By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
"World Children's Day" is celebrated on 20th November worldwide. It is because the United Nations General Assembly, through a resolution, has approved 20th November as "World Children's Day". The motive behind it is to promote international togetherness, awareness among the children worldwide and to improve children’s welfare. Furthermore, World Children’s Day offers each of us an inspirational entry-point to advocate, promote and celebrate children’s rights, translating into dialogues and actions that will build a better world for children as it has been mentioned at www.un.org. Now, let us see how the rights of the Palestinian children are violated. This year, just one day before World Children's Day, on Saturday, 19th November, 2022, Palestinian Prisoners Society (PPS), presented the data regarding the Palestinian children’s detention that this year (November 2022), the usurping Israeli’s occupying army have arrested 750 Palestinian children so far. This data does not cover the full current year of 2022; as there is still a period of more than a month left to complete it. The PPS report also has highlighted that some of these children were injured; while some others were sick at the time of the detention. The report has also mentioned that “Most of the children were subjected to all sorts of physical and psychological torture during their detention in violation of international agreements and conventions on the rights of children.” Even in such situation, the tyrant prison authorities do not provide proper treatment facilities to the children. This report, on the occasion of World Children's Day, highlights a key aspect of the usurping Israeli government's tyranny, oppression and cruelty against the Palestinian children and the violation of their fundamental rights.
According to another report, this year (2022), 40 Palestinian children have been martyred by the inhumaneness of the Israeli occupying army so far. This large number of children being injured and martyred by the army of the Zionist Israel state, on the Palestinian land, in front of their near and dear ones, is alarming for any civilized nation and human-loving people. This is the current year's report; while to complete this year, still one month and ten days are left. If we look at the previous year's report in this regard, we find that in the year 2021, 78 children were martyred by the armed forces of the Zionist state. Those martyrs belonged to the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. According to the data of a local Palestinian organization, "Palestinian Child Organization", 17 of these martyred children were directly targeted and killed by the Israeli army.
Following the report of almost 11 months on the innocent Palestinian children being arrested by the army of the Zionist state of Israel, the readers can understand the number of the Palestinians as a whole being arrested by the Zionist army. To know the number of the Palestinians who have been arrested just in the last one month, i.e. October, let’s see a report of “Palestine Center for Prisoners Studies” below. This report makes clear the number of the Palestinians who have been arrested by the Zionist soldiers in just one last month.
In the beginning of November 2022, the Palestine Center for Prisoners Studies has mentioned in its report that 595 Palestinians were arrested by the Israeli army in the last month, October 2022 alone. Amongst those arrested, 76 minors, 22 women and girls are included. Riyad Al-Ashqar, the director of the center, said that more than 290 arrests were made in Jerusalem, including 41 children, 18 women and girls, 110 arrests were made from Al-Aqsa Mosque, its surroundings and nearby streets. Then Palestinians were also arrested from the town of Shufat, Al-Aissawiya and Silwan.
This is the shocking story of the Zionist state’s armed forces regarding the arrest and killing of the innocent Palestinian children, elders and women. The brutality of the Zionist army is not only limited to arresting and killing of the Palestinians; but they are also not behind in destroying the property of Palestinians. Whenever the Zionist army and the Zionist settlers find a chance, they do not hesitate to demolish the houses of the Palestinians, burn the crops in their fields and uproot their gardens. It was reported this month on 8th November that occupying Israeli army and terrorist Jewish settlers demolished the properties of the Palestinians in the West Bank and occupied Jerusalem. In the presence of the Israeli occupying army, Ahmed Isa's bakery was demolished in the Shufat camp of the northeast of occupied Jerusalem. The bakery is located on an area of one hundred and ten square meters. Ahmed Isa had built this bakery by spending one hundred thousand Shekels (about 24 lakh rupees). In another report, the Israeli army arrived in a big number with a bulldozer in the village "Qibya" located in the west of Ramallah city and demolished a two-story house belonging to a Palestinian citizen. The owner of the house fulfilled all the legal requirements and the documents; but these documents were ignored and the house was demolished.
It has been reported this month (November 2022) that the Israeli occupying army unearthed the valuable agricultural land of the Palestinians in "Salfit", the northern city of West Bank. In this place, there was an olive garden of the Palestinians, which was uprooted by the army. It is said that there were two thousand fruit bearing olive trees in the garden, which were destroyed by the army. Nowadays, due to global warming, the people avoid cutting the trees and the plantation is encouraged in the world. Those who plant trees are awarded by a government. In contrary to that the Israeli Zionist army uproots two thousand olive trees at a time. If a person tries to find out its reason, he doesn’t find any reason except that the owner of these trees is a Palestinian Muslim. It very crucial point which must be noted here that the settlers’ violence against the Palestinians – the real native of Palestine including today’s so-called Israel – and their properties is a routine. Despite that rarely they are prosecuted by the biased and unfair authorities of usurping Israel. We thank Allah that He created us as the followers of a religion in which planting tree is encouraged.
Some organizations say that the action of the Israeli police in terms of arresting and detaining the Palestinian children is in violation of the international agreements and conventions on the rights of children and their protection. The Zionist Israeli police sometimes would pick up the children from their homes at night, sometimes a child goes out to buy some goods and he would not return home. Latter, it is learned that the child has been arrested by the Israeli police. After arresting these children, the police beat them up. Then the police take these arrested children to the investigation center. They are investigated about a certain incident which they never committed. Israeli police allegedly treat these children with violence during investigation and they use brutal and nasty method against these children. The police have also been accused of blindfolding and handcuffing the arrested children during the investigation. Then the police send these children to the jail after their so-called investigation – for crimes which they never committed – is done.
The Israeli army always claims that the Palestinian children who are imprisoned and detained in the Israeli jails are a threat to their national security. The children's rights group says that Israel is allegedly committing the crimes against these children which are internationally prohibited. Following the arrest, these children are kept in the detention in an inappropriate and inhumane environment. They are deprived of their basic rights. The fact is that the Israeli army uses such deadly weapons and forces against the Palestinian civilians, children and women that is a clear violation of international human rights law. The Israeli jails in which the Palestinians are kept are itself a kind of punishment. The fact is that there is an attempt to instill terror and fear in the minds of the Palestinian prisoners and to control an entire community through oppression and brutality so that after their release, they would not raise their voices for Palestine.
Definitely the Palestinians are undergoing a great loss of their lives and properties at the hands of the occupying army of the Zionist government since the illegal establishment of Israel. Any Palestinian who raises his voice for his sovereignty and the freedom of Al-Aqsa Mosque has to face the hardship of imprisonment. It is duty of the United Nations and other international organizations to investigate the arrest of Palestinian children and the atrocities against them. It is also their duty to include the Zionist Israeli government in the list of governments that violate the children's rights; rather on the top of the list. The member countries of the United Nations General Assembly would pass a resolution that would compel the usurping Israeli government to compensate for the losses of the lives and the properties. But currently, there is no such hope; because the oppressive Israeli government has the backing of the United States of America and some Western countries. The second important point is that no country has any materialistic interest in Palestine. However, we hope that the terrorist Israeli government, its armed forces and the oppressive Zionist police will have to pay for the crimes they commit regularly against the Palestinians a day and the Palestinians will be successful, In Shaa Allah. ●●●●
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
Nullifying Act of Charity by Boasting
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Wealth in the Qura’an:
The wealth is the great bounty of Allah. There are several verses in the glorious Qrua’an wherein the wealth has been mentioned in the positive meaning. Allah says: “Then We gave you your turn to overpower them, and increased your strength with wealth and sons, and made you greater in number.” (Isra: 06) While mentioning the story of Nooh (AS)’s activity of calling his nation towards Allah, the several bounties of Allah All-Merciful are noted. One among them is increasing wealth. The Qura’an speaks: “He will send (much-needed) rain to you in torrents. Increase your wealth, your sons and make orchards and rivers for you.” (Nooh: 11-12) At another place the Glorious Qura’an speaks: “When the Salaah has been completed then (you are free to) disperse in the land, seek from Allah's bounty and remember Allah abundantly (engage in Dhikr wherever you may be) so that you may be successful.” (Jumuah: 10) Ibn Kathir writes under the commentary of this verse: “After Allah forbade Muslims from working after hearing the Adhan and ordered them to gather for the Friday prayer, He allowed them to spread throughout the earth and seek bounty after the prayer is finished.” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
How Did He Earn and Where Did He Spend?
If one is blessed with the wealth, he should not forget the rights of the poor and needy people. There are some people who assist the poor in the way that what his right hand does, his left hand is not aware of that. Such person will get great reward for it. As it is said in a Hadith, “A person who gives charity so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given (nobody knows how much he has given in charity, then such person will be shaded by Allah under His Shade on the Day of Resurrection when there will be no shade except His shade.)” (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1423) There are some rich people who don’t want to spend his wealth on the poor. They think that whatever they possess, that is the earning of his hard-work, then why should they give it to the poor. Such people must know that they will have to face the question of his wealth on the Day of Resurrection, “How did he earn it and where did he spend it?” (Tirmidhi: 2417) There are also third type of rich people in our society. They spend their wealth on the poor people, but their intentions are not good. After giving something, they take the recipients as their servants and slaves. They want the recipients should remain at their command every time as the obedient servants. Sometimes, they cause hurt, insult, humiliation and boast favours on the recipients.
Avoid Causing Hurt:
Whatever the rich people give to the poor, it means that they thank Allah, because whatever they possess that is from Allah. Allah has decided the rights of the poor people in their wealth. So they are fulfilling their responsibilities. Moreover, the givers will be rewarded for that in the hereafter. Some people want to boast of favours following the charity to the poor. This action is very condemnable and totally rejected. The givers will be questioned for it on the Doomsday. If we have wealth, it is our responsibility to spend it in the way of Allah avoiding to cause any hurt and boasting favours. It is unfortunate that the people have forgotten the Qura’anic instructions and the prophetic lessons not only about the wealth and its proper use; but in the most of the aspects of the life. Let’s see some verses of the Holy Qrua’an about the one who boasts favour and causes hurt someone after giving him charity.
Allah the Exalted says: “A graceful word and forgiving is better than charity followed by causing hurt. Allah is All-Independent, Forbearing. (Al-Baqarah: 263) Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (1897-1976) writes under the commentary of this verse: “…One who spends does so for his own good. That being so, an intelligent human being should keep this in mind while spending in the way of Allah, that he is not favouring anybody, and that he is spending for his own good. And should one sense ingratitude on the part of people treated well, he should subject himself to the divine attribute of 'forbearing', show obedience and forgive and forget”. (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 1/652-653)
Nullifying the Act of Charity:
The next verse of the same chapter says: “O you who believe, do not nullify your acts of charity by boasting about (doing people a) favour and by causing (them) hurt, like the one who spends his wealth to show off before people and does not believe in Allah and in the Last Day. So, his example is like a rock on which there is dust, then a heavy rain came over it and left it barren. They have no ability to gain anything out of what they have done, and Allah does not give guidance to the people who disbelieve.” (Al-Baqarah: 264)
What has been conveyed in the previous verse, this one also gives the same message with more emphasis on the same topic. Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani writes: “This makes it clear that any form of favour-flashing or needy-bashing, after an act of charity renders such charity null and void. There is no reward for it.
In this verse, one more condition governing the acceptance of Sadaqah has been added by saying that one who spends for public exposure, for name and fame, and does not believe in Allah Almighty and the Day of Resurrection, can be likened to be acting in a situation where he sows a grain on a clean rock which has collected a layer of soil, then comes the rain and washes the whole thing clean. Such people will never reap what they have sown and Allah Almighty will not let the disbelievers see the way. From this we know the condition that governs the acceptance of Sadaqah and Khayrat -- spend only to seek the good pleasure of Allah Almighty and with the intention of getting Thawab (reward) in the Akhirah (Hereafter). Never do it with the intention of having public exposure, name and fame. Spending with the intention of earning name and fame is wasting what you spend. And should a true Muslim, who does believe in the Hereafter, expend something simply for name, fame, and under hypocritical motivation, he too, would not get any Thawab (reward) for it. Moreover, there is a hint here in the use of the additional sentence "لایؤمن باللہ" (And does not believe in Allah); perhaps, it aims to suggest that hypocrisy and name-seeking is not just the sort of thing a person who believes in Allah Almighty and the Day of Resurrection would ever do since hypocrisy is a sign of something being wrong with his faith.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 1/653)
Spend to Seek Allah’s Pleasure:
The aforesaid verses make it clear that if a person gives something in charity with the intention to achieve the fame, boasting favours, causing hurt or for showing off; such charity doesn’t have any value in the sight of Allah, but the giver will be sinful and punished for it. Contrary to it, the one who gives his wealth to the beggar and weak people with the intention of seeking Allah’s pleasure; such person will be rewarded by Allah. His rewards will be noted in the record of his deeds as multiplied by seven times, but sometimes even multiplied by seven hundred times. Allah the Exalted says: “The example of those who spend in the way of Allah is just like a grain that produced seven ears, each ear having a hundred grains, and Allah multiplies (the reward) for whom He wills. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.” (Al-Baqarah: 261)
This verse gives the glad tidings to those who spend their wealth amongst the weak people, orphans and the widows in the way of Allah just for seeking His pleasure. The glad tiding is that his reward will be multiplied by seven times. It has been made clear in the Holy Qura’an by citing a sensational example, e.g. a person sows a grain of wheat in the fertile land. From that grain one such plant grows which has seven ears and each ear comprises of 100 grains. It brief, if a person spends one rupee, he will be rewarded 700 rupees for that. But it should be noted that the intention of the giver must be to seek Allah’s pleasure. So, the next verse confirms it clearly. The Glorious Qura’an speaks: “Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah, then do not make their spending followed by boasting about favour, or with causing hurt, - they have their reward with their Lord and there is no fear for them nor shall they grieve.” (Al-Baqarah: 262)
If a person spends something in the way of Allah, he must understand that Allah will keep it for him in the hereafter; but He will reward more than what one has spent. Allah the Almighty says: “And whatever thing you spend, He replaces it, and He is the best of the sustainers.” (Saba: 39) At another place the Exalted Allah says: “Whatever good you spend is for your own selves, and you shall not spend but to seek the pleasure of Allah, and whatever good thing you spend shall be repaid to you in full, and you shall not be wronged.” (Al-Baqarah: 272)
Significance of Charity in Ahaadeeth:
The Ahaadeeth of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) are full with the significance of charity. Some narrations are mentioned here. According to a Hadith, the things which remain for the human being after the death is the charity and good deeds; otherwise what one gathers in the world will not be present in the hereafter for him. Once upon a time, a sheep was slaughter at the home of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). The whole meats were distributed, except the shoulder which was kept for the home. Then very good conversation took place on the sheep’s meat between the Prophet (SAWS) and mother Aisha (RA). Aisha (RA) narrates that they had slaughtered a sheep. So the Prophet (SAWS) said: "What remains of it?" She said: "Nothing remains of it except its shoulder." He (SAWS) said: "All of it remains except its shoulder." (Sunan Tirmidhi: 2470) According to the Islamic teaching, the part of the food which is consumed by a person is finished and he will be not rewarded for it. But the part which is given as charity to a needy or a poor person remains for the giver and he will be rewarded for it in the Hereafter. That is why the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) described the part of mutton given in charity as remaining part.
As said in one Hadith, if a person spends his wealth in the way of Allah generously, the angel supplicates for growth in his wealth. If a person doesn’t spend his wealth in the way of Allah due to his misery, the angel calls Allah for the destruction of his wealth. The Hadith goes like this: The Prophet (SAWS) said: "Every day two angels come down (from the heaven) and one of them says, 'O Allah! Compensate every person who spends in Your Cause,' and the other (angel) says, 'O Allah! Destroy every miser.'" (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1442)
If a Muslim fulfills the needs of his Muslim brother, the Almighty Allah fulfills his requirements. The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) says: "A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, so he should not oppress him, nor should he hand him over to an oppressor. Whoever fulfilled the needs of his brother, Allah will fulfill his needs.” (Sahih Bukhari: 2442)
One who spends his wealth and money in the cause of Allah, the Almighty Allah grants blessing in his wealth. If someone doesn’t spend in the cause of Allah, then He also doesn’t bless in his wealth. Hazrat Asma, daughter of Abu Bakr (RA) narrates that she came to the Prophet (SAWS) (for some problem) and he (SAWS) said: "Do not shut your money bag; otherwise Allah too will withhold His Blessings from you. Spend (in Allah's Cause) as much as you can afford." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1434)
It is Allah’s practice that He keeps changing the conditions of the people of the universe. It is possible that the one who is rich today, he can be poor tomorrow and the vice-versa. Imam Abu Yusuf (RA) has truly said: “The wealth comes in the morning and goes in the evening.” It is Allah the All-Powerful Who makes someone rich whenever He wishes. He also has power over making a person poor whenever He wishes. After making someone rich, He fixes the rights of His poor slaves in the wealth of the rich one. In this way, Allah the Almighty examines His both types of slaves either the rich is thanking Him and looking after the poor and the poor is having patience on not having wealth. Because it is Islamic teaching that if someone is blessed with something, he should thank Allah and when some is deprived of something, he should have patience.
Today, a good number of people are suffering due to the lack of wealth and resources; while Allah has enriched some people. Some of the rich people do understand the Islamic teaching and look after the poor people. But there are also some rich people of such type that firstly they don’t want to spend their wealth on the poor. Secondly, if they spend, it goes in vain and they don’t get any reward due to their wrong intention. Therefore, those who are blessed with the riches, they should spend in the way of Allah, according to the Islamic guidelines. Their intention should not be showing off, causing hurt and boasting favours after assisting the poor. This write-up is concluded with a Hadith. Allah's Messenger (SAWS) said: "The example of an alms-giver and a miser is like the example of two persons wearing two iron cloaks from their breasts to their collar bones; and when the alms-giver gives in charity, the cloak becomes capacious till it covers his whole body to such an extent that it hides his fingertips and covers his footprints (obliterates his tracks). And when the miser wants to spend, it (the iron cloak) sticks and (its) every ring gets stuck to its place, he tries to widen it, but it doesn’t become wide." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1443) ***
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
A kind teacher and an exemplary educator, Maulana Jameel Ahmad Sikraudhavi, a senior lecturer at Darul Uloom Deoband, left for heavenly abode. He had fallen sick and was suffering from tormentor disease since several months. Treatment continued; but he could not recover. At the end, he was admitted at GTB Hospital of Delhi, capital city of India. The fixed time has arrived so he breathed his last in the hospital on 31st March 2019. How true and accurate saying of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) is! He (SAWS) conveying his message to his daughter: Zainab (RA), when her son was dying, said: “Whatever Allah takes is for Him and whatever He gives, is for Him, and everything with Him has a limited fixed term (in this world) and so she should be patient and hope for Allah's reward." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1284) May the Almighty Allah accept Maulana Sikraudhavi’s services, forgive his shortcomings, grant him the best place in Paradise and give patience to his family members! Aameen!
He was born on 10th April 1950 in a village called: Sikraudha in Bhagwanpur block of the famous district: Haridwar of Urttarakhand in India. Following the completion of his basic educational stages, he moved to the world renowned seminary of Islamic thoughts Darul Uloom Deoband in 1966 and got admission. During his learning period, he had been one of the prominent students. He graduated 1970.
Following the graduation, he was appointed as a teacher in Jamia Rahmania of Hapur. Then he joined Jamia Kashiful Uloom, Chhatmalpur and served there for a period of time. Then he taught at Madrasa Qasimul Uloom of Saharanpur district in UP. In this way, he presented his great services in these different Madaaris. After seven years of his graduation, he was appointed as a teacher at the seat of his learning Darul Uloom Deoband in 1977. Then he joined Darul Uloom Waqf Deoband and taught up to 1999. In 2000, again he came back in Darul Uloom Deoband. He continued teaching here as a kind teacher and an exemplary instructor until he breathed his last.
The Supreme Lord provided him the chance of serving at the great and celebrated institution of the Indian sub-continent and he made the most of it without wasting a moment. The Almighty Allah gave him great opportunity of spreading and preaching the Islamic knowledge for a long period of time among the thousands of students. He continued the chain of teaching and benefiting beautifully. He spent most of his career period teaching in Darul Uloom Deoband. His favourite hobby was teaching and writing the guide books. The learners never complained about his teaching capability, rather they appreciated and showed satisfaction from his teaching methodology. Let me say that the Almighty Allah had blessed him with such talent and capability of teaching that a bright student and a dull learner, the both benefited from him alike. He studied deeply whichever subject he was assigned to teach. Before coming to the classroom, he used to go through the lesson deeply. In the classroom, his heart was satisfied with his studies and the mind was bumping; but at the time of delivering the lesson, he was very careful that of which standard learners he is teaching. So according to their understanding, he used to present his lecture. Due to his teaching methodology, he was not only appreciated by the learners, even the colleague teachers also confessed his capability. That was the reason that very soon he got name and fame as an exemplary educator.
His teaching period is consisting of around five decades. In this long period, he taught many books of the syllabus of the Darse Nizami beautifully. Either it was teaching of the difficult book like “Tafseer Al-Beidawi” or the well-known book of Hadith: “Sunan Tirmidhi” or it was “Hidayah” of Islamic Jurisprudence or the book like “Qawaidul Fiqh”, his teaching methodology was unique, easy, tenable and understandable for each and every learner. Whichever book he taught, he taught it beautifully. In regard to the learners, he was very kind, affectionate, loving and caring teacher. In brief, it can be said that he was “a kind teacher and an exemplary instructor”.
This writer had been lucky to learn from him the famous book of Islamic Jurisprudence “Hidayah” written by Sheikhul Islam Burhanuddin Abul Hasan Ali bin Abi Bakr bin Abdil Jalil Al-Farghani Al-Marghinani (511-593 AH). It was his habit to reach nearby the classroom a few minutes before the period starts. Then he was standing leaning to a pillar outside the classroom. As soon as a teacher leaves the classroom, he used to enter the classroom immediately. When some desks were empty in the middle of the classroom, he used to advise the other students to fill the gap. Then he used to take the students’ attendance register and start roll-call. Following the attendance, a learner used to read a portion of the text supposed to be taught. Then he used to explain the read text in his easy and simple methodology. It was his habit to complete the lesson about five minutes before ending the period and leave the classroom. It was never heard by a learner that he taught so-and-so topic today and it was not understood. It doesn’t matter, either it was any topic like: “Sarf”, “Kifalah”, “Iqalah”, “Hawalah”, “Mudharbah” or “Munabazah”, he explained and dealt them with expertise according to the level of the learners and they understood the topic satisfactorily.
In brief, whichever book of Darse Nizami was assigned to him for teaching, he used to teach it easily caring the level of the learners and the students had no any complication in understanding the lesson. That was why the administrator assigned him higher level classes to teach relying on his capability. He worked according to the expectation. When he was in Darul Uloom Waqf Deoband, he taught the books like, “Anwar Al-Tanzil Wa Asrar Al-Tawil” which is famously known as “Tafseer Al-Beidhawi” (By: Allamah Nasiruddin Abu Saeed Abdullah bin Umar bin Muhammad Al-Shirazi Al-Beidhawi), “Sunan Tirmidhi” (By: Abu I’sa Muhamad bin Isa bin Saurah bin Musa Al-Tirmidhi (824-892)), “Muwatta Imam Malik”, “Hidayah” etc. successfully for almost two decades. Again in Darul Uloom Deoband, he taught Muwatta Imam Malik, Hidayah, Qawaidul Fiqh etc. excellently.
As his teaching skill was recognized, his writing skill was also praised by one and all. He wrote the guide books of the several syllabus books of the Darse Nizami in thousands of pages. The method and language used in those books are very easy and very close to understanding. As Allah the Exalted blessed him with teaching skill, He also granted acceptance to his books. The guide books were highly appreciated and valued by the learners. It is said that he used the new method in writing those guide books. He explained in the simple way the complicated texts of those books. Most of the students used to benefit from the guide books written by him. Ashraful Hidayah, the guide book of famous book of Islamic Jurisprudence: Hidaya, got very much name and fame among the students and the scholars. It was not only the learners and the teachers of the Madaaris who benefited from it; but even some intellectuals, who have interest in the Islamic Jurisprudence, studied it and were seen using it as reference in the debate.
He prepared the guide books for the following books. He wrote the guide of “Usool Al-Shashi” namely “Ajmal Al-Hawashi”. He wrote the guide book of some initial volumes of Hidayah namely Ashraful Hidayah; while the other volumes were written namely “Tafheemul Hidayah”. The guide book of “Mukhtasarul Ma’ani” (By: Sa’aduddin Masood bin Umar Taftazani – 722-792 AH) was prepared namely “Takmeelul Amani”. He wrote the commentary of “Noorul Anwar” namely “Qootul Akhyaar”. The guide book the famous and complicated book “Husami” was written by the name of “Faiz Suhani”. He compiled and edited “Al-Taqrir Al-Hawi” along with his colleague Mufti Shakil Ahmad Sitapuri, ex-teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband. Actually, it is the compilation of the lectures of Maulana Sayyid Fakhrul Hasan, Ex-Head teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband on Tafseer Al-Beidhawi. It is in four volumes which consist up to the verse No.: 82 of Surah Al-Baqarah. May Allah accept it and grant them the best reward!
On the 1st April 2019, his funeral prayer was led by Maulana Qari Sayyid Muhammad Usman (May Allah protect him!), teacher of Hadith: Darul Uloom Deoband in the campus of Darul Uloom Deoband at around 09 hours in the morning. A big number of Ulama and the students attended his funeral prayer. The great scholar of Fiqh and Hadith, Maulana Sikraudhavi was buried in the “Qasmi Graveyard” of Deoband. May Allah grant him the best place in Jannah!
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
The human being do commits sins. If a man has committed a major sin, the door of repentance is open for him from the Almighty Allah. In the Glorious Qura’an and the Holy Hadith, the human being has been encouraged to repent following the sin. By this, it is known that the repentance is important after a sin to wipe it off. Whenever a person commits a major sin, he must make a true and faithful repentance immediately. Then the Almighty Allah forgives his sin and he becomes sinless. The points like definition of repentance, the importance of repentance, its benefits, the conditions for its acceptance and faithful repentance are being discussed here in this article in the light of the Glorious Qrua’an and Sunnah.
Definition of Repentance
Repentance literally means to feel or express sincere regret or remorse about. When this word is attributed towards a person, at that time it means to give up one’s sin and feel regret about what he has done. About the technical meaning of repentance, Allamah Aalusi (1802-1854) writes: “A person should give up his sins and express remorse about what he has done. And the expression of remorse should be with the intention that it is sin, not because it is physically or wealthily harmful. And he should intend that he would not commit it again according to his level best. (Ruhul Ma’ani: 28/158)
Conditions for Repentance
There are some conditions for repentance. The one who repents adhering to those conditions, it is hoped that repentance would be useful for him. If those conditions are not met; there is a fear that the repentance would not be fruitful. There are several conditions found in the books for repentance. The forth caliph of Islam, Ali (RA) has described six comprehensive conditions which are recognized by all the scholars either concisely or in details. They are here:
(I) To regret one’s past evil deeds; (2) to carry out Divine duties that were missed; (3) to restore the rights that were usurped; (4) to ask forgiveness of a person who has been wronged by him physically or verbally; (5) to make a firm resolve of avoiding the sin in future and (6) to consume one’s self in obedience of Allah as one thus far consumed one’s self in His disobedience. (Mazhari) (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 8/526)
Commonly it is understood that after feeling regret and expressing remorse, the sin is pardoned. But here is a point to note. If a person has embezzled one’s right, only expressing remorse is not enough for acceptance of his repentance; but he will have to restore that right as well. Then he should hope for acceptance of the repentance. It is in Al-Mawsuah: “Repentance is expressing of regret about what one has done in the past making a firm intention of avoiding it in future; but it is not enough to drop and eliminate the right of someone if he has taken. So, if he has stolen the wealth of someone, he has usurped or he has misbehaved with someone; so in these cases, only expressing regret, avoiding sin and making firm intention of not repeating, he cannot be absolved of responsibility; but it is necessary for him to repay the right. It is recognized by all the scholars.” (Al-Mawsuah Al-Fiqhiyyah: 14/157)
Shariah Ruling about Repentance
It is obligatory to repent when someone has committed a major sin. It is necessary to repent for one and all sins. If a person repents for only a certain sin and ignores other ones, then the repentance is correct for that one and it is still necessary for him to repent for another ones. Shariah ruling about repentance is that repentance is an obligation. It is proven from the Glorious Qura’an, traditions and consensus. The scholars have proven the repentance of being obligation from the following verse of the Qura’an. (Translation): “And repent to Allah O believers, all of you, so that you may achieve success.” (Al-Noor/31)* A Hadith speaks: “O people! Repent to Allah before you die.” (Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 1018)
Timing for Repentance
When a slave of Allah repents, the Almighty Allah accepts his repentance. Allah Almighty says: “And He is the One who accepts repentance from His servants and forgives evil deeds and knows whatever you do.” (Shura/25) As far as the timing of repentance is concerned, so Allah will accept the repentance as long as, one of the major signs of Doomsday, the sun rising doesn’t start from the west. It is in a Hadith: “Whoever repents before the sun rises from its place of setting, Allah will accept his repentance.” (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2703) It has also come in a Hadith: "Indeed Allah accepts the repentance of a slave as long as his soul does not reach his throat." (Sunan Trimidhi, Hadith: 3537)
Committing a sin is a common for a human being. As soon as a sin is committed, the person must try to compensate it that is repenting. Following the sin, a person should behave like a believer thinking as if he is under a burden of mountain, not like an evil-doer who takes the sin lightly. Abdullah bin Masood (RA) says: “A believer sees his sins as if he were sitting under a mountain which, he is afraid, may fall on him; whereas a Fajir (wicked evil-doer) considers his sins as flies passing over his nose and he just drives them away like this. (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 6308)
It is not known to us at what time we are going to leave this world; that is why we should not delay; but repent immediately after a sin. Following the repentance, we should hope that Allah would accept our repentance. Being Most-Forgiving and Very-Merciful, Allah is always waiting for our repentance. After repentance, not only the Muslims, but the non-Muslims are also forgiven. Describing disbelieve of Christians, Allah Almighty says in the Qura’an: “Why then do they not turn to Allah in repentance and seek His forgiveness, while Allah is most forgiving, very merciful?” (Al-Maaidah/74)
Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (1887-1949) writes under the commentary of the mentioned verse: “This is the power and dignity of Allah that when such a rebel, traitor and rude criminal comes before Him regretting and making a firm resolve of reformation; He forgives the crimes (sins) committed in the whole life. (Tafseer Usmani)
A Faithful Repentance
Following the major sin, we should turn to Allah with a faithful repentance. The holy Qura’an commands us for a true or faithful repentance. What is a faithful repentance? In a tradition, the faithful repentance has been described as follows: “The slave should express regret about the sin he has committed. Then he should apologize before Allah. Then he should not return to the sin as the milk does return to the udder. (Al-Dur Al-Manthur: 8/227) According to Ibn Abbas (RA), the faithful repentance has been explained as: “Feeling regret for the sin in his heart, begging pardon of Allah from tongue, avoiding the sin at all and making a firm resolve of not committing it.” (Al-Qamoos Al-Fiqhi Lughatan Wa Istilahan, P.: 50)
The reward for a person who makes a faithful repentance is also mentioned in the same verse wherein the commandment for the faithful repentance has come. Let us read it. “O you who believe, turn to Allah with a faithful repentance. It is hoped from your Lord that He will write off your faults, and will admit you to the gardens beneath which rivers flow, on the Day when Allah will not disgrace the Prophet and those who believed with Him. Their light will run before them and to their right hands. They will say, “Our Lord, perfect for us our light, and forgive us. Indeed You are powerful over everything.” (Al-Tahreem/8) (The Meaning of the Noble Qura’an by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani. I commonly quote the translation of Mufti Usmani Hafizahullah in my articles.)
Instruction to Ask for Forgiveness and Repent
Allah the Almighty is so Merciful and Kind that He doesn’t want His servants remain a sinful after committing a sin; that is why He instructs them to repent and seek His forgiveness. The glorious Qura’an speaks: “And you must seek forgiveness from your Lord, then, turn to Him in repentance,” (Hud/3) Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (1897-1976) writes under the commentary of the above verse:
“In these verses of firm and established meaning, Allah Ta'ala has also instructed His servants to ask for forgiveness and pardon from their Lord, and make their Taubah before Him. Forgiveness (Maghfirah) relates to past sins and Taubah (repentance) relates to the resolve of not going near these anymore. And, in reality, a correct and true Taubah is no more than being ashamed of past sins, praying to Allah that they be forgiven and resolving firmly that they would not be repeated in future.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 4/596)
Repentance Protects Heart
When a person commits a sin, a black dot appears on his heart. When he repents and seeks for forgiveness, his heart becomes clean from that dot. If he doesn’t repent and continue committing sin, the dot increases, until the heart becomes rusty. At this point, the person loses the ability to accept the truth. By this, it is understood that whenever a person commits a sin, he must repent immediately to protect his heart from becoming rusty. Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) says: "Verily, when the slave (of Allah) commits a sin, a black spot appears on his heart. When he refrains from it, seeks forgiveness and repents, his heart is polished clean. But if he returns, it increases until it covers his entire heart. And that is the 'Ran' which Allah mentioned: Nay, but on their hearts is the Ran which they used to earn.” (Sunan Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3334)
Under the commentary of the above Hadith is written: “When mankind does not use its natural talents properly and the faculty of the intellect and the heart, and he becomes a habitual perpetrator of sins by obeying his desires, then the dirt of all of his deeds gradually begins to cover the heart and after sometime it encompasses his entire heart; there remains no place for anything good in the heart. The person becomes a slave of sins.” (English Translation of Jimi' At-Tirmidhi: 6/68)
Repent in Abundance
Beloved Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) has instructed his Ummah to repent in abundance. A narration relates the practice of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) of repenting hundred times a day. He (SAWS) was innocent, forgiven and sinless, in spite of that he (SAWS) used to repent in abundance. Reason behind his practice was that his Ummah should learn that when he (SAWS) repents so abundantly being innocent, the Ummah should also seek forgiveness and repent abundantly; because we commit several major and minor sins day and night. The Prophet (SAWS) says: “O people! Repent to Allah, for I repent to Allah one hundred times a day.” (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2702) There is one another narration which says: "By Allah! I seek Allah's forgiveness and turn to Him in repentance for more than seventy times a day." (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 6307)
In accordance with one Hadith, the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) used to repent hundred times. In another Hadith it is said seventy times a day. Apparently they seem to be contradicting each other. The fact is that they are not to show the exact number of repentance; but they are to express that he (SAWS) used to repent day and night abundantly. Therefore, there is a lesson for the Ummah to repent in abundance.
Waiting For His Servants’ Repentance
Allah the Almighty is so kind and generous that he waits for His servants to repent. He is so Merciful and Forgiving that He waits every time, be day or night, for His servants repentance. When a salve repents, Allah feels happy and He is pleased with him. He forgives his slaves’ sins. One Hadith goes like this: "Allah holds out His Hand at night to accept the repentance of those who have sinned during the day, and He holds out His Hand by day to accept the repentance of those who have sinned at night, until the sun rises from its place of setting." (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2759) It means He will continue doing so near by the Doomsday. In this Hadith, holding out the hand means that He is very happy with the repentance of His slaves. He is so generous and kind that He feels happy after forgiving the sins of His servants.
Repentance is a Pleasing Deed
The repentance is a pleasing deed in the sight of the Almighty Allah. Whoever makes repentance following the sin, fulfilling its conditions, Allah the Exalted forgives him. One Hadith goes like this: “If you don’t commit sin, Allah would create people who would commit sin and He would forgive them." (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2748) In one another Hadith the repenting person has been made equal to a person who is sinless. The beloved Messenger of Allah (SAWS) says: “The one who repents from his sin is like one who doesn’t commit sin.” (Sunan Ibne Majah, Hadith: 4250)
According to the statement of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His slaves. Allah’s messenger (SAWS) says: "Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His slave than anyone of you is pleased with finding his camel which he had lost in a desert." (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 6309)
The piece of writing is being concluded with a verse of the Holy Qrua’an where Allah the Almighty says that if a servant avoids form major sins, Allah will forgive his minor sins and grant him a noble entrance. Please see the translation of the verse: “If you abstain from the major (sins) out of what you have been forbidden from, We shall write off your minor sins, and shall admit you to a noble entrance.” (Al-Nisa/31) May Allah enable us for repentance and grant us Jannah! ***
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
Jealousy and Our Society
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Among the human parts of the body, the best one is the heart. If it is fine, the whole body will remain good enough. If it is not well, the other parts of the body will get affected as well. When the heart is spiritually fallen sick, it causes the hidden and spiritual diseases, such as malice, jealousy, pride, arrogance, hypocrisy, egotism, love for rank, position and wealth etc. These diseases don’t cause the destruction only in the world, but also they are the cause of failure and disappointment in the hereafter. One among these spiritual diseases is “Jealousy” spread in our society. It is heart’s disease. The jealousy is being explained in this write-up so that one can understand its harms.
Definition of Jealousy:
Literal meaning of jealous is envious of someone else’s possessions, achievements or advantages. In term, wishing of a man for the declining of someone’s bounty and boon given by Allah is called “Jealousy”. Either he wishes that bounty for himself or not. The one who wishes so is called “Jealous” and whose bounty is being wished to be declined is called “Looked upon with jealously”. In brief, the jealous person wishes declining the bounty of the person looked upon with jealous. (1)
There another close word to jealousy which is called “Envy”. The envy means that a person expresses a desire for being blessed with a bounty someone is already blessed with; without a wish of declining from him. (2)
Causes of Jealousy
After knowing that the jealousy is a disease and causes spiritual damage for the people who commit it; it is better to know its causes so that one can understand and try to avoid it to safeguard himself from it. Its several causes had been written in details by the famous thinker and Islamic philosopher Imam Muhammad bin Muhammad Al-Ghazali (450-505 AH) in his well-known book: “Ihyaau Uloomi Al-Deen”. Those causes are being summarised and mentioned here in brief:
1. Malice and Enmity: The person who is hurt or whose goals and objectives are interfered; becomes the enemy of the one who hurt or one who interfered. He dislikes that person. Now the malice and anger pushes him to avenge. If he fails to avenge, he wishes that someone should take revenge from him.
2. Ambition: Sometimes the cause of the jealous is that a person doesn’t like to see another person of his status being respected or superior. It means that the jealous person doesn’t want that a person of his status is being blessed with a bounty and showing his superiority above him.
3. Pride and Arrogance: Sometimes, the cause of jealous is that a person feels another one humiliated and disgraced due to his arrogance and pride. He wishes that other should be under his pressure and every time be at his command to follow his order. If by chance that person is blessed with some bounties, now that arrogant person fears that may be that person will change his attitude now and he won’t follow his order. Yet, he was arrogant, now another one will be arrogant. This forces him to be jealous of the bounty he is blessed with.
4. Astonishment: Sometimes a person feels astonished that another person is at high rank and in better position than him. Now, he feels surprised that is also cause of jealous.
5. Fear of Failure in Achieving a Goal: This cause of jealous is specially among those two people who try to achieve the same thing. Now, each one is jealous of a bounty which is helpful for another one to achieve that goal.
6. Desire for Power and Prestige: Sometimes, having desire for power and position is cause of jealous, e.g. a person is a matchless and has authority on a skill. He doesn’t want that someone else should gain that one so that he makes himself great by putting others down. The purpose of this person is not to achieve a materialistic gain, rather to gain praise and acceptability. So, if someone tries to learn the skill, he feels jealous of him and wishes decline of that one, e.g. bravery, knowledge, art, beauty etc.
7. Evil Nature and Soul: Sometimes, due to the evil nature and being one’s heart miser regarding goodness is a big cause of jealous. You can find easily some people of such nature. When they know about someone being blessed with some of Allah’s bounties, they will feel heavy heart and when they know that someone is suffering from or failed in achieving his goal, those evil nature people will feel happy. They don’t like to see others successful and happy, but to see them with miseries and difficulties. When they see someone with Allah’s bounty, they become restless and anxious as the bounty has been given from their treasures. (3)
Condemnation of Jealous in the Holy Qura’an:
The Almighty Allah has condemned the jealous at several places in the Holy Qura’an. Sometimes, under some another topics the jealous has been described and occasionally directly and clearly it has been condemned. Two verses of the Glorious Qura’an are being quoted here as follows. The Holy Qrua’an speaks:
“Or, is it that they are jealous of people over what Allah has given them of His bounty, while We have given to the House of Ibrahim the Book and the wisdom, and We have given to them a great kingdom?” (4)
Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (1887-1949) writes under the commentary of the above verse: “Is it that the Jews are dying of jealous of seeing the bounty and reward that Allah gave to Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and his companions (RA)? So, it is completely their stupidity and foolishness; because we (Allah) had granted the Book, knowledge and great kingdom to the family members of Ibrahim (AS). Then how are the Jews jealous of the prophet-hood and dignity of Muhammad (SAWS) and how can they deny; even now it is in the house of Ibrahim (AS).” (5)
This verse makes it clear that being Jews jealous are wrong on great bounties like prophet-hood, messenger-hood, dignity, respect, kingdom conferred upon the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and the bounty and rewards given to his companions (May be pleased with them!) by Allah. This verse also makes it clear that if Allah has blessed one of his servants with his boon and bounty, being jealous of it is prohibited.
The glorious Qura’an speaks at another place: “(O Muslims,) many among the people of the Book desire to turn you, after your accepting the faith, back into disbelievers – all out of envy on their part, even after the truth has become clear to them. So, forgive and overlook till Allah brings out His command. Certainly, Allah is powerful over everything.” (6)
Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (1896-1976) writes in the commentary of the above verse: “Some of the Jews, pretending to be the well-wishers of the Muslims, were always inventing new stratagems to make them turn away from Islam, and, in spite of repeated failure in this effort, did not refrain from it. The verse warns the Muslims against their intentions, which are motivated, not by sincerity and friendship, but by envy – which in its turn arises not from anything the Muslims do, but spontaneously from within themselves even after they have come to understand clearly what the truth is. The verse also asks the Muslims not to give way to their justifiable anger at such misconduct, but to forgive the Jews, and wait till Allah sends a new commandment with regard to such matters.” (7)
The gist of the above commentary is that the Muslims who were blessed with the great bounty of Iman, the Jews struggled and played different tricks, so that the Muslims would forsake Iman and turn away from Islam. The reason was that the Jews were jealous of Muslims’ great bounty of Iman. So, the struggle of Jews was not based on being well-wishers of Muslims, but it was due to the jealousy.
Prohibition of Jealous in the Hadith:
There are several sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) which emphasise and guide this Ummah to avoid and refrain from committing jealousy. Some of those sayings are being presented here so that we can understand through them the harms and evils of jealousy.
There is a Hadith which clearly tells that the jealous is like fire and it consumes good deeds as the fire consumes the wood. The Hadith is narrated by Abu Hurairah (RA). The translation is presented here:
The Prophet (SAWS) said: "Beware of envy, because the envy consumes good deeds as fire consumes wood" or he said, "grass." (8)
There is another Hadith which guides to avoid the hate, jealous etc. and teaches to live like brothers with each other. Anas bin Malik (RA) says that the messenger of Allah (SAWS) said:
"Don’t hate one another, and don’t be jealous of one another; and don’t desert each other, and O Allah's worshippers, be brothers! Lo! It is not permissible for any Muslim to desert (not talk to) his (Muslim) brother for more than three days." (9)
Shariah Ruling Over Jealous:
It is Shariah ruling that jealous is prohibited and forbidden and avoiding form it is compulsory. A Muslim, therefore, always must avoid from jealousy. Allah the Almighty says: (Translation) “And from the evil of an envier when he envies”. (10) Imam Ghazali (RA) writes: The jealous is forbidden in all cases. Albeit, if a disbeliever and sinful person is blessed with a bounty and he creates disturbance and mischief and creates dissention among the people, hurts the creations through that bounty, in such cases, it is allowed to hate and wish declining of that bounty. Because, now your dislike and wish of decline is not with the intention that he is blessed with a bounty, rather it is because he creates dissention among the people through that bounty. If there was not fear of disturbance and dissention through that bounty, neither would you have felt pain, nor would you have wished the decline of that bounty. (11)
How to Avoid Jealousy?
If someone is suffering from the disease of jealousy; the way to overcome jealousy and avoid it is that he must remember and recall in his mind that it is harmful for him not only in the world, but in the hereafter as well. It must be kept in mind that a jealous person is a sick person and he must try to get rid of this sickness. Whenever one feels jealous of a person on a bounty, he must return to Allah asking the same thing for himself and doesn’t wish declining of that thing from that person. If it isn’t possible, one should try to control his mind from that thing. He should make himself understand that that person is his brother, so why should he feel jealousy of him. If Allah has blessed him, he should feel happy. He should make Duaa for growth in his bounty. If one feels jealousy of a person, he should make Duaa for him, give something as gift to him and do good to him. A jealous person should also think about someone who is less in bounty than him. One should also interpret and make himself understand that this thing has no value in his eye. If one fails to control himself from jealousy, the fire of jealousy will continue consuming him as the fire consumes wood. The Islamic scholars have written that one who is used to feel jealousy of a person, should read: “Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zanbin Wa Atubu Aleihi” and “Al-Hamdulillah” repeatedly.
We must try our level best to avoid jealousy and make Duaa that may the Almighty Allah protect us from jealousy and other diseases like jealousy. The jealousy is such dangerous fire which burns the jealous person from inside into ashes. This disease is related to heart, so the heart also gets affected from it. When the heart is affected, it means the all parts of body are affected. One of the companions of the Prophet (SAWS), Numaan bin Bashir (RA) says that he heard the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) saying: “Beware! There is a piece of flesh in the body, if it becomes good (reformed), the whole body becomes good, but if it gets spoilt, the whole body gets spoilt, and that is the heart.” *** (12)
1. Al-Mausu’ah Al-Fiqhiyyah: 17/269
2. Al-Mausu’ah Al-Fiqhiyyah: 17/271
3. Ihyaul Uloom: 3/293-295
4. Al-Nisa: 54
5. Tafseers Usmani, Al-Nisa: 54
6. Al-Baqarah: 109
7. Ma’ariful Qura’an: 1/289
8. Sunan Abi Dawood, Book of Etiquette, Chapter of Envy, Hadith No.: 4903
9. Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of Etiquette, Chapter: Jealousy and mutual estrangement are forbidden, Hadith No.: 6065
10. Al-Falaq: 05
11. Ihyaul Uloom: 3/288
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia