10 Green Ahadith (Islam and Environment)
By Muhammad Fathi
Did the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) say anything about saving our planet? Did he promote any ideas or practices relevant to the world's growing concern about the future of the earth and its resources?
Below is a collection of the Prophet's Ahadith
Plant a tree even if it is your last deed:
1. Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “If the Hour (the day of Resurrection) is about to be established and one of you was holding a palm shoot, let him take advantage of even one second before the Hour is established to plant it.” (Reported by Ahmad and Al-Bukhan on the authority of Anas in Al Adab Al-Mufrad,)
Planting trees is a renewable source of hasanat:
2. Anas also reported that the Prophet said, "If a Muslim plants a tree or sows seeds, and then a bird, or a person or an animal eats from it, it is regarded as a charitable gift (sadaqah) for him." (Bukhari)
Conserve resources even when used for rituals:
3. Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-`Aas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet passed one day by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqas (May Allah be pleased with him) while he was performing wudu' (ritual cleaning of body parts in preparation for prayer). The Prophet asked Sa`d, "What is this wastage?" Sa`d replied "Is there wastage in wudu also?" The Prophet said, "Yes, even if you are at a flowing river." (Ahmad and authenticated Ahmad Shakir)
Keeping environment clean is important:
4. The Prophet warned, "Beware of the three acts that cause you to be cursed: relieving yourselves in shaded places (that people utilize), in a walkway or in a watering place." (Narrated by Mu`adh , hasan by Al-Albani)
5. Abu Zarr Al-Ghafari (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, "Removing harmful things from the road is an act of charity (sadaqah)." (Narrated by Abu Dharr Al-Ghafari)
No for over-consumption! Consider recycling and fixing before buying new items:
6. Abdullah ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet said, "The believer is not he who eats his fill while his neighbor is hungry." (Saheeh al-Bukharee (112))
7. Asked about what the Prophet used to do in his house, the Prophet's wife, `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her), said that he used to repair his shoes, sow his clothes and used to do all such household works done by an average person. (Sahih Bukhari)
8. The Prophet said, "Whoever kills a sparrow or anything bigger than that without a just cause, Allah will hold him accountable on the Day of Judgment." The listeners asked, "O Messenger of Allah, what is a just cause?" He replied, "That he will kill it to eat, not simply to chop off its head and then throw it away." (An-Nasa'i)
Animals should be cared for:
9. Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet said, "A man felt very thirsty while he was on the way, there he came across a well. He went down the well, quenched his thirst and came out. Meanwhile he saw a dog panting and licking mud because of excessive thirst. He said to himself, "This dog is suffering from thirst as I did." So, he went down the well again, filled his shoe with water, held it with his mouth and watered the dog. Allah appreciated him for that deed and forgave him." The Companions said, "O Allah's Messenger! Is there a reward for us in serving the animals?" He replied: "There is a reward for serving any living being." (Bukhari)
10. Abdullah ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Prophet said, "A woman entered the (Hell) Fire because of a cat which she had tied, neither giving it food nor setting it free to eat from the vermin of the earth." (Bukhari)
Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Allah will cover seven people with His shade, on the Day when there will be no shade but His: a just ruler, a youth who has grown up in the worship of Allah, a man whose heart is attached to the mosques, two persons who love each other only for Allah’s sake and they meet and part in Allah’s cause only, a man who refuses the call of a beautiful and influential woman for illicit relation with her and says: I am afraid of Allah, a man who gives charitable gifts so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given, and a person who remembers Allah while he is alone and his eyes are flooded with tears." (Al-Bukhari)
We all need Allah’s shade. To be under Allah’s shade is to be protected by Him and be blessed by Him. We need His shade in this life and in the Hereafter. It is mentioned that the Day of Judgment will be a very hard and difficult Day. On that day everyone will be worried and will try to find some protection and shade; but there will be no shade on that Day except the special shade of Allah. This shade will be granted to seven special types of people:
1. A just ruler or a just leader: It could be any person who has some authority and he/she uses this authority with justice and fairness without any favoritism or prejudice. Justice is the command of Allah for all people; but the most critical is the doing of justice when one has power and authority. More difficult is, of course, dealing justly with those who show hate and animosity towards you. A just person, especially a just leader or ruler, is given number one place in this list of seven.
2. A young person growing up in the worship of Allah: Worship of Allah is good for all people at any age and time; but the worship of Allah from the tender young age has special blessings. Many people become devoted to Allah when they grow old. In the old age when the body becomes weak, people start paying attention to the spirit. However, to be conscious of one’s spirit and growing up as a youth in the obedience of Allah bring a special honor and blessings.
3. A person whose heart is connected to the Masjid: Literally it says that the heart is hanging (mu`allaq) in the masjid. Imam Malik explained that it was a person who when he leaves the musjid, looks forward to coming back again soon. Normally people’s hearts are attached to their jobs, business and home. The masjid are not the priority for many people. However, those who love the House of Allah and keep it as their priority are the blessed people and they shall receive the special favor of Allah.
4. Two people loving each other for the sake of Allah: One should be friendly to all people and deal with all people in a kind and courteous manner. However, the friendship for the sake of Allah, for the reasons of piety and goodness is a very blessed friendship. This is a sincere friendship and when two or more people become attached to each other for Allah’s sake they bring a lot of good to themselves and to those around them. This is a kind of friendship that generates goodness in the world and is especially blessed by Allah.
5. A person of solid moral character: The Prophet gave an example of this solid character. He said a man tempted for illicit relationship by a woman who is beautiful and rich, influential or of a prestigious family (the word “mansib” means all these things in Arabic) and he refuses. Imam Ibn Hajar says that this is not limited to a man only who is tempted by a woman; it equally applies to a woman who may be tempted by a man who is very beautiful, powerful and rich and she refuses and says “I fear Allah.” It requires a lot of moral strength to refuse temptation when the other partner is attractive, rich, and not only consenting but persuasive. Those who have such a strong character are indeed under the protection of Allah.
6. A person of charity who does not show off his/her charity: A person gives charity in such a way that even his left hand does not know what his right hand has done. This is a very powerful and beautiful way to say that a person gives quietly, discreetly and with sincerity. His/her purpose is not to show off, seek publicity, name or fame; but only to please Allah. This is the highest kind of charity and it has a special reward and blessing from Allah.
7. A person who remembers Allah privately with eyes filled with tears: Thinking of Allah, repeating His Beautiful Names, thanking Him and praising Him, these are the ways to remember (dhikr) Allah. Doing the “dhikr” alone in one’s privacy, when no one is watching, with moving heart and tearful eyes is a sign of sincere faith and deep love of Allah. Those who have the love of Allah, they are indeed under His shade and protection.
All these seven characters are deeply moral and spiritual characters. They indicate a person’s faith and sincere commitment. They are related to feeling, thinking, speaking and action. These are true characters of sincere believers. We pray to Allah to bless us with these characters and with his shade in this world and also in the Hereafter. Ameen.
Kindness at HomeRead Now
Islam is a beautiful religion, full of wisdom and harmony. If this wonderful religion is followed properly then a typical Muslim would only be a great example to follow. The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (May Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "The most perfect believer in faith is the one who is best in moral character..." [At-Tirmithi]
Spreading kindness at home:
'Aa'ishah may Allaah be pleased with her said: "The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (May Allaah exalt his mention ) said: '"When Allaah, The Almighty,Wills some good towards the people of a household, He introduces kindness among them.'"
According to another report: "When Allaah loves the people of a household, He introduces kindness among them." [Ibn Abu Ad-Dunyaa] In other words, they start to be kind to one another.
This is one of the means of attaining happiness at home, for kindness is very beneficial between the spouses, and with the children, and it brings results that cannot be achieved through harshness, as the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (May Allaah exalt his mention ) said: "Allaah loves kindness and rewards for it in such a way that He does not reward for harshness or for anything else."
Helping the wife with the housework:
Many men think that housework is beneath them, and some of them think that it will undermine their status and position if they help their wives with this work. The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (May Allaah exalt his mention ) however, used to "sew his own clothes, mend his own shoes and do whatever other work men do in their homes."
This is how 'Aa'ishah may Allaah be pleased with her responded when she was asked about what the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (May Allaah exalt his mention ) used to do in his house; she described what she herself had seen. According to another report, she said: "He was like any other human being; he would clean his clothes, milk his ewe and serve himself."
If we Muslim men were to do likewise nowadays, we would achieve three things:
1. We would be following the example of the Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (May Allaah exalt his mention).
2. We would be helping our wives.
3. We would feel more humble and down to earth.
These narrations should act as a reminder to those men, who demand food instantly from their wives, when the pot is on the stove and the baby is screaming to be fed; they do not pick up the child or wait a little while for the food.
Being affectionate towards and joking with the members of the family:
Showing affection towards one's wife and children is one of the things that lead to creating an atmosphere of happiness and friendliness in the home. Thus the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (May Allaah exalt his mention ) advised Jaabir may Allaah be pleased with him to marry a virgin, saying,
"Why did you not marry a virgin, so you could play with her and she could play with you, and you could make her laugh and she could make you laugh?" [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]
The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (May Allaah exalt his mention ) also said: "Everything in which Allaah's name is not mentioned is idleness and play, except for four things: a man playing with his wife..." [An-Nasaa'ee]
"The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (May Allaah exalt his mention ) kissed Al-Hasan Ibn 'Ali, and Al-Aqra' Ibn Haabis At-Tameemi was sitting with him. Al-Aqra' said: 'I have ten children and I have never kissed any one of them.' The Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (May Allaah exalt his mention ) looked at him and said: 'The one who does not show mercy will not be shown mercy.'" [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]
Written by Mohammad Najeeb Qasmi
Translated into Eng. By Nehal Anwer Qasmi
Obligations of Ghusl:
Ghusl has three obligations:
1. To cleanse the mouth in such a way that water accesses to all parts of the mouth.
2. To cleanse the nose making sure that the water reaches up to the soft bone in the nose.
3. To pour water on the whole body ensuring that not a single part of the body remains dry.
Scholars of Islam differ regarding mouth and nose wash. Some of them believe that cleansing the mouth and nose is Sunnah. According to them, if a person forgets to cleanse either of mouth or nose or both and offers prayer, the prayer is valid and he is not required to repeat it. The majority of the scholars including Imam Abu Hanifa RA and Imam Ahmad bin Hanmbal RA are of the opinion that cleansing the mouth and nose is obligatory in Ghusl. Scholars of India and Pakistan as well as Al Shaikh Muhammad bin Salih Al Othaimeen a reputed scholar of Saudi Arabia all of them too have the similar opinion. Thus in case a person forgets to cleanse either mouth or nose and offers prayer, the prayer is invalid and he is required to offer it again.
1. If a person after the end of bath remembers that he has not cleansed his mouth or nose, he should instantly cleanse his mouth or nose and does not need to take bath again.
2. One can bath naked if he is sure that the place is completely closed and no one can see him, but in such case, it is better to take bath sitting, as it will cover maximum part of the body.
3. A woman needs to remove her nail polish before making ablution and taking bath, otherwise her ablution and bath will be invalid. On the contrary, if she is using henna on her body or hair, she does not have to remove it. The reason for this difference is that nail polish is thick and prevents water to penetrate into the body, but henna penetrates into the body or hair and becomes a part of it.
The Masnoon Way of Ghusl:
The following method of taking bath is Masnoon:
1. Wash both hands up to the wrist to remove the filth from your hand.
2. Clean the private part even though filth is visible or not.
3. Make ablution just like of prayer. Avoid washing foot, if you are taking bath in a place where used water gathers. Otherwise, make complete ablution.
4. Pour water on your head followed by right and left shoulder of your body thrice.
5. While pouring water on the body, rub your hand properly, so that no part remains dry.
6. If you are taking shower, you are supposed to follow the above process as much as you can.
When Ghusl Becomes Obligatory?
There are three reasons that make Ghusl obligatory:
1. Ejaculation of semen which can happen when one is awake or asleep.
2. After the intercourse. In case of intercourse, ejaculation of semen is not necessary. Mere penetration of penis into the vagina is all needed for Ghusl becoming obligatory.
3. At the end of menstruation (حيض) and puerperal bleeding ( (نفاسfor women.
Note: Mazi (wetness) that comes out while thinking of intercourse or kissing wife does not make Ghusl obligatory.
Ghusl is required when Penis penetrates into the Vagina, Even If Ejaculation Does Not Take Place.
Today some people (against the consensus of majority of the scholars) believe that mere penetration of penis into the vagina does not make Ghusl obligatory. Since this issue is of great importance, I would like to discuss it in detail bringing forth the evidences of the majority scholars who believe that penetration of penis into the vagina makes Ghusl obligatory.
At first, I would like to clarify that the majority of Islamic scholars from the early time till today including Imam Abu Hanifa, his disciples throughout the world and a large number of Saudi scholars have consensus that ejaculation of semen is not required for Ghusl becoming obligatory in case of intercourse. Although earlier there were some differences of opinions among few Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). But later they too agreed on obligation of Ghusl after consultation with the wives of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Below I am going to mention few Hadith that concede this opinion.
1. The Messenger of Allah said: “When the two circumcised parts meet, then bath is obligatory”, Narrated by Imam Muslim, Chapter Book of Bath.
The same Hadith has been narrated in other words where it is mentioned that bath is obligatory, even if one ejaculates semen. Imam Bukhari too narrates this Hadith in his book and says that this Hadith is the most authentic of all the Hadith narrated in the issue in question.
Note: Here I must clarify that mere meeting of two circumcised parts does not make Ghusl obligatory. The word “meet” in the above Hadith has been used in the sense of penetration, as all the scholars of Hadith and Fiqh unanimously believe in the light of other Ahadith.
2. Hazrat Aa’isha (RA) says: “when the two circumcised parts meet, then bath is obligatory. The Messenger of Allah and I did that, and we bathed”, Narrated by Imam Tirmizi, in the Chapter of Purification.
After narration of this Hadith, Imam Tirmizi mentions some names of the Companions including Hazrat Abu Bakar, Umar, Othman, Ali and Aaisha (RA) and of Successors including Hazrat Sufyan Thauri, Ahmad and Ishaq who believe that only penetration makes Ghusl obligatory.
3. The Messenger of Allah said: “When the two circumcised parts meet, and the tip of the penis disappears, then bath is obligatory”, Narrated by Imam Ahmad and Ibn e Majah.
All the three above-mentioned Hadith are clear. They emphasize on Ghusl being obligatory after the penetration of man’s penis into woman’s vagina regardless of ejaculation.
As for the people who believe that ejaculation of semen is required for Ghusl being obligatory, they present the following Hadith in favor of their opinion:
1. The Messenger of Allah said: “Water is for water”, Narrated by Imam Muslim.
The word “water” in the Hadith has been used twice. First “water” means bath and the second semen, as it is clear by different narrations of the Companions of the Prophet (PBUH). Now the Hadith means bath is obligatory after the ejaculation of semen.
This Hadith emphasizes on the ejaculation of semen being required for Ghusl, but it contradicts with other Hadith which have been mentioned earlier in particular Hadith of Hazrat Aai’sha (RA) which clearly says that mere meeting (penetration) of two private parts makes Ghusl obligatory. For reconciliation between those contradicting Hadith most of Muhaddisin, Mufasiren, Fuqaha & Ulama say that the Hadith “Water for Water” had been earlier ruling, but that was cancelled later on. Even Imam Muslim narrates this Hadith under the chapter “Ejaculation of semen was required for Ghusl being obligatory in early Islam and which was cancelled and now Ghusl is obligatory with only penetration”. Imam Tirmizi too acknowledges that the Hadith “Water for water” is cancelled. He further quotes Hazrat Obay bin Kab (RA), one of the companion of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and writer of the revelation (وحي)in favor of his opinion: “Hazrat Obay bin Kab (RA) says that, in early Islam ejaculation of semen was required for Ghusl being obligatory, but this ruling was cancelled later on”.
Having gone through the different Hadith and sayings of various Companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) such as Hazrat Abu Bakr, Umar Farooq, Usman Ghani, Ali Murtuza, Obay bin Kab and Aai’sh (RA) and opinions of Islamic scholars including Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Ahmad, Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Imam Nawawi and Imam Tirmizi etc, we may sum up that the Hadith “Water for water” had been earlier ruling, but it was later cancelled as it was cleared by Imam Muslim in his book. Now Ghusl becomes mandatory by mere penetration though one does not ejaculate semen. Purification has got great importance in Islam. Thus it is more advisable to take bath whenever we have intercourse either ejaculation happens or not.