Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
(An Extract from A GIFT TO THE HUSBAND AND WIFE )
Friends! since Allah Ta'ala Himself has instituted the rights of women, who has the authority to change them? If the husband fails to fulfil their rights, he will be guilty of trampling the rights of fellow humans. Men should ponder over the most exquisite manner of how Allah Ta'ala intercedes on behalf of the women. Allah Ta'ala says: "And treat them (the women) with kindness, if you take a dislike to them, it may be that you dislike a certain thing and (whereas) Allah Ta'ala brings about through it a great deal of good."
Obviously, many factors can contribute to disliking them. However, the main factor which brings about a dislike towards them is their offensive character. And this is really disturbing and obnoxious to a man. However, it is as though Allah Ta'ala promises you, the men, that He will ensure that their offensive character etc. will be a great deal of goodness for you. Allah Ta'ala is all-wise; He has the capability of doing everything. For instance, Allah Ta'ala may bring forth from this woman some
children who will assist you on the day of judgement.
Examine very closely the verses I have recited on this topic and judge for yourself the clarity with which Allah Ta'ala institutes the women's rights. (At-Tableegh Kisaaun-Nisaa volume 7 page 120 & 126)
Summary of a wife's rights
The following is a list of a wife's rights over her husband:
(1) To confront with exceptional character and to treat her with kindness.
(2) To endure patiently, albeit with moderation, all her excesses and harassment.
(3) To be moderate in one's ghairat. In other words don't become suspicious of her nor remain totally ignorant. (Ghairat is an arabic word which refers to a spfrit of possessiveness or sense of honour particularly when the wife speaks to or is involved with strange men. This attribute, although scorned upon by the western world, is quite acceptable in Islam.)
(4) To be moderate in spending upon her; avoid being niggardly nor permit her to be extravagant.
(5) To learn and teach her the Masaail (propositions) of Haidh (and other masaail exclusively related to women) and to emphasise the institution of Salaah and other tenets of Deen and to prevent her from Bid'aat (innovations) and religious prohibitions.
(6) To maintain equality between the wives.
(7) In keeping with her needs, to have sexual intercourse with her.
(8) To refrain from coitus interruptus without her permission.
(9) To provide her with her house sufficient enough to attend to her needs.
( 1 0) To allow her to meet her close relatives such as her parents, father's brothers, father's sisters, her own brothers and sisters etc.
(11) To abstain from disclosing her intimate and personal habits, such as her sexual preferences etc.
(12) To refrain from beating her excessively. (This in no way implies thai he must beat her. Although he is permitted to beat her, the best is to abstain from lifting the hand upon this weak creation of Allah Ta'ala.)
(13) To desist from divorcing her unnecessarily. Both spouses have numerous rights upon one another. I have written down whatever has come to mind. I have extracted these from lhyaaul-Uloom etc. (Imdaadul-Fataawaa volume 2 page 185 question 278)
Why the wife's maintenance is Wajib
The Fuqahaa (jurists) are explicit over the fact that maintenance is also awarded in lieu of confinement or restraint. In other words, a person who is confined to the services etc. of another person and due to this confinement he is unable to earn a living for himself, the person confining him is compelled to attend to his upkeep and expenses. This can be likened lo the meals provided to the witnesses. The witnesses arc confined to the task of testifying on beha'f of the defendant or plaintiff. Hence, they will be provided wih meals during those limes. The rulers of today have retained this Islamic law until this present day. In short, the maintenance awarded to the wife is in lieu of the restraint placed upon her. (Islaahe-lnqilaab page 191)
When docs maintenance became obligatory?
The only condition for the obligation of maintenance is the surrender of the wife before her husband. In other words, she wholly submits herself to her husband without any shortcoming on her part. However, on valid grounds if she refuses to do so, for example, the husband has not as yet paid the agreed cash mahr, she will still be eligible to claim maintenance because the shortcoming is on the side of the husband, not the wife. Nonetheless, if she defiantly leaves the husband's home, she will
not be eligible to claim until she returns. Some women flee to their parent's home following a row or contention with their husbands. Whilst there, they claim maintenance. Remember, maintenance is not Wajib (obligatory) upon the husband whilst she defiantly remains at her parent's home. (Islaahe-Inqilaab page 1 82)
Minor or senior - the wife's maintenance is obligatory
If the wife is so young (physically immature) that she is unable to endure intercourse but she is big enough to stay with her husband, amuse him and carry out some odd jobs for him, he is compelled to financially maintain her if she submits herself to him.
However, if she has not as yet reached such an age - as prevalent amongst certain nations where the children are married off at a very young age - her maintenance is not compulsory upon her husband whilst she is still a child. A minor girl who is not physically fit for intercourse and she is presently only fit to offer her husband congenial company and a bit of odd jobs, her husband is not compelled to keep her in his own house. He is at liberty; he may keep her whereupon he is compelled to maintain
her or else he may not keep her whereupon he is not compelled to pay her maintenance.
Amongst some nations, a minor boy is married off to a senior woman. The boy is presently not fit for anything but since the woman has submitted herself and the shortcoming is on the part of the boy, maintenance will be compulsory upon the boy. In this case, if the boy owns property or cash, the maintenance will be paid from his own wealth. (Durre-Mukhtaar - Islaahe-Inqilaab page 182)
Maintenance is Waajib regardless of the wife's affluence or poverty
Some people are of the opinion that the wife's maintenance will only be Waajib if she is poor and if she is wealthy, she is not eligible to receive maintenance. This is totally erroneous on their part. Maintenance is compulsory irrespective of her condition of affluence or poverty. The only condition for the compulsion of maintenance is that there is no shortcoming on her part in respect of submitting herself over to her husband. (Islaahe-Inqilaabpage 182)
Separate accommodation also falls within the purview of maintenance
One of the constituents of maintenance is separate accommodation. There is a general misconception amongst many people, even amongst religious people, that it is not compulsory to provide separate accommodation for the wife. She is dumped amongst the husband's relatives or parents. The Shariah decrees that if she is willingly prepared to stay with her in-laws it is fine. However, if she wishes to stay alone, the husband is compelled to provide separate accommodation.
"Willingly" in the above context refers to total pleasure and satisfaction of the heart. If the husband, on some indication or the other, perceives that she wishes to remain separately but she does not express herself verbally, then too he is not permitted to keep her with other members of his family. Nowadays, even if the wife is willing to stay with the husband's relatives and the relatives are dissatisfied with the couple living separately, then too circumstances and prevailing conditions require that it is best for them to live separately. This will put a plug on numerous problems and complications. The relatives might feel offended for a few days, but they will be satisfied with this arrangement after a few days once they witness its benefits.
However, if he is unable to provide a complete house for her, he may, within a big house, provide just one room sufficient for her needs. In this room she should be able to keep her personal possessions under lock and key and feel free to sit, converse and sit with her husband in total privacy. Such a provision is sufficient to fulfil the Waajib obligation.
The stove (kitchen) in particular should most definitely be separate as the fires of dissension rage from this very stove (kitchen). Some people consider it their great fortune to Keep their wives subjected to their mothers. To achieve this end, she is subjected to various forms of cruelty and hardship. Remember well! A woman is not compelled to serve her mother-in-law. If you are noble, serve her yourself or employ a servant to serve her. (Islaahe-Inqilaab volume 2 page 188)
Maintenance according to the affluence and poverty of the husband and where possible, provision of a maid is also waajib
According to your financial capacity, just as you spend upon yourself, permit her to spend upon herself as well. This is the injunction of Shariah.
Some people, in spite of affluent circumstances, tend to be niggardly in the expenses of their wives. They provide so little maintenance that it may only suffice if she prepares the food with her own hands. The scant maintenance provides no scope whatsoever to employ a maid. In fact, if the husband can afford it, he is compelled to provide the expenses of a domestic servant as well.
In destitution, the wife is compelled to do all the housework herself
Some women display erratic behaviour in that they demand a domestic servant in spite of the husband's poverty. The husband is not compelled to provide a servant if he cannot afford it. If the wife is able to prepare the food etc. she should prepare her own meals as well as the meals of her husband. (Dune-Mukhtaar - Islaahe-lnqilaab page 183)
If the wife is incapable of doing household work
II, on the other hand, she is unable to perform household work - either due to some illness or because she hails from a very affluent family - neither is the husband compelled to provide a maid nor is the wife compelled to prepare the meals. In fact the husband wi-ll be ordered to provide cooked meals either from the shops (restaurants etc.) or wherever else, (Ibid)
Extra expenses for fruit, paan etc, is not binding upon the husband
Some women tend to squander their husband's wealth mercilessly. They consider it compulsory upon the husband to provide the money for their useless expenses and luxuries such as paan and betel-nut etc. Some women have a habit of tea or coffee and they not only consume themselves but provide these luxuries, from the husband's wealth, to their friends as well. They consider such provisions to be binding upon the husband whereas the Fuqahaa (jurists) have explicitly mentioned that the piovision of coffee, tobacco, seasonal fruit etc. is not necessary upon the husband. If she has the habit of coffee, tobacco etc. and quitting the habit will, be detrimental to her, then too she should not demand the money for these habits from her husband.
Whatever expenses the husband gladly assumes and takes the responsibility to provide wholeheartedly, it is his favour unto you. Nonetheless, the honour of the husband demands that if he
is financially favoured by Allah Ta'ala, he should not be reluctant to provide certain comforts for his wife. However, it does not befit the wife to harass her husband in return of his favours upon her.
The exigency of polite behaviour
According to the financial status bestowed upon you by Allah Ta'ala, spend upon her just as you spend upon yourself. Shariah decrees that as far as possible, make her comfortable and keep her gratified. Don't impose any difficulty whatsoever upon her. When giving her money (as maintenance, or household expenses etc.) be very lenient and liberal with her. Endeavour to please and console her and exercise tolerance upon her tormenting excesses. Muslims should always endeavour to treat their wives according to the Sunnah of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam. (At-Tableegh volume 7 page 140)
Provision of extra clothing for Eid, weddings etc. is not compulsory upon the husband
Another deficiency very common amongst women is that they will have heaps of clothing in their trunks (or cupboards) but (his wouldn't deter them from requesting their husbands to get more clothes made for them. Remember that as long as you have (old) clothing provided by your husband, he is not compelled to get a new set of clothing made for you. Similarly, making new clothing for Eidul Fitr, Eidul Adha and weddings etc. is not the responsibility of the husband. However, if he does provide for you, it is a great favour of him upon you. (Islaahe-Inqilaab volume 2 page 185)
Zakaat, Sadaqatul-fitr, Qurbaani etc- on behalf of the wife is not compulsory upon the husband
The husband is not compelled to pay Zakaat on his wife's jewellery or to pay her Sadqatul-Fitr, make Qurbaani etc. on her behalf. However, in view of such occasions, it is most appropriate for the husband to give his wife, according to his financial capability, a little more than the necessary expenses.
This extra amount will enable the wives to pay their Waajibaat (compulsory dues). However, he is not compelled to do this. If he does not provide extra money, she should sell part of her jewellery to meet these compulsory expenses. Without her husband's consent, she is not permitted to spend any part of his wealth in fulfilment of her monetary dues. Women are very apathetic towards this. In fact they don't even doubt its prohibition in the least bit. (Islaahe-Inqilaab page 1 86)
Prohibition regarding the disbursement of charity from the husband's wealth without his consent
According to the Hadith, Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam says, it is not permissible for the wife to give anything without the consent of the husband. According to another Hadith, in her husband's home, a woman should nol give away anything (in charily) without his consent. Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam was then asked: "She is not even permitted to give food to anyone?" He replied: "Food is (he most superior form of wealth." (Jam'ul-Fawaaid)
In another Hadith, whilst encouraging the women to give in charity, Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam employed the words; "from their own jewellery." He did not say "from the jewellery of their husbands." In other words, the encouragement of charity applied to the women's own wealth and not the wealth of the husband. (At-Tableegh volume 7 page 39)
From the above we deduce that even on occasions of religious disbursements, like giving from the husband's wealth to a beggar, donations to a madrasah etc. or to financially serve an aalim, lecture, orphan, widow etc. is not permissible without the husband's consent. In fact such charities are not even accepted in the court of Allah Ta'ala. According to the Hadith, Allah Ta'ala is pure and He only accepts pure (charities etc.) [Islaahe-lnqilaab volume 2 page 185)
Purchasing from the husband's wealth without his consent is prohibited
Similarly, some women have a penchant for unnecessary and . frivolous things. The moment they take a liking to something, they purchase the item and continue to amass a whole heap of unnecessary possessions. However, what is quite surprising is that those items are never put to any use nor are they cared for, ending up in those items being "wasted away and ruined. She will be taken to task on the day of Qiyaamah for squandering her husband's wealth in this manner. Similarly, she is not permitted to make clothing for the occasions of Eidul Fitr, Eidul Adha, weddings etc. from his wealth without his consent. (Islaahe-lnqilaab volume 2 page 185)
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
Alim: One who has attained a considerable amount of Islamic knowledge. He could also be referred to as an Islamic scholar.
Barakah: Literally means "blessings". It refers to the experiencing of abundance in things, which are apparently insignificant or little, both in value and amount.
Bid’ah: Literally means "innovation". In Islam it refers to introducing new things into religion which have no basis in the Quran or Sunnah, and in addition to this, to regard these new things as acts of ‘ibadah. A bid'ah is a major sin in Islam.
Dua ul-maghfirah: Supplicating to Allah Ta'ala and asking Him for His forgiveness.
I’la: Annulment of a marriage after the husband's sworn testimony to have refrained from sexual intercourse with his wife for a period of at least four months. For further details, refer to the chapter on ‘i la’.
Fard: Literally means "compulsory". In Islam it refers to those acts and things which are compulsory on a Muslim. Abandoning or abstaining from a fard act is a major sin. Rejecting a fard act amounts to kufr.
Fatwa: A formal legal opinion or verdict in Islamic law.
Ghayr mahram: Refers to all those persons with whom marriage is permissible. Based on this, it is incumbent to observe purdah with all ghayr mahrams.
Ghibah: Slander or backbiting.
Hayd: Monthly periods or menstruation experienced by a woman.
Hajj: Literally means "pilgrimage". In Islam it refers to the annual pilgrimage to Makkah.
Halal: That which is lawful or permissible in Islam.
Haram: That which is unlawful or prohibited in Islam.
Hur: Refers to the large-eyed women of jannah, promised to the believers.
Ibadah: Literally means "worship". In Islam it refers to all those acts of worship which one renders to Allah Ta'ala.
Iddah: A period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced. For further details, refer to the chapter on iddah.
Ihram: Two pieces of unstitched cloth donned by the person performing hajj or umrah.
Jama’ah: A group, party, community.
Kafir: Literally means "a disbeliever". In Islam it refers to one who rejects Allah and does not believe in Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as the final messenger of Allah.
Kaffarah: Literally means "penance, atonement, expiation". In Islamic law it refers to redemption from the omission of certain religious duties by a material donation or a ritual act. For further details, refer to the chapter on kaffarah.
Khula: Divorce at the instance of the wife who must pay compensation. For further details, refer to the chapter on khula.
Kuffar: Plural of kafir.
Li'an: Sworn allegation of adultery committed by either husband or wife. For further details, refer to the chapter on li'an.
Madrasah: Literally means "a school". Also used to refer to a religious school.
Maghrib: Literally means "evening or sunset". Also refers to the time of sunset and the salat that is offered thereafter.
Mahr: Dower or bridal money.
Mahram: Refers to the person with whom marriage is not permissible and with whom strict purdah is not incumbent.
Mahrul mithl: The dower or bridal money that is equal to or similar than that which was given to a girl's paternal grandmothers. For further details, refer to the chapter on mahrul mithl.
Masa'il: Plural of mas'ala.
Mas'ala: Literally means "an issue, problem or question". In Islamic jurisprudence, it refers to a rule or regulation.
Mustahab: Literally means "preferable or desirable". Refers to that act which was carried out by Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam or the Sahabah occasionally. Carrying out these actions entails reward and leaving them out does not entail punishment.
Nadhr: A vow or solemn pledge.
Nifas: Refers to the flowing of blood after child-birth.
Perdah: An Urdu word meaning "seclusion". It is an equivalent of the Arabic word "hijab". Refers to the seclusion of women from strangers. There are different stages of purdah, the highest of which is that the woman should not come out of her home except for a valid Islamic reason.
Qada: Literally means "carrying out or fulfilling". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to fulfilling or completing those duties that one may have missed out due to some reason or the other.
Qadiani: A heretical sect which regards Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani as a prophet of Allah. Qadianis are regarded as disbelievers.
Qiblah: The direction in which one faces when offering salat.
Qurbani: Literally means "sacrifice". In Islam it refers to the sacrificing of animals solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala on the day of idul-Ad'ha and the two days following it.
Ramadan: The ninth month of the Islamic calendar which is regarded as the most sacred month.
Salam: Literally means "peace".
Shari‘ah: The Islamic Law.
Shaytan: Satan or the devil.
Shi’ah: A heretical sect found primarily in Iran.
Sunnat-e-Mu’akkadah: Refers to those actions which Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam carried out continuously. It is a sin to leave out such a sunnah without any valid excuse.
Sunni: Refers to those who belong to the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama'ah. This term is generally used as an opposite to Sh i ‘ah.
Surmah: Antimony. A black powdery substance that is applied to the eyes. It is sunnah to apply surmah.
Talaq-e-kinayah: A divorce that is issued in vague terms without clearly uttering the words of talaq.
Talaq-e-sarih: A divorce that is issued in clear terms without leaving any vagueness or doubt.
Talaqul ba'in: A divorce, which causes the annulment of the marriage. If a person wishes to retain his wife to whom he had issued a talaqul ba'in, he will have to remarry her, i.e. their nikah will have to be re-performed.
Talaqul mughallazah: A divorce which not only causes the annulment of the marriage, but if the couple wish to remarry, the woman will have to marry another person first, when he divorces her or passes away, only then can she remarry her first husband.
Talaqur raj'ai : A revocable divorce.
For further details with regard to all the above forms of talaq, refer to the relevant chapters.
Ulama: Plural of alim.
Ummah: Literally means "community or nation". Here it refers to the Muslim community and nation.
Wajib: Literally means "obligatory". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to that act which has not been established by an absolute proof. Leaving out a wajib without any valid reason makes one a fasiq and entails punishment.
Wali: In the context of marriage or divorce, it refers to the legal guardian of a minor.
Walimah: Refers to the feast that is organized after a marriage. It usually takes place after the bride and bride groom have spent a night together.
Zihar: Likening one's wife to one's mother. It is a form of divorce. For further details, refer to the chapter on zihar.
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
Rights of Husband
Allah TaAla has given great rights to the husband and has attached a lot of virtue to him. Pleasing the husband and keeping him happy is a great act of ‘ibadah and displeasing him or keeping him unhappy is a major sin.
One of the rights of the husband is that the wife should not keep any optional fasts nor offer any optional salat in his presence without his permission. Among the rights of the husband is that she should not remain in an untidy, dishevelled state. Instead, she should always remain clean and beautiful for her husband. In fact, if she remains untidy and dishevelled despite her husband ordering her to remain clean, he has the right of beating her (lightly) in order that she may obey him. Another right of the husband is that she should not leave the house without his permission irrespective of whether it be the house of a friend, relative or anyone else.
The Rights of Parents
Meet her with respect. If she is in need of money and you are able to help her, then help her.
Since she is an associate of your father, and we have been commanded to be kind and friendly to our parents' associates, the step-mother, therefore, also has certain rights over you as mentioned previously.
The elder brother
In the light of the Hadith, the elder brother is similar to one's father. From this we can deduce that the younger brother is similar to one's children. Based on this, they will have rights similar to those of parents and children. The elder sister and the younger sister should also be treated in the same manner.
If any of your blood relatives is in need and is unable to earn, help him out with his expenses according to your financial position. Go and meet them occasionally. Do not cut-off relations with them. In fact, even if they cause you harm, it will be best for you to exercise patience.
In the Quran, Allah Ta'ala has mentioned the in-laws together with one's lineage. We learn from this that the father-in-law, mother-in-law, wife's brother, sister's husband, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, the previous children of the wife, the previous children of the husband - all of these have certain rights. Therefore, you have to be more considerate to them as opposed to others.
The Rights of Muslims
Rights of the Neighbour
Rights of the Traveling Companion
Rights of the Weak and Old
Those people who are in need, such as orphans, widows, the weak, the poor, the sick, the cripple, travellers, beggars, etc. have additional rights. They are:
Rights of Human beings
Rights of Animals
If there is any shortcoming in fulfilling the rights of a person, fulfil that which can be fulfilled or else, ask for forgiveness. For example, you are still owing someone some money or you cheated someone, etc. (In such a case you should try and pay the debt, but if you cannot do so, then seek forgiveness from the person). As for the right which can only be forgiven, seek forgiveness for it, e.g. you spoke ill of a person or beat him (In such a case, it is obvious that you cannot pay him anything. Instead, you will have to seek his forgiveness).
If, due to some reason, you cannot fulfil their rights nor can you seek their forgiveness, then you should continue making dua for these people. It is possible that on the day of judgement Allah Ta'ala will try and influence them to forgive you. However, later if you are in a position to fulfil their rights or seek their forgiveness, then do not hesitate in doing so.
As for the rights that are due to you and there is a hope of their being fulfilled, then be lenient when asking for them. As for those where there is no hope of their being fulfilled or, they are such that they cannot be fulfilled, such as ghibah, then although there is the hope of your receiving rewards in return for them on the day of judgement, however, more reward has been mentioned with regard to forgiving them in this world. It will be much better if you forgive them completely or absolve them completely. This is especially when the person earnestly seeks forgiveness from you.
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
The Marriages of the Kuffar
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
The person who has the power or choice of getting a boy or girl married is called a wali.
The Question of Compatibility or Kufu1. The Shar i ‘ah has taken great precautions in ensuring that nikah with an incompatible person or a person of a lower social standing does not take place. In other words, do not perform the nikah of a girl with a man who is not equal to her in status or who is of no match to her.
2. Compatibility or equality is considered in several factors: (1) lineage, (2) Islam, (3) piety, (4) wealth, (5) profession or occupation.
Equality in Lineage
1. Equality in lineage is that the Shaykh, Sayyid, Ansari, and ‘Alawi are all equal to each other. In other words, although the status of a Sayyid is more than the others, if the daughter of a Sayyid marries a Shaykh boy; it will not be said that she did not marry someone who is of her family relations. Instead, it will also be regarded as if she has married one of her relatives.
2. In matters of lineage, the lineage of the father is considered and not the mother. If the father is a Sayyid, the son is also a Sayyid; and if the father is a Shaykh, the son is also a Shaykh - irrespective of what the mother may be. If a Sayyid marries a woman who is not a Sayyid, their son will be regarded as a Sayyid. This son will be equal in status to all other Sayyids. Although the son whose father and mother are both from a noble family is respected more, according to the Shariah they will all be regarded as relatives or of the same social standing.
3. The Moghuls and Pathans are regarded as one nation and are not of the same class as that of the Sayyids and Shaykhs. If the daughter of a Sayyid or Shaykh gets married with one of them, it will be said that she married someone who is of a lower social standing than her.
Equality in being a Muslim
1. Equality in being a Muslim is only considered among the Moghuls, Pathans, and other non-Arab nations. There is no consideration of this among the Shaykhs, Sayyids, ‘Alawis, and Ansaris. A man who accepts Islam and his father was a kafir cannot be on par or equal to a woman who is a Muslim and her father was also a Muslim. The man who is a Muslim, his father is also a Muslim, but his grandfather was a kafir; cannot be equal to a woman whose grandfather was also a Muslim.
2. A man whose father and grandfather were Muslims, but his great grandfather was a kafir will be regarded as equal to a woman whose several forefathers were Muslims. In short, this equality is only considered till the grandfather. Equality beyond the grandfather, such as the great grandfather and beyond him is not considered.
Equality in Piety
Equality in piety means that a man who does not follow the dictates of the Shar i ‘ah - who is a wicked person, a scoundrel, an alcoholic, a shameless person - will not be considered to be equal to a pious, chaste and religious woman.
Equality in Wealth
Equality in wealth means that a person who is an absolute pauper cannot be compatible to a rich woman. If the man is not an absolute pauper, but is capable of giving that amount of mahr that is normally given on the first night and is also capable of giving her maintenance, then he will be regarded to be equal to her in status even if he is unable to give the entire amount of mahr. It is not necessary for the man to be in exactly the same financial position as that of the woman. Nor is it necessary for him to be close to that financial position.
Equality in Occupation
1. Equality in occupation is that, e.g. weavers are not regarded as equal to tailors and are accorded a status that is lower than that of tailors. Similarly, barbers, washermen, etc. are not regarded as being equal to tailors, but are regarded as being lower than tailors.
2. A mad, lunatic person cannot be equal to an intelligent, understanding woman.
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
1. It is mentioned in a Hadith that this world has been created to be utilised and that of all the things that are utilised in this world, there is nothing better than a pious woman. In other words, if a person is fortunate enough to get a pious wife, it will be a great blessing. It is also a mercy from Allah Ta'ala that she is actually a comfort for the husband and a means for his success in this world and in the hereafter. A person enjoys comfort from such a woman for his worldly needs and she also assists him in fulfilling his religious duties.
2. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said : "Marriage is my way and my sunnah." "The one who does not act upon my sunnah is not of me." That is, there is no relationship between him and me. This is actually a warning and a threat to the one who does not practice on the sunnah and a mention of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam anger on such a person. It is therefore necessary to be extremely cautious in this regard. Furthermore, how can a Muslim bear to have Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam displeased with him for even a moment. May Allah Ta'ala grant us death before that day comes when a Muslim is able to bear the displeasure of Allah and His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.
It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "Marry so that I can be proud (of your numbers) on the day of judgement over the other nations." In other words, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam likes his ’ummah to be in large numbers and more than the other nations. If this happens, his ummah will be carrying out more good deeds, and in so doing he will receive more rewards and gain closer proximity to Allah Ta'ala. This is because whoever from his ummah does good deeds, does so through his teachings. Therefore, the more people who act on his teachings, the more reward he will receive for conveying those teachings. We also learn from this that whenever and however possible, we should undertake to carry out those tasks and actions that will take us closer to Allah Ta'ala, and that we should not display any laziness in this regard.
It is mentioned in a Hadith that on the day of judgement the people will be standing in 120 lines. Out of these, 40 lines of people will be from the other nations while 80 lines of people will be from the ummah of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. Glory be to Allah! How beloved Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is to Him.
The one who is able to (fulfil the rights of a wife) should marry. As for the one who does not have sufficient wealth (to fulfil the rights of a wife), he should fast. That is, he should fast so that there will be a decrease in his desires. Fasting is actually a means of curbing his desires. If a person does not have a very dire need for women, and instead has an average need, and he is able to pay for her necessities, then nikah is sunnat-e-mu’akkadah for such a person. As for the person who has a very urgent need, nikah will be fard upon him. This is because there is a fear that he will commit adultery and thereby get the sin of committing a haram act. If a person has a very urgent need but is financially incapable of maintaining a wife, then such a person must fast abundantly. Later, when he has sufficient funds to maintain a wife, he must get married.
3. It is mentioned in a Hadith that children are the flowers of jannah. This means that the amount of joy and happiness one will experience on seeing the flowers of paradise, that same amount of joy and happiness is experienced when he looks at his children. And we know fully well that children can only be obtained through marriage.
4. It is mentioned in a Hadith that when the status of a person is increased in jannah, he asks out of wonder: "How did I receive all this?" (That is, "How did I receive such a high status when I hadn't carried out so many good deeds to deserve such a status?") It will be said to this person that this high status is on account of your children asking for forgiveness on your behalf. In other words, your children had asked for forgiveness on your behalf. In return for that, you have been accorded this status.
5. It is mentioned that the child who is born out of a miscarriage (i.e. it is born before the due date) will "fight"(wrangle) with its Creator when its parents are entered into jahannam. In other words, this child will go to extremes in interceding on behalf of its parents and will ask Allah Ta'ala to remove its parents from jahannam. Through His bounty, Allah Ta'ala will accept the intercession of this child and He will be soft and lenient towards it. It will be said to this child: "O siqt (which means, miscarried foetus) who is quarrelling with its Lord! Enter your parents into jannah." So this child will draw its parents out of jahannam with its navel cord and enter both of them into jannah. We learn from this, that children of this sort, who are actually a by-product of marriage, will also be of help in the hereafter.
6. It is mentioned in a Hadith that when the husband and wife look at each other (with love), Allah Ta'ala looks at both of them with mercy.
7. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Allah Ta'ala has taken it upon Himself (i.e. out of His mercy, He as taken the responsibility) of helping the person who gets married in order to attain purity from that which Allah has made haram. In other words, the person who marries in order to save himself from adultery with the intention of obeying Allah Ta'ala, Allah will help and assist him in his expenses and other affairs.
8. It is mentioned in a Hadith that two rak‘ats of salat performed by a married person is better than 82 rak‘ats performed by an unmarried person. In another Hadith, 70 rak‘ats have been mentioned instead of 82 rak‘ats. It is possible that this means that 70 rak‘ats are written in favour of the person who fulfils the necessary rights of his wife and family, and that 82 rak‘ats are in favour of the person who apart from fulfilling their necessary rights, serves them more with his life, wealth and good habits.
9. It is mentioned in a Hadith that it is a major sin for a person to be neglectful with regard to those whom he is responsible for (and to have shortcomings in fulfilling their needs).
10. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "I have not left behind any test and tribulation on men more harmful than women." In other words, of all the things that are harmful for men, women are the most harmful. This is because, out of his love for a woman, a man loses all his senses, so much so that he does not even take the commands and orders of Allah Ta'ala into consideration. Therefore, a person must not fall in love with a woman in such a way that he has to act contrary to the Shari‘ah. For example, her demands for her food and clothing are more than what the husband can afford. In such circumstances, never accept any bribes in order to supplement your present income. Instead, give her from the halal earnings, which Allah Ta'ala has blessed you. You should continue teaching your womenfolk and inculcate respect and good manners in them. Do not allow them to become impudent and disrespectful. The intellect of women is deficient; it is therefore incumbent to take special measures in reforming them.
11. It is mentioned in a Hadith that you should not propose to a girl when your fellow Muslim brother has already proposed to her until he gets married or gives up this proposal. In other words, when a person has sent a proposal to a particular family and there is a likelihood of their replying in the affirmative, another person should not send a proposal to that same family. However, if they reject this first person, or he himself changes his mind, or they are not too happy with him and are still hesitant in giving a reply, it will be permissible for another person to send a proposal for the same girl.
The same rule applies to the transactions of buying and selling. That is, if a person is busy buying or selling something, then as long as they do not separate or abandon the transaction, another person should not enter into their transaction and should not offer a price above or below that which has been already offered when there is an indication that they are about to come to an agreement. Understand this well, and know that a kafir is also included in this rule.
12. It is mentioned in a Hadith that a woman is either married because of her Din, her wealth or her beauty. Choose the one with Din, may your hands become dusty. In other words, a man may prefer a woman who is religiously inclined. While another may prefer one who is wealthy. While yet another may prefer one who is beautiful. However, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam says that one should choose a religiously inclined woman and that it is preferable to marry such a woman. However, if the circumstances are such that a woman is very pious but at the same time she is so ugly that one's nature does not find her acceptable and there is a fear that if he marries such a woman there will be no mutual understanding between them, and that he will be neglectful in fulfilling her rights, then in such a case he should not marry such a woman. "May your hands become dusty" is an Arabic mode of expression, which is used on different occasions. In this context, it is meant to create a yearning and a desire for a pious woman.
13. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the best wife is one whose mahr is very simple. That is, it is very easy for the man to fulfil her mahr. These days, there is the habit of specifying a very high mahr. People should abstain from this.
14. It is mentioned in a Hadith that you should look for a good place for your sperms because a woman gives birth to children that resemble her brothers and sisters. In other words, marry a woman who comes from a pious and noble family because the children generally resemble the maternal relations. Although the father also has some influence over the child's resemblance, we learn from this Hadith that the mother's influence is greater. If the wife is from a disreputable and irreligious family, the children who will be born will be similar to that family. But if this is not so, then the children who will be born will be pious and religious.
15. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the greatest right that a woman has to fulfil is to her husband, and that the greatest right that he has to fulfil is to his mother. In other words, after the rights of Allah and His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam the woman has a very great right to fulfil to her husband, so much so that the husband's rights supersede the rights of her parents. As for the man, after the rights of Allah and His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the greatest right that he has to fulfil is to his mother. We learn from this that the right of the mother supersedes that of the father.
16. It is mentioned in a Hadith that if anyone of you wishes to engage in sexual intercourse with his wife, he should recite du‘a. The virtue of du‘a is that if a child is conceived through this intercourse, shaytan will not be able to harm this child in any way.
17. There is a lengthy Hadith in which Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam addressed Abdur Rahman bin Auf radiyallahu anhu asking him to have a walimah even if it is with one sheep. In other words, even if you possess very little, you should spend. It is preferable to have the walimah after engaging in sexual intercourse with one's bride. However, many ulama have permitted it immediately after the nikah as well. It is mustahab to have a walimah.
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Blessed Birth: Allah’s last and final Messenger, Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was born on Monday 12th Rabiu al-Awwal in the year of the Elephant corresponding 20th April 571 AC to Abdullah son of Abdul Muttalib and Aminah daughter of Wahab son of Abdu Manaaf in Makkah, the city where holy Ka’bah is situated.
Golden Lineage of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS): The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim bin Abd Munaaf bin Qusei bin Kilaab bin Murrah bin Ka’ab bin Lawei bin Ghalib bin Fehr bin Malik bin Nadhr bin Kinanah bin Khuzaimah bin Mudrakah bin Ilyas bin Mudhar bin Nazaar bin Ma’add bin Adnan. (Seerate Mustafa 1/22)
Father’s Death: The father, Abdullah died before the Prophet’s blessed birth.
Blessed Names: On seventh day of his birth, Abdul Muttalib performed his Aqiqah and invited all the members of the Qureish. Abdul Muttalib gave him unique name “Muhammad”; while his mother named him “Ahmad”. Both the names were unique traditionally for the peoples of the Qureish as such names were not given to anyone before by their elders. (Seerate Mustafa 1/61-62)
Five Names: According to one narration in Sahih Bukhari, the Prophet (SAWS) described his five names: Muhammad, Ahmad, Maahee, Haashir and Aaqib. (Seerate Mustafa 1/66)
Kunniyah: Abul Qasim and Abu Ibrahim (SAWS). (Seerate Mustafa 1/67)
Nursing: Firstly the Prophet (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was breastfed by his mother for 3/4 days. For few days more, he (SAWS) was also breastfed by Thuweibiyah, the girl-slave of his uncle Abu Lahab, who was set free by Abu Lahab as soon as she informed him about the blessed birth of Muhammad (SAWS). (Seerate Mustafa 1/68)
According to the Arab custom, the prominent Arab used to send their newly born babies to the rural area during the breastfeeding period, so that they will be brought up in clean envirounment and they will have command over eloquent language. Muhammad (SAWS), therefore, was also taken by Halimah Sa’adiyah (RA), a blessed lady from “Bnu Sa’ad Tribe” for upbringing and breastfeeding. (Seerate Mustafa 1/69)
When the Prophet (SAWS) turned two years, Halimah Sa’adiyah weaned him from breastfeeding and brought him (SAWS) back to his mother, Aaminah. But she remembered the blessing which she was bestowed upon because of him (SAWS), so she requested to his mother to give him back for further upbringing for little longer. She was given back. After some months, he started going with his foster brothers for grazing the goats. (Seerate Mustafa 1/72)
Shaqqus Sadr: When he (SAWS) was four years old still in Banu Sa’ad Tribe, once he went for grazing the goats with his foster brother. Two angels, Jabraeel and Mikaeel (AS) dressed in white clothes descended in form of the human beings and caught him. They split his chest open, took out the heart, cleaned it, put it back at its place and stitched it. (Seerate Mustafa 1/72)
Second Shaqqus Sadr: The second time Shaqqus Sadr took place when he (SAWS) had turned 10. The third time Shaqqus Sadr took place at the time of the Prophethood when he was 40 years old. Fourth Shaqqus Sadr took place at the time of Miraaj; (while he was 51 years old.) (Seerate Mustafa 1/75-76)
Mother’s Demise: Because of the incident of Shaqqus Sadr, Halimah and her husband got frightened and hastily brought him back to his mother. Now he (SAWS) was in the care of his beloved mother. When he (SAWS) was 6 years old, his mother took him to Madinah to visit the relatives. His mother died, while coming back from Madinah at a place called “Abwa”. (Seerate Mustafa 1/83)
In Charge of Grandfather: The doubly orphaned Muhammad (SAWS) was put under the charge of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib who took care of him. After two years, Abdul Muttalib died. (Seerate Mustafa 1/84)
In Charge of Uncle Abu Taalib: When he was just 8 years old, he was in charge of his uncle Abu Talib as Abdul Muttalib confided to his son Abu Talib the charge of the little double orphan on his deathbed. (Seerate Mustafa 1/84)
First Journey to Syria: When the Prophet (SAWS) was 12 years old, he started his journey to Syria with his uncle Abu Talib. When they reached nearby Busra, they met a Christian Priest, Jarjees, who informed the Qureish about his being Prophet in the future and suggested to not take him to Syria. Then he was returned back to Makkah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/85-87)
Participation in Harbul Fijaar: Following the Event of the Elephant, the War which took place between Qais and Qureish is called “Harbul Fijaar”. The Qureish won the battle. The Prophet (SAWS) participated in the battle on insistent of his uncles. (Seerate Mustafa 1/90)
Hilful Fuzul: On behest of Zubair bin Abdul Muttalib, the people from Bnu Hashim and Bnu Tameem gather together at the place of Abdullah bin Jada’an and they agreed upon to assist and help the oppressed ones either they are from their own people or some else. The Prophet (SAWS) participated in this agreement. This time he was 15. (Seerate Mustafa 1/91)
As the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) used to go for grazing goats when he was in Banu Sa’ad tribe in his childhood, in the same way he also grazed the goat in Makkah when he was a youth. (Seerate Mustafa 1/94)
The 2nd Journey to Syria: Siyyidah Khadijah (RA) was a pious, rich and businesswoman of Arabia. When he (SAWS) turned 25, he was offered by Khadijah (RA) to go Syria for her business. Because of poor economic condition of his uncle Abu Talib, he (SAWS) accepted this offer. He went Syria with her slave Meisarh. (Seerate Mustafa 1/96-97)
Wedding with Khadijah (RA): Following the 2 months and 25-day of the Syria trip, Sayyidah Khadijah (RA), then 40, proposed the Prophet (SAWS), then 25, for marriage. After consultation with his uncle, he (SAWS) got ready. Date was fixed. On the date, the Prophet (SAWS) reached Khadijah’s home in the company of his uncles: Abu Talib, Hamzah and other elders of the family and Nikaah was performed by Abu Talib. (Seerate Mustafa 1/107-108)
Hakam (Mediator/Judge): When the Prophet (SAWS) was 35, the Qureish wanted to reconstruct the Holy Ka’abah. When the construction of the holy Ka’abah reached the level at which the Hajar-e-Aswad (Black Stone) was to be placed, a dispute erupted among the tribe of the Qureish regarding whom to grant the honour of placing the Stone back on its corner. Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah Makhzumi suggested that the first person to enter the Haram the following morning would be made Hakam (Judge) to give the final decision. They agreed upon it. The Next day in the morning, it was the Prophet (SAWS) who entered the Haram first. Then he (SAWS) was made Hakam. He told the people to put the Black Stone in his Sheet and asked the Chiefs of each tribe to lift it up to the level. Then he (SAWS) himself placed it at its place. (Seerate Mustafa 1/111-112)
In the Cave of Hiraa: When the Prophet (SAWS) turned 37-year old, he started visiting the Cave of Hiraa repeatedly and loving seclusion and loneliness to worship Allah the Almighty.
Prophethood: When the Prophet (SAWS) turned 40, once he was in the Cave of Hiraa, Allah the Almighty selected him as His Nabi (Prophet) and Rasool (Messenger) sending the Frist Revelation (Wahee). (Seerate Mustafa 1/128) The Prophet (SAWS) was blessed with Prophethood and Messenger-hood on Monday, 8th Rabiul Awwal. (Seerate Mustafa 1/138-139) Following the Prophethood, Sayyidah Khadijah (RA), Warqah bin Naufal, Ali bin Abi Talib, Zaid bin Harathah and Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/148-49)
Because of the invitation of Siyyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA), some prominent members of Qureish, like Uthman bin Affan, Zubeir bin Awwam, Abdur Rahman bin Awf, Talha bin Obaidullah and Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/151)
2nd Year of Prophethood: He (SAWS) announced about his Prophethood secretly and almost 40 people embraced Islam. The Home of Arqam (RA), situated at mount Safaa, was selected as the Revert Center. The Muslims used to get together there as long as Sayyiduna Umar had not embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/165)
4th Year of Prophethood: For the first three years, he (SAWS) used to call the people towards Islam secretly. After 3-year, the Prophet (SAWS) announced his Prophethood openly and invited his relatives towards Islam from the mount Safaa. (Seerate Mustafa 1/165-66)
Some Personal Enemies of the Prophet (SAWS) and Muslims: Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab, Aswad, Harith bin Qeis, Waleed bin Mughirah, Umayyah bin Khalf, Uqbah bin Abi Muaeet etc. (Seerate Mustafa 1/203)
5th Year of Prophethood: When the polytheists felt that the number of the people embracing Islam is growing, they started torturing and oppressing them ruthlessly. When the torture and oppression of the polytheists of Makkah against the Muslim became unbearable, the Prophet (SAWS) suggested the newly reverted Muslims to migrate to Habsha (Ethiopia). The first time 11 males and 5 females and the 2nd time 86 males and 16 females migrated to Habsha secretly. (Seerate Mustafa 1/234-41)
6th Year of Prophethood: (Sayyiduna Hamzah and) Sayyiduna Umar (RA) embraced Islam. Then the Muslims started offering Salaah in the Holy Ka’abah openly. (Seerate Mustafa 1/251)
7th Year of Prophethood: While on the one hand the King of Ethiopia, Najashi rejected the demands of the Qureish’s ambassadors and gave high respect to Jafar (RA) and his friends, Hamzah and Umar (RA) embraced Islam on the other. Then the polytheists became hopeless and agreed upon to boycott the Prophet (SAWS), Banu Hashim and his Supporters socially. They were detained in the Valley of Abu Talib and had to stay 3-year there in the Valley in worst condition. (Seerate Mustafa 1/257)
10th Year of Prophethood: Social Boycott came to an end and the Muslims took the sigh of relief. (Seerate Mustafa 1/261)
The 10th Year of Prophethood is known as “Aamul Huzn”, because uncle, Abu Talib and Sayyidatuna Khadijah (RA) passed away. After their death, the Prophet (SAWS) was apparently helpless. He (SAWS), therefore, made a journey to Ta’if and presented Islam to famous three brothers: Abd Yaa Leil, Masood and Habib of Ta’if; but in return, he (SAWS) was tortured and attacked by the unfortunate folks of Ta’if until he got wounded and his shoes were full with blood. (Seerate Mustafa 1/264-67)
Miracle of Splitting the Moon: When the polytheists: Waleed bin Mughirah, Abu Jahl, Aas bin Waail etc. demanded the Prophet (SAWS) to prove his Prophethood by splitting the moon into two, if he was a Prophet. The Prophet (SAWS) did so with the help of Allah the Almighty, but they didn’t embrace Islam rather they said that he had been a magician and had played magic. (Seerate Mustafa 1/230-31)
11th Year of Prophethood: On 27th Rajab, the Prophet (SAWS) was taken on a unique tour of the Kingdom of the Universe, which is known as Miraaj. He proceeded from Masjide Haram to Masjide Aqsa. Then from Masjide Aqsa, he was taken up to the skies until he reached heavenly tree known as Sidratul Muntaha. The polytheists negated this tour; while Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) accepted it without a doubt. (Seerate Mustafa 1/279)
Islam in Yathrib (Madinah): A group of Khazraj from Yathrib (Madinah) came to Makkah in the Hajj season. The Prophet (SAWS) invited them towards Islam and recited few verses of the Glorious Qura’an in front of them. As they saw the Prophet (SAWS) recognized him and they started whispering that this is the same Prophet about whom we heard from the Jew of Madinah. Then they embraced Islam in the same gathering. They were six people (RA) who embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/319)
12th Year of Prophethood: From Yathrib, next year 12 people came to Makkah to meet the Prophet (SAWS). Five of them were those who had already embraced Islam in the previous journey and seven people were new. They embraced Islam and took pledge on the hands of the Prophet (SAWS). When they were going back to Madinah, the Prophet (SAWS) sent Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Ummu Maktoom and Mus’ab bin Umeir with them to teach the Qura’an and the Islamic rulings. (Seerate Mustafa 1/320-21)
Jumuah Salaah in Madinah: In the same year, As’ad bin Zurarah (RA) encouraged the Muslims to establish Jumuah Salah and it took place. After few days, a letter from the Prophet (SAWS) to Musab bin Umeir came, where he (SAWS) had instructed to establish Jumuah Salaah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/324)
13th Year of Prophethood: Sayyiduna Mus’ab bin Umeir came from Madinah to Makkah with a group of Muslims to perform Hajj. In this group there were 73 males and 2 females who took the pledge on the hands of the Prophet (SAWS) in Valley. This pledge is called “Beiate Aqabah Thaaniyah”. (Seerate Mustafa 1/325)
Selection of Chiefs: Following the completion of the Pledge, the Prophet (SAWS) informed them that the Prophet Musa (AS) had selected 12 Chiefs from the children of Israel; therefore he (SAWS) also selected 12 leaders and chiefs from them on behest of Jabraeel (AS) and guided them to lead and head their people. (Seerate Mustafa 1/332)
Beginning of Hijrah (Migration) and Welcome in Madinah: In the beginning, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Aleih Wa Sallam) was shown the Hijrah place, a land of date palm trees, between two mountains, the two stony tracts, in a dream. Up to the time, he (SAWS) was undecided about the place of Hijrah, until it was confirmed and the place was decided through Wahi (Revelation). Then the Prophet (SAWS) directed his followers to migrate to Madinah with the command of Allah, the Almighty. They were received and welcomed in Madinah with enthusiasm and much hospitality. (Seerate Mustafa 1/340)
The Polytheists Plot to Kill the Prophet (SAWS): The polytheists, after observing the Hijrah of the Sahabah (RA) one after another, thought that Rasulullah (SAWS) will migrate today or tomorrow as well. So, they started thinking seriously to prevent him from the Hijrah. They met in all haste. After several milder expedients had been rejected, Abu Jahl opined that he should be killed and for killing one man should be chosen out of every tribe and that each man should strike a blow at him with his sword so that responsibility of the guilt would rest equally on all tribes. The Banu Abd Manaaf was much inferior and therefore would not be able to revenge their kinsman's death. Iblis, who participated in the meeting pretending to be a Sheikh from Najd, conquered with this opinion.
Following the meeting, Jabraeel (AS) came and informed Rasulullah (SAWS) about the polytheists’ plot. The Prophet (SAWS) informed Abu Bakr (RA) about his plan to migrate. A number of youths were selected for the bloody deed. As the night advanced, the assassins posted themselves round the house of the Prophet (SAWS). They watched all night long, waiting to murder the Prophet (SAWS) when he should leave his house at the early dawn. By some the Prophet (SAWS) had warned of the danger, and he directed Ali (RA) to lie down in his place and wrap himself up in his green clock, which he did. The Prophet (SAWS) miraculously escaped through the window and he appeared to the house of Abu Bakr (RA), unperceived by door. In the meantime, they, looking through a crevice and seeing Ali (RA), whom they mistook for Muhammad (SAWS) himself, asleep, continued watching there until morning.
When Ali (RA) arose, they found themselves deceived. The fury of the Qureish was now unbounded. The news that they would be assassins had returned unsuccessful and Muhammad (SAWS) had escaped aroused their whole energy. A prize of a hundred camels was set upon Muhammad's head. (Seerate Mustafa 1/344-49)
Then Rasulullah (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) reached a cave on the mountain of Thaur and stayed there for three nights. Abdullah Ibn Abi Bakr who was an intelligent and sagacious youth, used to stay with them overnight. He used to leave them before daybreak so that he would be with Qureish in the morning as if he had spent the night in Makkah. He would keep in mind any plot made against them and when it became dark, he would go and inform them of it. Aamir Ibn Fuhaira, the freed slave of Abu Bakr (RA), used to bring the milch sheep (of Abu Bakr) to them a little while after nightfall in order to rest the sheep there. So they always had fresh milk at night, the milk of their sheep, and the milk which they warmed by throwing heated stones in it. Aamir Ibn Fuhaira would then call the herd away when it was still dark (before daybreak). He did the same in each of those three nights. Rasulullah (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) had hired a man from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dail from the family of Banu Abd Ibn Adi as an expert guide, and he was in alliance with the family of Al-As Ibn Wail As-Sahmi and he was in the religion of the infidels of Quraish. The Prophet (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) trusted him and gave him their two she-camels and took his promise to bring their camels to the cave of the mountain of Thaur in the morning after three nights later. And when they set out, Aamir Ibn Futhaira and the guide went along with them and the guide led them, along the seashore." (Sahihul Bukhari, Hadith: 3905)
When the Prophet (SAWS) was on his way to Madinah, Suraqa Ibn Ju'sham followed to get the prize of 100 camels. After approaching them, his horse stumbled and he fell down. He stood up and took out the divining arrows and drew lots as to whether he should harm them or not, and the lot which he disliked came out. Despite that he continued his plot. When he was close to them, suddenly the forelegs of his horse sank into the ground up to the knees and he fell down. The horse got up, but could hardly take out its forelegs from the ground. When it stood up straight again, its forelegs caused dust to rise up in the sky like smoke. Latter, he called upon them to feel secure. At this point, he felt that the cause of Rasulullah (SAWS) would become victorious. He informed them the plans of the Qureish concerning them. The Prophet (SAWS) said: 'Do not tell others about us.' Then Suraqa requested him to write a statement of security for him. He (SAWS) ordered Amir Ibn Fuhaira, who wrote it on a parchment. Then Rasulullah (SAWS) proceeded on his way." (Summarised from Sahihul Bukhari, Hadith: 3906)
The Prophet (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) were also followed by Buraidah Aslami who was with 70 peoples. But at the end, all of them embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/382)
The news of the Prophet’s Hijrah was spread already in Madinah. The Ansaar were waiting eagerly for him and ready to receive with enthusiasm. Anyway, the Prophet (SAWS) reached the place called Qubaa on Monday, 12th Rabiul Awwal 13th year of Prophethood. He stayed for few days in Qubaa, at the home of Kulthoom bin Hadm and constructed Masjidut Taqwaa. After leading Jumuah Salaah, he (SAWS) left for Madinah. In his Khutbah, he didn’t mention any point about his perpetual enemies and didn’t condemn them; rather he highlighted the topic of Taqwaa and the preparation for the Hereafter. When he reached Madinah, everyone was wishing to make him a guest; but he (SAWS) stayed at the home of Abu Ayyub Ansari (RA) according to the will of Allah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/383-93)
1st Hijrah: After Hijrah reaching in Madinah, the Prophet (SAWS) was interviewed by some Jew scholars. Some prominent Jews and great Jew scholars like, Maimoon bin Yaameen, Abdullah bin Salam, Abul Qeis embraced Islam. Sayyiduna Sarmah bin Abi Anas, a monotheist embraced Islam. The place was bought and the price was paid by Abu Bakr (RA) and Masjide Nabawi was built. The Prophet (SAWS) constructed the homes for Ummahaatul Moomineen. He made Brotherhood between Ansar and Muhajireen because the Muhaajireen had left their homes, properties and relatives in Makkah. To create familiarity among the Ansaar and Muhaajireen, the brotherhood between them was made. 45 Muhaajireen were made brothers of other 45 Ansaar. Ansaar played the role with their Muhajireen brothers was matchless. This relation of brotherhood was so strong that when an Ansari died, his Muhajir brother used to be his inheritor (later it was abrogated.). Adhan was introduced to call the Muslims for Salaah. To protect Muslims from the mischief of Jews, the written treaty was made between Muslims and Jews of Banu Qainqa’a, Bani Nadheer and Bani Qureizah. Battle of Wuddan took place. In brief, the migration marked the beginning of new era in their lives. (Seerate Mustafa 1/396-442)
The Prophet (SAWS) sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Sayyiduna Ubaidah bin Harith (RA) towards Rabigh to follow the caravan of polytheists in Shawwal. He (SAWS) also sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas towards Kharrar. (Seerate Mustafa 2/49)
2nd Hjirah: Before Hijrah, Rasulullah (SAWS) used to offer Salaah in the way that it was easy to face both the Qiblahs: Beitullah nad Beitul Maqdis; but when he (SAWS) migrated to Madinah, it was not possible. So, he faced the Beitul Maqdis in Salaah only as it was impossible to face both the Qiblahs. Following 16-17 months, Allah the Almighty altered the Qiblah from Beitul Maqdis to the Holy Ka’abah permanently as it was also the desire of the Prophet (SAWS). In the last ten days of Sha’baan, the fasting in the month of Ramdhan was made compulsory. In the month of Ramadhan, the rulings regarding the Sadqatul Fitr and Eidu Fitr were revealed. The ruling regarding Eidul Adhhaa and the Sacrifice was revealed. Invoking Durud upon the Prophet (SAWS) was revealed. Zakaah (Alms) was made compulsory. (Seerate Mustafa 1/444-54)
The Sariyyah was sent under the leadership of Sayyiduna Hamzah (RA) towards Seiful Bahr to follow the Caravan of polytheists coming from Syria under the leadership of Abu Jahl. The Prophet (SAWS) himself participated in the Battle of Abwa/Wuddan. The battles of Buwaat and Oshairah, Badr Sughra, Sariyyah of Abdullah bin Jahash and famous battle of Badr (Badr Kubra) occurred. In Badr Kubra, Muslims got clear victory, 70 enemies were killed and 70 were arrested who were released after paying ransom. The battles of Qainqa’a and Saweeq took place. Siyyadah Fatimah (RA) was married to Sayyiduna Ali (RA). (Seerate Mustafa 2/48-166)
3rd Hijrah: Battles of Ghtfaan, Buhraan took place. Sariyyah of Zaid bin Hartha took place. Because of the attack from the Polytheists of Makkah, the Battle of Uhah took place. The tooth of the Prophet (SAWS) got martyred. Sayyidna Hamzah and Hanzalah along with other 70 sincere Sahabah got martyred. The body of Sayyiduna Hamzah (RA) was mutilated. The Battle of Hamraul Asad occurred. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Hafsah bint Umar (RA). The Prophet’s daughter Ummu Kulthoom (RA) got married with Sayyiduna Uthman (RA). Sayyiduna Ali and Fatimah (RA) were blessed with baby boy, Hasan (RA). Alcohol was made Haraam (Prohibited). (Seerate Mustafa 2/167-246)
4th Hijrah: The Prophet (SAWS) sent different Sariyyah towards several tribes when he (SAWS) came to know their planning to attack. It was Sariyyah of Abu Salmah Abdullah bin Abdul Asad (RA) and Sariyyah Abdullah bin Uneis (RA). The Tragedy of Rajee’ occurred. Actually some people from Adhl and Qaarah came to the Prophet (SAWS) and asked him to send some scholars to teach them Islamic Rulings as they had embraced Islam. The Prophet (SAWS) sent 10 Sahabah under the leadership of Aasim bin Thaabi (RA), but they betrayed and killed 7 of them. Three of them: Abdullah, Zaid and Khubeib (RA) were arrested who were killed latter. Tragedy of Beeru Maunah: On the request and guarantee of Abu Barra, the Prophet (SAWS) sent 70 Sahabah towards Najd to preach Islam under the leadership of Mundhir bin Amr (RA). They stayed at Beer Maunah. On the conspiracy of Aamir bin Tufail, nephew of Abu Barra, the Ra’al, Asiyyah and Dhakwaan tribes killed the Sahabah (RA) except two of them. On this incident and tragedy, the Prophet (SAWS) started reading Qunut Naazilah and cursing those killers. Battles of Bnu Nazeer, Dhaatur Riqaa and Badr Mau’ad took place. Sayyiduna Husain (RA) was born. The Prophet (SAWS) married with Umme Salmah Makhzumiyah (RA) and Zainab bin Khuzaimah (RA). The Prophet (SAWS) ordered Sayyiduna Zaid bin Thaabit to learn Jew’s language, Hebrew. Ruling regarding Hijaab was revealed. (Seerate Mustafa 2/246-67)
5th Hijrah: Battle of Domatul Jandal occurred; because the Prophet (SAWS) came to know that the people of Dumatul Jandal wanted to attack on Madinah, due to that the Prophet (SAWS) went in the company of one thousand Sahabah. As the people of Dumatul Jandal came to know, they ran away. The battle of Bani Mustaliq occurred and the whole tribe of Mustaliq embraced Islam. While returning from the battle, the story forged statement (Slander-Ifk) against Ummul Moomineen Aaisha (RA), fabricated by the hypocrites, took place. The Almighty Allah gave verdict through the holy Qura’an that she was innocent. According to some narrations, the ruling regarding Tayammum was revealed. The battle of trench occurred, because Hai bin Akhtab and Kinanah bin Rabee’ provoked the Qureish and Banu Ghatfa respectively to attack on Madina. About ten thousand people left for Madinah to finish Muslims. When the Prophet (SAWS) came to know it, he called a Meeting of Sahaba, where Sayyiduna Salman Farsi (RA) suggested digging Trench and it was done. This battle continued for 15 days. Three non-Muslims and six Muslims were killed. The battle of Quraizah occurred. On the occasion of the battle of Trench, Banu Quraizah broke the agreement; this was why this battle occurred. The people of Banu Quraizah were detained for 25 days, until they agreed upon to accept any decision of the Prophet (SAWS). He (SAWS) made Sayyiduna Sa’ad bin Mua’ad a judge of this case. He gave verdict to kill the male and to arrest the female. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Zainab bint Jahash (RA). On the occasion of Walimah, the ruling regarding Hijab was revealed. (Seerate Mustafa 2/267-320) A delegation 400 people of Muzainah Tribe came to visit the Prophet (SAWS) and they embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/120)
6th Hijrah: Sariyyah Muhammad bin Maslamah: Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) sent thirty Sahaabah (RA) towards Qurtaa, under the leadership of Sayyiduna Muhammad bin Maslamah. The chief of Banu Hanifah, Thumamah bin Uthaal (RA) was arrested. Latter he was released with the order of the Prophet (SAWS). Following release, he took bath and embraced Islam in Masjid Nabawi. The Battle of Bani Lahyaan: The Prophet (SAWS) wanted to take revenge of the Martyrs of Rajee’, Khubaib, Aasim (RA) etc. but when the Prophet (SAWS) reached, they ran away. He (SAWS) and Sahabah came back after two days, without any fight. The battle of De Qarad (Qarad: Name of a spring in Ghtfaan): Abdur Rahman bin Oyainah, in the company of 40 riders, raided the pasture and confiscated the camels of the Prophet (SAWS) killing the son of Abu Zar (RA), caretaker of the camels. Hence, this battle occurred. The Prophet (SAWS) and the Sahabah followed them. Two of them were killed and remaining ran away. Sariyyah Okashan bin Muhsin, Sariyyah Muhammad bin Maslamah, Sariyyah Abu Obaidah, Sariyyah Jamoom, Sariyyah Aeis, Sariyyah Tarif, Sariyyah Hasma, Sariyyah Waadil Qura, Sariyyah Domatul Jandal, Sariyyah Fidak, Sariyyah Umme Qirfah, Sariyyah Abdullah bin Atik, Sariyyah Abdullah bin Rawaha and Sariyyah Kazr bin Jabir occurred. Umratul Hudaibiyyah and later the treaty of Hudaibiyyah took place. Following the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the Prophet (SAWS) felt ease and started sending the letter to non-Muslim rulers of the world; like Qaisar of Rome through Dahya Kalabi, Kisra of Iran through Abdulllah bin Huzafah Sahmi (RA), As’hamah, the king of Ethiopia (Najashi) through Amr bin Umaiyyah (RA), Muqauqis, the King of Egypt through Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah, Munzir bin Sawaa, the king of Bahrain through Alaa bin Hazrami (RA), (Julandi and his sons,) Jaifar and Abd, Jaifar was the king of Oman, through Amr bin A’as (RA) (8th Hijrah), Hauzah bin Ali, the chief of Yamamah through Saleet bin Amr (RA), Harith Ghassani, the Ameer of Damascus through Shuja’ bin Wahab (RA), wherein he invited them towards Islam. Sayyiduna Ashamah (RA) embraced Islam and died in 9th Hijrah. The Prophet (SAWS) offered his Janazah Salaah. Munzir, the king of Bahrain also embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 2/321-397)
7th Hijrah: Khaibar Victory: With commandment of Allah, the Almighty, the Prophet (SAWS) left for Khaibar in the company of 1,600 Sahabah (RA) against the rebellious Jews who had provoked and supported the Qureish in the battle of Trench. The first and foremost, the Na’aim Fort was conquered. Then Qamoos Fort was conquered at the hands of Ali (RA) following the struggle of 20 days. Then Sa’ab bin Mua’adh fort was conquered. Then Qullah Fort was conquered following the big struggle. At this point, almost all forts were conquered except two forts: Wateeh and Salalim. The fort was being conquered one after another, until the Jews requested to let them go in exile and it was granted. Victory of Fidak: When the dwellers of Fidak learnt about Khaibar’s difficult situation, they also requested to let them go in exile, it was also accepted. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Safiyyah (RA). Zainab bint Harith gifted the Prophet (SAWS) a roasted poisoned goat. The Prophet (SAWS) was informed. He stopped eating and stopped his friends too. On the request from the Jews, latter the deal was made on share-cropping contract on the basis of dividing the yield into halves. Muta’h was prohibited. Some Immigrants to Ethiopia came back the day Khaibar was conquered. Waadi Al-Quraa was conquered after four days detention. The Prophet (SAWS) performed Umrah in the company of 2000 companions. Wedding of the Prophet (SASWS) with Maimunah bint Harith was made. Sariyyah Akram bin Abil Awjaa took place. Polytheists of Makkah broke treaty.
(Seerate Mustafa 2/400-434)
8th Hijrah: Sayyidna Khalid bin Waleed, Uthman bin Talha and Amr bin Aas (RA) embraced Islam. The battle of Mauta: The Prophet (SAWS) sent Haarith bin Umair with a letter to Sharahbeel, the Ameer of Syria. When he had reached in Mauta, a place in Syria, Sharahbeel made him killed. This was why, the Prophet (SAWS) sent three thousand Sahabah. The Sahabah (RA) invited them to Islam firstly, but they didn’t accept Islam until the group of three thousand Muslims started fighting against 2 hundred thousand non-Muslim army. One after another, three Commanders in Chief: Zaid bin Haritha, Jafar bin Abi Talib and Abdullah bin Rawaha, along with other nine Sahabah (RA) got martyred. At the end, the battle was won under the leadership of Khalid bin Waleed (RA) and the warriors were welcomed by the Prophet (SAWS) and other Muslims on return near Madinah. Sariyyah Amr bin Aas: The Prophet (SAWS) came to know that the people of Qadha’ah tribe want attacking Madinah. The Prophet (SAWS), therefore, sent a Sariyyah towards Datus Salaasil. They attacked on Qadha’ah tribe. The people of the tribe ran away and it was won easily. A group of army was sent towards Seiful Bahr to fight against Juhainah tribe under the leadership of Abu Obaidah bin Jarrah. (Seerate Mustafa 2/434-52) The Delegation of Asharee Tribe from Yemen came to visit the Prophet (SAWS) (Seerate Mustafa 3/117-18)
The victory of Makkah: In accordance with the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the other tribes had choice to ally with any group. Banu Bakr, therefore, allied itself with the Qureish and Banu Khuza’ah allied itself with the Rasoolullah (SAWS). Once the Banu Nafathah from the Banu Bakr, with the support of the Qureish, attacked on Banu Khuza’ah and killed some people. This was clear breach of the agreement. Then the Prophet (SAWS) sent a message to the Qureish asking them to pay blood-money to Khuza’ah, to separate Banu Nafatha from the agreement or end the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah. They preferred to break the treaty. Hence, the Prophet (SAWS) left for Makkah on 10th Ramadhan, in the company of 10 thousand Sahabah. Before entering Makkah, the Prophet (SAWS) had announced about Makkah people that those who entered in the Holy Ka’abah are safe, those who entered in Abu Sufyan’s home are secured and those who closed the doors of their homes are protected. This news was publicized by Sufyan (RA) in Makkah. The people followed it. Two Muslims got martyred and almost 12/13 polytheists were killed. Makkah was conquered easily. After the victory, Rasulullah (SAWS) entered Majid Haraam and made Tawaaf of Holy Ka’abah. Sayyiduna Abbas and Sayyiduna Abu Sufyan embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/1-34) The Battles of Hunain, Auwtaas and Taaif occurred. Sayyiduna Ibrahim was born to the Prophet (SAWS) and passed away in the same year. (Seerate Mustafa 3/62-74)
9th Hijrah: Sariyyah Oyainah towards Banu Tameem: Rasulullah (SAWS) sent Bashr bin Sufyan (RA) to collect Zakaah (Alms). All the people got ready to pay it, but Banu Tamim refused, rather got ready to fight. On this, Rasulullah (SAWS) sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Oyainah (RA). They raided in the night and 11 men, 21 women and 30 children were arrested. Latter, they embraced Islam and all the arrested people were released. Sariyyah Abdullah bin Awjsah was sent with the letter of the Prophet (SAWS) to invite Bani Amr bin Hartha to Islam, but they refused. Sariyyah Qutbah bin Aamir was sent to Khath’am. The fight took place and the Khath’am was defeated. Sariyyah Zahhak bin Sufyan was sent to invite Banu Kilaab towards Islam. They refused to embrace Islam and started insulting and got ready to fight. When the fight started the Banu Kilaab was defeated. Renowned poet of Arabic language, Ka’ab bin Zuhair (RA), who had run away from Makkah on the Victory day, embraced Islam arriving in Madinah. (Seerate Mustafa 3/79-89)
The Battle of Tabook: Heracles, the King of Rome prepared 40 thousands army and wanted to attack on Madinah. When the Prophet (SAWS) came to know it, he (SAWS) commanded his companions to get ready at once and fight against them at the boarder of Tabook. The economic condition of the Muslims was not good, so the Sahabah started donating whatever they can manage. Uthman (RA) donated 300 camels and one thousand Danaanir. The prophet (SAWS) left for Tabook with Sahabah and Muhammad bin Muslamah (RA) was deputed charge of Madinah. The prophet (SAWS) stayed in Tabook for 20 days; but the fight didn’t take place. Some tribes themselves came and agreed upon paying Jizyah (Tax). Then the Prophet (SAWS) sent 420 Muslims under the leadership of Khalid bin Waleed (RA) towards Akeedar, the ruler of Domatul Jandal from Heracles. He was arrested and brought to Rasulullah (SAWS). A deal was made on paying 2000 camels, 800 horses, 400 armors and 400 spares. Hajj was made Fardh. A good number of people went for Hajj and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was made Ameerul Hajj. The Najashi passed away and his Salatul Janazah was offered by the Prophet (SAWS). Riba (usury) was prohibited. (Seerate Mustafa 3/90-105) Thaqeef delegation visited the Prophet (SAWS). (3/110) Those who didn’t accept Islam, Jizyah was imposed on them. Delegation of Bani Hanifah came. Musailam Kazzab was also a member of this delegation. He insisted to be nominated. The Prophet (SAWS) refused and they went back. (3/114-115) When the Prophet (SAWS) came back from Tabook, a delegation of Hamdan from Yemen came to visit the Prophet (SAWS), while already they had accepted Islam at the hands of Sayyiduna Ali (RA) (3/120) A delegation of Christian of Najran from Yemen came to Madinah, but they didn’t accept Islam and got ready to pay Jizyah. (3/121) A delegation of Bani Asad visited the Prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam with the guidance of the Almighty Allah. (3/133) In brief, many delegations, like: delegation Ghudara, delegation of Baliyy and delegation of Bani Murrah etc. visited the prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam (Seerate Mustafa 3/134-35)
10th Hijrah: Several delegations, which started from 8th Hijrah, from different tribes visited the Prophet (SAWS). Amongst them were the delegation of Hawaazin, consisting 14 people, the delegation of Bani Aamir bin Sa’sa’ah and delegation’s two members: Aamir bin Tufail and Arbad bin Qeis talked in very bad manner. They died also in bad manner without embracing Islam, delegation of Abdul Qeis from Bahrain also visited the Prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam, a delegation of Tai arrived and embraced Islam. Delegation of Kindah from Yemen arrived to visit the Prophet (SAWS). A delegation Azad Tribe consisting 15 people came and embraced Islam. The Prophet (SASW) sent Khalid bin Waleed (RA) to Banu Harith, a tribe of Najran to preach Islam. They accepted Islam at once and latter a delegation of the said tribe, in the company of Khalid bin Waleed (RA), came to visit the Prophet (SAWS). A delegation of Bahra’a from Yemen came to Madinah and stayed at the home of Sayyiduna Miqdad (RA) and after learning the Masa’il and rulings of Islam went back. Briefly, many delegations, like: Delegation of Khaulan from Yemen, delegation of Muhaarib, Delegation of Ghassan and the delegation of Salaamaan etc. visited the Prophet (SASWS) and embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/107-137)
Before Hijrah, the Prophet (SAWS) performed two or so Hajjs. But after Hijrah, the Prophet (SAWS) performed the first and last Hajj in the 10th Hijrah which is called Farewell Hajj (Hajjatul Wada’). He (SAWS) left for Makkah on 25th Dul-Qaadah and reached on 4th Dul-Hijjah. Almost 114,000 people performed Hajj in the company of Rasulullah (SAWS). The Prophet (SAWS) gave his last Sermon, which includes the important issues along with several points protecting the Human Rights.
Few Sentences from his Farewell Hajj’s Sermon: “O people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take interest; therefore, all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all interest due to Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib shall henceforth be waived.” (Seerate Mustafa 3/147-48)
11th Hijrah: The delegation of Nakha’ visited the prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam. (3/140) The Prophet (SAWS) sent the last Sariyyah under the leadership of Usamah bin Zaid towards Romans on Monday, 26th Safar. The Prophet (SAWS) fell sick on Wednesday. One Thursday he (SAWS) fell seriously sick. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (RA) was selected for leading Salaah. One Monday (12th Rabiul Awwal), the Prophet (SAWS) passed away and was buried in the home of Aaisha (RA) where he (SAWS) passed away. (Seerate Mustafa 3/152-53)
While the Prophet (SAWS) was sick, he came to know that while on the one hand Aswad Anasi, Musailmah Kadhdhaab and Tulaiha Asadi had claimed Prophethood falsely, some Muslims had forsaken Islam on the other. Rasulullah (SAWS), therefore, sent a Sariyyah to follow Aswad Anasi and he was killed just a day before his sad demise. May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him! (Seeratul Mustafa 3/156) ***
*Head Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa.
Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi,
Moon Rays Trust School,
By M. Burhanuddin Qasmi
The Babri Masjid and Ram Janam Bhomi dispute has been an unparalleled and extraordinary case in the entire history of India. For last more than one century, the matter has been a source of Indian polity including this post independence past 50 years where it took a centre stage in Indian's divisive and polarising political chessboard. Hundreds of political figures rose, shined or paled; half a dozen political parties formed, won or simply fell to dust, thanks to Babri Masjid - Ram Temple issue. Formation of governments both in the Centre and in the state of Uttar Pradesh were heavily influenced by this emotive issue in post 1992 India. Previously less popular political formation came to power riding on temple yatras and some other, on the other hand, lost chairs owing to Babri issue polarized majority for their opponents.
Lengthy legal battle is on since independence between parties of India's two major faith holders - - Hindus and Muslims. In the post 1992, Babri Masjid demolition case and it's land ownership suit, combined, has been the single major case for whole of India's judicial system. Babri linked cases are still date under regular causelists in the Allahabad High Court as well as in the Supreme Court of India.
Thousands of human lives, directly or indirectly, lost or affected because of this dispute. Billions of rupees spent, enormous energy utilized; ASI, history archives and modern scientific methods from within India and abroad put to use to prove claims and counter claims by the parties involved. India's core value of unity in diversity had major setbacks due to this uncalled for incidence. The whole world has been carefully observing our businesses in the apex court.
Of late this title suite became a battle of secular, democratic and constitutional principle of India. Stronger muscle power group always tried to use force against the weaker side. Constitutional safe-guard in protection of the Babri structure proved to be in vain. Thus, it is time now to deliver by the honourable Court that in India judiciary is on straight path and it is the "Supreme" power in our system of republic and democratic governance.
Having all these, aforementioned, to the credit of Babri Masjid - Ram Temple saga, the apex court of the country took a good initiative to give it's verdict on the land suit case sooner than later. Of course, the present ruling dispensation might have asked or pave the way for this fast-tracking legal stride, may be as display of it's political adventurism.
Nevertheless, following the failed out of the Court settlement attempt, regular hearing by a Special Bench in the Supreme Court of India, headed by the Chief Justice himself is going on for last a few months. The case is about to be locked this week, a judgment is expected soon, as the hearings and arguments from all concerned parties are nearly completed.
Here comes one new twist from a few so-called goodwill shooters from among the Muslim Indians. One gentleman reported to proclaim that Muslim should donate the Babri Masjid land to Hindus even if they win the title suit. The other argues that the judgment on the title suit need not be delivered, instead Muslim should handover the land voluntarily to their Hindu counter part.
To me, these are planted players to derail the on going and smooth constitutional and legal process in the dispute. It may be not in the interest of some political power houses if the honourable apex court gives a verdict on merits. Thus agents are out on streets to sabotage the whole process ensuring further confusion among the masses and prolonging the political mess for future elections.
Muslims were ready for out of the court settlement which did not come out to be fruitful. Muslims have unanimously stated, what may come, they will respect the court verdict.
Then where this goodwill gesture theory is coming from now, why and who are these people? Answers are but individual guesses. Are they party in the case in anyway or did they make any contribution in the matter in the past? Answers are No in both cases. Who should make a goodwill gesture? Obviously the opposite party in the case which is battling for it.
I think, without slightest ambiguity, Muslim should wait for the final judgment. Let the constitutional supremacy prevail in India - be it in favour or not, by all parties. How can one speak about donating a piece of land when it is yet not clear whose land is this! However, goodwill gestures are very much in demand given the present boiling condition in India. But a goodwill gesture is a goodwill only when done with equal respect, mutual share and on the basis of equal justice. Else it becomes indirect fear mongering and plotting tactics of blackmailing to meet interests of the stronger player in the race.
If the Muslim party wins the Babri title suit in the apex court in the upcoming days then only they will be in a position to think and decide about its use in view of the sentiments of majority fellow citizens of India.
However, if the Court verdict goes in favour of Hindus, then the Muslim party already stated will accept the order. Thus, speaking about donating the land and goodwill gesture in this case makes no sense.
It is expected that the urgently called meeting of the All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) in Nadwatul Ulama Lucknow this week will deliberate on this issue too and take a wise and respectable stand for minority Muslims in India. We cannot make a whole long constitutional process undone simply for wishful good wills of a few agents. Contribution to keep India peaceful, it's constitutional values are guaranteed, citizens' rights are respected and it's good image in the international stages is protected is everybody's duty as citizens of India.
By following Gandhiji's principles, the atmosphere of violence and intolerance within the country can be changed
Dr. Mohammad Najeeb Qasmi Sambhali
A member of the Hindu Muslim Alliance who also played an important role in the country's independence, Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi was born in Gujarat on October 2, 1869, 150 years ago. Gandhiji employed the Satyagraha as his weapon. Satyagraha means to raise public voice against oppression in a peaceful way. This process led the campaign for India's independence and the spirit of human rights and freedom movements for the world. He is respectfully called Mahatma Gandhi and Bapu. He was awarded the title of “Father of the Nation” by the Indian Government. Gandhiji's birth day, known as “Gandhi Jayanti”, is a national holiday across the country and is celebrated worldwide as a Day of Non-Violence. Gandhiji's constant struggle with the Hindu-Muslim alliance forced the British to leave India and our country was finally liberated on August 15, 1947.
While advocating in South Africa, he used Civil Disobedience for the first time to fight for the rights of Indians. After his return to India in 1915, he protested against the indiscriminate discrimination of land with farmers and labourers.
After taking over the leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhiji launched a campaign to eradicate poverty from the country, exercise women's rights, religious and ethnic well-being, abolish untouchability and economic self-reliance. He vowed to liberate India from foreign control. Mahatma Gandhi led the Non-Cooperation Movement, after which in March 1930, a 400-kilometer long journey (Dandi Yatra) was launched to oppose the British for imposing tax on salt. Then in 1942, he started Quit India Movement “ Bharat Chodo Aandolan” civil disobedience movement with the demand for independence. Mahatma Gandhi spent many years in prison in both Africa and India. As a leader of non violence, Gandhiji vowed to speak the truth and appealed others to do the same. He lived a simple life in the Sabarmati Ashram ands adopted a traditional Indian dhoti and a another piece of cloth to cover his upper body, both woven with yarn spun by him on spinning wheel. He used to eat green vegetables and was a devotee of spiritual purity and social protest for which he observed fasts.
Among Gandhiji's main achievements are the Hindu-Muslim unity and the philosophy of non-violence (ahimsa) that if they were to be treated with integrity even today, the atmosphere of violence and intolerance created within the country could be removed.
Given the prevailing situation in the country, it is imperative that social workers, who are in accordance with the thoughts of Gandhiji, should come forward and follow the principles of Gandhiji and strive for Hindu-Muslim unity and put maximum potential on the education of the nation, that is need of the hour.
Gandhiji's principle was "Sarva Dharma Sadbhav" i-e- freedom of all religions to flourish or in easy words "Live and let live". This is that principle which can guarantee the development of our country even today. According to Indian laws, every person has complete freedom to practice his own religion. When we examine Gandhiji's speeches, it is clear that he has tried to create harmony between different classes on the basis of caste, religion, regionalism, color, race and language.
Mahatma Gandhi realized that India could not get freedom until the two major classes of people living in the area, namely, Hindus and Muslims, learned to live together. Even if freedom is granted, it would not be the freedom that we want. That is why Gandhiji was a staunch supporter of the Hindu-Muslim unity. He believed that if Hindus and Muslims did not learn to live peacefully, then the existence of this country, which we know as India, would be ceased.
Gandhiji studied books of different religions and ideas of notable intellectuals of the world. He is said to have studied the Quran and the Gospel with the Gita, daily in the morning. In his famous book "The Story of My Experiments with Truth" he himself confesses that he had many good relations with many Muslims during his stay in South Africa, which was very useful for him in understanding the Islamic teachings. When he was asked what kind of government he would like to establish as the “Ram Rajya”, he replied, "It will be in the style of the second Caliph Hazrat Omar Farooq (RA)". During his stay in England, he also tried to understand the teachings of the Pharisees by by mixing with the Parsi people while practicing Christianity and advocacy. He respected all religions even though he had a deep connection to his native Hindu religion.
While Mahatma Gandhi's concern was that the British should leave India and go back to their country, he also wanted to engage the people of the country with the adoration of education and take them towards development.
When Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founded an educational institution under the patronage of the British, those who fought for the independence of India from the British also founded Jamia Millia Islamia under the patronage of Sheikh al Hind Maulana Mahmood al-Hassan in which Mahatma Gandhi's services to cultivate can never be forgotten. I too got a doctorate from Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, which is now a Central University and one of the few prestigious universities in India, so I have a moral obligation that I should remember Gandhiji's services on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti. The University is the only university in India with the majority of the founders sacrificing in the country's independence.
Gandhiji was a strong opponent of communal riots. When there was a riot in Bihar's Nawakhali area, he himself went there and stayed for a long time trying his best to normalize the situation. Gandhiji also looked very sad over the communal riots that broke out after India's independence. Some misunderstood people have interpreted it as anti hindu which is certainly wrong. Rather, the fact is that, Gandhi's sensitive heart did not tolerate oppression against anyone and he was forced to raise his voice against it.
All of Gandhiji's ideals, whether it be Non-violence (ahimsa), Satya- graha or brotherhood, have become popular not only in India but all over the world and have been praised by international thinkers, writers and artists. On the other hand, it is also a fact that the efforts of Gandhi's Hindu-Muslim unity were hated by some who tried to spread corruption and these elements cost India to lose its great hero . Finally, the country also saw that Mahatma Gandhi, a member of the Hindu Muslim League and a prominent figure in the country's independence, was shot on Friday, January 30, 1948. Not even six months had passed since the country was liberated, and the lamp that lit up the whole country with its light and taught us that we should not think that we are only Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs or Christians, but we are Indians and true Indians had extinguished. We all have a responsibility to remember Mahatma Gandhi and to continue to play his role in the development of our country by adopting his valuable principles and to provide our services for Hindu Muslim unity.
One of the secrets of Gandhiji being a successful leader is that after the independence of the country, he took no part in the power but vowed to serve the nation without having any office of government. This distance from power also made him a great leader and he became an example of Allama Iqbal's poem:
“Religion does not teach us to have enmity among ourselves; we are Indians and India is our nation.
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- Urdu Blogs
- Islamic Websites
Books & Articles
- DELL Entrance Test 2019
- Book Sellers in Deoband
- Translation Centre
- Quran Online
- Tablighi Jamat and Darul Uloom