes under the commentary of this verse: “After Allah forbade Muslims from working after hearing the Adhan and ordered them to gather for the Friday prayer, He allowed them to spread throughout the earth and seek bounty after the prayer is finished.” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
How Did He Earn and Where Did He Spend?
If one is blessed with the wealth, he should not forget the rights of the poor and needy people. There are some people who assist the poor in the way that what his right hand does, his left hand is not aware of that. Such person will get great reward for it. As it is said in a Hadith, “A person who gives charity so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given (nobody knows how much he has given in charity, then such person will be shaded by Allah under His Shade on the Day of Resurrection when there will be no shade except His shade.)” (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1423) There are some rich people who don’t want to spend his wealth on the poor. They think that whatever they possess, that is the earning of his hard-work, then why should they give it to the poor. Such people must know that they will have to face the question of his wealth on the Day of Resurrection, “How did he earn it and where did he spend it?” (Tirmidhi: 2417) There are also third type of rich people in our society. They spend their wealth on the poor people, but their intentions are not good. After giving something, they take the recipients as their servants and slaves. They want the recipients should remain at their command every time as the obedient servants. Sometimes, they cause hurt, insult, humiliation and boast favours on the recipients.
Avoid Causing Hurt:
Whatever the rich people give to the poor, it means that they thank Allah, because whatever they possess that is from Allah. Allah has decided the rights of the poor people in their wealth. So they are fulfilling their responsibilities. Moreover, the givers will be rewarded for that in the hereafter. Some people want to boast of favours following the charity to the poor. This action is very condemnable and totally rejected. The givers will be questioned for it on the Doomsday. If we have wealth, it is our responsibility to spend it in the way of Allah avoiding to cause any hurt and boasting favours. It is unfortunate that the people have forgotten the Qura’anic instructions and the prophetic lessons not only about the wealth and its proper use; but in the most of the aspects of the life. Let’s see some verses of the Holy Qrua’an about the one who boasts favour and causes hurt someone after giving him charity.
Allah the Exalted says: “A graceful word and forgiving is better than charity followed by causing hurt. Allah is All-Independent, Forbearing. (Al-Baqarah: 263) Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (1897-1976) writes under the commentary of this verse: “…One who spends does so for his own good. That being so, an intelligent human being should keep this in mind while spending in the way of Allah, that he is not favouring anybody, and that he is spending for his own good. And should one sense ingratitude on the part of people treated well, he should subject himself to the divine attribute of 'forbearing', show obedience and forgive and forget”. (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 1/652-653)
Nullifying the Act of Charity:
The next verse of the same chapter says: “O you who believe, do not nullify your acts of charity by boasting about (doing people a) favour and by causing (them) hurt, like the one who spends his wealth to show off before people and does not believe in Allah and in the Last Day. So, his example is like a rock on which there is dust, then a heavy rain came over it and left it barren. They have no ability to gain anything out of what they have done, and Allah does not give guidance to the people who disbelieve.” (Al-Baqarah: 264)
What has been conveyed in the previous verse, this one also gives the same message with more emphasis on the same topic. Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani writes: “This makes it clear that any form of favour-flashing or needy-bashing, after an act of charity renders such charity null and void. There is no reward for it.
In this verse, one more condition governing the acceptance of Sadaqah has been added by saying that one who spends for public exposure, for name and fame, and does not believe in Allah Almighty and the Day of Resurrection, can be likened to be acting in a situation where he sows a grain on a clean rock which has collected a layer of soil, then comes the rain and washes the whole thing clean. Such people will never reap what they have sown and Allah Almighty will not let the disbelievers see the way. From this we know the condition that governs the acceptance of Sadaqah and Khayrat -- spend only to seek the good pleasure of Allah Almighty and with the intention of getting Thawab (reward) in the Akhirah (Hereafter). Never do it with the intention of having public exposure, name and fame. Spending with the intention of earning name and fame is wasting what you spend. And should a true Muslim, who does believe in the Hereafter, expend something simply for name, fame, and under hypocritical motivation, he too, would not get any Thawab (reward) for it. Moreover, there is a hint here in the use of the additional sentence "لایؤمن باللہ" (And does not believe in Allah); perhaps, it aims to suggest that hypocrisy and name-seeking is not just the sort of thing a person who believes in Allah Almighty and the Day of Resurrection would ever do since hypocrisy is a sign of something being wrong with his faith.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 1/653)
Spend to Seek Allah’s Pleasure:
The aforesaid verses make it clear that if a person gives something in charity with the intention to achieve the fame, boasting favours, causing hurt or for showing off; such charity doesn’t have any value in the sight of Allah, but the giver will be sinful and punished for it. Contrary to it, the one who gives his wealth to the beggar and weak people with the intention of seeking Allah’s pleasure; such person will be rewarded by Allah. His rewards will be noted in the record of his deeds as multiplied by seven times, but sometimes even multiplied by seven hundred times. Allah the Exalted says: “The example of those who spend in the way of Allah is just like a grain that produced seven ears, each ear having a hundred grains, and Allah multiplies (the reward) for whom He wills. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.” (Al-Baqarah: 261)
This verse gives the glad tidings to those who spend their wealth amongst the weak people, orphans and the widows in the way of Allah just for seeking His pleasure. The glad tiding is that his reward will be multiplied by seven times. It has been made clear in the Holy Qura’an by citing a sensational example, e.g. a person sows a grain of wheat in the fertile land. From that grain one such plant grows which has seven ears and each ear comprises of 100 grains. It brief, if a person spends one rupee, he will be rewarded 700 rupees for that. But it should be noted that the intention of the giver must be to seek Allah’s pleasure. So, the next verse confirms it clearly. The Glorious Qura’an speaks: “Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah, then do not make their spending followed by boasting about favour, or with causing hurt, - they have their reward with their Lord and there is no fear for them nor shall they grieve.” (Al-Baqarah: 262)
If a person spends something in the way of Allah, he must understand that Allah will keep it for him in the hereafter; but He will reward more than what one has spent. Allah the Almighty says: “And whatever thing you spend, He replaces it, and He is the best of the sustainers.” (Saba: 39) At another place the Exalted Allah says: “Whatever good you spend is for your own selves, and you shall not spend but to seek the pleasure of Allah, and whatever good thing you spend shall be repaid to you in full, and you shall not be wronged.” (Al-Baqarah: 272)
Significance of Charity in Ahaadeeth:
The Ahaadeeth of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) are full with the significance of charity. Some narrations are mentioned here. According to a Hadith, the things which remain for the human being after the death is the charity and good deeds; otherwise what one gathers in the world will not be present in the hereafter for him. Once upon a time, a sheep was slaughter at the home of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). The whole meats were distributed, except the shoulder which was kept for the home. Then very good conversation took place on the sheep’s meat between the Prophet (SAWS) and mother Aisha (RA). Aisha (RA) narrates that they had slaughtered a sheep. So the Prophet (SAWS) said: "What remains of it?" She said: "Nothing remains of it except its shoulder." He (SAWS) said: "All of it remains except its shoulder." (Sunan Tirmidhi: 2470) According to the Islamic teaching, the part of the food which is consumed by a person is finished and he will be not rewarded for it. But the part which is given as charity to a needy or a poor person remains for the giver and he will be rewarded for it in the Hereafter. That is why the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) described the part of mutton given in charity as remaining part.
As said in one Hadith, if a person spends his wealth in the way of Allah generously, the angel supplicates for growth in his wealth. If a person doesn’t spend his wealth in the way of Allah due to his misery, the angel calls Allah for the destruction of his wealth. The Hadith goes like this: The Prophet (SAWS) said: "Every day two angels come down (from the heaven) and one of them says, 'O Allah! Compensate every person who spends in Your Cause,' and the other (angel) says, 'O Allah! Destroy every miser.'" (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1442)
If a Muslim fulfills the needs of his Muslim brother, the Almighty Allah fulfills his requirements. The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) says: "A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, so he should not oppress him, nor should he hand him over to an oppressor. Whoever fulfilled the needs of his brother, Allah will fulfill his needs.” (Sahih Bukhari: 2442)
One who spends his wealth and money in the cause of Allah, the Almighty Allah grants blessing in his wealth. If someone doesn’t spend in the cause of Allah, then He also doesn’t bless in his wealth. Hazrat Asma, daughter of Abu Bakr (RA) narrates that she came to the Prophet (SAWS) (for some problem) and he (SAWS) said: "Do not shut your money bag; otherwise Allah too will withhold His Blessings from you. Spend (in Allah's Cause) as much as you can afford." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1434)
It is Allah’s practice that He keeps changing the conditions of the people of the universe. It is possible that the one who is rich today, he can be poor tomorrow and the vice-versa. Imam Abu Yusuf (RA) has truly said: “The wealth comes in the morning and goes in the evening.” It is Allah the All-Powerful Who makes someone rich whenever He wishes. He also has power over making a person poor whenever He wishes. After making someone rich, He fixes the rights of His poor slaves in the wealth of the rich one. In this way, Allah the Almighty examines His both types of slaves either the rich is thanking Him and looking after the poor and the poor is having patience on not having wealth. Because it is Islamic teaching that if someone is blessed with something, he should thank Allah and when some is deprived of something, he should have patience.
Today, a good number of people are suffering due to the lack of wealth and resources; while Allah has enriched some people. Some of the rich people do understand the Islamic teaching and look after the poor people. But there are also some rich people of such type that firstly they don’t want to spend their wealth on the poor. Secondly, if they spend, it goes in vain and they don’t get any reward due to their wrong intention. Therefore, those who are blessed with the riches, they should spend in the way of Allah, according to the Islamic guidelines. Their intention should not be showing off, causing hurt and boasting favours after assisting the poor. This write-up is concluded with a Hadith. Allah's Messenger (SAWS) said: "The example of an alms-giver and a miser is like the example of two persons wearing two iron cloaks from their breasts to their collar bones; and when the alms-giver gives in charity, the cloak becomes capacious till it covers his whole body to such an extent that it hides his fingertips and covers his footprints (obliterates his tracks). And when the miser wants to spend, it (the iron cloak) sticks and (its) every ring gets stuck to its place, he tries to widen it, but it doesn’t become wide." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1443) ***
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
A kind teacher and an exemplary educator, Maulana Jameel Ahmad Sikraudhavi, a senior lecturer at Darul Uloom Deoband, left for heavenly abode. He had fallen sick and was suffering from tormentor disease since several months. Treatment continued; but he could not recover. At the end, he was admitted at GTB Hospital of Delhi, capital city of India. The fixed time has arrived so he breathed his last in the hospital on 31st March 2019. How true and accurate saying of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) is! He (SAWS) conveying his message to his daughter: Zainab (RA), when her son was dying, said: “Whatever Allah takes is for Him and whatever He gives, is for Him, and everything with Him has a limited fixed term (in this world) and so she should be patient and hope for Allah's reward." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1284) May the Almighty Allah accept Maulana Sikraudhavi’s services, forgive his shortcomings, grant him the best place in Paradise and give patience to his family members! Aameen!
He was born on 10th April 1950 in a village called: Sikraudha in Bhagwanpur block of the famous district: Haridwar of Urttarakhand in India. Following the completion of his basic educational stages, he moved to the world renowned seminary of Islamic thoughts Darul Uloom Deoband in 1966 and got admission. During his learning period, he had been one of the prominent students. He graduated 1970.
Following the graduation, he was appointed as a teacher in Jamia Rahmania of Hapur. Then he joined Jamia Kashiful Uloom, Chhatmalpur and served there for a period of time. Then he taught at Madrasa Qasimul Uloom of Saharanpur district in UP. In this way, he presented his great services in these different Madaaris. After seven years of his graduation, he was appointed as a teacher at the seat of his learning Darul Uloom Deoband in 1977. Then he joined Darul Uloom Waqf Deoband and taught up to 1999. In 2000, again he came back in Darul Uloom Deoband. He continued teaching here as a kind teacher and an exemplary instructor until he breathed his last.
The Supreme Lord provided him the chance of serving at the great and celebrated institution of the Indian sub-continent and he made the most of it without wasting a moment. The Almighty Allah gave him great opportunity of spreading and preaching the Islamic knowledge for a long period of time among the thousands of students. He continued the chain of teaching and benefiting beautifully. He spent most of his career period teaching in Darul Uloom Deoband. His favourite hobby was teaching and writing the guide books. The learners never complained about his teaching capability, rather they appreciated and showed satisfaction from his teaching methodology. Let me say that the Almighty Allah had blessed him with such talent and capability of teaching that a bright student and a dull learner, the both benefited from him alike. He studied deeply whichever subject he was assigned to teach. Before coming to the classroom, he used to go through the lesson deeply. In the classroom, his heart was satisfied with his studies and the mind was bumping; but at the time of delivering the lesson, he was very careful that of which standard learners he is teaching. So according to their understanding, he used to present his lecture. Due to his teaching methodology, he was not only appreciated by the learners, even the colleague teachers also confessed his capability. That was the reason that very soon he got name and fame as an exemplary educator.
His teaching period is consisting of around five decades. In this long period, he taught many books of the syllabus of the Darse Nizami beautifully. Either it was teaching of the difficult book like “Tafseer Al-Beidawi” or the well-known book of Hadith: “Sunan Tirmidhi” or it was “Hidayah” of Islamic Jurisprudence or the book like “Qawaidul Fiqh”, his teaching methodology was unique, easy, tenable and understandable for each and every learner. Whichever book he taught, he taught it beautifully. In regard to the learners, he was very kind, affectionate, loving and caring teacher. In brief, it can be said that he was “a kind teacher and an exemplary instructor”.
This writer had been lucky to learn from him the famous book of Islamic Jurisprudence “Hidayah” written by Sheikhul Islam Burhanuddin Abul Hasan Ali bin Abi Bakr bin Abdil Jalil Al-Farghani Al-Marghinani (511-593 AH). It was his habit to reach nearby the classroom a few minutes before the period starts. Then he was standing leaning to a pillar outside the classroom. As soon as a teacher leaves the classroom, he used to enter the classroom immediately. When some desks were empty in the middle of the classroom, he used to advise the other students to fill the gap. Then he used to take the students’ attendance register and start roll-call. Following the attendance, a learner used to read a portion of the text supposed to be taught. Then he used to explain the read text in his easy and simple methodology. It was his habit to complete the lesson about five minutes before ending the period and leave the classroom. It was never heard by a learner that he taught so-and-so topic today and it was not understood. It doesn’t matter, either it was any topic like: “Sarf”, “Kifalah”, “Iqalah”, “Hawalah”, “Mudharbah” or “Munabazah”, he explained and dealt them with expertise according to the level of the learners and they understood the topic satisfactorily.
In brief, whichever book of Darse Nizami was assigned to him for teaching, he used to teach it easily caring the level of the learners and the students had no any complication in understanding the lesson. That was why the administrator assigned him higher level classes to teach relying on his capability. He worked according to the expectation. When he was in Darul Uloom Waqf Deoband, he taught the books like, “Anwar Al-Tanzil Wa Asrar Al-Tawil” which is famously known as “Tafseer Al-Beidhawi” (By: Allamah Nasiruddin Abu Saeed Abdullah bin Umar bin Muhammad Al-Shirazi Al-Beidhawi), “Sunan Tirmidhi” (By: Abu I’sa Muhamad bin Isa bin Saurah bin Musa Al-Tirmidhi (824-892)), “Muwatta Imam Malik”, “Hidayah” etc. successfully for almost two decades. Again in Darul Uloom Deoband, he taught Muwatta Imam Malik, Hidayah, Qawaidul Fiqh etc. excellently.
As his teaching skill was recognized, his writing skill was also praised by one and all. He wrote the guide books of the several syllabus books of the Darse Nizami in thousands of pages. The method and language used in those books are very easy and very close to understanding. As Allah the Exalted blessed him with teaching skill, He also granted acceptance to his books. The guide books were highly appreciated and valued by the learners. It is said that he used the new method in writing those guide books. He explained in the simple way the complicated texts of those books. Most of the students used to benefit from the guide books written by him. Ashraful Hidayah, the guide book of famous book of Islamic Jurisprudence: Hidaya, got very much name and fame among the students and the scholars. It was not only the learners and the teachers of the Madaaris who benefited from it; but even some intellectuals, who have interest in the Islamic Jurisprudence, studied it and were seen using it as reference in the debate.
He prepared the guide books for the following books. He wrote the guide of “Usool Al-Shashi” namely “Ajmal Al-Hawashi”. He wrote the guide book of some initial volumes of Hidayah namely Ashraful Hidayah; while the other volumes were written namely “Tafheemul Hidayah”. The guide book of “Mukhtasarul Ma’ani” (By: Sa’aduddin Masood bin Umar Taftazani – 722-792 AH) was prepared namely “Takmeelul Amani”. He wrote the commentary of “Noorul Anwar” namely “Qootul Akhyaar”. The guide book the famous and complicated book “Husami” was written by the name of “Faiz Suhani”. He compiled and edited “Al-Taqrir Al-Hawi” along with his colleague Mufti Shakil Ahmad Sitapuri, ex-teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband. Actually, it is the compilation of the lectures of Maulana Sayyid Fakhrul Hasan, Ex-Head teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband on Tafseer Al-Beidhawi. It is in four volumes which consist up to the verse No.: 82 of Surah Al-Baqarah. May Allah accept it and grant them the best reward!
On the 1st April 2019, his funeral prayer was led by Maulana Qari Sayyid Muhammad Usman (May Allah protect him!), teacher of Hadith: Darul Uloom Deoband in the campus of Darul Uloom Deoband at around 09 hours in the morning. A big number of Ulama and the students attended his funeral prayer. The great scholar of Fiqh and Hadith, Maulana Sikraudhavi was buried in the “Qasmi Graveyard” of Deoband. May Allah grant him the best place in Jannah!
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
The human being do commits sins. If a man has committed a major sin, the door of repentance is open for him from the Almighty Allah. In the Glorious Qura’an and the Holy Hadith, the human being has been encouraged to repent following the sin. By this, it is known that the repentance is important after a sin to wipe it off. Whenever a person commits a major sin, he must make a true and faithful repentance immediately. Then the Almighty Allah forgives his sin and he becomes sinless. The points like definition of repentance, the importance of repentance, its benefits, the conditions for its acceptance and faithful repentance are being discussed here in this article in the light of the Glorious Qrua’an and Sunnah.
Definition of Repentance
Repentance literally means to feel or express sincere regret or remorse about. When this word is attributed towards a person, at that time it means to give up one’s sin and feel regret about what he has done. About the technical meaning of repentance, Allamah Aalusi (1802-1854) writes: “A person should give up his sins and express remorse about what he has done. And the expression of remorse should be with the intention that it is sin, not because it is physically or wealthily harmful. And he should intend that he would not commit it again according to his level best. (Ruhul Ma’ani: 28/158)
Conditions for Repentance
There are some conditions for repentance. The one who repents adhering to those conditions, it is hoped that repentance would be useful for him. If those conditions are not met; there is a fear that the repentance would not be fruitful. There are several conditions found in the books for repentance. The forth caliph of Islam, Ali (RA) has described six comprehensive conditions which are recognized by all the scholars either concisely or in details. They are here:
(I) To regret one’s past evil deeds; (2) to carry out Divine duties that were missed; (3) to restore the rights that were usurped; (4) to ask forgiveness of a person who has been wronged by him physically or verbally; (5) to make a firm resolve of avoiding the sin in future and (6) to consume one’s self in obedience of Allah as one thus far consumed one’s self in His disobedience. (Mazhari) (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 8/526)
Commonly it is understood that after feeling regret and expressing remorse, the sin is pardoned. But here is a point to note. If a person has embezzled one’s right, only expressing remorse is not enough for acceptance of his repentance; but he will have to restore that right as well. Then he should hope for acceptance of the repentance. It is in Al-Mawsuah: “Repentance is expressing of regret about what one has done in the past making a firm intention of avoiding it in future; but it is not enough to drop and eliminate the right of someone if he has taken. So, if he has stolen the wealth of someone, he has usurped or he has misbehaved with someone; so in these cases, only expressing regret, avoiding sin and making firm intention of not repeating, he cannot be absolved of responsibility; but it is necessary for him to repay the right. It is recognized by all the scholars.” (Al-Mawsuah Al-Fiqhiyyah: 14/157)
Shariah Ruling about Repentance
It is obligatory to repent when someone has committed a major sin. It is necessary to repent for one and all sins. If a person repents for only a certain sin and ignores other ones, then the repentance is correct for that one and it is still necessary for him to repent for another ones. Shariah ruling about repentance is that repentance is an obligation. It is proven from the Glorious Qura’an, traditions and consensus. The scholars have proven the repentance of being obligation from the following verse of the Qura’an. (Translation): “And repent to Allah O believers, all of you, so that you may achieve success.” (Al-Noor/31)* A Hadith speaks: “O people! Repent to Allah before you die.” (Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 1018)
Timing for Repentance
When a slave of Allah repents, the Almighty Allah accepts his repentance. Allah Almighty says: “And He is the One who accepts repentance from His servants and forgives evil deeds and knows whatever you do.” (Shura/25) As far as the timing of repentance is concerned, so Allah will accept the repentance as long as, one of the major signs of Doomsday, the sun rising doesn’t start from the west. It is in a Hadith: “Whoever repents before the sun rises from its place of setting, Allah will accept his repentance.” (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2703) It has also come in a Hadith: "Indeed Allah accepts the repentance of a slave as long as his soul does not reach his throat." (Sunan Trimidhi, Hadith: 3537)
Committing a sin is a common for a human being. As soon as a sin is committed, the person must try to compensate it that is repenting. Following the sin, a person should behave like a believer thinking as if he is under a burden of mountain, not like an evil-doer who takes the sin lightly. Abdullah bin Masood (RA) says: “A believer sees his sins as if he were sitting under a mountain which, he is afraid, may fall on him; whereas a Fajir (wicked evil-doer) considers his sins as flies passing over his nose and he just drives them away like this. (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 6308)
It is not known to us at what time we are going to leave this world; that is why we should not delay; but repent immediately after a sin. Following the repentance, we should hope that Allah would accept our repentance. Being Most-Forgiving and Very-Merciful, Allah is always waiting for our repentance. After repentance, not only the Muslims, but the non-Muslims are also forgiven. Describing disbelieve of Christians, Allah Almighty says in the Qura’an: “Why then do they not turn to Allah in repentance and seek His forgiveness, while Allah is most forgiving, very merciful?” (Al-Maaidah/74)
Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (1887-1949) writes under the commentary of the mentioned verse: “This is the power and dignity of Allah that when such a rebel, traitor and rude criminal comes before Him regretting and making a firm resolve of reformation; He forgives the crimes (sins) committed in the whole life. (Tafseer Usmani)
A Faithful Repentance
Following the major sin, we should turn to Allah with a faithful repentance. The holy Qura’an commands us for a true or faithful repentance. What is a faithful repentance? In a tradition, the faithful repentance has been described as follows: “The slave should express regret about the sin he has committed. Then he should apologize before Allah. Then he should not return to the sin as the milk does return to the udder. (Al-Dur Al-Manthur: 8/227) According to Ibn Abbas (RA), the faithful repentance has been explained as: “Feeling regret for the sin in his heart, begging pardon of Allah from tongue, avoiding the sin at all and making a firm resolve of not committing it.” (Al-Qamoos Al-Fiqhi Lughatan Wa Istilahan, P.: 50)
The reward for a person who makes a faithful repentance is also mentioned in the same verse wherein the commandment for the faithful repentance has come. Let us read it. “O you who believe, turn to Allah with a faithful repentance. It is hoped from your Lord that He will write off your faults, and will admit you to the gardens beneath which rivers flow, on the Day when Allah will not disgrace the Prophet and those who believed with Him. Their light will run before them and to their right hands. They will say, “Our Lord, perfect for us our light, and forgive us. Indeed You are powerful over everything.” (Al-Tahreem/8) (The Meaning of the Noble Qura’an by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani. I commonly quote the translation of Mufti Usmani Hafizahullah in my articles.)
Instruction to Ask for Forgiveness and Repent
Allah the Almighty is so Merciful and Kind that He doesn’t want His servants remain a sinful after committing a sin; that is why He instructs them to repent and seek His forgiveness. The glorious Qura’an speaks: “And you must seek forgiveness from your Lord, then, turn to Him in repentance,” (Hud/3) Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (1897-1976) writes under the commentary of the above verse:
“In these verses of firm and established meaning, Allah Ta'ala has also instructed His servants to ask for forgiveness and pardon from their Lord, and make their Taubah before Him. Forgiveness (Maghfirah) relates to past sins and Taubah (repentance) relates to the resolve of not going near these anymore. And, in reality, a correct and true Taubah is no more than being ashamed of past sins, praying to Allah that they be forgiven and resolving firmly that they would not be repeated in future.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 4/596)
Repentance Protects Heart
When a person commits a sin, a black dot appears on his heart. When he repents and seeks for forgiveness, his heart becomes clean from that dot. If he doesn’t repent and continue committing sin, the dot increases, until the heart becomes rusty. At this point, the person loses the ability to accept the truth. By this, it is understood that whenever a person commits a sin, he must repent immediately to protect his heart from becoming rusty. Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) says: "Verily, when the slave (of Allah) commits a sin, a black spot appears on his heart. When he refrains from it, seeks forgiveness and repents, his heart is polished clean. But if he returns, it increases until it covers his entire heart. And that is the 'Ran' which Allah mentioned: Nay, but on their hearts is the Ran which they used to earn.” (Sunan Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3334)
Under the commentary of the above Hadith is written: “When mankind does not use its natural talents properly and the faculty of the intellect and the heart, and he becomes a habitual perpetrator of sins by obeying his desires, then the dirt of all of his deeds gradually begins to cover the heart and after sometime it encompasses his entire heart; there remains no place for anything good in the heart. The person becomes a slave of sins.” (English Translation of Jimi' At-Tirmidhi: 6/68)
Repent in Abundance
Beloved Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) has instructed his Ummah to repent in abundance. A narration relates the practice of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) of repenting hundred times a day. He (SAWS) was innocent, forgiven and sinless, in spite of that he (SAWS) used to repent in abundance. Reason behind his practice was that his Ummah should learn that when he (SAWS) repents so abundantly being innocent, the Ummah should also seek forgiveness and repent abundantly; because we commit several major and minor sins day and night. The Prophet (SAWS) says: “O people! Repent to Allah, for I repent to Allah one hundred times a day.” (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2702) There is one another narration which says: "By Allah! I seek Allah's forgiveness and turn to Him in repentance for more than seventy times a day." (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 6307)
In accordance with one Hadith, the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) used to repent hundred times. In another Hadith it is said seventy times a day. Apparently they seem to be contradicting each other. The fact is that they are not to show the exact number of repentance; but they are to express that he (SAWS) used to repent day and night abundantly. Therefore, there is a lesson for the Ummah to repent in abundance.
Waiting For His Servants’ Repentance
Allah the Almighty is so kind and generous that he waits for His servants to repent. He is so Merciful and Forgiving that He waits every time, be day or night, for His servants repentance. When a salve repents, Allah feels happy and He is pleased with him. He forgives his slaves’ sins. One Hadith goes like this: "Allah holds out His Hand at night to accept the repentance of those who have sinned during the day, and He holds out His Hand by day to accept the repentance of those who have sinned at night, until the sun rises from its place of setting." (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2759) It means He will continue doing so near by the Doomsday. In this Hadith, holding out the hand means that He is very happy with the repentance of His slaves. He is so generous and kind that He feels happy after forgiving the sins of His servants.
Repentance is a Pleasing Deed
The repentance is a pleasing deed in the sight of the Almighty Allah. Whoever makes repentance following the sin, fulfilling its conditions, Allah the Exalted forgives him. One Hadith goes like this: “If you don’t commit sin, Allah would create people who would commit sin and He would forgive them." (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2748) In one another Hadith the repenting person has been made equal to a person who is sinless. The beloved Messenger of Allah (SAWS) says: “The one who repents from his sin is like one who doesn’t commit sin.” (Sunan Ibne Majah, Hadith: 4250)
According to the statement of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His slaves. Allah’s messenger (SAWS) says: "Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His slave than anyone of you is pleased with finding his camel which he had lost in a desert." (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 6309)
The piece of writing is being concluded with a verse of the Holy Qrua’an where Allah the Almighty says that if a servant avoids form major sins, Allah will forgive his minor sins and grant him a noble entrance. Please see the translation of the verse: “If you abstain from the major (sins) out of what you have been forbidden from, We shall write off your minor sins, and shall admit you to a noble entrance.” (Al-Nisa/31) May Allah enable us for repentance and grant us Jannah! ***
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
Jealousy and Our Society
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Among the human parts of the body, the best one is the heart. If it is fine, the whole body will remain good enough. If it is not well, the other parts of the body will get affected as well. When the heart is spiritually fallen sick, it causes the hidden and spiritual diseases, such as malice, jealousy, pride, arrogance, hypocrisy, egotism, love for rank, position and wealth etc. These diseases don’t cause the destruction only in the world, but also they are the cause of failure and disappointment in the hereafter. One among these spiritual diseases is “Jealousy” spread in our society. It is heart’s disease. The jealousy is being explained in this write-up so that one can understand its harms.
Definition of Jealousy:
Literal meaning of jealous is envious of someone else’s possessions, achievements or advantages. In term, wishing of a man for the declining of someone’s bounty and boon given by Allah is called “Jealousy”. Either he wishes that bounty for himself or not. The one who wishes so is called “Jealous” and whose bounty is being wished to be declined is called “Looked upon with jealously”. In brief, the jealous person wishes declining the bounty of the person looked upon with jealous. (1)
There another close word to jealousy which is called “Envy”. The envy means that a person expresses a desire for being blessed with a bounty someone is already blessed with; without a wish of declining from him. (2)
Causes of Jealousy
After knowing that the jealousy is a disease and causes spiritual damage for the people who commit it; it is better to know its causes so that one can understand and try to avoid it to safeguard himself from it. Its several causes had been written in details by the famous thinker and Islamic philosopher Imam Muhammad bin Muhammad Al-Ghazali (450-505 AH) in his well-known book: “Ihyaau Uloomi Al-Deen”. Those causes are being summarised and mentioned here in brief:
1. Malice and Enmity: The person who is hurt or whose goals and objectives are interfered; becomes the enemy of the one who hurt or one who interfered. He dislikes that person. Now the malice and anger pushes him to avenge. If he fails to avenge, he wishes that someone should take revenge from him.
2. Ambition: Sometimes the cause of the jealous is that a person doesn’t like to see another person of his status being respected or superior. It means that the jealous person doesn’t want that a person of his status is being blessed with a bounty and showing his superiority above him.
3. Pride and Arrogance: Sometimes, the cause of jealous is that a person feels another one humiliated and disgraced due to his arrogance and pride. He wishes that other should be under his pressure and every time be at his command to follow his order. If by chance that person is blessed with some bounties, now that arrogant person fears that may be that person will change his attitude now and he won’t follow his order. Yet, he was arrogant, now another one will be arrogant. This forces him to be jealous of the bounty he is blessed with.
4. Astonishment: Sometimes a person feels astonished that another person is at high rank and in better position than him. Now, he feels surprised that is also cause of jealous.
5. Fear of Failure in Achieving a Goal: This cause of jealous is specially among those two people who try to achieve the same thing. Now, each one is jealous of a bounty which is helpful for another one to achieve that goal.
6. Desire for Power and Prestige: Sometimes, having desire for power and position is cause of jealous, e.g. a person is a matchless and has authority on a skill. He doesn’t want that someone else should gain that one so that he makes himself great by putting others down. The purpose of this person is not to achieve a materialistic gain, rather to gain praise and acceptability. So, if someone tries to learn the skill, he feels jealous of him and wishes decline of that one, e.g. bravery, knowledge, art, beauty etc.
7. Evil Nature and Soul: Sometimes, due to the evil nature and being one’s heart miser regarding goodness is a big cause of jealous. You can find easily some people of such nature. When they know about someone being blessed with some of Allah’s bounties, they will feel heavy heart and when they know that someone is suffering from or failed in achieving his goal, those evil nature people will feel happy. They don’t like to see others successful and happy, but to see them with miseries and difficulties. When they see someone with Allah’s bounty, they become restless and anxious as the bounty has been given from their treasures. (3)
Condemnation of Jealous in the Holy Qura’an:
The Almighty Allah has condemned the jealous at several places in the Holy Qura’an. Sometimes, under some another topics the jealous has been described and occasionally directly and clearly it has been condemned. Two verses of the Glorious Qura’an are being quoted here as follows. The Holy Qrua’an speaks:
“Or, is it that they are jealous of people over what Allah has given them of His bounty, while We have given to the House of Ibrahim the Book and the wisdom, and We have given to them a great kingdom?” (4)
Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (1887-1949) writes under the commentary of the above verse: “Is it that the Jews are dying of jealous of seeing the bounty and reward that Allah gave to Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and his companions (RA)? So, it is completely their stupidity and foolishness; because we (Allah) had granted the Book, knowledge and great kingdom to the family members of Ibrahim (AS). Then how are the Jews jealous of the prophet-hood and dignity of Muhammad (SAWS) and how can they deny; even now it is in the house of Ibrahim (AS).” (5)
This verse makes it clear that being Jews jealous are wrong on great bounties like prophet-hood, messenger-hood, dignity, respect, kingdom conferred upon the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and the bounty and rewards given to his companions (May be pleased with them!) by Allah. This verse also makes it clear that if Allah has blessed one of his servants with his boon and bounty, being jealous of it is prohibited.
The glorious Qura’an speaks at another place: “(O Muslims,) many among the people of the Book desire to turn you, after your accepting the faith, back into disbelievers – all out of envy on their part, even after the truth has become clear to them. So, forgive and overlook till Allah brings out His command. Certainly, Allah is powerful over everything.” (6)
Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (1896-1976) writes in the commentary of the above verse: “Some of the Jews, pretending to be the well-wishers of the Muslims, were always inventing new stratagems to make them turn away from Islam, and, in spite of repeated failure in this effort, did not refrain from it. The verse warns the Muslims against their intentions, which are motivated, not by sincerity and friendship, but by envy – which in its turn arises not from anything the Muslims do, but spontaneously from within themselves even after they have come to understand clearly what the truth is. The verse also asks the Muslims not to give way to their justifiable anger at such misconduct, but to forgive the Jews, and wait till Allah sends a new commandment with regard to such matters.” (7)
The gist of the above commentary is that the Muslims who were blessed with the great bounty of Iman, the Jews struggled and played different tricks, so that the Muslims would forsake Iman and turn away from Islam. The reason was that the Jews were jealous of Muslims’ great bounty of Iman. So, the struggle of Jews was not based on being well-wishers of Muslims, but it was due to the jealousy.
Prohibition of Jealous in the Hadith:
There are several sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) which emphasise and guide this Ummah to avoid and refrain from committing jealousy. Some of those sayings are being presented here so that we can understand through them the harms and evils of jealousy.
There is a Hadith which clearly tells that the jealous is like fire and it consumes good deeds as the fire consumes the wood. The Hadith is narrated by Abu Hurairah (RA). The translation is presented here:
The Prophet (SAWS) said: "Beware of envy, because the envy consumes good deeds as fire consumes wood" or he said, "grass." (8)
There is another Hadith which guides to avoid the hate, jealous etc. and teaches to live like brothers with each other. Anas bin Malik (RA) says that the messenger of Allah (SAWS) said:
"Don’t hate one another, and don’t be jealous of one another; and don’t desert each other, and O Allah's worshippers, be brothers! Lo! It is not permissible for any Muslim to desert (not talk to) his (Muslim) brother for more than three days." (9)
Shariah Ruling Over Jealous:
It is Shariah ruling that jealous is prohibited and forbidden and avoiding form it is compulsory. A Muslim, therefore, always must avoid from jealousy. Allah the Almighty says: (Translation) “And from the evil of an envier when he envies”. (10) Imam Ghazali (RA) writes: The jealous is forbidden in all cases. Albeit, if a disbeliever and sinful person is blessed with a bounty and he creates disturbance and mischief and creates dissention among the people, hurts the creations through that bounty, in such cases, it is allowed to hate and wish declining of that bounty. Because, now your dislike and wish of decline is not with the intention that he is blessed with a bounty, rather it is because he creates dissention among the people through that bounty. If there was not fear of disturbance and dissention through that bounty, neither would you have felt pain, nor would you have wished the decline of that bounty. (11)
How to Avoid Jealousy?
If someone is suffering from the disease of jealousy; the way to overcome jealousy and avoid it is that he must remember and recall in his mind that it is harmful for him not only in the world, but in the hereafter as well. It must be kept in mind that a jealous person is a sick person and he must try to get rid of this sickness. Whenever one feels jealous of a person on a bounty, he must return to Allah asking the same thing for himself and doesn’t wish declining of that thing from that person. If it isn’t possible, one should try to control his mind from that thing. He should make himself understand that that person is his brother, so why should he feel jealousy of him. If Allah has blessed him, he should feel happy. He should make Duaa for growth in his bounty. If one feels jealousy of a person, he should make Duaa for him, give something as gift to him and do good to him. A jealous person should also think about someone who is less in bounty than him. One should also interpret and make himself understand that this thing has no value in his eye. If one fails to control himself from jealousy, the fire of jealousy will continue consuming him as the fire consumes wood. The Islamic scholars have written that one who is used to feel jealousy of a person, should read: “Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zanbin Wa Atubu Aleihi” and “Al-Hamdulillah” repeatedly.
We must try our level best to avoid jealousy and make Duaa that may the Almighty Allah protect us from jealousy and other diseases like jealousy. The jealousy is such dangerous fire which burns the jealous person from inside into ashes. This disease is related to heart, so the heart also gets affected from it. When the heart is affected, it means the all parts of body are affected. One of the companions of the Prophet (SAWS), Numaan bin Bashir (RA) says that he heard the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) saying: “Beware! There is a piece of flesh in the body, if it becomes good (reformed), the whole body becomes good, but if it gets spoilt, the whole body gets spoilt, and that is the heart.” *** (12)
1. Al-Mausu’ah Al-Fiqhiyyah: 17/269
2. Al-Mausu’ah Al-Fiqhiyyah: 17/271
3. Ihyaul Uloom: 3/293-295
4. Al-Nisa: 54
5. Tafseers Usmani, Al-Nisa: 54
6. Al-Baqarah: 109
7. Ma’ariful Qura’an: 1/289
8. Sunan Abi Dawood, Book of Etiquette, Chapter of Envy, Hadith No.: 4903
9. Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of Etiquette, Chapter: Jealousy and mutual estrangement are forbidden, Hadith No.: 6065
10. Al-Falaq: 05
11. Ihyaul Uloom: 3/288
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Muhammad (SAWS) After Being Blessed with Prophethood:
Allah the Almighty blessed his last and final Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) with the prophet-hood when he was 40 years old. Following being blessed with the prophethood, he (SAWS) remained in Makkah for 13 years. This period is called the Makkan Life. In the Makkan Life, the Prophet (SAWS) called secretly only his close relatives towards Islam for three years. Then he (SAWS) proclaimed the Message of Deen openly for ten years. After ten years of Open Call, he migrated to Madinah which was called then Yathrib. The disbelievers of Makkah became his nasty enemies due to preaching Islam. As the people continued embracing Islam and the light of Islam continued spreading, the anger of the disbelievers also continued increasing. They couldn’t express their anger and oppression against the Muslims who had any tribal status or any supporter in Makkah. The Makkan pagans started an endless series of oppression against the Muslims who were poor, underprivileged, had no supporter and weren’t related to a high status tribe. The disbelievers harassed and persecuted them in various ways; but it couldn’t weaken their faith, instead it made their faith even stronger day by day. The Prophet’s grandfather, then uncle Abu Talib, were considered the men of great honour and dignity in the eyes of the Quraish. The family affiliation of the Prophet (SAWS) was important in the eyes of the one and all; therefore, to attack him (SAWS) was to wage war. But despite this fact, a few unfortunate people used to trouble and persecute him in various ways. He (SAWS) had to suffer various persecutions, hardships and pains. In this article, the light is being shed on some of the persecutions, troubles and hardships of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) in the Makkan life.
Enmity of Abu Lahab Abdul Uzza:
The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) started calling first his family members towards Islam. Those people who were at the forefront in opposing and hating his mission and tried their level best to stop the preaching of Islam, amongst them were also his family members such as Abu Lahab. He was one of the uncles of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). His name was Abdul Uzza bin Abdul Muttalib. His surname was Abu Utaibah and he was called Abu Lahab; because of the brightness of his face. He used to often cause harm to the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). He hated and scorned him and his religion. (Tafseer Ibn Kathir: 8/514) This enemy of Islam always used to think to finish Islam.
Abu Lahab’s Pelting Stone at the Prophet (SAWS) in Zul-Majaz Bazaar:
Tariq bin Abdullah Muharibi (RA) said: I saw the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) in the bazaar of Zul-Majaz; while I was busy in trading. He (SAWS) had worn a red Jubba and used to say it loudly: “O people! Say there is none worthy of worship, besides Allah, you will be successful”. A man was following and throwing stones at him from behind, which caused his shins and heels to bleed. The man used to say at the same time: “O people! Do not listen to him. He is a liar. Muharibi says that he asked who this person (Muhammad SAWS) was. The people replied that the boy (Muhammad SAWS) is from the Banu Abdul Muttalib. (Then) I asked: Who is the person who follows him and pelts stone at him? The people replied: He is his uncle Abdul Uzza, i.e. Abu Lahab.” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Hadith: 36565)
Placing Thorny Branches in the Path of the Prophet (SAWS):
Wife of Abu Lahab was among the leading women of the Quraish. Her surname was Umm Jamil. Her name was Arwah bint Harb bin Umayyah. She was supportive of her husband in his disbelief, rejection and obstinacy. Therefore, she will be helping to administer his punishment in the fire of Hell on the Day of Judgement. This unfortunate lady used to collect thorny branches from the jungle and place them in the path of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) in order to harm him. She also used to taunt him (SAWS) for poverty. (Tafseer Ibn Kathir: 8/515)
Divorcing Daughters of the Prophet (SAWS):
Two daughters of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS): Ruqiya (RA) and Umm Kulthum (RA) were married to the enemy of Islam Abu Lahab’s two sons: Utaiba and Utbah. It was just Nikaah and the matrimonial relation had not taken place as they were not sent then to their husbands’ home. Following the revelation of Surah Lahab, with the intention of defaming and disgracing the Prophet (SAWS), Abu Lahab and his wife ordered their sons to divorce the daughters of the Prophet (SAWS).
Imam Tabarani narrates on the authority of Qatadah (RA) that the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS): Umm Kulthum (RA) was married to Utaiba bin Abi Lahab. Raqiyah (RA) was married to Utaibah’s brother Utbah bin Abi Lahab. When Allah Almighty revealed Surah Lahab, Abu Lahab said to his two sons: Utaibah and Utbah, “If you don’t divorce the daughters of Muhammad (SAWS), my head will be Haraam for the head of you both.” Their mother, daughter of Harb ibn Umayyah and she is the carrier of the firewood, said: “You both divorce them; because they have become apostate of their religion.” So, they both divorced them. (Tafsir Durre Manthoor: 8/667)
As the practice of divorce is considered a disgrace in some of the noble families of today, in the same way, it was regarded as a disgrace in the noble families of Arab society at that time. Then for a father who has the high example of nobility and his two daughters get divorced at the same time and that too at the time when that father is facing all kinds of troubles and hardships; so how much pain it can cause is difficult to describe.
Spatting at the Blessed Face of the Prophet (SAWS):
Not to speak of Abu Lahab and Umm Jamil ordering their sons to divorce the daughters of the Prophet (SAWS); even Umme Jamil forced her sons to use foul language to him (SAWS) along with divorcing his two daughters. So, the wretched Utbah spat at the face of the Prophet (SAWS) and divorced (his daughter) using the inappropriate words. (Tafseer Haqqani: 8/ 247)
Soothsayer and Magician:
As long as the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) had not proclaimed his prophet-hood, he (SAWS) was known as a good human being, intellectual and wise man in Makkah. The Makkan people gave him the titles: Al-Sadiq (the Truthful) and Al-Amin (the Trustworthy). When he (SAWS) proclaimed his prophet-hood; they tried their level best to paint him with bad titles like soothsayer, magician etc.; so that the people shouldn’t come near to him and shouldn’t listen to his talk. But for those whose hearts Allah had decided to be enlightened with the light of faith, it had no effect on them. On the contrary, despite of facing the troubles and hardships, they used to come to the Prophet (SAWS) and enlightened their hearts with the light of the Islamic messages.
Whenever the disbelievers witnessed a miracle of the Prophet (SAWS), they would say that it is a magic that will end soon. Allah the Almighty says: “When these people see a sign, they turn away and say, “(This is) a transient magic.” (Al-Qamar: 2) “Thus the verse means that the Quraish alleged that the sign of moon-splitting they saw was an illusion and false; its effect will soon diminish and fade away.” (Ma’arif Al-Qura’an: 8/242)
At another place, the Almighty Allah says: “They (the pagans) wonder that a warner has come to them from among themselves. And the disbelievers say, “This is a magician, a sheer liar.” (Saad: 04)
Abu Dharr Ghifari (RA) quoting the story of his brother Unais, who visited Makkah and met Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), says that he asked him what he did in Makkah: He said: ‘I met a man in Makkah who follows your religion. He says that Allah has sent him.’ I said: ‘What do the people say?’ He said: ‘They say that he is a poet, or a soothsayer, or a magician.’ And Unais was one of the poets. Unais said: ‘I have heard the words of the soothsayers, and he is not a soothsayer. I compared his words to the words of poetry, and no one after me can say that he is a poet. By Allah, he (Muhammad SAWS) is telling the truth and they are lying.’ (Sahih Muslim: 2473)
Crazy and Insane:
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was a great human being. He never committed any inappropriate action. He never talked nonsense. He never misbehaved with any old or young person. But just after the proclamation of Prophet-hood, the infidels of Makkah started calling him crazy and insane. The Glorious Quran speaks: “How will they take lesson, while there has already come to them a messenger making things clear? Then they turned away from him, and said, “(He is) tutored, crazy.” (Al-Dukhan: 13-14)
The glorious Qura’an speaks at another place: “They (the disbelievers of Makah) say (to Allah’s Messenger SAWS), ‘O you to whom the Dhikr (the Qur’an) has been revealed, you are surely insane (falsely claim about the Prophet-hood).” (Al-Hijr: 06) The fact is that those who called crazy and insane to this great teacher of humanity and the leader of guidance were themselves crazy, senseless, insane, stubborn, obstinate, disobedient and rebellious.
There is a narration which speaks that Dimaad (RA) came to Makkah. He was from the tribe of Azd Shanu’ah. He used to treat people with Ruqyâ’ (in the case of Jinn possession). He heard the fools among the people of Makkah saying that Muhammad (SAWS) was possessed. He said: “If I see this man, perhaps Allah will heal him at my hands.” He says that he met him and said: “O Muhammad (SAWS), I treat people with Ruqyâ’ in the case of Jinn possession, and Allah heals at my hands whomsoever He wills. Do you want that (you be treated with Ruqya)?” Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: “Praise be to Allah, We praise Him and seek His help. Whomsoever Allah guides, none can lead astray, and whomsoever He sends astray, none can guide. I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah alone with no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.” Dimaad said: “Say these words of yours to me again.” The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) repeated them three times and (Dimaad) said: “I have heard the words of the soothsayers, the words of the magicians and the words of the poets; but I have never heard anything like these words of yours. You have scaled the heights of eloquence.” He said: “Give me your hand so that I may pledge allegiance to Islam.” So he gave him his pledge of allegiance. Then the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “And on behalf of your people (too).” He said: “(Yes) And on behalf of my people (too).” (Sahih Muslim: 868)
Abu Jahl’s Throwing Soil at the Prophet (SAWS):
A man of the Banu Malik ibn Kanana says that he saw the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) in the bazaar of Dhul-Majaz saying: “O people! Say there is none worthy of worship, except Allah, you will be successful”. The narrator says that Abu Jahl used to throw soil at him and say: ‘O people! Be careful! This person may deceive you about your religion; because he wants you to give up Laat and Uzzaa (two idols); while the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) didn’t pay any attention to him. (Musnad Ahmad: 16603)
Abu Jahl Cracks the Head of the Prophet (SAWS):
Abu Jahl was an aggressive person. He was always behind our Prophet (SAWS). He used to insult and trouble him a lot. One day, first he insulted the Prophet (SAWS) and then he injured his head. When the uncle of the Prophet (SAWS), Hamzah (RA) came to know it, he couldn’t control himself and attacked Abu Jahl with his bow and announced embracing Islam.
“It is recorded that the Prophet (SAWS) was one day seated on the hillock of Safa when Abu Jahl happened to pass by and accused the religion preached by him. Muhammad (SAWS), however, kept silent and didn’t utter a single word. Abu Jahl went on unchecked, took a stone and cracked the Prophet’s head which began to bleed. The aggressor then went to join the Quraishites in their assembly place. It so happened that shortly after that, Hamzah (RA) while returning from a hunting expedition, passed by the same way, his bow hanging by his shoulder. A slave-girl belonging to Abdullah bin Jada’an, who had noted the impertinence of Abu Jahl, told him the whole story of the attack on the Prophet (SAWS). On hearing that, Hamzah (RA) was deeply offended and hurried to Ka’abah and there, in the courtyard of the Holy sanctuary, found Abu Jahl sitting with a company of Quraishites. Hamzah (RA) rushed upon him and struck his bow upon his head violently and said: “Ah! You have been abusing Muhammad (SAWS); I too follow his religion and profess what he preaches.” (Sealed Nectar, P.: 108)
Abu Jahl’s Intention to Assassinate the Prophet (SAWS):
One day, Abu Jahl said addressing the Quraish that Muhammad (SAWS) finds fault in our religion. He (SAWS) insults our ancestors and gods, therefore, I promise Allah that tomorrow I will sit down with a heavy stone and when he prostrates, I will crush his head with the same stone….. When it was next morning, he took a stone as he had described and sat down to wait (for the Prophet SAWS). The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) came as he used to come….. Then the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) was engaged in Salaah….. As soon as he (SAWS) prostrated, Abu Jahl picked up a stone and walked towards him. When Abu Jahl came close to him (SAWS), he returned back in a shocking state. His face complexion was pale and he was so terrified and in the awe that both of his hands were stuck to the same stone in his hands and he could hardly managed to throw the stone from his hand.
Some people of the Quraish tribe came to him and asked: “O Abu Jahl! What happened to you?” Abu Jahl replied: “I stood up to do what I had promised to do the last night.” When I reached him, a camel came across between him and me. I swear by God! I never saw a camel whose skull, neck and teeth are like that camel. He wanted to eat me.” (Seerate Ibn Hisham: 1/298-299)
Camel’s Intestines on the Back of Prophet (SAWS):
Once upon a time, the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was offering Salaah near the Ka’bah. Abu Jahl was sitting with some of his friends. Some of them said to others, “Who amongst you will bring the abdominal contents (intestines etc.) of a camel of Bani so-and-so and put it on the back of Muhammad (SAWS), when he prostrates?” The most wretched of them (Uqba bin Abi Mu’aeet) got up and brought it. He waited till the Prophet (SAWS) prostrated and then placed it on his back between his shoulders. He (SAWS) was unable to stand due its burden. Abdullah bin Masood (RA) was watching it, but due to his weakness and the tyranny of the oppressors couldn’t assist the Prophet (SAWS). He wished he had some people with him to hold out against them. They started laughing and falling on one another. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) was in prostration and he couldn’t lift his head up till (the daughter of the Prophet SAWS) Fatima (RA) came and threw that camel’s abdominal contents away from his back. (Sahih Bukhari: 240/3185/3854)
Offer of Man for Man:
To kill the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), the disbelievers of the Quraish made an offer of “man for man”. They wanted to give Umarah bin Walid to Abu Talib and get the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) for his exchange so that they would kill him (SAWS). So, the disbelievers of Quraish talked to Abu Talib:
“O Abu Talib! We have brought you a smart boy still in the bloom of his youth, to make use of his mind and strength and take him as your son in exchange for your nephew, who has run counter to your religion, brought about social discord, found fault with your way of life, so that we kill him and rid you of his endless troubles; just man for man.” Abu Talib’s reply was, “It is really an unfair bargain. You give me your son to bring him up and I give you my son to kill him! By Allah, it is something incredible!” Al-Mut’im bin Adi, a member of the delegation, interrupted saying that the Quraish had been fair in that bargain “They meant only to rid you of that source of hateful trouble, but as I see you are determined to refuse their favours.” Abu Talib, of course, turned down all their offers and challenged them to do whatever they pleased. (The Sealed Nectar: 105)
Putting the Garment around the Neck and Throttling:
The disbelievers of Makkah didn’t let the Prophet (SAWS) even to offer Salaah peacefully. When the Prophet (SAWS) used to be in Salaah, sometimes they would place the intestines of the camel on his blessed back and sometime they would put the garment around the blessed neck and would start throttling. There is a tradition in Sahih Bukhari which speaks about it.
Urwa bin Zubair asked (Abdullah) Ibn Amr bin Aas (RA): “Tell me of the worst thing which the pagans did to the Prophet (SAWS).” He said: “While the Prophet (SAWS) was offering Salaah in the Hateem of the Ka’bah, suddenly Uqba bin Abi Mu’aeet came and put his garment around the neck of the Prophet (SAWS). Then he throttled him violently. Abu Bakr (RA) came and caught him by his shoulder and pushed him away from the Prophet (SAWS) and said: “Would you kill a man just because he says, ‘My Lord is Allah?’” [al-Ghafir: 28] (Sahih Bukhari: 3856)
Stretching the Hair of the Head and Beard:
Sometimes the polytheists would grab the hair of head and beard of the Prophet (SAWS) and would pull it so hard that his hair would fall out. (Sirat-e-Halabiyah Urdu, vol. 1, P. 276)
Three-Year Social Boycott:
The disbelievers of Quraish together decided to kill the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) saying that “He has turned our children and even our women away from us.” Then they said to the family of the Prophet (SAWS): “Take double blood money from us and allow a Quraish man to kill him, so that we can have peace and you can get benefit.” When this proposal was not granted, then getting anger by this, they decided to socially boycott the Banu Hashim and the Banu Abdul Muttalib, who were the helpers of the Prophet (SAWS). The Quraish decided to expel them from Makkah and besiege and confine them in the valley called Sha’b Abu Talib.
According to a narration, it was also decided: “Do not marry with the daughters of the Bani Hashim and don’t get your daughters married to them, don’t sell and buy anything from them and don’t accept any reconciliation from them.” So, whenever a caravan of traders came to Makkah from outside and these helpless people would come to them immediately to buy some food stuffs from them; Abu Lahab used to follow them immediately and say, “Increase the price so much that they cannot afford to buy something.” The traders used to do the same. Then they would come back without buying anything in despair to their children. The children who were suffering from starvation, would sob and cry when they saw them returning back empty-handed.
The Muslims faced tough time in that valley. Due to the social boycott from the Quraish, they didn’t get anything to eat and drink. The Muslims were in the worst situation due to hunger. They used to live and pass their time by eating grass, the leaves of the tree and the skins. This difficult and hard time continued for three consecutive years. (Extracted from: Sirat-e-Halabiyah Urdu, vol. 1, last-half, p. 393-394)
Oppression from the People of Taif:
Following the death of Abu Talib, the Prophet (SAWS) travelled to Taif walking in Shawwal, 10th year of the Prophethood, accompanied by his freed slave: Zaid bin Haritha to seek help from the Thaqif. It was hoped that the people of Taif would accept the message of Allah with which he (SAWS) had gone to them. After reaching Taif, he (SAWS) wanted to meet the three chieftains of the Thaqif: Abd Yaleel, Masood and Habib. They were brothers. He (SAWS) sat with them and talked about helping Islam and helping himself against any of his people who oppose him.
After hearing the talk of the Prophet (SAWS), the chieftains of Thaqif responded very frivolously. One said: “He is tearing the cloths of Ka’bah, is it true that Allah has sent you as a Messenger?” Actually he meant by his statement that if Muhammad (SAWS) is a Prophet, then may Allah destroy him. Another one said: “Has not Allah found someone else to entrust him with His Message?” The third brother said: “I swear by Allah that I will never have any contact with you. If you are really the Messenger of Allah, then you are too serious to report back, and if you are belying Allah then I feel it is imperative not to speak to.” The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) was disappointed with their behaviours and answers. Then he (SAWS) stood up and left asking them to keep as secret whatever happened there.
When the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) intended to come back from there, those chieftains incited their slaves and thugs to attack him. They insulted him, clapped and shouted at him, until a crowd of the people gathered. There was a line of people on both sides of the road. At the time of passing by there, as soon as the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) took a step, they would throw stones at his shins so much so that his shins were injured and his shoes were filled with blood. When he (SAWS) was hurt with the stone, he would sit on the ground. Those unfortunate people used to hold his arms and when he (SAWS) would start walking, they would throw stones at him (SAWS) again and laugh. Zayd ibn Harithah used to protect him as a shield, until his head also was injured. (Uyoon al-Athar: 1/155-156)
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) somehow managed to reach the garden of the sons of Rabiah. After a while, he (SAWS) left that garden. Then what happened next, let’s read the exact words which came out of the blessed mouth: “So, I departed, overwhelmed with excessive sorrow, and proceeded on and couldn’t relax till I found myself at Qarn Tha’alib, where I lifted my head towards the sky to see a cloud shading me unexpectedly. I looked up and saw Jibril (AS) in it. He called me saying, ‘Allah has heard your people’s saying to you and what they replied back to you. Allah has sent the angel of the mountains to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people.’ The angel of the mountains called upon me and greeted me, and then said, ‘O Muhammad (SAWS)! Order what you wish. If you like, I will let A1-Akhshabain (two mountains) fall on them.” The Prophet (SAWS) said, “No, but I hope that Allah will let them beget children who will worship Allah Alone and will worship none besides Him.” (Sahih Bukhari: 3231)
Assassination Plot in Dar al-Nadwa and Migration Order:
Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) found his companions being tortured harshly in Makkah. They were stoned and dragged across stony ground. They were made to lie on burning sand and the rocks were placed on their chests. He (SAWS), therefore, advised them to migrate to Madinah, except for Abu Bakr (RA). This is the time that the supporters like Abu Talib had passed away. Then the Quraish were very furious and they didn’t want to tolerate the Prophet (SAWS) for any more; because according to them, he (SAWS) was insulting their ancestors and gods. So they wanted to imprison or send him in exile or kill him; so that they can get rid of him. Then the chiefs of the Quraish secretly gathered at their meeting place called Dar al-Nadwa to take a decision against the Prophet (SAWS). Some members suggested to tie him in an iron chain, put in a room and close the door. Someone said send him in exile.
A person appearing in the form of an old man and pretending to be from Najd, sitting in Dar al-Nadwa, pointed out the flaw of these opinions. This old man was actually Iblis. Abu Jahl bin Hisham was of the opinion: “Let us choose a strong young man from each tribe. We should give each one of them a sharp sword. They should attack him at the same time and kill him. When they kill him like this, his blood will be divided into different tribes. Then I don’t think that the Banu Hashim will dare to fight all of them. When the people of the Banu Hashim observe this situation, they will agree to take blood money. Then we will pay it to them.” Iblis, sitting in the gathering and pretending to be a person from Najd, said that what this man (Abu Jahl) opined carries a weight and there is no opinion after this opinion, therefore, all the members became ready for it.
The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) and any Muslim didn’t come to know this heinous assassination plot. Jibreel (AS) came to him (SAWS) and said: “Do not sleep tonight on the bed on which you sleep in the night. When the night darkened, everyone (with killing plot) was waiting for him to sleep, so that they would attack him at a time to kill. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) advised Ali (RA) to sleep on his bed and don the green Hadhrami sheet, which he (SAWS) used to don while sleeping. You will not face an undesirable action from them. Then he (SAWS) came out facing them with a fistful of dust taking in his hand. Then he (SAWS) threw that dust at their heads, while he (SAWS) was reciting the 1-5 verses of Surah Yasin. Then Allah the Almighty took away their eye-sight and they couldn’t see him (SAWS). When the Prophet (SAWS) had completed reciting those verses, none of them was left who had not found that dust on his head. Then he (SAWS) left that place for a place where he (SAWS) was ordered to migrate. (Seerate Ibn Hisham: 1/482-483)
In short, during the thirteen-year of Makkan period, Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) had to suffer from various persecutions, tortures, troubles and hardships. Several times the people of the Quraish plotted to kill him. They threw stones at him (SAWS). They threw dust at him (SAWS). They spread thorns in his way. They made attempt to spit at his blessed face. He (SAWS) endured every hardship and didn’t run away from his mission. He (SAWS) remained fully engaged in conveying the message of Deen as it was his mission. He (SAWS) provided the best example of noble character and good model for his Ummah. Allah the Almighty says: “There is indeed a good model for you in the Messenger of Allah -for the one who has hope in Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah profusely.” (Al-Ahzab: 21)
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia – Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
It is well-known to the friends and the foes that Allah’s last and final Messenger Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was on the highest degree of truthfulness and trustworthiness. He (SAWS) was like a spring from where the truthfulness and trustworthiness were flowing. The people of Makkah used to address him as Al-Sadiq (Truthful) and Al-Ameen (Trustworthy). They honoured him with the title of Truthful; because he was true to his word. There wasn’t even a shadow of lie in what he spoke. When he (SAWS) started dealing with the people, they realized his trustworthiness and honoured him with the title of Al-Amin (Trustworthy). In spite of being the nasty enemies, the disbelievers of Makkah regarded him as truthful, trustworthy and honest and used to refer to him (SAWS) with these titles. Then in such worst environment of Makkah, the trustworthiness, truthfulness, honesty and chastity of the Prophet (SAWS) was always the talk of the town.
At Mount Safa of Makkah:
Almost three years, Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) invited the people to Islam secretly. During this period, by the grace of Allah, some fortunate people embraced Islam. Then Allah the Almighty instructed him (SAWS) to proclaim the invitation openly as the following verses were revealed: “Now, proclaim what you are commanded to, and turn away from those who ascribe partners to Allah.” (Al-Hijr: 94) “And warn the nearest people of your clan, and be kind with humbleness to the believers who followed you.” (Al-Shu’araa: 214-215)
Following the revelation of such verses, one day, Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) ascended the famous Mount Safa of Makkah and called each tribe by the name. When the people of those tribes assembled around him, he (SAWS) asked them: “If I caution you about a marauding party on the other side of this mountain that is about to attack you, would you believe me?” On that occasion, the people from each tribe bore witness of the truthfulness and honesty of the Prophet (SAWS) in one voice. They replied: “Surely, why not! We have only known you to be honest and truthful.” Following that, inviting them to Islam, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: “I am warning you about a severe punishment that may befall you (if you don’t accept my message from Allah the Exalted).” Then unfortunately Abu Lahab replying in negative said: “Woe unto you. May you perish! Did you assemble us here for this reason only?” Then all assembled people scattered.
Abu Dharr (RA)’s Brother Unais’ Witness:
Unais, brother of Abu Dharr (RA) visited Makkah and met Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). Abu Dharr (RA) is narrating the same story wherein one can find that Unais in spite of being a strange and a wise man, bears witness that the Prophet (SAWS) was a truthful person. Abu Dharr (RA) mentions: "I said (to Unais): 'What did you do?' He said: 'I met a man (Muhammad SAWS) in Makkah who follows your religion. He says that Allah has sent him.' I said: 'What do the people say?' He said: 'They say that he is a poet, or a soothsayer, or a magician.' And Unais was one of the poets. "Unais said: 'I have heard the words of the soothsayers and he is not a soothsayer. I compared his words to the words of poetry and no one after me can say that he is a poet. By Allah, he is telling the truth and they are lying.' (Sahih Muslim: 2473)
Confession of Abu Jahl:
Abu Jahl was one of the nastiest enemies of Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS). He used to speak foul language against the Prophet (SAWS). He tried his level best to torture him (SAWS) mentally and physically. But he also confessed the truthfulness of the Prophet (SAWS) in his personal gathering. Once, Akhnas asked Abu Jahl: O Abul Hakm! Since here is none besides you and me from the Qureish who can hear us, so let me know about Muhammad (SAWS), is he a truthful or a liar? Answering to the secretive question of Akhnas, Abu Jahl replied: “Woe unto you, by Allah, Muhammad (SAWS) is a truthful person and he never spoke a lie.” (Tafseer Al-Tibri: 9/222)
Second Confession of Abu Jahl:
It is not once that Abu Jahl confessed the truth of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) among his friends; but on several occasions, he admitted it. Once upon a time, Abu Jahl was making Tawaf of the Holy Ka’bah in the night; while Waleed, son of Mughirah was with him. They started talking about the Prophet (SAWS). During the talk, Abu Jahl said: “By Allah, I’m very well aware of being Muhammad (SAWS) truthful. Waleed retorted him, keep quiet. What led you to that extend (that he (SAWS) is a truthful)? Abu Jahl replied: “O Abu Abd Shams (Patronymic of Waleed)! We used to address him as Al-Sadiq and Al-Amin in his childhood. When he became wise and mature, we named him a liar and dishonest! By Allah, I know him very well that he is a truthful person. Then Abu Abd Shams said: Then what is stopping to believe in him? Abu Jahl said: The Quriesh girls would say about me that I followed the path of Abu Talib’s orphan (who was brought up by Abu Talib), due to the fear of the defeat and downfall. I swear by Laat and Uzza! I will never follow this orphan. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubi: 16/170) Such an opponent like Abu Jahl couldn’t stop himself from confessing the truthfulness of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS).
The Prophet (SAWS)’s Business with Saib (RA):
When two people do a business together in partnership, at that time, their honesty, reliability and truthfulness are known to each other. When the Prophet (SAWS) started his business, the people observed closely his truthfulness and trustworthiness. He (SAWS) was the partner of Saib (RA) in a business. On the day of the Conquest of Makkah, Saib (RA) came to him (SAWS). Then what happened, read his words. He says: "I came to the Prophet (SAWS) and they started praising me, and saying good things about me. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: 'I know best (about him),' I said: 'You are right, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you. You were my partner and what a good partner, you didn’t argue or quarrel."
The Prophet (SAWS)’s Arbitration about the Placing the Black Stone:
Due to the truthfulness, honesty, wisdom and good understanding of any issue, the people of Makkah used to like the Prophet (SAWS) and make him an arbitrator when they had a controversial issue. They believed that he (SAWS) would do justice in mediating the issue. When he (SAWS) gave a judgment about an issue, the people never hesitated to endorse it due to his truthfulness, trustworthiness and honesty. When the Prophet (SAWS) was 35 years old, the Qureish decided to reconstruct the holy Ka’abah. The reconstruction was divided over the various clans; so that none remains deprives of this noble service. Each clan started to rebuild their allocated portion of the Ka’bah under the supervision of a Roman builder called “Baqum”. When the building reached completion and the crucial moment of placing the Black Stone (Hajare Aswad) surfaced, several clans started arguing that who should be given the opportunity to place the Black Stone at its place. So, the violent disputes broke out among them. The people started fearing that it might lead to a fight and killing each other at the sacred and holy place of Ka’bah.
When the people didn’t find the solution of this issue, Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah Makhzumi, the father of Umme Salamah (RA), a wise and eldest person of the Qureish, submitted his opinion that the decision to raise the stone should be conferred upon the first person who enters the door of the Haram the next morning. We will accept him as our arbitrator and whatever decision he gives, we will agree upon it. The people approved this proposal. To protect those people from the big fight, Allah the Almighty enabled the Prophet (SAWS) next morning to reach the Haram firstly. When the people reached the Haram, next day in the morning, they saw the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) as the first entrant of the Haram. With one voice, they spontaneously proclaimed: “This is Muhammad, the trustworthy. We are pleased with him (as arbiter). This is after all Muhammad.” (Noor al-Yaqin Fi Seerah Sayyid al-Mursalin, P.: 17)
On such critical occasion, the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) gave very beautiful, wise and convincing decision. He (SAWS) asked for a sheet to place the Black Stone onto it. Then he (SAWS) asked: “The chief of each tribe should grasp the ends of the sheet so that none of the tribes are deprived of this grand opportunity. They grasped a side of the sheet and hoisted it to the vicinity where the black stone was to be placed. He (SAWS) then went forward and with his blessed hands raised the stone and placed it in its proper place. This was such arbitration that the people remain protected from a big fight. Allah’s peace and blessing be upon such great arbitrator! (Al-Seerah Al-Nabawiyyah Ala’ Zaw Al-Qura’an Wa Al-Sunnah: 1/228)
The Prophet (SAWS)’s Truthfulness and Honesty in the Court of Negus:
When a big group of the Muslims (83 Males and 18 Females) reached Abyssinia making the second migration, the disbelievers of the Quriesh sent two very shrewd and clever men: Abdullah bin Abi Rabiah and Amr bin Al-Aas bin Waail as its ambassadors to Abyssinia to talk to the King Negus. Requesting the king they said: O King, our few unwise youths are in your kingdom. Please send them back! The king refused to send them back without investigating their worry and concern. The king sent his messenger to call those migrants. They came in the court of the Negus. Representing the migrants, answering the questions of Negus, Jafar (RA) gave his inspirational sermon. In his sermon, describing about the pre-Islamic era and introducing Islam, he mentioned the truthfulness and honesty of Allah’s messenger (SAWS) as well. He said:
“O Emperor! All of us were ignorant. We would worship idols and devour carrion. We were caught up in a host of vices. We would sever family relationships and ill-treat our neighbours. The powerful amongst us would gobble up the weak. Whilst we were wallowing within such an abyss of spiritual decadence, Allah the Exalted favoured us with one of His messengers whose noble lineage, truthfulness, honesty and chastity we are fully aware of. (Musnad Ahmad: 1740) After listening to the clarification from Jafar (RA), the King refused to send the migrants back to Makkah.
Jibreel (AS) and the Truthfulness of the Prophet (SAWS):
The people of Makkah for whom the light of Iman was not destined, not only used to call the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) a magician, crazy etc.; but even they used to belie him (SAWS), whenever he used to present them the divine message and Wahi (Revelation) which was revealed upon him directly from Allah. So, once the Prophet (SAWS) was sitting sad and Jibril (AS) came to him. He asked Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) the reason behind saddening. He (SAWS) replied that the disbelievers of Makkah belied him. On that Jibril (AS) said: Truly they don’t belie you; they truly know that you are a truthful person; but the transgressors actually deny the signs of Allah. (Al-Ana’am: 33) (Tafseer Al-Tibri: 9/221)
Reason of Leaving Ali (RA) in Makkah in the Night of Hijrah:
When the people had some valuable items and they feared that it might be taken or stolen, at that time it was only the Prophet (SAWS) in whole Makkah that the people trusted him and they entrusted their items to his care; because they were well-aware of his truthfulness and trustworthiness. So, when the Prophet (SAWS) was instructed to migrate from Makkah to Madinah, at that time he (SAWS) had several entrusted items of the people with him. He (SAWS) handed over Ali (RA) those items and instructed him to return them to their rightful owners. He (SAWS) advised him to migrate only after he has retuned those items to the owners. This was the reason Ali was left behind in Makkah. (Seerah Ibn Hisham 1/485)
Despite of being the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) a truthful and a trustworthy; when he (SAWS) was blessed with the Prophethood and was given the responsibility to spread the true messages of Islam, the disbelievers of Makkah rejected his messages and they refused to come from the darkness to the light due to their pride, arrogance and egotism. They started spreading about the Prophet (SAWS) that he was a magician, fortune teller, crazy, a liar etc. They tortured and troubled him (SAWS); but he (SAWS) continued preaching Islam and having patience following Allah’s commandment as he (SAWS) was instructed. The Qura’an speaks: “So, be steadfast patiently in (obeying) your Lord’s command, and do not obey any one of them who is sinner or ungrateful.” (Al-Dahr: 24) ****
* The author is Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa and can be accessed at email@example.com
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Allah, the Almighty sent the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) as a mercy for all the worlds. His mercy, compassion and kindness were shown to each and every one. There can’t be a greater mercy than that after his arrival, the people wandering in darkness, accustomed to oppression, devoid of good morals and unaware of the culture and civilization, being blessed with light of Islam, enlightened the whole world and presented a high example of the humanity. All the creations of Allah Almighty: humans, Jinns, animals, plants etc. benefited from his mercy. Every sensible person witnessed the truth of words of Allah: “And We have not sent you but as mercy for all the worlds.” (Al-Ambiya: 107) If a question is raised, how is the Prophet (SAWS) mercy for the person who didn’t respond to his Call and didn’t accept his messenger-hood? The answer to this question has been given by Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) in the commentary of the above verse. He says: “Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, the mercy has been written for them in this world and in the Hereafter. Those who don’t believe in Allah and His Messenger (i. e. remain disbelievers, for them he (SAWS) is a mercy in this world by the way that) they were saved from the punishment of being sunk into the ground and being pelted with stones from the sky, from which the previous nations suffered. (Tafseer Ibn Kathir: 5/387) Here in this article, some examples of the mercy, compassion, forgiveness and clemency of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) for Non-Muslims are being presented.
Hardship in Taif and Mountains’ Angel:
The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) went to Taif to convey the message of Allah in the month of Shawwal of the 10th year of the prophethood. He (SAWS) stayed in Taif for 10 days. He (SAWS) invited the chiefs of Taif: Abd Yalil, Habib and Masood towards Islam. They didn’t respond to the message, they troubled him (SAWS) and behaved harshly. He (SAWS) departed overwhelmed with excessive sorrow. They set the street urchins of Taif after him to pelt stones at him (SAWS). They did so in the way that his whole body was cover with blood. Bearing this hardship, he (SAWS) proceeded on and couldn’t relax till he (SAWS) reached Qarn Tha’alib. When he (SAWS) lifted his head towards the sky, he saw a cloud shading him. There was Jibril (AS) in it. He called him saying: Allah has heard what the people said and replied back to you. Allah has sent the mountains’ angel to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people. The mountains’ angel called upon him and greeted him and said: “O Muhammad (SAWS)! You may order whatever you wish! If you wish, I will let Al-Akhshabain (the two mountains on the both sides of Makkah known as Abu Qubais and Qu’aeiqia’an, Fathul Bari: 6/316) fall on them.” The Prophet (SAWS) replied: “I hope that Allah will let them beget children who will worship Allah Alone, will worship none besides him.” (Sahih Bukhari: 3231)
The reply of the Prophet (SAWS) to the mountains’ angel shows the high level of character, mercy, kindness, compassion, affection and patience regarding the disobedient and heartless people of Taif. It happened because the Almighty Allah had sent him as the mercy for the entire universe. If the Prophet (SAWS) had given permission to the angel to go ahead with his plan of letting the mountains fall on them, those unfortunate people would have been crushed and the earth would have been cleaned from them.
Plan to Murder Allah’s Messenger (SAWS):
The incident which took place with a Bedouin; while the Prophet (SAWS) was coming back on the occasion of the battle of Zaat Al-Riqa’, is very important in regard to trust in Allah, forgiveness, mercy and bravery of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). He (SAWS) went to fight a battle towards Najd along with his companions. While returning, they passed through a valley full of thorny trees. The time of the afternoon nap overtook them. They had a halt there for a nap. The companions dispersed amongst the thorny trees seeking the shade of the trees to rest and have a nap. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) took shelter under an acacia tree to have a nap hanging his sword on it. The companions were slept. Suddenly they heard the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) calling them. They came to him (SAWS). To their utter surprise, they found a bedouin sitting with him.
Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) informed them that when he (SAWS) was sleeping, the bedouin took his sword, which was hanging on the tree, out of its sheath. When he (SAWS) woke up, the bedouin said to the prophet (SAWS) while the naked sword was in his hand: ‘Who can save you from me?’ The prophet (SAWS) replied: ‘Allah.’ The Prophet (SAWS) didn’t punish him for that rather let him go back. (Sahih Bukhari: 4135)
The name of that bedouin was Ghaurath son of al-Harith. Following such dangerous incident and the plan of murder, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) didn’t avenge; while having full power and strength over that Non-Muslim bedouin. He (SAWS) neither troubled him because of his crime, nor did he show his power over him to retaliate. He (SAWS) showed his mercy and forgave him. Apparently, it was the result of his mercy and kindness that the bedouin embraced Islam according to a narration. (Fathul Bari: 7/428)
Releasing a Non-Muslim Captive:
Thumama (RA) was the chief of the Banu Hafinah tribe of Yamamah. It is situated between Makkah and Yemen. Once Thumamah (RA) planned to murder the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS); but he failed in his planning. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) made Duaa: “O Allah give me power over him!” (Al-Sunan Al-Kubra Lil-Baihaqi: 18031) The Dua was answered and the same happened. He was captured by the army under the leadership of Muhammad bin Muslimah Ansari (RA). He was brought Madinah and was tied to one of the pillars of Masjid Nabavi. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) went to him and said: “O Thumamah! What thoughts do you entertain of me?” Thumamah replied: “I only harbour good thoughts of you. If you execute me, you will be executing a person who deserves it and if you extend your munificence towards me, you will be extending it to one who is grateful and if you desire wealth, ask whatever you wish.” This situation continued for three days; but he didn’t accept Islam. On the third day, the Prophet (SAWS) said: “Release Thumamah.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4372)
This point is remarkable that the Prophet (SAWS) ordered to release a non-Muslim captive who had planned to kill him in the near past, though he didn’t get success in his planning. Then after having full power over him to take revenge, he (SAWS) released him. Definitely, it was his mercy that he (SAWS) released him. It should be also noted that just after being released, Thumamah (RA) embraced Islam. Then he left for Makkah for Umrah. When Thumamah reached Makkah, a disbeliever said to him: “You have become an atheist by renouncing your Deen?” Thumamah (RA) replied: “No! I have become a Muslim with Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS).” Thumamah (RA) then added: “No, by Allah! Not a single grain of wheat will come to you form Yamamah, unless the Prophet (SAWS) approves it.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4372)
Letter of the Prophet (SAWS) to Thumamah (RA) For Grain Supply:
Thumamah (RA) came back to his hometown: Yamamah. He imposed a grain blockade on Makkah and cut off all food supplies to them. Now, the people of Makkah, the Quraish were in the trouble. They were forced to write to the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) pleading with him and referring him about their family ties. They wrote to the Prophet (SAWS): “You command maintenance of favourable family ties. After all, we are from the same family. We request you to write to Thumamah instructing him to resume supply of the food grains.”
It is recorded in the history that these are the people (Quraish and Kinanah) who boycotted the Banu Hashim and the Banu al-Muttalib, because of the Prophet (SAWS) and his companions for a period of three years. They were forced to stay in the valley of Abi Talib. The Quraish, Kinanah etc. had made a mutual agreement that they would sever all business dealings, marriage etc. with the Banu Hashim and the Banu al-Muttalib as long as they don’t hand over the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) to them. They were not letting the merchants to reach them to sell anything. They had imposed a kind of grain blockade on the Prophet (SAWS) and his companions staying in the valley. On this occasion, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) didn’t want to take revenge; rather he showed his kindness and human love wholeheartedly and wrote a letter to Thumamah (RA). He (SAWS) instructed him in the letter to let the food stuff go to Makkah.
Prayer of Guidance for the People of Daus:
Tufail Dausi (RA) had arrived Makkah and embraced Islam. Then he returned to his homeland. Following the migration of the Prophet (SAWS), he came to Madinah. Once he went to Daus, his homeland. He invited the people of his tribe towards Islam; but they refused to accept his invitation. After returning, he came to the Prophet (SAWS) and said: “O Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)! The people of the Daus tribe disobeyed and refused to follow you (to embrace Islam); so invoke Allah against them.” The people said, “The tribe of Daus is ruined (if the Prophet (SAWS) would invoke Allah against it.).” The Prophet (SAWS) said: “O Allah! Give guidance to the people of Daus, and let them embrace Islam”. (Sahih Bukhari: 2937)
Similar to the previous narration, we find one another narration about the Thaqif tribe. On the occasion of the battle of Taif, when the Muslims laid siege to this town; the Thaqif began raining down arrows on the Muslims. The companions requested the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) to invoke Allah against the people of Thaqif; but he (SAWS) didn’t want that the Thaqif should be destroyed. He (SAWS) wanted guidance for them. So, he expressed his kindness and prayed for them. The companions said: ‘O Messenger of Allah (SAWS)! Thaqif has razed us with their arrows. So, supplicate to Allah against them!’ The Prophet (SAWS) replied: ‘O Allah! Guide The Thaqif!’ (Then the whole tribe embraced Islam.) (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3942)
Death of a Hypocrite & Kindness of the Prophet (SAWS):
Famous hypocrite, but let me say the chief of the hypocrites, Abdullah, son of Ubayy died. His son, Abdullah (RA) was a sincere Muslim and the companion. He came to Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) and requested him to grant his Qamis (Shirt) so that he could shroud his father in it. He (SAWS) gave him. Then he asked the Prophet (SAWS) to perform the funeral prayer for him. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) got up to perform the funeral prayer for him. Umar (RA) stood up and got hold of the garment of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) and said: “O Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)! Will you offer the funeral prayer for him; while your Lord has forbidden you to offer the prayer for him?” The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “But Allah has given me the choice by saying: ‘Whether you (O Muhammad) ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites) or ask not forgiveness for them- (and even) if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness -‘ (Al-Taubah: 80) so I will ask more than seventy times.” Umar (RA) said: “But he is a hypocrite!” The narrator says: However, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) offered the funeral prayer for him. Then Allah revealed: “And never (O Muhammad) pray (funeral prayer) for anyone of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave. (Al-Taubah: 84) (Sahih Bukhari: 4670)
Here is an important point that the Prophet (SAWS) gave his Qamis for shrouding that chief of the hypocrites and perform his funeral prayer. It is him who cheated the Prophet (SAWS) on the day of the battle of Uhud. He deserted the Muslims together with his followers, reducing the strength of the Muslims by three hundred. Despite that fact, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) showed his kindness for such a hypocrite; until he (SAWS) was stopped by the Almighty Allah clearly not to offer the funeral prayer for a hypocrite. The history can’t cite an example of the character which may match the character of the Prophet (SAWS).
Revenge of the Battle of Uhud:
The battle of Uhud took place in Shawwal 3rd Hijrah. In this battle, 70 companions, sixty-four of Ansar and six of Muhajirin, were martyred. Hamzah (RA), the beloved uncle of the Prophet (SAWS) was one of them. The martyrs were mutilated by the non-Muslim enemies. It made the companions furious. They had planned that if they had such chance, they would take its revenge in the same manner. Then the day of the Conquest of Makkah came. Allah the Almighty revealed the verse: “And if you punish them, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. But if you have patience with them, then it is better for those who are patient.” With the intention of revenge, a companion said: “There shall be no Quraish after today.” He meant that the Quraish would be wiped out; because the Muslims were in the position to take revenge of the battle of Uhud on the day of the Conquest of Makkah. In such situation, the Messenger of mercy and kindness Muhammad (SAWS) said: “We will have patience and we will not punish.” (Musnad Ahmad: 21229) According to another narration, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “Leave the people, except for four.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3129) Briefly, the Prophet (SAWS) declared the general amnesty for the people of Makkah despite their well-known enmity, curtly and tyranny against the Muslims.
Conquest of Makkah and General Amnesty:
After the Conquest of Makkah, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) entered Al-Masjid Al-Haram. He (SAWS) made Tawaaf of Ka’bah. The door of Ka’bah was opened. He (SAWS) entered the Ka’bah. Then coming out the Ka’bah, he (SAWS) found a crowd of people gathered in Al-Masjid Al-Haram. The Chieftains of Quraish were waiting for him to see that what he (SAWS) was going to do against them. They had not embraced Islam then. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) was standing at the door of Ka’bah. He (SAWS) addressing the people, said at a point in his speech: ‘O group of Quraish! What do you say and think (I am going to do to you)?’ They replied: ‘We say you are a brother and the son of a kind and forbearing uncle.’ He (SAWS) said: ‘I am saying to you the same thing which Yusuf (AS) said (to his brothers): “No reproach upon you today! May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most-Merciful of all the merciful.” (Yusuf: 92) Following this announcement of the general amnesty, “They went out of the Ka’bah as they have been raised from the graves. Then they embraced Islam.” (Sharhu Ma’ani Al-Athar: 5454)
Battle of Hunain and Returning the Captives:
There is a valley between Makkah and Taif is called Hunian. There were two tribes: Hawazin and Thaqif living in that valley. Following the Conquest of Makkah, they planned to attack the Muslims of Makkah. When the Prophet (SAWS) heard of their preparation for attack, he (SAWS) sent Abdullah (RA), a companion for an investigation. When the fact was established, the Prophet (SAWS) made preparation and advanced towards Hunain on 8th Shawwal of 8th Hijrah with an army of 12,000 men. There were 10,000 men who had come from Madinah to Makkah and 2000 men from Makkah who were new Muslims. The war started in the early morning of the 10th Shawwal. The Hawazin and Thaqif tribes were lying in ambush. They were very good archers. As the Muslim army reached the valley of Hunain, the enemies attacking the Muslims began raining down arrows on them from all sides. The Muslims were scattered and defeated in the beginning. Within a few moments, the tables turned and the enemies were defeated badly. Seventy enemies were killed. The battle ended in a decisive victory for the Muslims. The Muslims got the booty which comprised 6000 prisoners of war, 24000 camels, 40000 goats and 4000 ounces of silver.
The booty was gathered at a place called Ji’irranah. Showing his kindness and mercy, the Prophet (SAWS) didn’t distribute the booty and captives hoping that their relatives would come to request to free them. However, when none came to request, the Prophet (SAWS) began distributing the booty and the captives.
After the booty had been distributed among the recipients, a delegation of the Hawazin came to Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). They embraced Islam. They requested to return their wealth and captives to them. The Prophet (SAWS) was a mercy for the entire universe; so he became soft-hearted hearing their request and decided to return their captives. Then he (SAWS) got up among the Muslims and said: “Your brothers have come to you with repentance and I see (it logical) to return their captives. So, whoever of you likes to do that as a favour, then he can do it. And whoever of you likes to stick to his share till we give him from the very first booty which Allah will give us, then he can do so.” The Muslims said: “We do that willingly as a favour, O Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)!” (Sahih Bukhari: 4318) (It means that they agreed to return the captives willingly to the delegation of the Hawazin Tribe.)
It is noteworthy that the Hawazin tribe first decided to attack the Muslims. They prepared for war. They fought war against Muslims according to their plan. As the end, they were defeated. Their people were made captives. Then they came to the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) requesting to free their captives and return their wealth. In such situation, the Prophet (SAWS) didn’t behave like a ruthless ruler with those people; rather he showed his kindness and mercy for them. Not to speak of returning the captives of his own share; even he (SAWS) suggested his companions to return the captives to them. They obeyed his suggestion and returned the captives of their shares.
Prohibition of Killing Women and Children in War:
Nowadays, some countries consider themselves to be on the highest level of civilization. They think that whatever they practice in the name of culture and civilization should be adopted by the whole world. They are so much proud of their civilization and culture that they consider all other religions and civilizations, found in the world, revolving around the extremism or conservativeness. But the modern world has observed with its opened eyes that these so-called civilized and cultured nations decide in a few days that such and such a country and its ruler are a threat to the world, they have mass destructive weapons and whenever they want, they will destroy the region.
Under the cover of this fabricated story, the so-called civilized country starts bombarding a country, the whole world turns a blind eye and the conscience of none forces him to speak the truth and oppose such madness. Then in a few days, the country is destroyed. Its civilians, elderly citizens, housewives and even the children are not excluded from the attack. A good number of them are killed mercilessly. Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was also the Commander-in-Chief of thousands of brave army men. When the enemies forced him to fight wars; he fought against them. But he (SAWS) didn’t like the oppression and tyranny; rather, he proved himself to be wise, sensible and mercy for one and all at all the times. The people including the enemies benefited from His mercy and kindness on every occasion; even in the war. He didn’t command his army to attack the elderly, housewives, children, priests and saints; but he commanded to avoid attacking such people even in the war. It is in a narration that a woman was found slain during one of the campaigns of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). Then he (SAWS) prohibited killing the women and the children. (Sahih Muslim: 1744)
Study of Biography of the Prophet (SAWS):
The aim and goal of this article is to present that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was not only a mercy for his friends, not only he dealt with his companions with forgiveness and kindness; but he was a mercy also for the entire humanity. He didn’t show his kindness and mercy only to his companions; but also to his enemies. He (SAWS) proved to be a mercy for non-Muslims as well. Today, under the cover of the freedom of expression and speech, the teachings of the Prophet (SAWS) are targeted, his pious life is mocked and various questions are raised against him. The biography of the Prophet (SAWS) is the most preserved one with the authentic chains. Those who have any question or objection about his great personality and noble character, they should first study the biography of the Prophet (SAWS). When they study it; for sure, they will find that he (SAWS) was a humanitarian person. He worked for the betterment of the human being. He tried his level best to bring the misled people on the straight path. He also showed favour to his enemies and forgave them on several occasions. Then it is hoped that the questions and objections will be resolved automatically, In Shaa Allah.
* The author is Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa and can be accessed at firstname.lastname@example.org
Islam gave woman equal status, the dignity she was long denied: Maulana Ateeq Ahmad Qasmi
By Manzar Imam
New Delhi: The ongoing furore over hijab is part of the process to put woman to troublous times when she was not treated even as being with a soul, leave aside giving her any rights. These views were expressed by Maulana Ateeq Ahmad Qasmi Bastawi, a senior teacher of hadīth and Islamic jurisprudence at Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow, during a special lecture on “Rights of Women: The Islamic Shariah and Western Perspectives”, organized by Islamic Fiqh Academy (IFA) India on 18 February, 2022.
Maulana, who is also secretary, academic affairs, IFA, said that the so-called movement for women’s liberation is in fact a deception whereby further injustice is done to women by burdening them with dual duties, while Islam brought her on an equal footing to man, gave her the right and dignity she was long denied. The first among those rights is the right to live. Elaborating on that, he said that a girl child was so abhorred in the pre-Islamic Arabia and other societies that she was buried alive at birth. The second right given to her is the right to education, then the right to own and inherit property, something which no other religion has so clearly defined.
The modern slogan of equality is devoid of the wisdom of Islam, Bastawi said. The clamour that there is no difference between man and woman is yet another injustice because “it takes away from her many safeguards and tasks her with duties that are men’s.”
A father’s legal responsibility ends when a son becomes an adult but it does not when it comes to a daughter. It remains a legal duty of the father towards his daughter until she is married off, which is not there in many European countries even today. And that is just a phase of “shifting of duty from one man to another” as the wife then becomes the responsibility of her husband. And, it does not end there too. If the husband dies or separation happens for some reason, the responsibility once again falls on the father or other male members of the family, something found only in Islam, the Maulana asserted. He, however, lamented that Muslims themselves were failing to practice Islam in its true sense and earning it a bad name. By failing to practice, “Muslims have made the essential look unessential.” He also drew attention to the un-Islamic practice of abortion and unnecessary formalities in the conduct of nikah of conscientious couples which is causing problems both among Hindus and Muslims. Muslims must live with their identity to secure as Sikhs do, it doesn’t count as a legal basis though, but it makes an important point.
Maulana Bastawi said that “Islam is not merely a set of few tenets. It covers all aspects of human life and its necessities for which there are clear references either in the Qur’an or the body of Prophetic traditions”, but unfortunately, people do not have the right knowledge and fail to understand many things which are an essential part of a Muslim’s life. Purdah, or hijab is one of them which is being forcibly denied by [mis]use of law. He also said that many misconceptions arise either due to ignorance or not following Islam by some Muslims. It is therefore advisable for Muslims to abide by Islamic guidelines in their every-day life. Dress and comportment are among those important things, he added.
The vagueness in the Constitution in matters of religion is often misrepresented in some court rulings whereas “it should be left to Muslim legal experts and especially ‘ulama to define what comes under Islam and what does not”, said Mufti Ahmad Nadir Al-Qasmi, a senior mufti at IFA.
In his presidential remarks, Maulana Dr Abdul Qadir Qasmi called the lecture timely and useful and maintained that Islam is often misunderstood due to non-practice of many of its core ideals. He therefore appealed Muslims to act upon its teachings.
The lecture was attended by a good number of ‘ulama, academics, intellectuals and media persons including office-bearers of IFA.
Al-Jamiat Weekly publishes a special issue on late Hadhrat Qari Usman Mansoorpuri
By Manzar Imam Qasmi
New Delhi: Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind (JuH), an old institution led by Indian ulama, launched a huge special issue of AlJamiat Weekly dedicated to the life, thoughts and works of late Maulana Qari Syed Muhammad Usman Mansoorpuri, working rector, Darul Uloom Deoband, the first national president of JuH (M) and Jamiat’s fourth Amir-ul-Hind on Friday, 17 December, 2021 at Jamiat headquarters in Delhi. The special issue in the form of a voluminous book was released by ulama, academics and intellectuals which, among others, included Mufti Abul Qasim Nomani, Shaikhul Hadith and Rector of Darul Uloom Deoband; Maulana Syed Arshad Madani, the fifth Amir; Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi, Member, Lok Sabha; Maulana Nematullah Azmi, a senior teacher of Hadith at Darul Uloom Deoband; Prof Akhtarul Wasey, Professor Emeritus, Jamia Millia Islamia; Dr. Syed Farooq, Chairman of Tasmia Educational and Welfare Society; Mohammad Salim Jamiyee, Dr Abdul Malik Rasoolpuri, compiler and assistant-compiler respectively of the 811-page book. Born on 12 August, 1944, Qari Usman Mansoorpuri passed away on 21 May, 2021 at the age of 76.
Chief guest and president, JuH, Maulana Arshad Madani remembered his predecessor shedding light specially on his family life stating that his relationship with Qari Usman was not one of a teacher and taught but “he was my brother-in-law” whose family life, as I have known and seen, was “very clean and unstained.” All that was said is correct, but what others completely missed to mention is about an old tradition of the famous seminary where just passing out was not considered enough unless one associated oneself to a guide for a training. He called it a hallmark of the Deoband tradition which is non-existent now. After completing formal studies, Qari Usman remained under the training of Hazrat Shaikhul Hadith (Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya). The goodness that you saw in Qari Usman and spoke about was, in fact, “the outcome of that training”, Madani said. It is so because of the repeated remembrance of Allah that His presence is felt in a man’s life which stops him from any misdeed and makes him aware of his responsibilities, he added.
Maulana Nematullah Azmi shared a story of Qari Usman’s uprightness stating that Qari Sahab had an unwavering commitment to work which needs to be followed. He was a true academic and did justice to his occupation. A ruler cannot pass an order on the basis of knowledge but of evidence and proof, but the academic community goes deeper to get to the bottom of the truth. As an administrator, Azmi said, Qari Usman would try to gather all the information to find the truth and once the truth was unraveled, he “would not delay in acting.”
In his brief presidential remark, Mufti Abul Qasim Nomani appreciated the publication of Al-Jamiat’s special issue on late Qari Usman Sahab and said that birth and death were continuous processes but “We should continue to discharge our duties.” Member of Parliament, Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi called Qari Sahab a “non-controversial person” whom he had seen for about 20 years in the meetings of Darul Uloom as well as in Assam as president of Jamiat. Qari Sahab loved children a lot but was a strict disciplinarian, said Mahmood Madani, the man behind the huge book.
Qari Sahab would be remembered as an “ideal teacher”, Maulana Khursheed Anwar Gayawi said, while Maulana Ashhad Rasheedi called him “a man of dignity, simplicity, sense of responsibility and a great sense of accountability” before God. Maulana Munir Naqshbandi said that Qari Sahab taught not only students but also the teachers.
Maulana Niyaz Ahmad Farooqui, secretary, JuH, highlighted some salient facets of the life of Qari Usman like training and preparing people for future, a teacher versed in the art of teaching, fighting against misguided sects and sticking to principles. Late Qari Usman’s son, Maulana Syed Muhammad Salman Mansoorpuri, other ulama and dignitaries also shared their views. Maulana Syed Muhammad Affan Mansoorpuri beautifully coordinated the programme.
While concluding the three-hour long programme with his vote of thanks, Mahmood Madani also announced about an essay-writing competition in memory of late Qari Usman Mansoorpuri.
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Definition of Miracle:
Mujizah is an Arabic word. Its plural is Mujizaat. Linguistically it means miracle and sign. In Islamic terminology, “A miracle is a supernatural act performed by a claimant to prophethood; while the entire world is unable to perform such an act. This is done so that it may become clear to the rejecters and the opponents that this person is a chosen one of Allah the Almighty. In order to incapacitate his enemies, Allah the Exalted enabled him to demonstrate this supernatural act. The people may realize that divine help is behind this person. This person is not a magician, astrologer or fortune teller with whom others can compete. Therefore, if anyone desires his own good and salvation, he can only achieve this by believing in and following this chosen person of Allah.” (Maulana Muhammad Idris Kandhalwi, Siratul-Mustafa 3/451)
Types of Miracle:
The miracles and signs which Allah bestowed a prophet with are of two types: intellectual and perceptual. The intellectual miracles refer to those which need to be understood through the intellect. Such miracles can only be understood by those who have been endowed with intelligence and deep understanding. As for the perceptual miracles and matters that are extraordinary, these have to be understood by the senses. Such miracles are normally demanded by those who are either unable to understand intellectual principles or are stubborn and obstinate. (Siratul-Mustafa 3/440-441)
Following these few introductory words, some of the miracles and signs of Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) are presented here. Among the miracles of the Prophet (SAWS), the greatest and distinguished one is the Holy Qura’an. The Arab, who are the most eloquent and excellent people regarding the Arabic language, were challenged to reproduce even one chapter of its kind; but they were left speechless and astounded to do so. The holy Qura’an says: “If you are in doubt about what We have revealed to Our servant, then bring a Surah similar to this, and do call your supporters other than Allah, if you are true.” (Al-Baqarah: 23) They failed to do so. They had no choice; but to accept that the Qura’an is the words of Allah and it was revealed upon Muhammad (SAWS) who is Allah’s true prophet and messenger.
Apart from the miracle in the form of the Qura’an, there are numerous external and perceptual miracles, like water gushed forth from his fingers. A small amount of food sufficed an entire army. The moon split into two parts. Pebbles read the Tasbih in the Prophet (SAWS)’s hand. Trees and rocks greeted him. Roasted meat, which was poisoned and presented, informed him that it is poisoned. Here are some perceptual miracles.
In a full moon night, Makkah’s disbelievers demanded Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) to perform a certain miracle. On their demand, Allah Ta’ala assisted him and the moon split into two. One part was seen in the eastern side of the mountain; while another one was in the western side of the mountain. The Prophet (SAWS) told them, see it. But they didn’t accept it and they said it is a magic. (Surah al-Qamar: 01)
After the Miraaj (Ascension to Heaven), the disbelievers of Makkah tried to test the truth of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)’s account of the journey, by asking him to describe in detail, the construction and surroundings of Bayt al-Maqdis. Allah the Exalted placed the entire scenario in full view of him (SAWS). Then he (SAWS) was able to give the details to the doubting disbelievers. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3886)
In the early days of Islam, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) made Duaa: “O Allah! Honour Islam through Abu Jahl bin Hisham or through Umar bin Al- Khattab!" So, it happened that Umar (RA) came the next day to Allah’s Messenger and accepted Islam. (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3683)
Abu Jahal always used to be on the look out; so that he could catch the Prophet (SAWS) off guard. Once, he saw that he (SAWS) was in Sajdah. He took this as an opportunity and picked the largest stone, so that he could throw it on Him (SAWS). Allah the Almighty made the stone stick to his hand and he failed to throw it at him (SAWS). (Seerate Ibn Hisham, 1/298-299)
Once Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) cursed Utaibah bin Abi Lahab saying, may Allah unleash a beast upon him! He was mauled to death by a lion at a place called Zurqa, in Syria. (Dalail al-Nabuwwah of Bayhaqi: 2/339)
When the various clans of the Qureish made plans for the assassination of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS), the assassins to be, fell into a deep slumber as He (SAWS) emerged from His home. He (SAWS) walked up to them casting a fistful of sand at them; whilst reciting the verse: (Translation) “And We have placed a barrier in front of them and a barrier behind them, and (thus) they are encircled by Us; so they do not see.” Then he (SAWS) came away totally unharmed. (Seerah Ibn Hisham 1/483)
The Quraysh announced publicly that any person who would capture Muhammad (SAWS) or Abu Bakr (RA) would be rewarded with a hundred camels. Suraqah bin Malik mounted his horse and began his search. He had not gone far when suddenly his gaze fell on Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). He proceeded, when all of a sudden his horse stumbled making him fall to the ground. He got to his feet, made his horse stand up and carried on. Upon being informed that the enemy was closing in on them, he (SAWS) simply lifted his hands and said, “Oh my Lord! Protect us from his mischief.” Then Suraqah’s horse began sinking in the ground causing him to drop down as well. Suraqah understood at once that it was futile to challenge divine protection and humbly begged for clemency. The Messenger (SAWS) pardoned him. Suraqah came forward and declared, “Now, I will prevent every attacker from coming after you.” (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3906)
Once, while Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) was delivering a sermon from the pulpit, someone complained about the prevailing drought and requested for Dua. As he (SAWS) raised his hands in Dua, the clouds gathered in the sky and the rain began to pour forth. The rain carried on pouring ceaselessly until the following Friday. Then somebody complained to him (SAWS) that the rainfall had blocked all the roads. He (SAWS) made Dua again, causing the sky to clear up immediately. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 1029)
The Prophet (SAWS) used to stand by a tree or a date-palm (trunk) on Friday. An Ansari woman or man said, "O Allah's Messenger (SAWS)! Shall we make a pulpit for you?" He (SAWS) replied, "If you wish." So they made a pulpit for him and when it was Friday, he proceeded towards the pulpit (for delivering the Sermon). The date-palm cried like a child! The Prophet (SAWS) descended (from the pulpit) and embraced it while it continued moaning like a child being quietened. The Prophet (SAWS) said, "It was crying for (missing) what it used to hear of religious knowledge given near it." (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3584)
On the day of Badr, the Prophet (SAWS) pointed out the places where various Mushrikeen would fall after being slain, taking their names. Each one of them fell on exactly the same place that he (SAWS) had predicted. (Sahih Muslim: 1779)
In the battle of Trench, while digging the trench, the companions (RA) came across a massive rock. They informed the Prophet (SAWS), "Here is a rock appearing across the trench." The Prophet (SAWS) came down, took the spade and struck the rock and it became like sand. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 4101)
At the time of digging the Trench, Jabir (RA) realized the hunger of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). When he invited him (SAWS) for food, he (SAWS) called one thousand companions digging the trench. For food, there were few barley breads and a kid. One thousand companions ate to his fill from it and the food was left over as well. Then the Prophet (SAWS) said: “Eat and present to others as the people are struck with hunger.” (Sahih al-Bukhari: 4101)
There were 1,400 people on the day of Al-Hudaibiyya (Treaty). There was a well at Al-Hudaibiyya. Its water was drawn out not leaving even a single drop. The Prophet (SAWS) sat at the edge of the well and asked for some water with which he rinsed his mouth and then he threw it out into the well. Following a short while, the companions drew water from the well and quenched their thirst, and even their riding animals drank water to their satisfaction. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3577)
"Once, the time of the Salah became due. The people whose houses were close to the mosque went to their houses to perform ablution; while the others remained (sitting there). A stone pot containing water was brought to the Prophet (SAWS), who wanted to put his hand in it; but it was too small for him to spread his hand in it and so he had to bring his fingers together before putting his hand in the pot. Then all the people performed the ablution (with that water)." There were eighty men. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3575)
After the conquest of Makkah, when the Prophet (SAWS) merely pointed at the idols in the vicinity of the Holy Ka’bah without even touching them and they all toppled over face down. At that time, the following verse was on his lips: (Translation) “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. Falsehood is surely bound to vanish.” (Sahih al-Bukhari: 4287)
In the battle of Hunain, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) flung a fistful of sand at the enemy forces, through which Allah the Exalted caused their downfall. By their own account, some of the disbelievers were quoted as saying: “The sand filled each one of our eyes.” Allah the Almighty revealed the following verse regarding this incident: (Translation) “So, it is not you who killed them, but in fact Allah killed them. And you did not throw when you threw, but Allah did throw.” (Al-Anfal: 17)
In Kheibar, a Jewish woman gave the Prophet (SAWS) a roasted sheep that she had poisoned. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) ate from it, as did the people. He (SAWS) said: 'Lift up your hands (stop eating), for it has told me that it is poisoned.' (Sunan Abu Dawood: 4512)
Once Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) climbed on Mount Uhud with Abu Bakr (RA), Umar (RA) and Uthman (RA) and the mountain began to shake. He (SAWS) addressed the mountain saying: “Be calm, today there is a prophet, a Siddiq and two Shaheeds (Martyrs) on you.” (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3675)
Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) had said regarding Hasan (RA), “This son of mine is a Sayyid (leader). I’m hopeful that Allah will bring peace between two big factions of the Muslims through him. It came true in 6 months after the death of Ali (RA) as the supporters of Ali (RA) and Mua’awiyah (RA) made peace through him (RA). (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3629)
On the day of the battle of Khaibar, Ali (RA) was suffering from eye trouble. Allah's Messenger (SAWS) spat in his eye and invoked good upon him. Ali (RA) was cured as if he never had any trouble. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 4210)
Qatadah bin Nu’maan (RA)’s eye fell out of its socket. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) placed it back into its socket and it became even better than the other eye. (Seerah Ibn Ishaq: 1/328)
Father of Jabir (RA) had died leaving unpaid debts. And he had nothing except the yield of his date-palms; and their yield for many years wouldn’t have covered his debts. On the request, the Prophet (SAWS) reached the farm, went round one of the heaps of dates, invoked (Allah), and then did the same with another heap and sat on it and said, "Measure (for them)." He paid them their rights and what remained was as much as had been paid to them. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3580)
A non-Muslim embraced Islam and he forsook it latter on. Then he used to say: “Muhammad (SAWS) knows nothing; but what I have written for him.” Then he died. His people buried him several times; but the earth had rejected his body and it was lying on the ground. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3617)
A man was eating with his left hand in the presence of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). He (SAWS) said: "Eat with your right hand." He replied: "I cannot." He (SAWS) said: "May you never be able to." For nothing was preventing him from doing so; but arrogance. Then he could never raise it to his mouth again. (Sahih Muslim: 2021)
A Bedouin came to Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) and said: 'How shall I know that you are a Prophet?' He (SAWS) said: 'If I were to call this date cluster from this palm tree, would you bear witness that I am the Messenger of Allah?' So Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) called it and they started to fall from the tree, until they fell towards him (SAWS) then he said: 'Go back' and it went back. So, the Bedouin accepted Islam. (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3628)
The Number of Miracles:
Following the aforesaid miracles and signs of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS), it seems appropriate to mention here about its number as the conclusion. Some scholars have tried their level best to count it. Allamah Ibn Hajar Asqalani (1372-1448) writes: “Imam Nawawi mentioned in the Muqaddamah of Sharh Muslim that the miracles of the Prophet (SAWS) are more than 1200. Imam Bayhaqi says in Al-Madkhal, it reaches 1000. Imam al-Zahidi said that it is about 1000. Some Ulama say that it is about 3000.” (Fath al-Bari, 6/582-583) The fact is that there are many miracles and signs of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). They are beyond counting; because his each and every word, deed, condition etc. is like a miracle as it is supernatural. The human power alone can never perform such an act without the will of Allah. ****
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By M. Burhanuddin Qasmi
One of our student groups from Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Centre (MMERC), Mumbai is on a 40-day trip at Shrivardhan, a township in Raigad district of Konkan region in Maharashtra state of India. We went to meet them on 3rd day of Eidul Adha (15 Sept. 2016). Shrivardhan is 200 kms. from Mumbai, the capital city of Maharashtra and the financial capital of India.
Our students, who are all graduates and in the 22 - 25 age group, enthusiastically informed me saying, "Sir, there is a masjid named Sharie Masjid, local elders say it was built during the caliphate of Hazrat Umar (ra) in 15 Hijri i.e. around 636 CE and they also say there are graves of Sahaba - companions of Prophet Mohammad (saws) in this township – Shrivardhan!”.
I replied “Yes, they are right, Islam reached here in 15 Hijri and there might be graves of Sahaba (ra) in this locality”. I also informed them that I had done a study in the year 2004 following my visit to one of the oldest and India's first masjid, the Cheraman Jama Masjid, in Kodungalloor, Kerala. I visited the area following the historic tsunami in 2004 with relief goods from Markazul Ma'arif (NGO) and Jamiat Ulama-e Hind.
It was inscribed on the masjid's stone marker, that it was built in the life time of Prophet Mohammad (saws) in 9 Hijra or 629 CE. That curved year on the stone marker inside the masjid and its architectural design made me do a deeper study about the origin of Islam in India, where I found that Arabs used to frequently visit India through Malabar, Konkan, present Daman and Diu and Gujarat on the shores of the Arabian sea in the pre-Islam and post-Islam era, as traders.
They stayed and even did married with the locals. Some never returned back to Arabia. Some have their progeny till date in these coastal areas of India.
When the Arabs embraced Islam, they took their new faith with them to all the places where they visited for business. Therefore, it is right that Islam reached India with Malik bin Dinar (ra) in 9 Hijri (628/29 CE) itself via Malabar Coast. And later gradually Muslim Arabs visited other Indian coastal areas in succeeding years. Thus Islam reached here by 15 Hijri year when Hazrat Umar (ra) was the Caliph in Madinah.
Kodungalloor was the capital of the ancient kings of Kerala and from 622-628 CE (Hijra 2 to 9) the ruler of the realm was a great savant called Cheraman Perumal Bhaskara Ravi Varma. It is recorded that he accepted Islam and visited Madinah. On his way back through Yemen his ship sank and he died. This is one of the major incidents in the early history of Indian Islam.
Following my study in 2004 I have compiled an article "Origin of Muslims in India" which was published by some newspapers and magazines in India and abroad. The same can be Googled till date for reference by interested readers.
So I informed my young scholars that the local scholars and elders are right. Islam reached the shore of Konkan in the very early days of this new religion and history records it that there are graves of Sahaba (ra) in Konkan, say present Shrivardhan, but unfortunately no historian could say with certainty which grave is of a Sahabi of Prophet Mohammad (saws) and what's its exact location in Konkan.
I also expressed my interest and said to them, 'So let's go and visit the Masjid-e Sharie where locals say there are graves of Sahaba of Prophet of Islam (saws)”. We walked through the narrow streets from Shrivardhan Jama Masjid and visited the graveyard in the vicinity of the small but very prominent Masjid-e Sharie. The masjid is built just on the bank of a small track on the Arabian Sea. The look and the surrounding scene is of course magnificent and very cooling for the eyes.
M. Burhanuddin Qasmi is Editor of Eastern Crescent and Director of Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Centre, Mumbai, India.
Source: Al-Jazeerah, CCUN, September 26, 2016
By Mufti Noman Daji, UK
I pray Allah Ta’ala engulf and enshroud my respected and mushfique teacher Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Sahib Palanpuri (RA) with divine mercies. Aameen Ya Rabb!
Hazrat Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Sahib Palanpuri (RA) is the former Sheikh-ul-Hadeeth & Sadr-ul-Mudarriseen of Ummul Madaris (أم المدارس) and Azhar-ul-Hind (ازهر الهند) Darul Uloom Deoband.
The life of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz had many dimensions and I have discussed some of those in my eulogy on my respected and mushfique Ustaz. One of those dimensions (not mentioned there explicitly) is that Hazrat Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Sahib (RA) was a
an ‘Aashiq of the Holy Quran (عاشقِ قرآن)’. The deep attachment, connection and intellectual and practical engrossment with the Holy Quran was evident on those who knew Hazrat closely. It so happened during my studying years at Darul Uloom Deoband that I had to go to Delhi from Deoband. I was already on the train at Deoband station when my respected and mushfique Ustaz also embarked on the same carriage. Hazrat sat down and immediately took out his copy of the Holy Quran and started to recite in an inaudible manner. Four hours passed by (entire journey) but Hazrat did not look up whilst reciting and contemplating on the recitation. I kept looking at Hazrat and admiring this scene of immense engrossment with the Holy Quran. When the train reached Delhi Hazrat stopped reciting and closed the Holy Quran. I witnessed incredible Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع) in the recitation and for this long in the journey. This is my Personal witnessed incident.
Below is the Urdu as I had shared primarily in Urdu which I have now loosely translated to English. Some friends had suggested it be in English so the wider audience can benefit too.
Note: I’d like to add a note here that the concepts of ‘Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع)’ - in a nutshell to be fully engrossed in a serene way in the devotion or act - are not limited and restricted to Salah. They apply to all aspects of worship (عبادة). In the Holy Quran the mention of Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع) is with Salah as Salah is the highest and most complete form of worship as it encompasses recitation and much more i.e. the highest case (جزء أعظم) of these concepts and rule - Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع) - is mentioned.
Another point I would like to mention (for completeness) is that Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع) are a key component of the State of Ihsan (صفت احسان) - Islamic goal in life. And it should be noted that the State of Ihsan (صفت احسان) applies to all spheres of one’s life whether direct acts of worship (Salah, Zakaat, Fast, Hajj, etc) or indirect acts of worship (like eating, drinking, earning, etc). State of Ihsan (صفت احسان) encompasses both and is not restricted or limited to direct acts of worship. Hence, by default Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع) applies to both types too.
These are highly important points.
حضرت الاستاذ مفتی سعید احمد صاحب - اللہ تعالی انکو غریقِ رحمت کرے آمین!
حضرت کے بڑے پہلو تھے اور اس میں سے ایک کہ وہ عاشقِ قران تھے- میرے طالب علمی کے زمانہ کا واقعہ ہے- ایک مرتبہ اتفاق ہوا کہ میں دیوبند سے دہلی اپنے کام سے جارہا تھا اور حضرت اپنے کام سے- میں پہلے سے ٹڑین کے ڈبے میں موجود تھا- حضرت الاستاذ ڈبے میں چڑھے اور اپنا قرآن کریم نکالا اور آہستہ سے تلاوت کرنا شروع کردیا- پورے چار گھنٹے گذر گۓ مگر سر اٹھا کر نہی دیکھا - میں حضرت کو دیکھتا رہا- جب دہلی پہنج گۓ تو قرآن کریم بند کیا اور اپنا سر اٹھایا- تلاوت میں عجیب خشوع دیکھا - راقم کا چشم دید واقعہ ہے-
Muhammad Noman Daji
(Before Zuhr, Saturday 11 September 2021 – 4th Safar Al-Muzaffar 1443 A.H)
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi,
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa,
A polite teacher, Maulana Abdul Khaliq Sambhali (RahimahuAllah), popularly known among his students as “Maulana Sambhali Sahib”, who taught thousands of the students in his half century teaching career, had fallen sick for few months back. Following Ramadan this year, he became sick seriously. In June, he was admitted in a Hospital of Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh. When he didn’t recover, he was transferred to a hospital in the capital city, Delhi. Then he started recovering and was brought back Deoband. Few days latter, again he fell sick seriously and was admitted in a hospital in Muzaffarnagar for treatment. He couldn’t return to a normal state of health; but the condition continued deteriorating. In the evening of 30th July 2021, the news of his sad demise was received through the social media. He was about 72 years old as he was born on 4th January 1950. Following the arrival of the appointed times, whatever age or health condition the people may have, they will have to taste death. The Almighty Allah says: “For every people there is an appointed time. So, when their appointed time will come, they cannot be late for a moment, nor will they get ahead.” (Al-Aaraf: 34)
The body was brought to Deoband. A good number of people were already waiting for the funeral prayer to participate in. The funeral prayer was led at about 11 pm by the VC of Darul Uloom Deoband, Mufti Abul Qasim Nomani (HafizahuAllah). The burial took place in the Qasmi Graveyard of Deoband. May Allah gran him Jannatul Firdaus!
Allah had blessed Maulana Sambhali Sahib with many qualities. He was an able, qualified, soft-hearted, soft-spoken, sweet-voiced, polite and a compassionate teacher. He was embodiment of humbleness and modesty. He was a simple man with praiseworthy characters. His whole career was spent in imparting religious knowledge. He taught almost half a century. Thousands of the students quenched their educational thirst learning from him. According to a narration (Sahih Muslim: 1631) of the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam), his teaching services will be regarded as a continuous charity for him, In Allah wills, as he imparted beneficial knowledge of Deen among its seekers. Briefly, a candle which was burning for a half century spreading the light of knowledge has extinguished leaving thousands of learners mourning.
Whenever, Maulana Sambhali Sahib is mentioned, his smiling and cheerful face will come in the minds of his innumerable students spread in the world. At whatever time he is talked about; his pleasing taking style, interesting critical ability and rhymed words will be remembered. He was unique in describing the basic of nomenclature of Urdu words which was purely the creation of his sharp mind and thoughts which was pleasing for the students in the class. Always, he used to be happy. He was not seen getting irritated on a student’s mistake. Following the mistake of a student, he himself used to interpret it suitably. When a student apologizes following a mistake, he used to accept it saying “al-Udhru ‘Ind Kirami al-Naas Maqbul” (Excuse is acceptable to the gentlemen). It seems as he preached in his life practically “No hurt, no trouble and no harm”. In another way, he was the sample of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS)’s Hadith where he (SAWS) said: "There should be neither harming nor reciprocating harm." (Sunna Ibn Majah: 3241)
It is a beautiful Islamic teaching that one shouldn’t try to harm and cause hardship to someone. If one does so, he must get ready to face the sever outcome from Allah. It is narrated by Abu Sirmah (RA) that Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: "Whoever harms others, Allah will harm him; and whoever causes hardship to others Allah will cause hardship to him."' (Sunna Ibn Majah: 3242)
When this humble writer was learning in Darul Uloom Deoband, Maulana Sambhali Sahib was teaching Deewan Mutanabbi, Hidayah, Inshaa etc. I had opportunity to learn in “Takmile Adad” from him. He was dealing with the period of “Inshaa”, i.e. the translation from Arabic into Urdu and vice-versa. Occasionally, he used to bring the fresh Arabic newspaper to teach certain news from it. I still remember the news which he taught us from the Arabic newspaper: Al-Sharq Al-Awsat on the martyrdom of Sheikh Ahmad Yasin (1937-2004) of Palestine. The student whose exercise was not corrected in the class, he used to reach his home with the exercise-book. He used to correct happily. His teaching methodology was appreciable. The Almighty Allah had blessed him with the well ability of making the students understand. When he was questioned something related to the lesson in the class, he used to reply cheerfully. He was very punctual of the period. Had not he come to the class to teach, it means, he would have left for another town for a programme.
Maulana Sambhali Sahib started his educational journey from “Madrasah Waheedul Madaris” of his own locality, Mohallah Saraye Tarin of Sambhal which is also his birthplace. In those days, there was a teacher known as Mufti Muhammad Aftab Ali (May Allah grant him Jannah!) who was teaching in the Madrasah. Mufti Sahib was a qualified and popular teacher. Then he left the Madrasah and joined another one known as “Madrasah Shamsul Uloom”. Maulana Sambhali also followed the footstep of his teacher and got admission in the said Madrasah. First he memorized the whole holy Qura’an by heart under the care of Hafiz Fariduddin Sahib and became Hafiz. Then he began to learn from Mufti Muhammad Aftab Ali. He learnt up to the book: “Sharah Jami” (It means the fourth standard of Fazilah course) from Mufti Sahib. Then he headed to pursue further education at the prestigious Islamic seminary Darul Uloom Deoband in 1968. He was considered one of the prominent students of Darul Uloom. He graduated in 1972 with flying colour securing the third position in his class.
Due to his interest in Arabic language and literature, next year, he got admission in Shobah Takmile Adab Arabi (Department of Arabic Language & Literature). Being a student of Arabic language, he learnt and benefited from the matchless and great teacher of Arabic language and literature, Maulana Waheeduz Zaman Kairanavi (1930-1995). In regard to Arabic language, he had good taste. He had command over written and spoken Arabic. He used to address and even sometimes teach in Arabic language. He used love Maulana Kairanvi too much. Once he revealed that at the time of his interview for teaching post in Darul Uloom Deoband, he was asked about his interest in Arabic language. He replied, at the time learning in Darul Uloom Deoband, I was one among those who used to serve with devotion to Maulana Kairanavi.
As a student of Drul Uloom Deoband, Maulana Sambhali learnt from Sheikh Fakhruddin Muradabadi, Sheikh Fakhrul Hasan Muradabadi, Sheikh Shariful Hasan Deobandi, Hakimul Islam Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi, Mufti Mahmud Hasan Gangohi, Sheikh Nasir Ahmad Khan, Maulana Muhammad Salim Qasmi, Maulana Waheeduz Zaman Kairanavi, Maulana Sayyid Anzar Shah Kashmir etc. May Allah accept their services and grant them Jannah!
Following the graduation from Darul Uloom, Maulana Sambhali Sahib joined Madrasah Khadimul Islam, Hapur in Uttar Pradesh for teaching services. He taught in this Madrasah almost six years. He used to visit Jamiul Huda in Muradabad to meet his classmate Maulana Habibur Rahman Qasmi who used to teach there. The principal of Jamiul Huda, Maulana Alim Qasmi (RahmimahuAllah) liked him and offered him teaching job. He accepted the offer and joined this Madrasah in 1979 as a teacher. He taught here in this Madrasah about three years from the middle to the higher level classes. In 1982, he was appointed in Darul Uloom Deoband as a teacher. In 2008, he was selected as a Deputy Rector of Darul Uloom Deoband. He continued serving the seminary as one of its teachers and administrators until he breathed his last.
Works and Books:
He was expert in Urdu and Arabic both the languages. His speaking and writing skills both were outstanding. He used to present the weekly lectures on “Maududiyyat” on Thursday in the afternoon periods among Darul Uloom’s graduates enrolled in different departments following their graduation. They are published in five parts. The first part is in 39 pages, the second one is in 40 pages, the third one is in 35 pages, the fourth one is in 40 pages and the fifth one is in 42 pages. He translated the Kitabul Aaiman of Fatawa Hindiyyah (Fatawa Aalamgiri). He translated an Arabic book: “Kitab Al-Tauhid” that is in 500 pages. The book is originally written by an Arab author Abdul Hamid Zindani, a graduate of Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. He belongs to Yemen and is a famous politician.
Maulana Sambhali’s Survivors:
Maulaan Sambhali is survived by his wife, four girls and three sons: Maulana Muhammad Suhail Qasmi, Maulana Muhammad Uzair Qasmi and Mualana Muhammad Zubair Qasmi. All the sons are graduates of Darul Uloom Deoband, Al-Hamdulillah. His learned and dutiful sons will be ongoing charity for him, In Shaa Allah. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah! Aameen! ⦁⦁⦁⦁
Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi,
Moon Rays Trust School,
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
Qari Sayyid Muhammad Usman Mansoorpuri, popularly known as “Qari Sahib”, was from the famous Sadaat family of Mansoorpur. It is situated in Mazaffarnagar district of Uttar Pradesh in India. He was born on 12th August 1944 at his ancestral place. His father’s name was Nawab Sayyid Muhammad Isa.
Qari Sahib’s Father:
Qari Sahib’s father was a pious and God-fearing person. He practiced Islam in his day-to-day life as a true Muslim. He had much love and respect for the Ulama. He had taken the pledge of allegiance to Sheikhul Islam Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani (1879-1957). He wanted his children to learn Islamic knowledge. He made Dua for his sons to memorize the holy Qura’an by heart. Allah accepted his Duaa and his all sons (Sayyid Muhammad Musa, Sayyid Muhammad Dawood and Qari Sayyid Muhammad Usman) completed the memorization of the holy Qura’an by heart. For the education of his children, giving the sacrifice, he left his hometown and shifted in a rented house in Deoband. He passed away in Deoband in 1963 and was buried in “Qasmi Graveyard” of Deoband. May Allah grant him Jannah!
Qari Sahib started his basic education at his hometown. He completed the memorization of the glorious Qura’an by heart at Madrasah Husainia, Mansoorpur. Then he got admission at Darul Uloom Deoband and started learning the Persian language. He learnt the whole Fazilat course at Darul Uloom. He completed the course 1965 (1385 AH) and passed the exams with flying colours.
Tajweed and Qira’ah:
After the graduation in Islamic studies, Qari Sahib remained in Darul Uloom in 1966 to learn Tajweed and Qira’at. He completed the course of Saba’h A’sharah to get perfection in the recitation of the holy Qura’an. While being the student of Qira’ah department and thanks to his perfect recitation of the holy Qura’an, he was invited in several programmes in Darul Uloom for the opening recitation. He, therefore, got fame as a Qari and it became the inseparable part of his name. Then commonly he was known as Qari Muhammad Usman Sahib.
It is appropriate to mention here that a delegation of Qurraa came from Egypt in Ramadan. They visited Darul Uloom Deoband. The programme was held in “Masjid Qadeem” for recitation of the Holy Qura’an following Zuhr Salah. They recited the holy Qura’an. When they had done their recitation, Qari Sahib stated that he had been a student of Qira’at Department in Darul Uloom Deoband. Then he also recited the Qura’an. He didn’t recite in Tarteel as they did. He chose Hadar method. He would have read about one quarter of a Juz, I think. His recitation was so nice that not only the audience; but also those Qurraa liked and expressed their happiness. If I recall correctly, it was in Ramadan of 2002.
For spiritual guidance and soul rectification, Qari Sahib took the pledge of allegiance to Sheikhul Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariyyah (1898-1982) –May Allah grant him Jannah– But he was attached to Fidaye Millat Maulana Sayyid Asad Madani (1928-2006) with the suggestion of Sheikhul Hadith. He was granted Khilafah by Maulana Madani and was counted one among his great Khulafaa.
Following his graduation, Qari Sahib started his career as a teacher of Jamia Qasmia, Gaya, Bihar in 1967. The Madrasa was established by Maulana Qari Sayyid Fakhruddin (Rahimahullha), the Khalifah of Sheikhul Islam Maulana Sayyid Husand Ahmad Madani. He taught almost 5 years there. Then he resigned in 1972 to join Jamia Islamia Jama Masjid in Amroha, Uttar Pradesh. In Jama Masjid, he taught the books like Abu Dawood, Jalalein, Mukhtasar al-Ma’ani etc. He established al-Nadi al-Adabi in Jamia Islamia so that the students can learn how to write and speak Arabic language practically. He served in this Madrasah until he was appointed in his seat of learning Darul Uloom Deoband in 1982.
When we were in Darul Uoom, Qari Sahib was teaching Mishkat al-Masabih, Hidayah, Muwatta Imam Malik etc. In the final year of Fazilah Course, I had opportunity to learn Muwatta Imam Malik from him. The period used to be once in a week on each Friday in the morning. He used to come to the class at the stated time. While teaching, his lectures were brief and to the point. When there was a certain difficult topic, he used to explain deeply to make the students understand easily. Whenever he used to explain something, he used to mention the reference book. He had learnt Muwatta Imam Malik from Sheikh Muhammad Bashir Ahmad who had learnt it from Allamah Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri (1875-1933) (May Allah grant them Jannah!). Currently he was teaching Mishkat al-Masabih, Tahawi etc.
Interest in Arabic Language:
Qari Sahib had been one of the close students of Maulana Waheeduz Zaman Qasmi Kairanavi (1930-1995), a celebrated teacher of Arabic language and Literature in Darul Uloom Deoband. He had much interest in Arabic language. He had good command over spoken Arabic. At the time of learning, he was one of the prominent students of the Arabic language. He taught “Asalib al-Inshaa” in “Takmil-e-Adab” (the Department of Arabic language and Literature) several years as well. He was patron of al-Nadi al-Adabi. Mostly he used to preside over its annual function.
Administrative Duties in Darul Uloom:
Qari Sahib was a principled, cool-minded, soft-spoken and very taciturn person. He was very sincere and serious regarding his duty. He was considered just, fair and firm in taking a decision in the light of the rules and regulations. Along with teaching responsibility, he was assigned the several administrative duties in the course of different times. He was made administrator of “Kul Hind Majlis Tahaffuze Khatme Nabuwwat” in 1986, Chief Manager of Boarding from 1415 to 1418, Deputy VC (1997-2008) and lately he was selected as the Assistant VC of Darul Uloom Deoband (October 2020= Safar 1442). He used to perform his assigned duties with accountability.
Remarkable Work as the Administrator of Majlis:
Due to the spread of Qadianism, Darul Uloom Deoband held a three-day international conference on the topic: Tahaffuze Khatme Nabuwwat on 29-31 October 1986. Qari Sahib was the convener of the conference. Several scholars from India and abroad were invited to write the papers on the topic and participate in the conference. A good number of scholars partook in it from Saudi Arab, Bangladesh, UAE and another country. The conference was inaugurated with the comprehensive speech of Mufakkire Islam Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi (1914-1999), ex-President of All India Muslim Personal Law Board. The concluding talk was delivered by famous scholar, Dr. Abdullah Omar Nasseef, General Secretary of the Muslim World League.
On the same occasion of the international conference, “Kul Hind Majlise Tahaffuze Khatme Nabuwwat” was established in Darul Uloom Deoband. The conference’s convener, Qari Sahib was nominated as its administrator, Mufti Saeed Ahmad Palanpuri (1940-2020) was selected as its chief administrator and the then VC of Darul Uloom Deoband, Maualana Marghubur Rahman (1914-2010) was selected as its President. The services of the Majlis to remove the misconceptions and false views created by the Qadianis are noteworthy. Several workshops were held to train the scholars how to tackle the issues of Qadianism. In other parts of the country also the programmes were held to let the people know the true colour of Qadianism. The Majlis published dozens of books/booklets to remove baseless interpretation of Islamic thoughts by Qadianis. Several branches of Majlis were established in other Indian provinces. Qari Sahib used to participate himself without any excuse in such programmes and supervise all activities of the Majlis in the love of the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam). He continued heading the Majlis until he breathed his last. Almost three decades back, he himself wrote about the achievement of the Majlis:
“(1) To prepare the working men, two training camps, in 1409 and 1410 AH, were held in Darul Uloom. (2) Apart from them, some big camps were held in Gauhati, Madras, Mel Palem (Tamil Nadu), Alwak (Kerala), Bhagalpur, Bengaluru etc. (3) Despite of challenge, the Qadiani scholars couldn’t muster courage to face the Islamic scholars in Khamini (Mathura) and Rohta (Agra). As the result, the debate was won by the Islamic scholars. (4) Our debaters have reached such places where the Qadiani group is busy secretly in its mischief-making. At some places, they had face-to-face talk where the Qadianis had to run away and Muslims were protected from their cheatings. (5) Almost 50 books have been published from the office. (6) Thousands of literatures have been spread in the whole country….” (Muhazrah Ilmiyyah Bar Mauzu’ Radde Qadianyyat 2/32-33)
Jamiat Ulamae Hind:
Qari Sahib was an active member of Jamiat Ulama from the very beginning. Latter he was made the member of working committee of Jamiat. As the senior member, on the occasion of “Mulk Wa Millat Bachaw Tahreek” in 1979, leading a group, he was arrested and imprisoned in Tihar Jail of Delhi. On 15th April 2008, he was selected as the President of Jamiat Ulama Hind. Following the demise of the third Amiru Hind, Maulana Marghubur Rahman Bijnori (1914-2010), he was selected as the 4th Amirul Hind in 2010 under the Imarat Shariah Hind. He served Jamiat as its President for more than 13 years until he breathed his last. As the president, he took several worth mentioning decisions like establishment of “Jamiat Youth Club”, “Jamiat Open School” etc.
Lectures on Qadianism:
Qari Sahib used to give weekly lectures on Qadianism among the students who were learning in several departments following their graduation in Darul Uloom, Deoband. Those lectures are published in 5 parts. In the first part, introduction of the topic, biography of Mirza Ghulam Qadiani, his character, his educational and religious background, introduction of his books and some other Qadiani leaders’ books and several Qadianis groups etc. have been presented. In the second part, the topics like: list of Ghulam Qadiani’s misleading beliefs, his political face, Qadianis’ interest in establishing Jew state and the historical services of the elders of Deoband against Qadianism etc. have been included. In the third part, the important topics like: the Prophethood, Messengerhood and its need, proofs of finality of prophethood in the Holy Qura’an and the holy narrations, meaning of finality of prophethood according to Qadiani group, doubts and fallacy of Qadianis regarding the verses and Hadiths related to the finality of prophethood and its replies, distortion of meaning of the Qura’anic verses and Hadiths by Mirza Ghulam Qadiani etc. have been discussed. In the fourth part, the beliefs of Jew, Christians, Muslims and Qadianis about Isa (AS) being alive, raised to the skies and coming before the Last Day as its major sign have been deliberated in detailed. In the fifth part, several claims of Mirza Ghulam Qadiani like being replica of Jesus (AS), Mahdi, the prophet and messenger, his misleading wrong prophecies, essential of Deen, categories of Kufr and the ruling regarding having relation with Qadianis have been presented in details. In brief, these lectures are very comprehensive and important to know the false views of Qadiani about Islam in the light of the authentic reference books.
Qari Sahib’s Sad Demise and Survivors:
Qari Sahib fell sick in the mid of Ramadan 1442 AH. Latter he was tested Covid-19 positive. Then oxygen level also went down. The oxygen was arranged and he was treated under the care of the doctors at the home. Following some days, when he was tested covid-19, the negative report came. Once again he fell sick and the health condition started deteriorating and the weakness grew. At that time, he was admitted in the Medanta Hospital Gurgaon in Haryana on 18th May 2021 = 5th Shawwal 1442. Then the health situation improved a bit; but again the condition started deteriorating and he left for heavenly abode on Friday 21st May 2021 = 8th Shawwal 1442 AH in Hospital. First his funeral prayer was performed in the central office of Jamiat Ulama Hind in Delhi and the second one in Darul Uloom Deoband which was led by Mualana Sayyid Arshad Madani, Head-Teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband. He was buried in the Qasmi Graveyard of Deoband. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah! Ameen!
Allah the almighty blessed him with one daughter and two sons. The first one is Mufti Sayyid Muhammad Salman. He is Mufti, teacher of Hadith and the editor of “Nidae Shahi”, Urdu monthly organ of Jamia Qasimia Madrasa Shahi Muradabad. He has compiled more than dozen books. He is a well-known and respected scholar within the country and abroad. The second one is Mufti Sayyid Muhammad Affan Mansoorpuri. He is head-teacher of Madrasa Islamia Jame Masjid, Amroha. He is also a qualified scholar and well-known for his oratory and writings. Qari Sahib was a distinguished person in upbringing the children. His two sons are the fruits of his upbringing as the elders say. Qari Sahib is survived by his wife, the daughter and two sons. May Allah give them long life with safe and sound health! Ameen! ••••
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
Just within a few years, renowned Islamic seminary Darul Uloom Deoband has lost several senior teachers of Hadith. One of them is Maulana Habibur Rahman Azmi Qasmi, who left for heavenly abode on 13th May, 2021 (30 Ramadan, 1442) at around 12:45 PM. News of his demise was shocking for thousands of his students spread all over the world as he was a popular teacher and an academic personality. He was born on 15th June, 1941, in Jagdishpur, a village of Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh, India. His father’s name was Anwarul Haq, who was a Hafiz of the Holy Qura’an. He was very punctual in his day to day life of studying and reading books. His interest was in the science of Hadith, the chain of transmitters and history. He was a very distinguished scholar, a popular teacher of Hadith and a prolific Urdu writer. Thanks to his expertise and being an academic personality, he was appointed as a teacher in Darul Uloom Deoband. He also authored a number of books on various subjects. They are published and available in the market to be read. In this piece, the humble soul is going to highlight his educational journey, his teaching services, his writings and books and his organizational activities.
Maulana Azmi started his basic education: reading the Holy Qura’an, learning Urdu and Persian languages and basics of mathematics in the Maktab of his village from Haji Muhammad Shibli (Rahimahullah!). Then he continued his education in Madrasah Rauzatul Uloom, Phulpur. It is worth mentioning that he learnt the book of Sheikh Sa’di Sheirazi, “Gulsitan”, from Maulana Abul Ghani, Phulpuri, the Khalifah of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (May Allah grant them Jannah!) in Rauztul Uloom. Then he moved to the renowned Madrasa of the vicinity, Madrasah Baitul Uloom, situated in Saraimeer, Azamgarh, UP, India. Then, for the secondary education, he moved to Madrasah Matlaul Uloom, Banaras and Darul Uloom, Mau, Uttar Pradesh respectively.
For the final year of his Fazilah Course, Maulana Azmi left for Deoband. In Darul Uloom Deoband, he got admission in the final year in 1963. During his stay in Darul Uloom, he learnt the books of Hadith, such as Sahih al-Bukhari from Sheikh Fakhruddin Muradabadi, Sahih Muslim and Ibn Majah from Maulana Bashir Ahmad Khan, few lessons of Ibn Majah from Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi, then the VC of Darul Uloom Deoband, Sunan Tirmidhi (V.1) from Allamah Ibrahim Baliavi, Sunan Abi Dawood, Sunan Tirmidih (V. 2) and Shamail Tirmidhi from Maulana Fakhrul Hasan Muradabadi, Tahavi from Maulana Islamul Haq Azmi, Sunan Nasaiee from Maulana Shariful Hasan Deobandi, Muatta Imam Malik and Muwatta Imam Muhammad from Maulana Abdul Ahad Deobandi. After studying these abovementioned books of Hadith, he completed his Fazilat Course from Darul Uloom in 1964 (1384 AH).
Following the graduation from Darul Uloom Deoband, Maulana Azmi chose the path of teaching as his career. He, therefore, joined Madrasah Rauzatul Uloom, Phulpur as a preacher (Muballigh). Then he joined Madrasah Kheirul Madaris, Ghosi as head-teacher. Then he joined Madrasah Qura’aniyah, Jaunpur, UP. Later, he joined Jamia Islamia, Banaras and worked as a senior teacher and taught there till 1980. In 1982, he was appointed as a teacher at Darul Uloom, Deoband. In Darul Uloom, he was teaching “Sahih Muslim”, Abu Dawood, Mishkah Al-Masabih, Nukhbah al-Fikr and Muqaddamah Ibn Salah. He was a perfect teacher. He would study and read several books to prepare the lessons he was to teach the next day. He used to deliver the perfect academic material to the students.
This writer, being one of the students of Darul Uloom Deoband, got opportunity to learn from Maulana Azmi the second volume of Abu Dawood in the final year of the Fazilah course in 2003 and benefited a lot from his scholarly lectures. He used to explain each and every issue related to a Hadith. It was his habit to explain even a minor point being extracted from the Hadith. His explanation was very satisfactory. It is well-known among the scholars and the students of the Hadith the significance of the chain of transmitters (Sanad) in the science of Hadith. It was his favourite field, as it was his specialized subject, to discuss the chains of Hadith, the narrators and transmitters. Currently he was considered a leading authority on the chain of transmitters. His study in this science was considered deep and matchless. He had dedicated himself to studying and reading books. He was a popular teacher amongst the students. He was blessed with capability to deliver any difficult topic in the easiest way among the students. He used to read dozens of books for preparation of a lesson or before beginning to write on a topic. From his lectures, the students used to get the gist of hundreds of pages within the period.
Writings and Books:
Maulana Azmi was a prolific and successful writer and author too. Whenever he felt something necessary, he stood up with his pen and didn’t hesitate to write what was the truth in his opinion. Due to his writing skill and elegance of composition, in Safar 1405 AH (October 1984), he was selected as the editor of Darul Uloom’s Urdu monthly organ: Darul Uloom. He was one of the longest serving editors of the organ from October 1984 to November 2016. The incumbent editor of the monthly, Darul Uloom, and my respected teacher, Maulana Salman Bijnori Sb. (May Allah protect him!) writes about his editorship of the organ: “In the history of the editorship of the monthly, Darul Uloom, the period of Maulana Habibur Rahman Sahib is very long like the period of Maulana Sayyid Azhar Shah Qaisar. He was made editor in 1984 and the last month in November 2016, he resigned from this service due to his old age, additional teaching responsibility and academic works. In this long period, apart from editorial, he wrote numerous articles. His academic articles have been published namely “Maqalate Habib” (in three volumes). Besides it, he compiled about 30 books/booklets in Urdu and Arabic languages. During the period of his editorship, some special issues of the monthly Darul Uloom were published. “Khatme Nabuwwat Number” and “Al-Ihsan Number” are worth mentioning among them.” (Editorial Mahnamah Darul Uloom Deoband, December 2016)
He also worked as the editor of Urdu Monthly “Al-Qasim” in 1980. This Urdu monthly was the organ of the old boys association of Darul Uloom Deoband namely “Aalmi Motamar Fuzlaye Daurl Uloom Deoband” which was established in 1980.
Maulana Azmi complied and authored almost 30 books and booklets. They are considered to be the best research work on the topic. They are published and available in book depots and libraries. Here, I present an incomplete list of his published books: (1) Tazkirah Ulamae Azamgarh, (2) Shajrah Tayyibah, (3) Ajudhiya Ke Islami Aathaar, (4) Babri Masjid Haqaaidq Aur Afsane, (5) Islam Ka Nizam Ibadat, (6) Islam Men Tasawwure Imarat, (7) Maqalate Habib (3 Volumes), (8) Muttahidah Qaumiyyat Ulamae Islam Ki Nazar Men, (9) Khumainiyyat Asre Hazir Ka Azeem Fitnah, (10)Khalifah Mahdi Sahih Ahadith Ki Raushani Men, (11) Khawaatine Islam Ki Behtareen Masjid, (12) Imam Ke Piche Muqtadi Ki Qriat Ka Hukm, (13) Masa’il Namaz, (14) Imam Abu Hanifah Ka Ilm Hadith Men Maqam Wa Martabah, (15) Shrah Muqaddamah Sheikh Abdu Haq, (16) Nurul Qamar Fee Tauzih Nuzhatun Nazar Sharah Nukhbah, (17) Imama Abu Dawood Aur Un Ki Sunan, (18) Shuyukh Abi Dawood Fee Al-Sunan (Arabic), (19) Shiiat Qura’an Wa Hadith Ki Raushani Men, (20) Hadith Wa Sunnat Par Naqd Wa Nazar, (21) Babri Masjid Tarikh Ke Mukhtalif Maraahil Men, etc. Some books’ introduction is presented here:
Tazkirah Ulamae Azamgarh:
It is very famous book of Maulana Azmi. It is about the Islamic scholars of Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh. In the book, the author has mentioned the brief biographies of 245 Islamic scholars of the said district as it can be easily understood by its name. Initially, he started compiling this book following the suggestion of famous historian and well-known writer Maulana Qazi Athar Abdul Hafiz Mubarakpuri (1916-1996) to work on it. Firstly, it was published in 1976 comprising of the introduction of 197 scholars. Then, he included the biography of 48 scholars as its addendum and the book was republished in 2012 by Markaz Dawat Wa Tahqiq, Deoband. Moreover, 89 scholars’ introduction has been mentioned in the footnote according to the need. It is considered as a reference book on the topic. The scholars like Maulana Abul Ma’athir Habibur Rahman Al-Azmi (famously known as Muhaddithe Azmi – 1901-1992), Maulana Najmuddin Islami (1904-1994), Qazi Athar Mubarkpuri and Maulana Ajaz Ahmad Azmi have appreciated this work. The book is published from Markaze Dawat Wa Tahqiq, Deoband. It has 604 pages.
Ajodhya Ke Islami Aathaar:
It is a well-known book compiled by Maulana Azmi. It comprises of one preface and three chapters. In the preface, the author discussed about Ajodhya, its religious status, etc. In the first chapter, he has introduced 27 scholars and pious people, who played a key role in spreading Oneness of Allah and the true message of Islam in Ajodhya. In the second chapter, he has mentioned the mosques found in Ajodhya which have historic and Islamic values and status. In the third chapter, he has presented the graves which are found in Ajodhya like the grave of Sheeth (Alaihis Salam). Whatever has been mentioned in the book is in the light of the authentic references of books. The forward is written by Maulana Riyasat Ali Zafar Bijnori (1940-2017), ex-teacher of Hadith at Darul Uloom Deoband. It is published from Sheikhul Hind Academy of Darul Uloom Deoband. It has 200 pages.
Shuyukh Abi Dawood Fee Al-Sunan (Arabic):
This book is about the teachers of Imam Abu Dawood Suleiman Sajistani (817-889) from whom he narrated the prophetic narrations in Sunan Abi Dawood. The author has briefly written the biography of Imam Abu Dawood as well. He has introduced the Sunan Abi Dawood, number of chapters and the number of narrations. It was published from Sheikhul Hind Academy of Darul Uloom Deoband in 2006. The book contains 260 pages.
In 1980, an old boys association of Darul Uloom Deoband namely “Aalmi Motamar Fuzlaye Daurl Uloom Deoband” was established. He was given the charge of its administration. Maulana Azmi worked as its administrator. He also worked as the editor of the association’s monthly Urdu organ “Al-Qasmi”. He was an old member and the member of Working Committee of India’s largest social organization, Jamiat Ulamae Hind. In the meeting of Jamiat, his opinion was valued and given much significance. It is said that it was him who mostly used to write the “resolutions” of Jamiaat’s meetings and the programmes. In 1420 AH, he was appointed as the supervisor of “Radde Isaiyat Committee” in Darul Uloom Deoband. Later, he was nominated as its head and director. He served and headed the committee for 18 years and resigned in 1438 AH.
It was Maulana Azmi’s habit to spend the whole year in Deoband and visit his hometown, Jagdishpur, Azamgarh in Shaban to spend the long vacation of Ramadan at his home with his family members. So, as usual, this year in Shaban 1442, he left for his hometown. He reached home with safe and sound health. He was physically fit. When he left Deoband, none would have thought that it is his last journey and he is not going to come back. But Allah had written for him that he would not come back.
Anyway, in the mid of Ramadan, he fell sick. Following the check-up, the doctor diagnosed him as suffering from typhoid fever. He got timely treatment and following few days, the medicine responded and he started recovering. Again he suffered from the typhoid and the oxygen level started going down. Then the condition began to deteriorate, until he breathed his last on 13th May 2021 (30th Ramadan 1442) at around 12:45 PM. He is survived by his wife, two daughters and two sons: Maulana Obaidur Rahmadn Qasmi and Abdur Rahman. His funeral prayer was led by his grandson, Maulana Affan Qasmi. Despite the restriction of the lockdown in the area, a good number of Ulama, students and public from neighbouring villages participated in the funeral prayer. He was buried in the graveyard of his hometown. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah! Aameen! ••••
Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi,
Moon Rays Trust School,
Who Were the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند)
(By: Mufti Muhammad Noman Daji, Batley, UK - email@example.com)
(After Asar, Monday 13th June 2021 –
4th Zul-Qa’dah 1442 A.H)
I had shared my piece titled “Seven Key Names of the ‘Discipline of the Inner Characters’ (علم الأخلاق) & What These Names Signify” with the intended and targeted audience. I usually have a read after I have shared too for a number of reasons.
At this point of reading it created an inner desire (داعية) and inspiration to share only the section from the piece that discusses who the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were to highlight and zoom in on their great and extraordinary personalities. The afore-mentioned piece was a bit lengthy (relatively speaking) so I thought it is possible the point does not come across or is lost. Hence, it should be posted separately to pinpoint their personalities. I had liked how the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) had been described in the piece.
It seems the love for the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) had come to the forefront that galvanised me to pen this dedicated (اصالةً) piece rather than sharing it as a post which could get lost. The mention (ذكر) of these ‘Great Scholars’ (كبار علماء) and ‘Friends of Allah Ta’ala’ (أولياء الله) is a source of blessing, inspiration and a means of increasing ones Iman (إيمان). Hence, worth penning, sharing and reading.
As a side note (جملة معترضة) anyone who knows me well or who reads my reflections, pieces and articles (in general including the several eulogies that I have penned) knows that I measure my words and I try to be as accurate as I can. I do not over praise or exaggerate in my praising or use words without measuring them. Hence, whatever I write regarding these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) is no exaggeration. Not even a tiny bit. There is a tendency in most to go to either extreme when praising or dispraising (افراط و تفريط). I have tried to state the facts and be accurate as much as I could neither exaggerating, overlooking or reducing their real worth. I have tried to be balanced. The truth is these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were truly extraordinary and unique. It seems and feels they were sent collectively for a special and divine purpose.
My vessel of the spiritual heart has since my childhood been overflowing with the love and admiration of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) - and still is. I also harboured the desire from an early age to study at this great, unique and inspirational seat of advanced Islamic learning. I was able to accomplish this dream through the mercy and grace of Allah Ta’ala. فللّٰه الحمد اوّلاً و آخراً
In my previous piece my mention of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) was as part of the discussion (ضمناً) on the topic at hand as I like to bring their mention into the discussion wherever it is relevant. The inner desire at the time was to share that particular section separately as a post to create additional focus on the topic and inspire those who attribute themselves to follow their lead in their various dimensions and central characteristic.
However, I thought I will wait a week and share the relevant parts after a week or so. In the meantime I thought I will pen a reflection (as part of the ‘Reflections’ series) I had been intending to write for a couple of weeks. Allah Ta’ala had different plans. And the divine plans are always more beautiful, better and centred on wisdom. Allah Ta’ala put in my spiritual heart that I should pen it as a proper piece (and not just share the relevant parts from the previous piece as an ordinary post) and also pen the additional thoughts Allah Ta’ala had dropped into my spiritual heart. Hence, this has culminated and transpired in the form of this piece. اللهمَّ تقبّل و بارِك وانفعنا بها
Acknowledgements & Gratitude
I am the beneficiary of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) in more ways than one. I attribute and owe my Islam and my understanding of Islam to them directly and indirectly.
I also acknowledge and appreciate the immense, incredible and unique contributions of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) in all areas of the Deen; their incredible role in preserving the true teachings of the beautiful Deen of Islam and in reviving and preserving the Islam of hundreds of millions of Muslims.
I have since my childhood admired and been inspired by the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) after listening about them. Their love and admiration only keeps increasing.
Their love and inspiration was the driving force and the primary motivation that took me to study at this great and accepted (مقبول) seat of advanced Islamic learning known as ‘Darul Uloom Deoband’. I am forever indebted to them. I continue to love and be inspired by them. I hope it is my means of salvation in the Hereafter as I have nothing else.
It is a quarter century ago (25 years) when I first set foot at Darul Uloom Deoband as a student and my first ever visit. It was an amazing and blissful experience. I still feel the experience. I entered Darul Uloom through the main gate known as the Qasmi Gate (بابِ قاسم). I wandered around the area known as Mulsari (ملسری). I felt I was home. I could feel the spirituality of Darul Uloom Deoband in my spiritual heart. It felt the Darul Uloom was founded on the foundations of sincerity and piety (اُسِّس على التقوىٰ). It felt the spiritual foundations were very deep.
Naming of the Pieces
The afore-mentioned piece on Tasawwuf (تصوّف) can be easily named as “What is Tasawwuf (تصوّف)” as it describes the various angles of the discipline by shedding light and focus on some of its key names. “What is Tasawwuf (تصوّف)” which would translate into Urdu as تصوّف کیا ہے and would be in line with the naming convention of this piece which translates into Urdu as أكابر علماء ديوبند کیا تھے.
The piece on Tasawwuf (تصوّف) can also be potentially named as “An Overview and Cursory Introduction to Tasawwuf (تصوّف)”. “An Overview and Cursory Introduction to Tasawwuf (تصوّف)” which would translate into Urdu as تصوّف کا ایک اجمالی تعارُف and the name of this current piece can also be أكابر علماء ديوبند کا ایک اجمالی تعارُف to be in line with the naming convention of the above sister piece. That would translate to “An Overview and Cursory Introduction to the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند)”.
One key reason to discuss the similarities in the naming of the two sister pieces is to highlight the intra-connectivity and how the two pieces are intertwined. Also, to point out the two pieces should be read alongside each other to gain maximum insight and benefit.
Terminology (اصطلاح) of ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند)
This term ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) is a specific term (اصطلاح). It refers to a specific group of scholars from all the scholars and graduates from Darul Uloom Deoband. This term is more specific (خاص) than the term ‘Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (علماء ديوبند). The term ‘Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (علماء ديوبند) is more general (عام).
The term ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) refers to the initial generations of this seat of learning connected to it in one way or the other. I don’t want to draw the line where it ends as that is not the point of the piece (neither it is within my reach). The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) include:
~ Qasim-ul-Uloom wal Khairat, Hujjat Al-Islam, Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotwi (RA) - Founder of Darul Uloom Deoband (بانی دار العلوم ديوبند)
~ Imam Rabbani Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (RA) - First Patron (سرپرست اوّل)
~ Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) - Second Patron (سرپرست ثانی)
~ Jami Al-Maqool wal Manqool Hazrat Moulana Yaqoob Sahib Nanotwi (RA)
~ Mufti Aa’zam Hazrat Mufti Aziz-ur-Rahman Sahib Usmani (RA)
~ Hazrat Moulana Miya Asghar Ali Sahib Deobandi (RA)
~ Sheikh-Ul-Hind Hazrat Moulana Mahmood Hasan Deobandi (RA)
~ Muhaddith Al-Asr Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (RA)
~ Fakhrul Muhadditheen Hazrat Moulana Khalil Ahmad Sahib Saharanpuri (RA)
~ Sheikh Ul Islam Hazrat Moulana Husain Ahmed Madani (RA)
~ Mufassir Al-Quran Allamah Shabbir Ahmed Usmani (RA)
I have only listed eleven. However, there is a group (طائفة) of these great scholars (which I cannot comprehensively list and is not the point). I have named a select few (11 to be precise) to provide a glimpse of who these greats consists of. There are others too.
It is pertinent to mention Hazrat Haji Imdadullah Sahib Muhajir Makki (RA). Hazrat Haji Imdadullah Sahib Muhajir Makki (RA) is regarded as the Sayyid At-Taifah (سيّد الطائفة) as the chains of Tasawwuf and Tariqat lead to him. The first three great scholars (above) were the direct disciples (خلفاء) of this great Sheikh and Murshid. The other great scholars and the subsequent scholars are indirectly connected to Hazrat Haji Sahib (RA).
What is Darul Uloom Deoband
It seems pertinent and relevant to briefly mention what ‘Darul Uloom Deoband’ represents as these great scholars associated to this great seat of advanced Islamic learning are being discussed in this piece.
Darul Uloom Deoband is a seat of advanced Islamic learning founded in the era of British rule and occupation with the mission and intent to preserve the identity of the Muslims of India of the time; to preserve the correct, pure and unadulterated teachings of the beautiful Deen of Islam in every way; to produce highly qualified and skilled scholars and experts in all the Islamic sciences; etc.
At the time of its founding India was not partitioned. Hence, it was the undivided India (غير منقسم انڈیا). The undivided India consisted of current day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Darul Uloom Deoband has certainly accomplished its mission par excellence. Also, its light and radiance has reached every corner of the globe. It has been the beacon of Islam for the past 150 plus years.
If Darul Uloom Deoband just produced one towering and giant scholar like Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) it would still be worth of gold. The reality and beauty is Darul Uloom Deoband has produced a long list of towering and giant scholars coupled with piety and integrity. Such is the productivity and quality of this great seat of advanced Islamic learning.
Also, as a result of Darul Uloom Deoband there are thousands of Darul Ulooms all over the globe which are effectively branches (شاخیں) of this great seat of advanced Islamic learning. For this reason Darul Uloom Deoband is regarded as Ummul Madaris (أم المدارس) - Mother of All Darul Ulooms - and also known as Azhar-ul-Hind (ازهر الهند) - The Azhar of India - due to the class and quality of its teachings. It is truly unique. I say this with full insight, confidence and conviction.
‘Darul Uloom Deoband’ is affectionately just known as ‘Darul Uloom’ as it is the Ummul Madaris (أم المدارس) and all the other Darul Ulooms (wherever they are in the world and however big they are) are Madaris and it’s children.
The light of Darul Uloom Deoband and it’s great scholars is still emanating and shining in all four corners of the world. And we pray that long it may continue to shine and emanate the light of Truth. آمين يا ربّ العالمين
Those who are associated and follow the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) and their methodology are known as ‘Deobandi’ (ديوبندى) or from the ‘Deobandi School of Thought’ (ديوبندى مكتبِ فكر).
This term “Deobandi” or the “Deobandi School of Thought” is not a term that is to signify a new group (جماعت). Darul Uloom Deoband is not really a separate school of thought (مكتبِ فكر). If anyone does regard it as the Deobandi School of Thought then be it. However, it should be noted that the Deobandi School of Thought are part of and the greatest proponents of the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة). This naming (Deobandi School of Thought) is to differentiate it from other groups who attribute themselves to the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة) but are off the mark in their understanding of the beautiful Deen of Islam.
All the beliefs of the Deobandi School of Thought are in line with the beliefs of the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة). Their Maslak (مسلك) is the Maslak (مسلك) of the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة). They adhere to the Maslak (مسلك) in the most pure and unadulterated way.
The above is in regards to the beliefs (عقيدة). Hence, to append to this point on the Maslak (مسلك) of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) in regards to Fiqh (فقه) they were Muqallid (مُقلِّد) and only accepted the view to follow any one of the Four Mazhabs (مذاهبِ اربعه) of Fiqh i.e. Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’ee and Hanbali. The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were themselves followers of the Hanafi Fiqh.
It should be noted and pointed out that amongst these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) some had reached to such high level due to the vast and depths of knowledge in all the Islamic sciences that scholars have said they had reached the level of a Mujtahid (مجتهد). Despite reaching this level in Fiqh (فقه) they never moved away from being a follower of the Mazhab (مذهب) i.e. being a Muqallid (مُقلِّد). They strictly followed one Mazhab without any mixing and matching. One great scholar who has been written about who reached this lofty level is Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA). Similar can be said of Muhaddith Al-Asr Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (RA).
And for completeness in regards to the following of the ‘Schools of Tasawwuf and Tariqat’ the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were adherents of the Chishtiyah School. They would follow the Chishtiyah methodology for spiritual purification and would attribute themselves to this School. However, they would take a pledge (Bai’ah / بيعة) on all the four popular Schools of Tasawwuf and Tariqat (i.e. Chishtiyah, Naqshbandiyah, Qadriyah and Sahawardiyah) to maintain their affiliation and respect with the other schools. Also, following any of the other three schools was accepted by them too.
The Path of Inner Purification is also called and referred to as a Maslak (مسلك) when it is mentioned alone. However, when this word - Maslak (مسلك) - is already in use alongside the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة) in the same discussion then the word used for the Schools of Tasawwuf and Tariqat is Mashrab (مشرب).
The truth is this great grouping of these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) is a unique grouping of the Scholars of Haqq (علماء حقّ) in this large quantity (كميت) and with this incredible quality (كيفيت) in recent times. Allah Ta’ala grant us all true appreciation of these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) and to follow in their noble footsteps.
The Sahaba (صحابة) Companions of the Holy Prophet (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) are ‘Gold Standard’ for any groups of followers as they are the direct beneficiaries of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him). The template and form of any group or grouping needs to fit the mould and cast of the Sahaba (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين). We can confidently say the mould and cast for the grouping of these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) fits perfectly with the ‘Gold Standard’ of Sahaba (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين).
Some Dimensions of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند)
I would like to mention the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) had numerous dimensions and arrows in their bow. Too many to list all so some of them are mentioned. They were teachers and instructors (معلّم و مدرّس), experts in Aqeedah and Kalam (متكلّم), experts in Tafseer (مفسّر), experts in Hadeeth (محدّث), experts in Fiqh (فقيه), experts in Mantiq and Falsafah (معقولى), writers (مصنّف), compilers (مولّف), freedom fighters and warriors (مجاهد), preachers (مبلّغ), callers towards the Deen (داعى), spiritual mentors and guides (مرشد), serving their communities (خادِم القوم), etc etc but at the heart and central to everything their spiritual heart was a Sufi (صوفى).
Their spiritual hearts (قلب) were purified (مُزَكّىٰ), pure and clean (مُصَفّىٰ), filled and brimming with sincere well wishing towards humanity (ناصِح), filled and brimming (معمور) with the love of Allah Ta’ala (حُبّ الله) and the love of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) (حُبّ الرّسول) and much more.
This powerful inner state (روحانيت) that fuelled their apparent academic and other outer dimensions was the underlying reason that led to their far reaching effects of the effort, revival and preservation of the correct and balanced teachings of the complete Deen of Islam. We all need to stick closely and tightly to their teachings in every manner and in every branch of the beautiful Deen of Islam. The preservation of our Deen of Islam and the Deen of our future generations lies in this. The contrary state is a slippery one towards disbelief. اللهم احفظنا
The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were great Muwahhid (موحِّد) in the complete sense (belief and practice). They observed Tauheed at the belief level i.e. Tauheed I’itiqaadi (توحيد اعتقادى) and also internalised Tauheed into their practices, physical and inner actions, interactions, mindset, etc in their daily life i.e. Tauheed Fa’ly (توحيد فعلى). They lived and breathed Tauheed (توحيد).
The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) strictly observed and adhered to all aspects of the Sunnah (مُتّبع السُّنَّة) and also revived the Sunnah (احياء السُّنَّة). Also, they kept far away from engaging in any form of Bidah (بِدعة). Instead they were active in getting rid of Bidah (بِدعة) i.e. (ماحى البِدعة) whether the Bidah (بِدعة) was related to beliefs (عقائد) or was related to actions (اعمال). The actions (اعمال) cover both the apparent (ظاهر) and inner (باطن).
Another way to look at who the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were is to say that they were Jami bayn Ash-Shariat wa At-Tariqat - جامع بين الشريعة و الطريقة. What that means is they had combined both the sciences of Ahkaam Zahirah (احكام ظاهرة) - i.e. Actions (اعمال) and the sciences of Ahkaam Batinah (احكام باطنة) - i.e. Inner Characters (أخلاق) - or in other words they were the scholars who had combined, internalised, instilled and also taught both the Shariat and Tariqat (i.e. Fiqh Zahir (فقه ظاهر) and Fiqh Batin (فقه باطن)).
Their approach to the Deen was in the complete sense. Hence, you can call them Kamileen (كاملين) - the truly greats of this Ummah. These greats who combined both dimensions (inner and outer) and every aspect of the Deen are also called Muhaqqiqeen (مُحَقِّقين). The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were of this noble and great category. الحمدالله
As a result of this pure and holistic approach to the Deen they had become Faqeeh An-Nafs (فقيه النفس) as their inner and outer were in total synch and in harmony with the spirit of the Deen. As a result of this they naturally concluded and gravitated towards the right decisions and right actions as their spiritual hearts had become clean and pure (قلب سليم) and so had their mind and intellect (عقل سليم).
Another way to understand and look at our ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) is that they practiced and acquired and/or were bestowed with all the Four Dimensions of the beautiful Deen. The Four Dimensions of the beautiful Deen as mentioned in the discipline and books on Tazkiyah are:
1. Shariah (شريعت)
2. Tariqat (طريقت)
3. Haqeeqat (حقيقت)
4. Marifat (معرفت)
Based on the first dimension - Shariah (شريعت) - which the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were practicing they were Mutasharri (متشرِّع); based on the second dimension - Tariqat (طريقت) - which they were practicing they were Sufi (صوفى); based on the third dimension - Haqeeqat (حقيقت) - which they had mastered they were Muhaqqiq (محقِّق) and based on the fourth dimension - Marifat (معرفت) - which they had acquired or were bestowed with they were Arif (عارِف).
One thing to note that the meaning of Muhaqqiq (محقِّق) - above - is not one who does research (تحقيق) i.e. a researcher as we know it. The meaning of Muhaqqiq (محقِّق) here is about gaining insights into the deep realities (حقايق) of the physical and spiritual world. Research (تحقيق) is like a children’s activity in comparison to these deep insights.
Another way to view the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) in terms of their practice of the Deen of Islam is that they practiced every branch of the Deen and also taught the believers the importance of each and every branch of the Deen. The beautiful Deen of Islam has been categorised into five branches (شعبہ جات) by Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA). The five branches of the beautiful Deen of Islam are:
1. Beliefs (I’itiqadaat / اعتقادات)
2. Worship (Ibadaat / عبادات)
3. Financial Transactions (Muamalaat / معاملات)
4. Social Interactions (Muasharat / معاشرة)
5. Purifying the Soul, Heart and Nafs
(Tasawwuf / تصوّف) & Tazkiyah / تزكية)
These ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) practiced all the five branches. Based on this complete practice they can be called Mutadayyin (مُتديِّن) i.e. دین دار as they covered the practice of the complete Deen and not just one or two branches. And they also emphasised this completeness and following the complete and total Deen to their followers too and highlighted this reality in their speeches and writings. This was part of their revival and preservation of the total and complete Deen they undertook.
And to add to all the above points our ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) exemplified I’itidal (اعتدال) - right balance - in all aspects of the Deen and in the different Deeni roles they had. The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) exemplified I’itidal (اعتدال) in protecting the boundaries of the Shariah (Hifz Hudood Shariah / حفظ حدود شريعة). Also, the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) exemplified I’itidal (اعتدال) in balancing the correct level of rights of everyone (Hifz Huqooq / حفظ حقوق).
You can say this practice of I’itidal (اعتدال) - right balance - in all aspects and areas of the Deen and the roles they had is the Manhaj (منهج) i.e. طریقہ کار - methodology - of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند). This methodology of I’itidal (اعتدال) - right balance - in all aspects of the Deen and the roles we play needs to be learnt from them.
To top up the above characters and areas of greatness all this was infused effortlessly and sincerely with immense simplicity (بذاذة) and without any pomp and show or pretension. None of this. They were never interested in trying to impress anyone with their knowledge, depth of knowledge, mastery in all the Islamic sciences (علوم عقلية و علوم نقلية اور علوم آلية و علوم عالية) and neither in the piety and total practice of the Deen. At the same time they would not ignore or dismiss anyone. They would give attention where it was required. Otherwise, they would remain busy in their task and mission. Hence, when we study the lives of our notable and ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) we do not find any kind of Takalluf (تكلُّف) in them and their lifestyle despite the greatness in knowledge, piety, refinement, character, politics, etc. We only find immense simplicity. This is the true prophetic behaviour. Hence, when we go back to our primary role model - our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) - and his faithful and loyal Sahaba (صحابة) - Companions - (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) we also do not see this kind of Takalluf (تكلُّف) in their daily interactions with each other or others.
To conclude this section on the greatness of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) it seems appropriate to mention the famous couplet by the Poet Farazdaq to his arch rival Jareer. This couplet is usually mentioned at times like this.
أولَئِكَ آبائي فَجِئني بِمِثلِهِم
إِذا جَمَعَتْنا يا جَريرُ المَجامِعُ
These are my fore-fathers (after praising and extolling their virtues), so bring me anyone like them (from your clan).
If we ever gather in a gathering O Jareer!
I (and many others like me) are really proud (in a humble way) of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) due to their extraordinary accomplishments and contributions in terms of the Deen and more. However, I am under no illusion that I am not like them. Yes, I am trying to emulate them in every way and trying to follow in their footsteps to the best I can. But the truth is I lack far far behind in their knowledge and piety or their courage and determination. I am only banking on my sincere love for them to push me through the ‘line of success’ in the Hereafter and to be blessed with their auspicious company in Paradise as they will be with our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) and his great and loyal Sahaba (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين). The prophetic saying المرء مع من اَحَبّ resonates well with me.
Below is a couplet I had written in one of my ‘Islahi’ correspondence (اصلاحى خط) with my beloved and compassionate mentor and guide Hazrat Moulana Masihullah Khan Jalalabadi (RA). The point was I have nothing so I am banking on my love for the righteous like my beloved Sheikh. This correspondence was from over three decades ago whilst I was a teenager. The sentiment still exist. There is no change if not it has gone stronger and clearer due to the increase in the spiritual maturity and the increase in clarity it brings. The greater the spiritual maturity comes the increased clarity.
أُحِبُّ الصالِحينَ وَلَستُ مِنهُم
لَعَلَّ الله يَرْزُقُنِي صَلاَحاً
I (deeply) love the righteous, but I am (clear I am) not one of them.
I do hope from Allah Ta’ala that He will bestow me with righteousness (due to this sincere love and to be like them).
Sincere Counsel (نصيحة) to Students of Knowledge, Darul Uloom Graduates and Scholars
The Arabic and the word used in the Holy Quran and Sunnah for ‘Sincere Counsel’ is نصيحة (Naseehat). This word is used in multiple forms. For example, in this exact word, in a noun form and verb form in the Holy Quran and Sunnah. I have a detailed reflection on Sincere Counsel (نصيحة) so I don’t want to go into the detail of what it entails. The translation of this word is sufficient for this piece. The referred piece is titled “Ramadhan Mubarak Reflections (5) – Sincere Well-Wishing to ALL (An-Naseehah)”. This reflection is part of the ‘Series of Reflections on Ramadhan Mubarak’.
I want to point out that this duty to have sincere well-wishing and to offer and impart ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة) is for every believer (مسلم و مسلمة). It is not exclusive to a pious person or a senior scholar, etc. Anyone can and should offer this ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة) when it is needed even the one being given the ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة) is equal in stature or higher or equal or higher than you in terms of knowledge, etc. Hence, this section has my ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة) to fellow students of knowledge, graduates of Darul Ulooms and scholars.
The reason I have to mention this disclaimer is there are too many ‘nut cases’ and wrongheaded people with crooked and absurd understanding (کج فہم) of the Deen in every group. Hence, such disclaimers are helpful for various reasons. It should be noted that ‘Nut case’ is two words but the meaning and essence is one and whole (معنىٰ كُلّى).
There is a balance that needs to be struck in applying humility (تواضع) so it is only humility (تواضع) and not the Izzat-e-Nafs (عزّتِ نفس) that is being trampled. Our ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were both humble and courageous at the same time. They were merciful and powerful at the same time. There is no contradiction in that. The nature would change depending on the context as it is described for the Sahaba (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) in the Holy Quran. The Sahaba (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) were merciful to the believers and courageous against the enemies. Hence, there is a time and place to be of a particular nature. The skill is to discern and understand the situation and then act accordingly.
I am defining the three categories mentioned in the sub-section title for purpose of clarity.
By ‘Students of Knowledge’ (طلبة العلم). I am referring to knowledge of the Deen (علوم الدّين). Whether they are formal students (رسمى طالِبِ علم) currently enrolled in any full time Darul Uloom (usually residential) or those who regard themselves as lifelong students of knowledge (طالِب العلم) like I do of myself (even though they may have formally graduated from a reputable Darul Uloom).
By ‘Darul Uloom Graduates’ I am referring to those who have studied full time the complete Dars-e-Nizami (درسِ نظامى) curriculum in a reputable Darul Uloom. They are referred to as Fuzala (فُضلاء).
By ‘Scholars’ I am referring to those ‘Darul Uloom Graduates’ who have continued studying post their graduation in their personal capacity and have acquired in depth knowledge of the sciences they studied as part of their Dars-e-Nizami curriculum. They are referred to as Ulama (عُلماء).
One thing to note is that being a ‘Darul Uloom Graduate’ (فاضِل) does not equate to being a Scholar (عالِم). A small subset of the ‘Darul Uloom Graduates’ (Fuzala / فُضلاء) fraternity will qualify to be from the category of ‘Scholars’ (Ulama / عُلماء). And then there are many levels within this category of ‘Scholars’ (Ulama / عُلماء). One thing for sure is the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) are amongst the great scholars of this Ummah as a whole. They are no less in knowledge in the Islamic sciences than the greats from the early or earlier centuries.
The ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة) to these three categories is to undertake the below actions:
- Study the lives (سوانح) of these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) with an open mind and open spiritual heart. Start the study with the first three great scholars in the above list and then move onto the rest.
- Explore the depths of knowledge in all the Islamic sciences these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) possessed by studying their books and commentaries on Tafseer, Hadeeth, Fiqh, Tasawwuf, etc.
- Try to uderstand their mindset and personality (مزاج و مذاق) in regards to the Deen and it’s practices.
- When engaging in any research work or any any enquiry refer to their academic works at the outset and before concluding your research and don’t deviate from their teachings. In between by all means look at and research the works of other reputable scholars. This applies to all areas of the Deen. Apply the rules of Fiqh in their teachings when extending to new scenarios.
- Get connected and remain closely connected to a Murshid (مرشد) associated with any of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) directly or indirectly. There is safety of your Deen and Dunya in this.
- Instil the love of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) into your students and also into your congregation and communities.
I have observed first hand at seeing the distance (دوری) and the gap that is occurring in the Darul Uloom graduates from the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند). This widening gap from the source is a worrying sign. There are a number of factors but primarily are a lack of study and knowledge of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند); self-inferiority complex and the ‘I know it all syndrome’. How can someone not be attracted and gravitated towards such towering and giants of knowledge and piety (جبال العلم و التُّقىٰ) if they truly want to grow and develop in their Deen?
- I sincerely suggest you create a habit of reading the books of Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) including the inspirational and full of knowledge and wisdom sayings (ملفوظات) and lectures (مواعظ). They are very powerful in creating and instilling change from within. The books of Hazrat Aqdas Thanwi (RA) are so many that they are sufficient for us for a lifetime of reading. If there is books of only one great scholar you need to read and study then they are the books and works of Hazrat Aqdas Thanwi (RA). Make a habit to read a page daily.
Sincere Counsel (نصيحة) to All Believers
By ‘All Believers’ I am including every one (besides the above three categories) - in this section - who associate themselves to the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة).
At the least it is directed to all those who attribute themselves to the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة) based on the understanding shared by the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند). As a group (جماعة) they are the best representation of the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة) as mentioned earlier.
- As a non-scholar accept the fact that your safety of the Deen lies in following a reputable scholar or a group of reputable scholars (to cover all areas of expertise) who are closely aligned to the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند).
- Study the lives of these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند). Start the study with the first three great scholars in the above list and then move onto the rest. Translations are available in English too.
- Study books (or the translations) written by the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند).
- Consult a reputable ‘Scholar’ (عالِم) whose mindset is in alignment and synch with the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) and who also adheres to the teachings and lifestyle of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) in all areas of their life.
I want to emphasise that proficiency in knowledge is necessary as just “piety” without knowledge is not sufficient. Piety has to be backed by in-depth knowledge in the graduate or scholar you are consulting. Otherwise, piety devoid of in-depth knowledge leads to problems and eventually deviance (ضلالة و بدعة).
- Avoid all other “scholars”, “celebratory sheikhs”, Google, etc from whom you learn your Deen. This can only lead to confusion, creating doubts and deviance.
- Regularly sit in the company of scholars who are connected to the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) and who exemplify their knowledge, traits and characters.
- Get connected with a reputable mentor and guide (مرشد) who is in some way connected to the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند).
- Instil the love of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) into your children.
- I sincerely suggest you create a habit of reading the books of Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) including the inspirational and full of knowledge and wisdom sayings (ملفوظات) and lectures (مواعظ). They are very powerful in creating and instilling change from within. The books of Hazrat Aqdas Thanwi (RA) are so many that they are sufficient for us for a lifetime of reading. If there is books of only one great scholar you need to read and study then they are the books and works of Hazrat Aqdas Thanwi (RA). Make a habit to read a page daily. Translations of a good number of books are available in English and other languages too.
Sincere & Humble Invite
I sincerely and humbly invite all the above four categories of believers to make a firm intention right now to reconnect and strengthen their bond and connection with the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند). And then to make a plan and concerted effort to enact the relevant ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة).
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to always tread the Path of Truth and Guidance.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to always tread the Path of Your favoured servants.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to tread this Path of Sulook and Tazkiyah with sincerity, commitment and conviction till death.
O Allah Ta’ala! Protect us all from all the Path of those who have deviated or are cursed.
O Allah Ta’ala! Protect us all from the deceit and alluring of the Shaitan and Nafs and all evil influences whichever form they take.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the in-depth understanding of the teachings of the Best of all creation, Your Beloved and Final Prophet, Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) and the strength and ability to emulate those practices.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to tread the Path of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند).
O Allah Ta’ala! Protect Darul Uloom Deoband from all the evils of its enemies.
O Allah Ta’ala! Continue to spread the light of Darul Uloom Deoband and the light of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) to all four corners of the globe.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to sincerely and actively spread the complete Deen of Islam to humanity like our great scholars and righteous predecessors have done for us.
آمین یارب العلمین بجاہ سیدالمرسلین علیہ الصلوۃ والتسلیم
و صلى الله على النبى الحبيب الشفيع الرؤوف الرحيم
Muhammad Noman Daji
(After Fajar, Wednesday 16th June 2021 – 6th Zul-Qa’dah 1442 A.H)
P:S: I am a graduate of Darul Uloom Deoband. I certified as an Aalim and a Mufti at this prestigious seat of advanced Islamic learning. I thought it should be mentioned (and has been suggested) so it provides some credibility and comfort for those reading (and who don’t know me).
A Leading Authority on Arabic Language Passes Away
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Sad Demise of Sheikh Amini:
A leading authority on Arabic language, a prolific writer of the Arabic and Urdu languages, an honest journalist, an outstanding Islamic scholar and my beloved teacher, Sheikh Noor Alam Khalil Amini, passed away on 3rd May 2021 early in the morning at around 03:15 AM, according to Indian time. His sad demise was mourned by several scholars and thousands of his students spread all over the world. His name was Noor Alam and was well-known as Noor Alam Khlil Amini as he used the same name as his pen name for almost five decades as a writer, journalist and author. His patronymic was Abu Usamah Noor. His father’s name was (Hafiz) Khalil Ahmad. He was born on 18th December 1952 at his maternal place: Harpur Beshi, Muzaffarpur, Bihar. He was from a known village: Raipur of district Sitamarhi in Bihar. His grandfather’s name was Rasheed Ahmad.
Orphan-hood and Upbringing:
Sheikh Amini’s father was Hafizul Qura’an and serving as a teacher in a certain Madrasa in district Dinajpur of West Bengal, an India province. When he received the message of being blessed with a baby boy, he came home to see his new born baby. At that time, a fatal disease called cholera had broken out in the vicinity. In the same epidemic, he passed away leaving his newly born baby an orphan. When his father died, Amini was merely three months old. He was brought up by his paternal grandmother firstly. Following her demise, he was brought up by his loving mother. He had much love for his grandma and mother as he expressed it while attributing his famous book, “Woh Koh Kan Ki Baat…” to these two unknown, but caring and affectionate ladies. The book is a biography of Sheikh Waheeduz-Zaman Kairanavi (1930-1995).
Beginning of Education:
He started his primary education from his maternal grand dad who had received his basic education from Madrasah Chashma-e-Rahmat, Ghazipur, UP. After his demise, he was educated in a Maktab of Raipur from Maulavi Ibrahim (May Allah grant him Jannah!). Here in this Maktab, he learnt reading the Holy Qura’an, Urdu, Hindi languages, handwriting and the basics of mathematics. In 1958, he moved to Madrasah Noorul Huda in Pokhraira, a village almost two KMs away from his native land, Raipur. He used to go to the Madrasah in the morning and come back in the evening.
Madrasah Imdadia, Darbhanga:
The famous Islamic scholar Maulana Owais Ahmad Qasmi (Deceased: 1998) of Sheikh Amini’s home town, was teaching in Madrasa Imdadia, Darbhanga (Est.: 1893). He was requested by Amini’s grandma to take him to Imdadia for his further studies. So, he got admission in Imdadia in 1961. Firstly, he started memorizing the Glorious Qura’an by heart and completed 7 parts of it. Next year, he got admission in the 6th grade of basic stage of learning and studied the books like Gulsitan and Bositan of Sheikh Sa’adi Shirazi (deceased: 1291) along with some basic Urdu and Arabic books. He benefited in this Madrasa from Shiekh Owais Ahmad Qasmi and Shiekh Muhammad Tasleem Qasmi Sidhulwi (1930-2003).
In Darul Uloom, Mau, UP:
He got admission in Darul Uloom, Mau in the first grade of Fazilah Course. He continued his learning up to the fourth grade in Mau, UP. He made the most of the scholars of the institution which he off and on used to mention whole heartedly. In this institution, he learned from reputed scholars of the time like Sheikh Abdul Haq Azami (later the teacher of Bukhari Shareef (Vol. 2) at Darul Uloom Deoband), Maulana Riyasat Ali, Maulana Ameen Adravi, Maulana Sheikh Muhammad Mauvi, Maulana Niyaz Ahmad Khairabadi, Maulana Sultan Ahmad, Maulana Riyazul Haq, Qari Muhammad Yaseen, Maulana Islamuddin and Maulana Naziruddin Mauvi (May Allah grant them Jannah!). He used to praise and remember profoundly the last mentioned one not only in his gathering; but in some of his articles too. He used to mention him as an obedient son does about his kind father.
In Darul Uloom Deoband:
Sheikh Amini got admission in Darul Uloom Deoband in December 1967. He was one among the prominent students. Being in Darul Uloom, he paid much attention towards learning Arabic language and literature, though he was also one of the top in another subjects. He had close and thick relation with the distinguished teacher of the Arabic language, Maulana Waheeduz Zaman Kairanvi. He was highly influenced with Kairanvi. In Darul Uloom, he learnt from Allamah Muhammad Husain Bihari, Maulana Naseer Ahmad Khan, Maulana Fakhrul Hasan Muradabadi, Maulana Shariful Hasan Deobandi, Sheikh Muhammad Naeem Deobandi, Maulana Sayyid Anzar Shah Kashmiri, Mufti Khursheed Alam Deoband, Maulana Hamid Miyan, Maulana Bahaul Hasan Muradabadi (May Allah grant them Jannah!) and Allamah Qamruddin Gorakhpuri (May Allah protect him!). In 1970, he got admission in Madrasa Aminia, Delhi. He graduated from this Madrasah learning the books of Hadeeth from Sheikh Sayyid Muhammad Miyan Deobandi (1903-1975) and Sheikh Sayyid Mashhudul Hasan Amrohvi (1927-2010) in Shaban 1391 AH.
Desire for Admission in Islamic University, Madinah:
Following the completion of his Fazilah course in 1391 AH, he stayed in Ramadhan in Madrasa Aminia. He had desire to get admission in Islamic University, Madinah Manawwarah. He discussed about his desire with his great teacher Maulana Miyan Deobandi. He told him about not having much knowledge about the admission in the University. But being a kind and caring teacher, he took him to Mufti Atiqur Rahman Usmani (1901-1984) and informed him about his desire. Mufti Usmani said that Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi (1914-1999) had been a member of the advisory body of the University. If he recommends, he will get admission easily. For this, he got ready to write a letter to Sheikh Nadvi asking him to do this favour. Maulana Deobandi also wanted to write a letter to Sheikh Nadvi in this regard. Coming back from Mufti Usmani, Maulana Deobandi advised him to write an application in Arabic language for the admission in his own handwriting in Naskh font. Then the letters and the application were sent to Mufakkir-e-Islam Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi to recommend for the sought admission.
In the Service of Mufakkire Islam:
Mufakkir-e-Islam was pleased with both the language and the handwriting of the application. He recommended for the admission and informed Maulana Deobandi through his letter. He also wanted to see the applicant. As Amini got information through the letter of Maulana Deobandi, he left for Lucknow in February 1972. He met Sheikh Nadvi in Takiyah Kalan, Raebareli. He remained for some moths in his service and assisted him in his academic works. In this period, Mufakkir-e-Islam dictated his Arabic book: “Al-Seerah Al-Nabawiyyah” to him.
Teaching Job at Nadvatul Ulama:
Replying to the application of the admission, Islamic University informed him at the end of April 1972 that admission was not possible in that current academic year; but it had assured the admission for the next year. Due to the financial grounds, he could not wait for the next year. Now, he thought of searching for employment. He informed his teacher Maulana Deobandi about his state of affairs. When Mufakkir-e-Islam learnt about his affairs, he informed Sheikh Amini about his decision to appoint him as a teacher at Draul Uloom Nadvatul Ulama, Lucknow after the summer vacation of May. Mufakkir-e-Islam also told him that he, therefore, didn’t need to run after a job. Thus he was appointed as a teacher on 11th July 1972 at Nadvatul Ulama, Lucknow. He continued serving as a teacher of Arabic language and literature up to the mid of 1982.
In DarulUloom Deoband as the Editor and Teacher:
Sheikh Amini was appointed as the Editor-in-Chief of fortnightly Arabic magazine: Al-Daie and the teacher of Arabic language and literature at Darul Uloom Deoband in Shawwal 1402 (August 1982). As the chief editor, he published the first issue of the magazine on 7th Muharram 1403 – 25th October 1982. He continued serving as the editor and the teacher until he breathed his last. He proved his mettle as the Editor and able teacher. Due to his works as the editor and teacher, he was considered authority on Arabic language and literature.
His last and final destination was Darul Uloom as the Editor and teacher. As he was an eminent writer of Arabic language, he was an adept teacher of Arabic literature. He was teaching “Dewan-e-Mutanabbi” in the 6th grade of Fazilah course and “Al-Mukhtarat Al-Arabiyyah” in Takmeel-e-Adab (Specialisation in Arabic Language). Moreover, he was also a guide for the students of “Takhassus Fe Al-Lughah Al-Arabiyyah” (Specialization in Arabic Literature) and teaching them some subjects. In this long period of five decades, thousands of students benefitted from him.
Before learning from him, this writer had the opportunity to learn from the scholars who had been his students. I had heard a lot from them about his authority on Arabic language and literature, his unique style and skill of teaching, his beautiful manner of living a good and model life strictly adhering to his day-to-day schedules with punctuality. That is why I was much impressed and had great love, respect and regard for him. Then in 2004, I had the chance to learn from him as a student of “Takmeel-e-Adab” in Darul Uloom Deoband. I learnt from him a book: “Al-Mukhtaarat Al-Arabiyyah” (a collection of several news and reports on different topics from Arabic newspapers).
He was very punctual of time. He used to reach the classroom on the time. Whenever he came for teaching, but let me say: whenever he left his residence, he used to wear Kurta, Pyjamas and beautiful Sherwani of a size fitting for his body above the Kurta. The Sherwani was always fastened with buttons and its collar was joined from one side to another one always. He wore a long cap of the same Sherwani’s material (at home, he used the round one). He kept pens in the front pocket of Sherwani. He wore the black polished shining leather shoes above the socks. Be it scorching summer or freezing winter seasons, it was his dress code. He used to keep a shoe spoon in his Sherwani’s pocket. When leaving the classroom, he used to wear the shoes with the same spoon and all the students saw him with a smile expression on their faces. Either he was coming to the class or going back, some students used to accompany him. He was very quiet and calm; while walking. When he found something for comment, he commented in few sentences.
Just after sitting in the classroom, he took students’ attendance register and started roll-call. He was very punctual of it. Then a student used to read the chosen text of the book which was to be taught. Then teaching would start. He used to remind the learners to read the text loudly and clearly. Sometimes, he used to tell them that the Arabic language requires loud voice so that each letter is pronounced correctly. It was his routine to start the lesson on the first day of academic year without any introductory speech. It was his rule that the students must reach the classroom before the teacher. They obeyed it with punctuality. He also used to advise them to come to the class with a notebook and a pen to note the points of his lectures. As he was engrossed in teaching, he hoped from them to be dedicated and attentive paying full heed towards the teacher or the book in the period.
When he was teaching Al-Mukhtaraat Al-Arabiyyah, he was in the habit of educating the learners the accounts of the meaning and sense of the words, phrases and sentences used in the news. He always pointed the word used in positive meaning and the word used in negative one. He also explained to them how the meaning of a verb keeps on changing with the change of a Silah (preposition). While teaching, he used to tell only the appropriate meaning of the word in the sentence and avoided the other ones, except when it was essential to tell those ones or he reminded if the same word was used in another meaning in a previous lesson. While translating a text, he cared much of the Urdu literature and its grammar. He used to educate them the suitable place of a subject, object and verb in an Urdu sentence. Translating a heading, he used to educate that a Fel-Mudha’ar’a (simple present tense) is used for the heading in Arabic language; but in Urdu it would be translated with an infinitive.
It was not possible only few students are playing a part keenly in his lesson and the most of them are just sitting to listen as audience participating in a gathering. He used to remind them to read the text and participate in the lesson attentively and sincerely. It was his habit to ask the questions from them during the period to keep them active and attentive. He would advise them to read Arabic text carefully avoiding grammatical mistakes. If a learner made such mistake, he was very quick to warn him. It was absolutely not liked in the period that a student pronounces “Seen” instead of “Sheen”, “Jeem” instead of “Zaa” or “Kaaf” instead of “Qaaf” (some Arabic alphabets) etc. Sometimes he used to advise them to correct the pronunciation of a letter and inform them the importance of Tajweed.
In the lesson, whenever he found a sentence with good structure, he told the learners to jot it down in their notebooks. He then advised them to ponder over the structure of the sentence and write several sentences following the same structure. For this exercise, he used to tell them to keep a separate notebook. For starting point, he used to suggest them first to understand that the sentence either starts with a noun or with a verb (according to Arabic grammar). If a sentence starts with a noun, first recognize Mubtada (Subject) and Khabar (Predicate). Then let the Mubtada remain at its place and change the Khabar with another one. Sometimes, change the Mubtada and let the Khabar remain at its place. Occasionally, let both of them remain at their places and add an adjective to the Khabar, then another one and make the sentence longer. If the sentence starts with a verb, recognize the Faail (Subject), leave all the words of the sentence at their places and replace the masculine Faail with another one. If the Faail is feminine, replace it with another feminine Faail. At times, replace the condition of the Faail and change the verb as the Faail requires. Sometimes, just change the Mafool (Object) with another one. The learners were suggested to make a lot of sentences using the said useful methods.
His Published Works:
He was one of the few distinguished men of letters of Arabic and Urdu languages in India. He was an experienced translator, journalist and author. He translated dozens of Urdu books of Islamic scholars. He penned hundreds of articles and books in both Urdu and Arabic languages. He made exceptional contributions to Islamic scholarship. Here we present an incomplete list of his works:
Work in Arabic Language:
(1) Al-Sahabatu-Wa-Makanatuhum Fil Islam, (2) Mujtamaa’atunaa Al-Mua’asirah Wa Al-TariquIaa Al-Islam, (3) Al-Muslimoon Fee Al-Hind…, (4) Al-Dawah Al-Islamiyyah… (5) Miftahul Arabiyyah (2 Volumes), (6) Al-Aalim Al-Hindi Al-Fareed Al-Sheikh Al-Muqri Muhammad Tayyib, (7) Filisteen Fee IntizaariSalahiDeen, (8) Ta’allamu Al-ArabiyyahFaInnahaa Min Deenikum, (9) MataaTakunu Al-KitaabaatMuath-thirah, (10) Min WahyilKhaatir (5 Volumes), (11) Fee Maukab Al-Khalideen.
Work in Urdu Language:
(1) Woh Koh Kan Ki Baat…, (2) Sahabah-e-Rasul Islam Ki Nazar Men, (3) Harf-e-Shireen, (4) Khatte Ruqah Kiyun Aur Kaise Sikhen?,(5) Maujudah Salibi Sahyuni Jang, (6) Kiya Islam Paspa Ho Raha Hai? (7) Filisteen Kisi Salahuddin KeIntezar Men, (8) Pase Marg Zindah, (9) Raftagane Na Raftah.
Sheikh Amini translated almost 35 worthy Urdu books of great Islamic scholars and thinkers of the Indian sub-continent like: Hakimul Ummah Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Sheikhul Islam Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani, Hakimul Islam Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi, Mufakkire Islam Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi, Maulana Muhammad Manzoor Nomani, Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani etc. All these books are published and available in the market.
Write-ups and Articles:
He wrote more than 500 write-ups and articles on various Islamic, literal, social, political etc. topics, published in several Arabic and Urdu magazines and newspapers like Al-Daie, Al-Bath Al-Islami, Al-Raid, Al-Dawah, Al-Faisal, Rabitah Al-Aalam Al-Islami, MajallahDarulUloom, Majallah Ta’amir-e-Hayat, Majallah Al-Furqan, Majallah Al-Haq etc. published from India, Pakistan and other Arab, non-Arab countries.
Awards and Honours:
As a selfless servant of Arabic and Urdu languages, Sheikh Amini served almost for five decades as a prolific writer, journalist, author and teacher of Arabic language and literature. A good number of readers benefited from his reliable works and thousands of students quenched their thirst of Arabic language from him. Therefore, recognizing and honouring his services in the field of Arabic language, the Indian government awarded him with the Presidential Certificate of Honour in 2017. Some universities also appreciated his services in the field of Arabic language. A university accepted the topic related to his personality and services for research. The scholar wrote his Ph. D. thesis and was granted the degree of Ph.D. His book “Filisteen Fee Intizaari Slahi Deen” was made the topic of research in Assam University and the researcher was granted the degree of Ph.D. His services in the field of Urdu language have also been appreciated. Currently Maulana Umar Farooque Qasmi from Damla, Madhubani, a research scholar in Urdu Department, LN Mithla University, Darbhanga, is writing thesis for his Ph.D. degree on “Noor Alam Khalil Amini- Ahwal-o-Aasar (in reference to Urdu language)” under the supervision of Professor Md. Aftab Ashraf. All these are awards, honours and appreciation of Sheikh Amini’s tireless and sincere works and services for five decades, in my view.
Sheikh Amini is survived by his wife, four daughters and three sons: Mufti Usamah Noor Qasmi, Umarah Noor and Maulana Sumamah Noor Qasmi. Maulana Sayyid Arshad Madani, the President of Jamiate Ulame Hind and Head-Teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband led the funeral prayer in the campus of Darul Uloom Deoband. Hundreds of scholars and students attended the funeral prayer. He was buried in the “Qasmi Graveyard” of Deoband on the same day 3rd May. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah!
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa,
To Allah we belong and to Him is our return Aameen
Profile of Shaykh Taha Karaan
Shaykh Taha Karaan is a Shafi’i scholar born in Cape Town, South Africa to a family renowned in both its maternal and paternal lineage for Islamic scholarship. His father, Shaykh Yusuf Karaan, was one of the oldest and most distinguished Islamic scholars in the Cape. Shaykh Yusuf – famous for his translation of many of Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Muhammad Zakariyya al-Kandhlawi’s seminal works – sat as the chief Magistrate for Islamic Civil Matters in the Muslim Judicial Council (MJC).
Shaykh Taha completed his Qur’anic memorization in one year at the Waterfall Islamic Institute( Mia’s Farm), the oldest Islamic seminary in South Africa. During his stay, he assisted in the editing of the Qur’anic prints that the Institute has become famous for the world over. After finishing four years of the ‘alim course in two years, he journeyed to the Indian sub-continent and Dar al-Ulum Deoband, graduating from there in 1991 with the highest of distinctions – as did his father – in a class of over 700 students. He then traveled to the Middle East and completed a two-year graduate diploma at the Higher Institute for Islamic Studies in Cairo, Egypt.
Shaykh Taha is the recipient of numerous chains of transmission (ijazaat) – from well-respected scholars in India, Pakistan, South Africa, Egypt and Saudi Arabia, among others – in numerous fields of Islamic study.
Currently, Shaykh Taha is a member of the Ifta’ Department of the MJC, and sat as an executive member of the Muslim Personal Law Board and on the Islamic Advisory Board of ABSA, one of South Africa’s national banks. He is a sought-after speaker at Islamic symposia and conferences but attends them sparingly, preferring to spend most of his time at the Islamic seminary, Dar al-Uloom al-Arabiyyah al-Islamiyyah, that he founded in 1996. The educational thrust of the seminary reflects Shaykh Taha’s own pioneering vision and commitment to squarely interface with the challenges of the modern age through the twin objectives of preservation and progress. In his own words:
“The study of Islam is not simply an area of academic investigation. It is the continuation of a legacy—a legacy that was initiated with the revelation of Iqra’, whose foundations were laid over the 23 years of Prophethood, and whose edifice was raised by successive generations of keenly devoted scholars for well over a thousand years. The type of individualism that places the investigator in the centre and ignores the legacy of the discipline is foreign to Islam. Knowledge is handed down through a legacy of scholarship. The student, as the recipient of knowledge, becomes heir to that legacy. By inheriting the legacy he becomes part of it, and it is then through him that the legacy is perpetuated.
The legacy itself transcends time. But every subsequent age brings with it unprecedented challenges. It is only when the challenges of an age have been met that the claim of preserving a tradition becomes tenable. The dynamism inherent within the legacy of knowledge in Islam makes it possible for it to meet all challenges. Every instance of interaction between challenges and the legacy adds to the wealth of the legacy itself. Thus does the legacy progress and develop. And in this way do preservation and progress go hand in hand.”
In his teaching, writing and legal verdicts (fatawa), Shaykh Taha regularly addressed contemporary issues such as the challenges of post-modernity, feminism, Islamic economics and finance, the old and new Orientalisms, and fiqh issues affecting diaspora Muslim communities.
His students (and authors of this biography) describe him as divinely-gifted with encyclopedic knowledge; possessed of a near photographic memory; an insatiable bibliophile within the Islamic sciences and without; a teacher that never ceases to inspire; endowed with an elegant calligraphic hand and a penchant for poetry; thoroughly unassuming, pleasant, brilliant and tender-hearted.
Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Sheikh Waheeduz-Zaman Kairanavi (1930-1995) was one of the few exemplary teachers of Arabic language and literature whom the 20th century witnessed in India. During his long teaching services at Darul Uloom Deoband, not only he trained his students how to speak and write eloquent Arabic language; but he also trained them how to live an ideal life in the society as a good human being. He educated them in the way that wherever they went, they became the cause to enhance the glory and reputation for him and for their seat of learning, i.e. Darul Uloom Deoband. He always encouraged his students and wished to see them at the peak of success. Whenever an opportunity of exposure and publicity came to him, he always pushed his students forward to let them prove their mettles. In 1982, when there was a vacancy for Chief Editorship of Arabic Islamic fortnightly Magazine, Al-Daie, published from Darul Uloom Deoband, he preferred one of his capable and qualified students, Sheikh Noor Alam Khalil Amini (1952-2021), then the teacher of Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow to take this important responsibility. Later, the scholars of Arabic language and literature witnessed how ideal this choice was!
Sheikh Amini started his services as the chief editor of Al-Daie and the teacher of Arabic literature at Darul Uloom Deoband from 15th Shawwal 1402 AH (6th August 1982). As the chief editor, he published the first issue of the magazine on 7th Muharram 1403 – 25th October 1982. He worked tirelessly for 40 years (1403-1442 AH) as the chief editor of the magazine. His standard Islamic, academic, literal and thoughtful write-ups for Al-Daie, in a well-expressed and eloquent Arabic language, enhanced the beauty of the magazine. Moreover, collecting the standard and thoughtful articles by Arab writers and the excellent publication of Al-Daie in accordance with his amazing fervor, the magazine took no time to reach the peak of its success. Not only the Indian sub-continent scholars, but also the Arab scholars, poets and the men of letters welcomed the magazine with open arms. Thus, the magazine played a key role, as a mouthpiece of Darul Uloom Deoband, in introducing Deobandi thought (Which is strictly following the path of Ahlus-Sunnah Wa-Al-Jamah) and presenting the institution’s academic activities in the Arab world.
Sheikh Amini had fixed several columns in Al-Daie such as, Kalimatul-Muharrir, Kalimatul-Adad, Al-Fikr Al-Islami, Dirasaat-Islamiyyah, Ilaa-Rahmatillah, Mahalliyat, Anba’aul-Jamiah, Ishraqah etc. Despite these columns, there were also some other columns like Isdaratun-Hadithah, Al-Adabul-Islami, Al-Aalamul-Islami etc. in Al-Daie, if articles on such topics were included for publication.
Sheikh Amini used to write for the columns like Kalimatul-Muharrir, Kalimatu-lAdad, Al-Fikr Al-Islami, Ilaa-Rahmatillah, Isdaratun-Hadithah and Ishraqah in an eloquent Arabic language in the light of reliable references and accurate statistics. For the Kalimatul-Muharrir, it was his practice to write a brief article on current issues related to India or the Muslim world containing one or two pages sometimes. At the end of the article, there used to be written [Al-Tahreer] in the brackets. Next to it, the time and date were noted to let the readers know at what time and date the article was written. It was his practice to write the time and date at the end of his any write-up.
For the second column: Kalimatul-Adad, mostly he wrote a detailed article on a social, political or Islamic burning issue. The article sometimes was on virtues of the month of Ramadhan and fasting-Sawm, greatness of the migration of the prophet Muhammad (SAWS), need and importance of prayer etc. Article of this column sometimes revealed the cunningness of America and its illegitimate child, Israel. He also used to show up the positive and negative aspects of the steps taken by the leaders of the Muslim and Arab world. He never hesitated to express his opinion about the stand and the decisions of the Indian government on any grave issue. The article would consist of 5/6 pages and sometimes even more pages than that. The Urdu translation of some of the articles written for this column is now part of his Urdu book “Kiya Islam Paspa Ho Raha Hai?”
He had great love for the scholars of Deobandi school of thought as they were true flag bearers of Islam. It was his mission to introduce their academic works and prominent services for Islam in Arab world. For this purpose, he translated Urdu books of those prominent scholars and published on the pages of Al-Daie in parts under the column of Al-Fikrul-Islami. This series continued for many years. In this way, he translated dozens of books into Arabic language. The books are published from Darul Uloom Deoband and its Sheikhul Hind Academy. For few years, he had stopped writing for the aforesaid column. For this column, Abu Aaidh Al-Qasmi Al-Mubarakpuri (the patronymic of the famous Islamic scholar and teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband, Sheikh Muhammad Arif Jameel Qasmi Mubarakpuri, who is Assistant Editor of Al-Daie too) is translating “Tafseere Usmani” nowadays. This is a great and well-known Quranic commentary (Tafseer book) of Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (May Allah grant him Jannah!). As of Shaban 1442, the translation of the first 4 parts has been published under this column.
Sheikh Amini also wrote hundreds of articles for the column, “Ilaa-Rahmatillah”. Under this column, he wrote on famous scholars, thinkers, preachers, poets, men of letters and social and political personalities who had passed away in the near past from the Indian sub-continent as well as Arab world. In this article, he used to write the account of the deceased’s life, his services and the scholarly works etc. Like his other articles, the article of this column also had distinctive method as well as uniqueness and singularity of expression. The article would encompass all the features of the life of the diseased. The article used to be very lengthy. Sometimes, it was like a short biography of the diseased. He wrote on almost three hundred personalities as of March 2010.
Some articles written for the said columns were translated into Urdu language by the author and by some of his students and got them published in various Urdu magazines and newspapers. The readers liked them very much. They showed their desire that these Urdu articles should be compiled in the form of a book. Considering the sentiments of the readers, the author published the collection of 37 articles namely “Pase Marg Zindah” in 932 pages in May 2010. Of the same series, another collection of 24 articles namely “Raftagane Naa-Raftah” is soon to be published.
Under the column of “Isdaratun-Hadithah”, he used to write a review on newly published books. His review too was very inclusive, comprehensive and lengthy. In this column, he used to elaborate the value of the reviewing book, its publication, introduction of author and his works in detail. As an example, the review of “Tohfatul-Alma’aee Commentary of Sunan Al-Tirmidhi” of Mufti Sa’eed Ahmad Palanpuri (Rahimahullah) can be read. This review is published with Tohfatul-Alma’aee, at the end of the 8th volume of the book.
The column: “Ishraqah” was on the last page of the magazine. Its remainder part used to be published on the last pages just back to the last one. For this column, Sheikh Amini used to write a well-grounded and demonstrative article, be on academic, religious, social or political topic, in the light of his thought, knowledge, experiences and observations or some situations and incidents influencing him. It was decorated with applicable idioms, appropriate synonyms, and beautiful similes. This article used to be the sample and model of an eloquent Arabic literature. It was highly valued and appreciated not only by the Indian readers of Al-Daie, but also by Arab scholars. It is pleasing that the hundreds of articles written for this column have been compiled and published this year namely: “Min Wahyil-Khaatir” in five huge volumes. It consists of 2600 pages as a whole. It was published just few weeks before the sad demise of Sheikh Amini. It is a precious and valuable gift for those who have interest in Arabic language and literature to read.
It is appropriate to record here that before the publication of Al-Daie, Darul Uloom published a quarterly magazine namely “Dawatul-Haq” as its mouthpiece, under the editorship of Sheikh Waheeduz-Zaman Kairanavi. After abolishing its publication, “Al-Daie”, a fortnightly magazine, was launched. Its first issue was published on 11th Rajab 1396 (10th July 1976), under the editorship of Sheikh Mufti Badrul Hasan Qasmi (ex-teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband and currently resident in Kuwait). Following his resignation, Sheikh Amini was appointed as its Chief Editor and the teacher of Arabic literature at Darul Uloom Deoband as stated above. Previously Al-Daie was published as a fortnightly magazine; but the governing body of Darul Uloom decided to convert it into monthly. Then from Safar-Rabiul Awwal 1414 AH (August 1993), it is regularly published as a monthly magazine.
May Allah accept the efforts of Sheikh Amini and grant him His choicest place in Jannah! Aameen! ●●●
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By Manzar Imam Qasmi, Dr Mohd Quamruddin
Author, renowned Arabic litterateur, editor of esteemed Arabic monthly, Al-Daie, and teacher of famed Islamic seminary, Darul Uloom Deoband, Maulana Noor Alam Khalil Al-Amini passed away Monday, 3 May, 2021. Inna Lillahi wa Inna Ilaihi Raji'un. He was taken ill few weeks ago and was admitted to a hospital in Meerut where he breathed his last. He was 68 and belonged to Muzaffarpur, Bihar.
The Presidential Award winner (Presidential Certificate of Honour, 2017), Maulana Noor Alam, was among rare existing scholars of Arabic whose writings were widely read in India and the Arab and Islamic countries. Many of his columns were translated in Urdu, English and other languages. His Urdu books are a proof of his fine literary taste and profound knowledge. He had a rapturous love for Classic Arabic, had a great sense of quick and delicate wit but was a deeply sincere person who trained hundreds of madrasa graduates in Arabic language and literature.
Born on 18 December, 1952, Noor Alam graduated from one of Delhi’s old madrasas, Madrasa Aminia (established in 1897), from which he derived his title Al-Amini and Amini in Arabic and Urdu respectively. Maulana Noor Alam was a renowned Arabic scholar, academician, prolific writer and journalist. He studied at Madrasa Imdadiya, Darbhanga, Darul Uloom Mau, Madrasa Aminia, Delhi, Darul Uloom Deoband and King Saud University, and taught at Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow (1972-82) and at Darul Uloom Deoband for about four decades. His unique style of teaching and teacher-student friendly functional approach made students flock to his classroom. Thousands of his students, spread all over the country, many of them university teachers, are witness to it.
He authored a number of books which were well received and well read in India and abroad, especially in the Arab world. He wrote several syllabus books on Arabic teaching-learning. He also wrote biographies, books on the Palestinian and other issues related to the Arab world. He extensively wrote, as Editor-in-Chief of India's leading Arabic journal 'Al-Daie' for decades and, many of his write-ups came under pen name Abu Usama Noor.
Besides issues of the Arab world and Palestine, his writings covered the issues of the Indo-Arab relations. He introduced the Indian Muslims and their scholarship to the Arabs from an academic perspective. Another celebrated side of his contribution to the academia is his translation work. He translated several Urdu books of stalwart scholars into Arabic especially the books of Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautwi, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi. According to Maulana Qari Syed Muhammad Usman Mansurpuri and Maulana Mahmood Madani, president and general secretary, respectively of Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind, Maulana Noor Alam translated many research works and academic writings of Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madani into Arabic.
The editorials of 'Al-Daie' and his special column 'Ishraqa' were very famous among scholars. Besides having expertise in Arabic and the above said areas he was also a great man of Urdu literature, having his own unique style and track. His writings enjoy high level of accuracy in language, knowledge and facts. According to Asjad Uqaani, one of the speeches of Maulana Amini, published under the title Harf-e-Shirin is reported to undergo 40 editions.
Among his celebrated books are Falastin Fi Intizari Salahidin, Min Wahyi al-Khatir (Arabic: a collection of his columns Ishraqa, published in five volumes), Woh Koh Kan Ki Baat, Pas-e-Marg Zindah, ‘Aalam-e-Islam ke Khilaf Saleebi Saihuni Jung, Sahaba Rasool-e-Islam ki Nazar Mein (Urdu), Miftah al-Arabiyyah (Arabic-Urdu in two volumes), the last being a syllabus book in many madrasas and availed of in universities.
A condolence meeting was organized at Delhi University in which participants expressed deep sorrow over his demise. Prof Zubair Ahmad Farooqi said that Maulana Noor Alam was a fine writer and a successful teacher whose life was greatly shaped by his teacher Maulana Wahiduzzaman Kairanwi. Prof Abdul Majid Qazi, Head, Department of Arabic, Jamia Millia Islamia maintained that Maulana Noor Alam was a selfless teacher, desirous to benefit all. He had an unusual love for Arabic and a very refined taste for it.
In a condolence meeting at Khanqah Imdadia Ashrafia, Thana Bhawan, Maulana Najmul Hasan Thanwi said that during many of his meetings at Deoband he found that despite his being committed and focused on his work, Maulana Noor Alam was an amicable person. Dr Shahabuddin Saqib, general secretary of Khidmat-e-Khalq Trust said that Maulana Noor Alam was a strict disciplinarian and used his time judiciously. Whether in his village or in Lucknow or Deoband, he never compromised with his principles. He would say that life must not be lived unscrupulously.
In his demise Indian Muslims in general and Darul Uloom Deoband in particular have lost an academic stalwart, a robust intellectual and towering literary figure. May Allah forgive his shortcomings and get him Jannah!
*Manzar Imam is a senior journalist and Dr Quamruddin teaches Arabic at Zakir Husain Delhi College
By Mohammed Wajihuddin
After I was uprooted from then intellectually vibrant Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) and planted in Patna in the late 1980s where I lived till 1993, I tried to made up the loss through writing letters to the editors of newspapers. I became so prolific a letter writer, mostly to the editor—then Uttam Sengupta was the Resident Editor, of The Times of India in Patna—that many readers began inquiring about me. Then TOI Patna would carry at least three letters of mine in a week. To increase interactions with the readers, the editor had liberally given space for these letters under different slots—Readers’ Response, Sunday Forum, Letters…Since there was not much in my surroundings to fall back on, I made newspapers and books my friends. The ancient Ganga flowed a few feet away from my rented room at the crowded mohalla where boys my age played carrom and jobless elders spent the day gossiping. I became a member of the iconic Khuda Baksh Library and would drop letters to the Editor at newspapers’ offices on my way to the library on a bicycle.
Some of my letters caught the attention of a small group of Muslim intellectuals in the town. One of them was Mr Kamaluzzaffar, manager of now-defunct Urdu daily Quami Awaz. Kamal sahib was my neighbour in Kurji area of the city and liked me because of my passion for engaging with current topics. One Sunday morning Kamall sahib took me to a meeting of some leading Muslim intellectuals, comprising High Court advocates, doctors, journalists, other professionals, at Maulana Wali Rahmani’s official residence. He was an MLC then and the residence must have been in the most secured areas of the town. The meeting lasted for an hour or so. A college student, I was the youngest among these elders and I don’t know if my comments made any sense to them or not. That was the first time I saw and met Maulana Wali Rahmani, Ameer-e-Shariat (Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa), general secretary of All India Muslim Personal Law Board and founder of Rahmani 30, the coaching programme to tutor Muslim aspirants for IIT JEE. He died on Saturday at 77.
Years later, I bumped into him at Anjuman-I-Islam near CST in Mumbai. Accompanied by then Director General of Police, Bihar, Abhiyanand, Maulana Wali Rahmani addressed a press conference, announcing his wish to open a branch of Rahmani 30 in Maharashtra. He had hit the headlines earlier as the success rate of the first batch of Rahmani 30 was excellent, meaning every student who took the tough exams had cleared it. Most of these boys were poor and first-generation learners. One boy’s father was a vegetable vendor. Wali sahib had to find a philanthropist to help the boy pay the fees at one of the ITTs he had joined.
I got so enthused by the success stories of Rahmani 30 and the efforts of this maulvi that I suggested a feature on him to my bosses. The story of Maulana Wali Rahmani’s spectacular experience in empowering Muslim youths through entry in premier Engineering institutes appeared on the front page of TOI’s multiple editions. A friend joked: “After a long time, I have seen a bearded, skullcap-clad Muslim on the first page of a national daily for a good reason.”
The UPA was in power and the Indian agencies had discovered a minefield of Indian Mujahideen members who kept spreading terror with their nefarious activities. The needle of suspicion would invariably tun to some Muslim youths, mostly bearded, some cleanshaven too. So, it was not uncommon to see bearded Muslims making it to the pages of newspapers for wrong reasons. Thanks to the change in the guard at the Centre and in various states in 2014, those sleeper cells, terror modules have gone into sleep mode. One hardly hears of them these days. Did they really exist or were they manufactured as part of a diabolical policy? Well, I am not privy to what goes in the security establishment or inside the terrorists’ cells. So, no comments. And this essay is not about busting any terror cell.
So, at the press conference I asked Abhyanand a question that he liked. “You are a senior cop and cops generally have not very positive opinions about maulavis. So how did this chemistry happen? Abhyanand chuckled and answered:” Now I believe I am in Mumbai which is home to Bollywood because you asked this question about chemistry.” Everyone in the room laughed. Abhyanand explained that, after the repeated success of Super 30—a coaching programme for IIT aspirants in Patna of which Abhyanand was once part of—Maulana Wali Rahmani approached him with a request. “Will you help some Muslim students crack the IIT exams?” the Maulana asked him. Maulanas approaching senior police officers for help is not new. They approach them to file cases against blasphemous posts or videos, cartoons or comments and complain against harassment in the name of hazar many other things. They seek police officers' help when they have to file FIRs against the characters like Yati Narsinghnand Saraswati and Wasim Rizvi.
This was perhaps for the first time that a senior, very respected Maulana had asked Abhyanand to guide Muslim IIT-JEE exam aspirants. A nice man, Abhyanand agreed to be on board but with two conditions. Maulana sahib would not interfere in the selection of the candidates for coaching and Abhynand would not be responsible to bring funds. The Maulana agreed.
The Maulana’s style of functioning defied logic and the rules of Economy. He laid down the rules that no student who was selected for the Rahmani 30 programme would pay for it. It means board, lodging, food and tuition, everything was free. Those who wanted to pay could do so to the Rahmani Foundation which would subsidise the studies of poor students. At the Rahmani 30 all students were equal. In a couple of years, the scene had changed. Muslim candidates, courtesy Rahmani 30, began figuring in the list of successful IIT JEE candidates. Oops, am I giving a clue to some very enterprising and intelligent Television anchors to investigate further whether Muslims have begun IIT Jihad just as an anchor claimed last year that the community had started “infiltrating” IAS and IPS through “Civil Services Jihad”?
Some of us in Mumbai requested Maulana Wali Rahmani and his second son Fahad Rahmani who had left a handsome job in the US and looked after the Rahmani 30 programme with a request to start a branch in Mumbai. Mr Ateeq Agboatwala of Memon Chambers of Commerce was kind enough to believe in our dream and back the project initially at the Anjuman-I-Islam. The boys were put up at the Sobani Hostel at the Anjuman campus and they were coached at a classroom on the same premises. The programme took off and continued for two batches and the results were very good. Then, for some reasons for which this is not a proper platform to discuss, Fahad Rahmani took the programme to Aurangabad. Centres in Hyderabad and Bangalore also opened. At a time when Muslims excel only at one place—any guess? —in the jails, Rahmani 30 has revolutionized the lives of a section of Muslims in India. Its medical entrance coaching programme is also very successful and a number of girls and boys have joined medical colleges across the country.
One day I told Maulana Wali Rahmani about my relationship with his family. For the uninitiated, Maulana Wali Rahmani came from the family of revered Islamic scholars and spiritual leaders of India. His grandfather Maulana Mohammed Ali was a leading Islamic scholar of his time and among the founders of the famous Islamic seminary Nadwatul Ulema in Lucknow. His father Maulana Minatullah Rahmani was also the Ameer-e-Shariat and among the founders of the All-India Muslim Personal Law Board. He had visited my village a couple of times. Maulana Mohammed Ali had also established a khankah or a religious institution for teaching and spiritual guidance at Munger in Bihar.
Over a century ago, my grandfather must have been 13 or 14 when he ran away from his village in Darbhanga in Bihar and landed up at Maulana Mohammed Ali’s doorstep in Munger. “My father is a farmer. Nobody in my village has ever seen the face of a school or madrassa. If I stay there, they will keep me jahil and uneducated. I have come to you so that I can learn something,” my grandfather said. Impressed by the boy’s candid talk, Maulana Mohammed Ali admitted him at the Khankah. He became among his favourite students and disciples. In the night when the Maulana rested on his charpoy, his favourite student Tabarak Hussai, my late grandfather, would go near him and gently press his feet. We call it in paon dabana in our tradition. I remember doing this to my parents while they were alive. How sad I am today that they are gone and I have not done this duty in years!
Apart from teaching him Arabic, Urdu and Persian, Maulana Mohammed Ali also taught his favourite student a few verses from the Quran to use them for healing purposes. “You will be a maulvi in a village and teach at a school. Poor villagers will seek you for spiritual healing through verses of the Quran,” prophesied the Maulana. My grandfather didn’t understand it much then but realized it when he finally landed up a job of a teacher/maulvi at a government school in the pre-Independence era. His first monthly salary was Rs Five and retired with a monthly salary of Rs 900 in the mid-1970s. Maulana Wali Rahmani chuckled when he heard this story. Our bonds grew with the Maulana calling me often from Patna, Munger or Delhi to inquire about my wellbeing. I didn’t call him in weeks. I felt so blessed.
Whether it was Babri Masjid issue or the Triple Talaq matter in the Supreme Court, I differed with his and the Muslim Personal Law Board’s stand and would argue with him. Once we met aboard a flight to Patna. I was going to cover the 2015 Bihar Assembly elections. Fortunately, our seats were close to each other. I offered him a cup of coffee which he accepted. For two hours we kept chatting on various issues and when the flight landed, he was kind enough to give me a lift in his car and ask the driver to drop me to my friend’s house at the Azeembad Colony.
We would meet whenever he was in Mumbai. He had a huge circle of friends and disciples who would take care of him. He always travelled light and ate frugally. Once Mr Ateeq Agboatwala invited us to a lunch at a trendy Chinese restaurant in South Mumbai. I saw the Maulana eating so frugally that I felt the restaurant had overcharged because one person had eaten so little.
He was known for his calm and cool manner and hot temper too. When he was on the Centre’s education committee, he once had a hot talk with former HRD minister Kapil Sibal on an issue that they differed. He had a great sense of humour and would never bore you with his witty conversations. In old age he carried a walking stick which was curved and had rough edges. “Maulana Sahab, can I buy you a proper stick? “I asked him once. “No, I keep it like this with a purpose. I keep all those unruly elements within their limits,” he joked.
He had planned a big educational hub in rural Bihar. I don’t know what happened to it. How will history remember Maulana Wali Rahmani? As a cleric and spiritual leader who was educated in a madrassa but envisioned to see the community getting empowered through modern and scientific education.
Some weeks ago, we spoke on the phone. I promised to meet him again soon. That meeting has been postponed till the Day of Judgement.
By Mohammed Wajihuddin
(The Times Of India)
इस्लाम और क़ुरान: आतंक या आदर्श!