By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Muhammad (SAWS) After Being Blessed with Prophethood:
Allah the Almighty blessed his last and final Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) with the prophet-hood when he was 40 years old. Following being blessed with the prophethood, he (SAWS) remained in Makkah for 13 years. This period is called the Makkan Life. In the Makkan Life, the Prophet (SAWS) called secretly only his close relatives towards Islam for three years. Then he (SAWS) proclaimed the Message of Deen openly for ten years. After ten years of Open Call, he migrated to Madinah which was called then Yathrib. The disbelievers of Makkah became his nasty enemies due to preaching Islam. As the people continued embracing Islam and the light of Islam continued spreading, the anger of the disbelievers also continued increasing. They couldn’t express their anger and oppression against the Muslims who had any tribal status or any supporter in Makkah. The Makkan pagans started an endless series of oppression against the Muslims who were poor, underprivileged, had no supporter and weren’t related to a high status tribe. The disbelievers harassed and persecuted them in various ways; but it couldn’t weaken their faith, instead it made their faith even stronger day by day. The Prophet’s grandfather, then uncle Abu Talib, were considered the men of great honour and dignity in the eyes of the Quraish. The family affiliation of the Prophet (SAWS) was important in the eyes of the one and all; therefore, to attack him (SAWS) was to wage war. But despite this fact, a few unfortunate people used to trouble and persecute him in various ways. He (SAWS) had to suffer various persecutions, hardships and pains. In this article, the light is being shed on some of the persecutions, troubles and hardships of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) in the Makkan life.
Enmity of Abu Lahab Abdul Uzza:
The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) started calling first his family members towards Islam. Those people who were at the forefront in opposing and hating his mission and tried their level best to stop the preaching of Islam, amongst them were also his family members such as Abu Lahab. He was one of the uncles of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). His name was Abdul Uzza bin Abdul Muttalib. His surname was Abu Utaibah and he was called Abu Lahab; because of the brightness of his face. He used to often cause harm to the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). He hated and scorned him and his religion. (Tafseer Ibn Kathir: 8/514) This enemy of Islam always used to think to finish Islam.
Abu Lahab’s Pelting Stone at the Prophet (SAWS) in Zul-Majaz Bazaar:
Tariq bin Abdullah Muharibi (RA) said: I saw the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) in the bazaar of Zul-Majaz; while I was busy in trading. He (SAWS) had worn a red Jubba and used to say it loudly: “O people! Say there is none worthy of worship, besides Allah, you will be successful”. A man was following and throwing stones at him from behind, which caused his shins and heels to bleed. The man used to say at the same time: “O people! Do not listen to him. He is a liar. Muharibi says that he asked who this person (Muhammad SAWS) was. The people replied that the boy (Muhammad SAWS) is from the Banu Abdul Muttalib. (Then) I asked: Who is the person who follows him and pelts stone at him? The people replied: He is his uncle Abdul Uzza, i.e. Abu Lahab.” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Hadith: 36565)
Placing Thorny Branches in the Path of the Prophet (SAWS):
Wife of Abu Lahab was among the leading women of the Quraish. Her surname was Umm Jamil. Her name was Arwah bint Harb bin Umayyah. She was supportive of her husband in his disbelief, rejection and obstinacy. Therefore, she will be helping to administer his punishment in the fire of Hell on the Day of Judgement. This unfortunate lady used to collect thorny branches from the jungle and place them in the path of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) in order to harm him. She also used to taunt him (SAWS) for poverty. (Tafseer Ibn Kathir: 8/515)
Divorcing Daughters of the Prophet (SAWS):
Two daughters of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS): Ruqiya (RA) and Umm Kulthum (RA) were married to the enemy of Islam Abu Lahab’s two sons: Utaiba and Utbah. It was just Nikaah and the matrimonial relation had not taken place as they were not sent then to their husbands’ home. Following the revelation of Surah Lahab, with the intention of defaming and disgracing the Prophet (SAWS), Abu Lahab and his wife ordered their sons to divorce the daughters of the Prophet (SAWS).
Imam Tabarani narrates on the authority of Qatadah (RA) that the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS): Umm Kulthum (RA) was married to Utaiba bin Abi Lahab. Raqiyah (RA) was married to Utaibah’s brother Utbah bin Abi Lahab. When Allah Almighty revealed Surah Lahab, Abu Lahab said to his two sons: Utaibah and Utbah, “If you don’t divorce the daughters of Muhammad (SAWS), my head will be Haraam for the head of you both.” Their mother, daughter of Harb ibn Umayyah and she is the carrier of the firewood, said: “You both divorce them; because they have become apostate of their religion.” So, they both divorced them. (Tafsir Durre Manthoor: 8/667)
As the practice of divorce is considered a disgrace in some of the noble families of today, in the same way, it was regarded as a disgrace in the noble families of Arab society at that time. Then for a father who has the high example of nobility and his two daughters get divorced at the same time and that too at the time when that father is facing all kinds of troubles and hardships; so how much pain it can cause is difficult to describe.
Spatting at the Blessed Face of the Prophet (SAWS):
Not to speak of Abu Lahab and Umm Jamil ordering their sons to divorce the daughters of the Prophet (SAWS); even Umme Jamil forced her sons to use foul language to him (SAWS) along with divorcing his two daughters. So, the wretched Utbah spat at the face of the Prophet (SAWS) and divorced (his daughter) using the inappropriate words. (Tafseer Haqqani: 8/ 247)
Soothsayer and Magician:
As long as the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) had not proclaimed his prophet-hood, he (SAWS) was known as a good human being, intellectual and wise man in Makkah. The Makkan people gave him the titles: Al-Sadiq (the Truthful) and Al-Amin (the Trustworthy). When he (SAWS) proclaimed his prophet-hood; they tried their level best to paint him with bad titles like soothsayer, magician etc.; so that the people shouldn’t come near to him and shouldn’t listen to his talk. But for those whose hearts Allah had decided to be enlightened with the light of faith, it had no effect on them. On the contrary, despite of facing the troubles and hardships, they used to come to the Prophet (SAWS) and enlightened their hearts with the light of the Islamic messages.
Whenever the disbelievers witnessed a miracle of the Prophet (SAWS), they would say that it is a magic that will end soon. Allah the Almighty says: “When these people see a sign, they turn away and say, “(This is) a transient magic.” (Al-Qamar: 2) “Thus the verse means that the Quraish alleged that the sign of moon-splitting they saw was an illusion and false; its effect will soon diminish and fade away.” (Ma’arif Al-Qura’an: 8/242)
At another place, the Almighty Allah says: “They (the pagans) wonder that a warner has come to them from among themselves. And the disbelievers say, “This is a magician, a sheer liar.” (Saad: 04)
Abu Dharr Ghifari (RA) quoting the story of his brother Unais, who visited Makkah and met Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), says that he asked him what he did in Makkah: He said: ‘I met a man in Makkah who follows your religion. He says that Allah has sent him.’ I said: ‘What do the people say?’ He said: ‘They say that he is a poet, or a soothsayer, or a magician.’ And Unais was one of the poets. Unais said: ‘I have heard the words of the soothsayers, and he is not a soothsayer. I compared his words to the words of poetry, and no one after me can say that he is a poet. By Allah, he (Muhammad SAWS) is telling the truth and they are lying.’ (Sahih Muslim: 2473)
Crazy and Insane:
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was a great human being. He never committed any inappropriate action. He never talked nonsense. He never misbehaved with any old or young person. But just after the proclamation of Prophet-hood, the infidels of Makkah started calling him crazy and insane. The Glorious Quran speaks: “How will they take lesson, while there has already come to them a messenger making things clear? Then they turned away from him, and said, “(He is) tutored, crazy.” (Al-Dukhan: 13-14)
The glorious Qura’an speaks at another place: “They (the disbelievers of Makah) say (to Allah’s Messenger SAWS), ‘O you to whom the Dhikr (the Qur’an) has been revealed, you are surely insane (falsely claim about the Prophet-hood).” (Al-Hijr: 06) The fact is that those who called crazy and insane to this great teacher of humanity and the leader of guidance were themselves crazy, senseless, insane, stubborn, obstinate, disobedient and rebellious.
There is a narration which speaks that Dimaad (RA) came to Makkah. He was from the tribe of Azd Shanu’ah. He used to treat people with Ruqyâ’ (in the case of Jinn possession). He heard the fools among the people of Makkah saying that Muhammad (SAWS) was possessed. He said: “If I see this man, perhaps Allah will heal him at my hands.” He says that he met him and said: “O Muhammad (SAWS), I treat people with Ruqyâ’ in the case of Jinn possession, and Allah heals at my hands whomsoever He wills. Do you want that (you be treated with Ruqya)?” Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: “Praise be to Allah, We praise Him and seek His help. Whomsoever Allah guides, none can lead astray, and whomsoever He sends astray, none can guide. I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah alone with no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.” Dimaad said: “Say these words of yours to me again.” The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) repeated them three times and (Dimaad) said: “I have heard the words of the soothsayers, the words of the magicians and the words of the poets; but I have never heard anything like these words of yours. You have scaled the heights of eloquence.” He said: “Give me your hand so that I may pledge allegiance to Islam.” So he gave him his pledge of allegiance. Then the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “And on behalf of your people (too).” He said: “(Yes) And on behalf of my people (too).” (Sahih Muslim: 868)
Abu Jahl’s Throwing Soil at the Prophet (SAWS):
A man of the Banu Malik ibn Kanana says that he saw the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) in the bazaar of Dhul-Majaz saying: “O people! Say there is none worthy of worship, except Allah, you will be successful”. The narrator says that Abu Jahl used to throw soil at him and say: ‘O people! Be careful! This person may deceive you about your religion; because he wants you to give up Laat and Uzzaa (two idols); while the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) didn’t pay any attention to him. (Musnad Ahmad: 16603)
Abu Jahl Cracks the Head of the Prophet (SAWS):
Abu Jahl was an aggressive person. He was always behind our Prophet (SAWS). He used to insult and trouble him a lot. One day, first he insulted the Prophet (SAWS) and then he injured his head. When the uncle of the Prophet (SAWS), Hamzah (RA) came to know it, he couldn’t control himself and attacked Abu Jahl with his bow and announced embracing Islam.
“It is recorded that the Prophet (SAWS) was one day seated on the hillock of Safa when Abu Jahl happened to pass by and accused the religion preached by him. Muhammad (SAWS), however, kept silent and didn’t utter a single word. Abu Jahl went on unchecked, took a stone and cracked the Prophet’s head which began to bleed. The aggressor then went to join the Quraishites in their assembly place. It so happened that shortly after that, Hamzah (RA) while returning from a hunting expedition, passed by the same way, his bow hanging by his shoulder. A slave-girl belonging to Abdullah bin Jada’an, who had noted the impertinence of Abu Jahl, told him the whole story of the attack on the Prophet (SAWS). On hearing that, Hamzah (RA) was deeply offended and hurried to Ka’abah and there, in the courtyard of the Holy sanctuary, found Abu Jahl sitting with a company of Quraishites. Hamzah (RA) rushed upon him and struck his bow upon his head violently and said: “Ah! You have been abusing Muhammad (SAWS); I too follow his religion and profess what he preaches.” (Sealed Nectar, P.: 108)
Abu Jahl’s Intention to Assassinate the Prophet (SAWS):
One day, Abu Jahl said addressing the Quraish that Muhammad (SAWS) finds fault in our religion. He (SAWS) insults our ancestors and gods, therefore, I promise Allah that tomorrow I will sit down with a heavy stone and when he prostrates, I will crush his head with the same stone….. When it was next morning, he took a stone as he had described and sat down to wait (for the Prophet SAWS). The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) came as he used to come….. Then the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) was engaged in Salaah….. As soon as he (SAWS) prostrated, Abu Jahl picked up a stone and walked towards him. When Abu Jahl came close to him (SAWS), he returned back in a shocking state. His face complexion was pale and he was so terrified and in the awe that both of his hands were stuck to the same stone in his hands and he could hardly managed to throw the stone from his hand.
Some people of the Quraish tribe came to him and asked: “O Abu Jahl! What happened to you?” Abu Jahl replied: “I stood up to do what I had promised to do the last night.” When I reached him, a camel came across between him and me. I swear by God! I never saw a camel whose skull, neck and teeth are like that camel. He wanted to eat me.” (Seerate Ibn Hisham: 1/298-299)
Camel’s Intestines on the Back of Prophet (SAWS):
Once upon a time, the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was offering Salaah near the Ka’bah. Abu Jahl was sitting with some of his friends. Some of them said to others, “Who amongst you will bring the abdominal contents (intestines etc.) of a camel of Bani so-and-so and put it on the back of Muhammad (SAWS), when he prostrates?” The most wretched of them (Uqba bin Abi Mu’aeet) got up and brought it. He waited till the Prophet (SAWS) prostrated and then placed it on his back between his shoulders. He (SAWS) was unable to stand due its burden. Abdullah bin Masood (RA) was watching it, but due to his weakness and the tyranny of the oppressors couldn’t assist the Prophet (SAWS). He wished he had some people with him to hold out against them. They started laughing and falling on one another. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) was in prostration and he couldn’t lift his head up till (the daughter of the Prophet SAWS) Fatima (RA) came and threw that camel’s abdominal contents away from his back. (Sahih Bukhari: 240/3185/3854)
Offer of Man for Man:
To kill the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), the disbelievers of the Quraish made an offer of “man for man”. They wanted to give Umarah bin Walid to Abu Talib and get the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) for his exchange so that they would kill him (SAWS). So, the disbelievers of Quraish talked to Abu Talib:
“O Abu Talib! We have brought you a smart boy still in the bloom of his youth, to make use of his mind and strength and take him as your son in exchange for your nephew, who has run counter to your religion, brought about social discord, found fault with your way of life, so that we kill him and rid you of his endless troubles; just man for man.” Abu Talib’s reply was, “It is really an unfair bargain. You give me your son to bring him up and I give you my son to kill him! By Allah, it is something incredible!” Al-Mut’im bin Adi, a member of the delegation, interrupted saying that the Quraish had been fair in that bargain “They meant only to rid you of that source of hateful trouble, but as I see you are determined to refuse their favours.” Abu Talib, of course, turned down all their offers and challenged them to do whatever they pleased. (The Sealed Nectar: 105)
Putting the Garment around the Neck and Throttling:
The disbelievers of Makkah didn’t let the Prophet (SAWS) even to offer Salaah peacefully. When the Prophet (SAWS) used to be in Salaah, sometimes they would place the intestines of the camel on his blessed back and sometime they would put the garment around the blessed neck and would start throttling. There is a tradition in Sahih Bukhari which speaks about it.
Urwa bin Zubair asked (Abdullah) Ibn Amr bin Aas (RA): “Tell me of the worst thing which the pagans did to the Prophet (SAWS).” He said: “While the Prophet (SAWS) was offering Salaah in the Hateem of the Ka’bah, suddenly Uqba bin Abi Mu’aeet came and put his garment around the neck of the Prophet (SAWS). Then he throttled him violently. Abu Bakr (RA) came and caught him by his shoulder and pushed him away from the Prophet (SAWS) and said: “Would you kill a man just because he says, ‘My Lord is Allah?’” [al-Ghafir: 28] (Sahih Bukhari: 3856)
Stretching the Hair of the Head and Beard:
Sometimes the polytheists would grab the hair of head and beard of the Prophet (SAWS) and would pull it so hard that his hair would fall out. (Sirat-e-Halabiyah Urdu, vol. 1, P. 276)
Three-Year Social Boycott:
The disbelievers of Quraish together decided to kill the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) saying that “He has turned our children and even our women away from us.” Then they said to the family of the Prophet (SAWS): “Take double blood money from us and allow a Quraish man to kill him, so that we can have peace and you can get benefit.” When this proposal was not granted, then getting anger by this, they decided to socially boycott the Banu Hashim and the Banu Abdul Muttalib, who were the helpers of the Prophet (SAWS). The Quraish decided to expel them from Makkah and besiege and confine them in the valley called Sha’b Abu Talib.
According to a narration, it was also decided: “Do not marry with the daughters of the Bani Hashim and don’t get your daughters married to them, don’t sell and buy anything from them and don’t accept any reconciliation from them.” So, whenever a caravan of traders came to Makkah from outside and these helpless people would come to them immediately to buy some food stuffs from them; Abu Lahab used to follow them immediately and say, “Increase the price so much that they cannot afford to buy something.” The traders used to do the same. Then they would come back without buying anything in despair to their children. The children who were suffering from starvation, would sob and cry when they saw them returning back empty-handed.
The Muslims faced tough time in that valley. Due to the social boycott from the Quraish, they didn’t get anything to eat and drink. The Muslims were in the worst situation due to hunger. They used to live and pass their time by eating grass, the leaves of the tree and the skins. This difficult and hard time continued for three consecutive years. (Extracted from: Sirat-e-Halabiyah Urdu, vol. 1, last-half, p. 393-394)
Oppression from the People of Taif:
Following the death of Abu Talib, the Prophet (SAWS) travelled to Taif walking in Shawwal, 10th year of the Prophethood, accompanied by his freed slave: Zaid bin Haritha to seek help from the Thaqif. It was hoped that the people of Taif would accept the message of Allah with which he (SAWS) had gone to them. After reaching Taif, he (SAWS) wanted to meet the three chieftains of the Thaqif: Abd Yaleel, Masood and Habib. They were brothers. He (SAWS) sat with them and talked about helping Islam and helping himself against any of his people who oppose him.
After hearing the talk of the Prophet (SAWS), the chieftains of Thaqif responded very frivolously. One said: “He is tearing the cloths of Ka’bah, is it true that Allah has sent you as a Messenger?” Actually he meant by his statement that if Muhammad (SAWS) is a Prophet, then may Allah destroy him. Another one said: “Has not Allah found someone else to entrust him with His Message?” The third brother said: “I swear by Allah that I will never have any contact with you. If you are really the Messenger of Allah, then you are too serious to report back, and if you are belying Allah then I feel it is imperative not to speak to.” The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) was disappointed with their behaviours and answers. Then he (SAWS) stood up and left asking them to keep as secret whatever happened there.
When the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) intended to come back from there, those chieftains incited their slaves and thugs to attack him. They insulted him, clapped and shouted at him, until a crowd of the people gathered. There was a line of people on both sides of the road. At the time of passing by there, as soon as the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) took a step, they would throw stones at his shins so much so that his shins were injured and his shoes were filled with blood. When he (SAWS) was hurt with the stone, he would sit on the ground. Those unfortunate people used to hold his arms and when he (SAWS) would start walking, they would throw stones at him (SAWS) again and laugh. Zayd ibn Harithah used to protect him as a shield, until his head also was injured. (Uyoon al-Athar: 1/155-156)
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) somehow managed to reach the garden of the sons of Rabiah. After a while, he (SAWS) left that garden. Then what happened next, let’s read the exact words which came out of the blessed mouth: “So, I departed, overwhelmed with excessive sorrow, and proceeded on and couldn’t relax till I found myself at Qarn Tha’alib, where I lifted my head towards the sky to see a cloud shading me unexpectedly. I looked up and saw Jibril (AS) in it. He called me saying, ‘Allah has heard your people’s saying to you and what they replied back to you. Allah has sent the angel of the mountains to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people.’ The angel of the mountains called upon me and greeted me, and then said, ‘O Muhammad (SAWS)! Order what you wish. If you like, I will let A1-Akhshabain (two mountains) fall on them.” The Prophet (SAWS) said, “No, but I hope that Allah will let them beget children who will worship Allah Alone and will worship none besides Him.” (Sahih Bukhari: 3231)
Assassination Plot in Dar al-Nadwa and Migration Order:
Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) found his companions being tortured harshly in Makkah. They were stoned and dragged across stony ground. They were made to lie on burning sand and the rocks were placed on their chests. He (SAWS), therefore, advised them to migrate to Madinah, except for Abu Bakr (RA). This is the time that the supporters like Abu Talib had passed away. Then the Quraish were very furious and they didn’t want to tolerate the Prophet (SAWS) for any more; because according to them, he (SAWS) was insulting their ancestors and gods. So they wanted to imprison or send him in exile or kill him; so that they can get rid of him. Then the chiefs of the Quraish secretly gathered at their meeting place called Dar al-Nadwa to take a decision against the Prophet (SAWS). Some members suggested to tie him in an iron chain, put in a room and close the door. Someone said send him in exile.
A person appearing in the form of an old man and pretending to be from Najd, sitting in Dar al-Nadwa, pointed out the flaw of these opinions. This old man was actually Iblis. Abu Jahl bin Hisham was of the opinion: “Let us choose a strong young man from each tribe. We should give each one of them a sharp sword. They should attack him at the same time and kill him. When they kill him like this, his blood will be divided into different tribes. Then I don’t think that the Banu Hashim will dare to fight all of them. When the people of the Banu Hashim observe this situation, they will agree to take blood money. Then we will pay it to them.” Iblis, sitting in the gathering and pretending to be a person from Najd, said that what this man (Abu Jahl) opined carries a weight and there is no opinion after this opinion, therefore, all the members became ready for it.
The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) and any Muslim didn’t come to know this heinous assassination plot. Jibreel (AS) came to him (SAWS) and said: “Do not sleep tonight on the bed on which you sleep in the night. When the night darkened, everyone (with killing plot) was waiting for him to sleep, so that they would attack him at a time to kill. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) advised Ali (RA) to sleep on his bed and don the green Hadhrami sheet, which he (SAWS) used to don while sleeping. You will not face an undesirable action from them. Then he (SAWS) came out facing them with a fistful of dust taking in his hand. Then he (SAWS) threw that dust at their heads, while he (SAWS) was reciting the 1-5 verses of Surah Yasin. Then Allah the Almighty took away their eye-sight and they couldn’t see him (SAWS). When the Prophet (SAWS) had completed reciting those verses, none of them was left who had not found that dust on his head. Then he (SAWS) left that place for a place where he (SAWS) was ordered to migrate. (Seerate Ibn Hisham: 1/482-483)
In short, during the thirteen-year of Makkan period, Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) had to suffer from various persecutions, tortures, troubles and hardships. Several times the people of the Quraish plotted to kill him. They threw stones at him (SAWS). They threw dust at him (SAWS). They spread thorns in his way. They made attempt to spit at his blessed face. He (SAWS) endured every hardship and didn’t run away from his mission. He (SAWS) remained fully engaged in conveying the message of Deen as it was his mission. He (SAWS) provided the best example of noble character and good model for his Ummah. Allah the Almighty says: “There is indeed a good model for you in the Messenger of Allah -for the one who has hope in Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah profusely.” (Al-Ahzab: 21)
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia – Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
It is well-known to the friends and the foes that Allah’s last and final Messenger Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was on the highest degree of truthfulness and trustworthiness. He (SAWS) was like a spring from where the truthfulness and trustworthiness were flowing. The people of Makkah used to address him as Al-Sadiq (Truthful) and Al-Ameen (Trustworthy). They honoured him with the title of Truthful; because he was true to his word. There wasn’t even a shadow of lie in what he spoke. When he (SAWS) started dealing with the people, they realized his trustworthiness and honoured him with the title of Al-Amin (Trustworthy). In spite of being the nasty enemies, the disbelievers of Makkah regarded him as truthful, trustworthy and honest and used to refer to him (SAWS) with these titles. Then in such worst environment of Makkah, the trustworthiness, truthfulness, honesty and chastity of the Prophet (SAWS) was always the talk of the town.
At Mount Safa of Makkah:
Almost three years, Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) invited the people to Islam secretly. During this period, by the grace of Allah, some fortunate people embraced Islam. Then Allah the Almighty instructed him (SAWS) to proclaim the invitation openly as the following verses were revealed: “Now, proclaim what you are commanded to, and turn away from those who ascribe partners to Allah.” (Al-Hijr: 94) “And warn the nearest people of your clan, and be kind with humbleness to the believers who followed you.” (Al-Shu’araa: 214-215)
Following the revelation of such verses, one day, Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) ascended the famous Mount Safa of Makkah and called each tribe by the name. When the people of those tribes assembled around him, he (SAWS) asked them: “If I caution you about a marauding party on the other side of this mountain that is about to attack you, would you believe me?” On that occasion, the people from each tribe bore witness of the truthfulness and honesty of the Prophet (SAWS) in one voice. They replied: “Surely, why not! We have only known you to be honest and truthful.” Following that, inviting them to Islam, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: “I am warning you about a severe punishment that may befall you (if you don’t accept my message from Allah the Exalted).” Then unfortunately Abu Lahab replying in negative said: “Woe unto you. May you perish! Did you assemble us here for this reason only?” Then all assembled people scattered.
Abu Dharr (RA)’s Brother Unais’ Witness:
Unais, brother of Abu Dharr (RA) visited Makkah and met Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). Abu Dharr (RA) is narrating the same story wherein one can find that Unais in spite of being a strange and a wise man, bears witness that the Prophet (SAWS) was a truthful person. Abu Dharr (RA) mentions: "I said (to Unais): 'What did you do?' He said: 'I met a man (Muhammad SAWS) in Makkah who follows your religion. He says that Allah has sent him.' I said: 'What do the people say?' He said: 'They say that he is a poet, or a soothsayer, or a magician.' And Unais was one of the poets. "Unais said: 'I have heard the words of the soothsayers and he is not a soothsayer. I compared his words to the words of poetry and no one after me can say that he is a poet. By Allah, he is telling the truth and they are lying.' (Sahih Muslim: 2473)
Confession of Abu Jahl:
Abu Jahl was one of the nastiest enemies of Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS). He used to speak foul language against the Prophet (SAWS). He tried his level best to torture him (SAWS) mentally and physically. But he also confessed the truthfulness of the Prophet (SAWS) in his personal gathering. Once, Akhnas asked Abu Jahl: O Abul Hakm! Since here is none besides you and me from the Qureish who can hear us, so let me know about Muhammad (SAWS), is he a truthful or a liar? Answering to the secretive question of Akhnas, Abu Jahl replied: “Woe unto you, by Allah, Muhammad (SAWS) is a truthful person and he never spoke a lie.” (Tafseer Al-Tibri: 9/222)
Second Confession of Abu Jahl:
It is not once that Abu Jahl confessed the truth of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) among his friends; but on several occasions, he admitted it. Once upon a time, Abu Jahl was making Tawaf of the Holy Ka’bah in the night; while Waleed, son of Mughirah was with him. They started talking about the Prophet (SAWS). During the talk, Abu Jahl said: “By Allah, I’m very well aware of being Muhammad (SAWS) truthful. Waleed retorted him, keep quiet. What led you to that extend (that he (SAWS) is a truthful)? Abu Jahl replied: “O Abu Abd Shams (Patronymic of Waleed)! We used to address him as Al-Sadiq and Al-Amin in his childhood. When he became wise and mature, we named him a liar and dishonest! By Allah, I know him very well that he is a truthful person. Then Abu Abd Shams said: Then what is stopping to believe in him? Abu Jahl said: The Quriesh girls would say about me that I followed the path of Abu Talib’s orphan (who was brought up by Abu Talib), due to the fear of the defeat and downfall. I swear by Laat and Uzza! I will never follow this orphan. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubi: 16/170) Such an opponent like Abu Jahl couldn’t stop himself from confessing the truthfulness of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS).
The Prophet (SAWS)’s Business with Saib (RA):
When two people do a business together in partnership, at that time, their honesty, reliability and truthfulness are known to each other. When the Prophet (SAWS) started his business, the people observed closely his truthfulness and trustworthiness. He (SAWS) was the partner of Saib (RA) in a business. On the day of the Conquest of Makkah, Saib (RA) came to him (SAWS). Then what happened, read his words. He says: "I came to the Prophet (SAWS) and they started praising me, and saying good things about me. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: 'I know best (about him),' I said: 'You are right, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you. You were my partner and what a good partner, you didn’t argue or quarrel."
The Prophet (SAWS)’s Arbitration about the Placing the Black Stone:
Due to the truthfulness, honesty, wisdom and good understanding of any issue, the people of Makkah used to like the Prophet (SAWS) and make him an arbitrator when they had a controversial issue. They believed that he (SAWS) would do justice in mediating the issue. When he (SAWS) gave a judgment about an issue, the people never hesitated to endorse it due to his truthfulness, trustworthiness and honesty. When the Prophet (SAWS) was 35 years old, the Qureish decided to reconstruct the holy Ka’abah. The reconstruction was divided over the various clans; so that none remains deprives of this noble service. Each clan started to rebuild their allocated portion of the Ka’bah under the supervision of a Roman builder called “Baqum”. When the building reached completion and the crucial moment of placing the Black Stone (Hajare Aswad) surfaced, several clans started arguing that who should be given the opportunity to place the Black Stone at its place. So, the violent disputes broke out among them. The people started fearing that it might lead to a fight and killing each other at the sacred and holy place of Ka’bah.
When the people didn’t find the solution of this issue, Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah Makhzumi, the father of Umme Salamah (RA), a wise and eldest person of the Qureish, submitted his opinion that the decision to raise the stone should be conferred upon the first person who enters the door of the Haram the next morning. We will accept him as our arbitrator and whatever decision he gives, we will agree upon it. The people approved this proposal. To protect those people from the big fight, Allah the Almighty enabled the Prophet (SAWS) next morning to reach the Haram firstly. When the people reached the Haram, next day in the morning, they saw the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) as the first entrant of the Haram. With one voice, they spontaneously proclaimed: “This is Muhammad, the trustworthy. We are pleased with him (as arbiter). This is after all Muhammad.” (Noor al-Yaqin Fi Seerah Sayyid al-Mursalin, P.: 17)
On such critical occasion, the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) gave very beautiful, wise and convincing decision. He (SAWS) asked for a sheet to place the Black Stone onto it. Then he (SAWS) asked: “The chief of each tribe should grasp the ends of the sheet so that none of the tribes are deprived of this grand opportunity. They grasped a side of the sheet and hoisted it to the vicinity where the black stone was to be placed. He (SAWS) then went forward and with his blessed hands raised the stone and placed it in its proper place. This was such arbitration that the people remain protected from a big fight. Allah’s peace and blessing be upon such great arbitrator! (Al-Seerah Al-Nabawiyyah Ala’ Zaw Al-Qura’an Wa Al-Sunnah: 1/228)
The Prophet (SAWS)’s Truthfulness and Honesty in the Court of Negus:
When a big group of the Muslims (83 Males and 18 Females) reached Abyssinia making the second migration, the disbelievers of the Quriesh sent two very shrewd and clever men: Abdullah bin Abi Rabiah and Amr bin Al-Aas bin Waail as its ambassadors to Abyssinia to talk to the King Negus. Requesting the king they said: O King, our few unwise youths are in your kingdom. Please send them back! The king refused to send them back without investigating their worry and concern. The king sent his messenger to call those migrants. They came in the court of the Negus. Representing the migrants, answering the questions of Negus, Jafar (RA) gave his inspirational sermon. In his sermon, describing about the pre-Islamic era and introducing Islam, he mentioned the truthfulness and honesty of Allah’s messenger (SAWS) as well. He said:
“O Emperor! All of us were ignorant. We would worship idols and devour carrion. We were caught up in a host of vices. We would sever family relationships and ill-treat our neighbours. The powerful amongst us would gobble up the weak. Whilst we were wallowing within such an abyss of spiritual decadence, Allah the Exalted favoured us with one of His messengers whose noble lineage, truthfulness, honesty and chastity we are fully aware of. (Musnad Ahmad: 1740) After listening to the clarification from Jafar (RA), the King refused to send the migrants back to Makkah.
Jibreel (AS) and the Truthfulness of the Prophet (SAWS):
The people of Makkah for whom the light of Iman was not destined, not only used to call the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) a magician, crazy etc.; but even they used to belie him (SAWS), whenever he used to present them the divine message and Wahi (Revelation) which was revealed upon him directly from Allah. So, once the Prophet (SAWS) was sitting sad and Jibril (AS) came to him. He asked Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) the reason behind saddening. He (SAWS) replied that the disbelievers of Makkah belied him. On that Jibril (AS) said: Truly they don’t belie you; they truly know that you are a truthful person; but the transgressors actually deny the signs of Allah. (Al-Ana’am: 33) (Tafseer Al-Tibri: 9/221)
Reason of Leaving Ali (RA) in Makkah in the Night of Hijrah:
When the people had some valuable items and they feared that it might be taken or stolen, at that time it was only the Prophet (SAWS) in whole Makkah that the people trusted him and they entrusted their items to his care; because they were well-aware of his truthfulness and trustworthiness. So, when the Prophet (SAWS) was instructed to migrate from Makkah to Madinah, at that time he (SAWS) had several entrusted items of the people with him. He (SAWS) handed over Ali (RA) those items and instructed him to return them to their rightful owners. He (SAWS) advised him to migrate only after he has retuned those items to the owners. This was the reason Ali was left behind in Makkah. (Seerah Ibn Hisham 1/485)
Despite of being the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) a truthful and a trustworthy; when he (SAWS) was blessed with the Prophethood and was given the responsibility to spread the true messages of Islam, the disbelievers of Makkah rejected his messages and they refused to come from the darkness to the light due to their pride, arrogance and egotism. They started spreading about the Prophet (SAWS) that he was a magician, fortune teller, crazy, a liar etc. They tortured and troubled him (SAWS); but he (SAWS) continued preaching Islam and having patience following Allah’s commandment as he (SAWS) was instructed. The Qura’an speaks: “So, be steadfast patiently in (obeying) your Lord’s command, and do not obey any one of them who is sinner or ungrateful.” (Al-Dahr: 24) ****
* The author is Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa and can be accessed at email@example.com
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Allah, the Almighty sent the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) as a mercy for all the worlds. His mercy, compassion and kindness were shown to each and every one. There can’t be a greater mercy than that after his arrival, the people wandering in darkness, accustomed to oppression, devoid of good morals and unaware of the culture and civilization, being blessed with light of Islam, enlightened the whole world and presented a high example of the humanity. All the creations of Allah Almighty: humans, Jinns, animals, plants etc. benefited from his mercy. Every sensible person witnessed the truth of words of Allah: “And We have not sent you but as mercy for all the worlds.” (Al-Ambiya: 107) If a question is raised, how is the Prophet (SAWS) mercy for the person who didn’t respond to his Call and didn’t accept his messenger-hood? The answer to this question has been given by Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) in the commentary of the above verse. He says: “Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, the mercy has been written for them in this world and in the Hereafter. Those who don’t believe in Allah and His Messenger (i. e. remain disbelievers, for them he (SAWS) is a mercy in this world by the way that) they were saved from the punishment of being sunk into the ground and being pelted with stones from the sky, from which the previous nations suffered. (Tafseer Ibn Kathir: 5/387) Here in this article, some examples of the mercy, compassion, forgiveness and clemency of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) for Non-Muslims are being presented.
Hardship in Taif and Mountains’ Angel:
The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) went to Taif to convey the message of Allah in the month of Shawwal of the 10th year of the prophethood. He (SAWS) stayed in Taif for 10 days. He (SAWS) invited the chiefs of Taif: Abd Yalil, Habib and Masood towards Islam. They didn’t respond to the message, they troubled him (SAWS) and behaved harshly. He (SAWS) departed overwhelmed with excessive sorrow. They set the street urchins of Taif after him to pelt stones at him (SAWS). They did so in the way that his whole body was cover with blood. Bearing this hardship, he (SAWS) proceeded on and couldn’t relax till he (SAWS) reached Qarn Tha’alib. When he (SAWS) lifted his head towards the sky, he saw a cloud shading him. There was Jibril (AS) in it. He called him saying: Allah has heard what the people said and replied back to you. Allah has sent the mountains’ angel to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people. The mountains’ angel called upon him and greeted him and said: “O Muhammad (SAWS)! You may order whatever you wish! If you wish, I will let Al-Akhshabain (the two mountains on the both sides of Makkah known as Abu Qubais and Qu’aeiqia’an, Fathul Bari: 6/316) fall on them.” The Prophet (SAWS) replied: “I hope that Allah will let them beget children who will worship Allah Alone, will worship none besides him.” (Sahih Bukhari: 3231)
The reply of the Prophet (SAWS) to the mountains’ angel shows the high level of character, mercy, kindness, compassion, affection and patience regarding the disobedient and heartless people of Taif. It happened because the Almighty Allah had sent him as the mercy for the entire universe. If the Prophet (SAWS) had given permission to the angel to go ahead with his plan of letting the mountains fall on them, those unfortunate people would have been crushed and the earth would have been cleaned from them.
Plan to Murder Allah’s Messenger (SAWS):
The incident which took place with a Bedouin; while the Prophet (SAWS) was coming back on the occasion of the battle of Zaat Al-Riqa’, is very important in regard to trust in Allah, forgiveness, mercy and bravery of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). He (SAWS) went to fight a battle towards Najd along with his companions. While returning, they passed through a valley full of thorny trees. The time of the afternoon nap overtook them. They had a halt there for a nap. The companions dispersed amongst the thorny trees seeking the shade of the trees to rest and have a nap. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) took shelter under an acacia tree to have a nap hanging his sword on it. The companions were slept. Suddenly they heard the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) calling them. They came to him (SAWS). To their utter surprise, they found a bedouin sitting with him.
Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) informed them that when he (SAWS) was sleeping, the bedouin took his sword, which was hanging on the tree, out of its sheath. When he (SAWS) woke up, the bedouin said to the prophet (SAWS) while the naked sword was in his hand: ‘Who can save you from me?’ The prophet (SAWS) replied: ‘Allah.’ The Prophet (SAWS) didn’t punish him for that rather let him go back. (Sahih Bukhari: 4135)
The name of that bedouin was Ghaurath son of al-Harith. Following such dangerous incident and the plan of murder, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) didn’t avenge; while having full power and strength over that Non-Muslim bedouin. He (SAWS) neither troubled him because of his crime, nor did he show his power over him to retaliate. He (SAWS) showed his mercy and forgave him. Apparently, it was the result of his mercy and kindness that the bedouin embraced Islam according to a narration. (Fathul Bari: 7/428)
Releasing a Non-Muslim Captive:
Thumama (RA) was the chief of the Banu Hafinah tribe of Yamamah. It is situated between Makkah and Yemen. Once Thumamah (RA) planned to murder the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS); but he failed in his planning. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) made Duaa: “O Allah give me power over him!” (Al-Sunan Al-Kubra Lil-Baihaqi: 18031) The Dua was answered and the same happened. He was captured by the army under the leadership of Muhammad bin Muslimah Ansari (RA). He was brought Madinah and was tied to one of the pillars of Masjid Nabavi. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) went to him and said: “O Thumamah! What thoughts do you entertain of me?” Thumamah replied: “I only harbour good thoughts of you. If you execute me, you will be executing a person who deserves it and if you extend your munificence towards me, you will be extending it to one who is grateful and if you desire wealth, ask whatever you wish.” This situation continued for three days; but he didn’t accept Islam. On the third day, the Prophet (SAWS) said: “Release Thumamah.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4372)
This point is remarkable that the Prophet (SAWS) ordered to release a non-Muslim captive who had planned to kill him in the near past, though he didn’t get success in his planning. Then after having full power over him to take revenge, he (SAWS) released him. Definitely, it was his mercy that he (SAWS) released him. It should be also noted that just after being released, Thumamah (RA) embraced Islam. Then he left for Makkah for Umrah. When Thumamah reached Makkah, a disbeliever said to him: “You have become an atheist by renouncing your Deen?” Thumamah (RA) replied: “No! I have become a Muslim with Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS).” Thumamah (RA) then added: “No, by Allah! Not a single grain of wheat will come to you form Yamamah, unless the Prophet (SAWS) approves it.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4372)
Letter of the Prophet (SAWS) to Thumamah (RA) For Grain Supply:
Thumamah (RA) came back to his hometown: Yamamah. He imposed a grain blockade on Makkah and cut off all food supplies to them. Now, the people of Makkah, the Quraish were in the trouble. They were forced to write to the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) pleading with him and referring him about their family ties. They wrote to the Prophet (SAWS): “You command maintenance of favourable family ties. After all, we are from the same family. We request you to write to Thumamah instructing him to resume supply of the food grains.”
It is recorded in the history that these are the people (Quraish and Kinanah) who boycotted the Banu Hashim and the Banu al-Muttalib, because of the Prophet (SAWS) and his companions for a period of three years. They were forced to stay in the valley of Abi Talib. The Quraish, Kinanah etc. had made a mutual agreement that they would sever all business dealings, marriage etc. with the Banu Hashim and the Banu al-Muttalib as long as they don’t hand over the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) to them. They were not letting the merchants to reach them to sell anything. They had imposed a kind of grain blockade on the Prophet (SAWS) and his companions staying in the valley. On this occasion, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) didn’t want to take revenge; rather he showed his kindness and human love wholeheartedly and wrote a letter to Thumamah (RA). He (SAWS) instructed him in the letter to let the food stuff go to Makkah.
Prayer of Guidance for the People of Daus:
Tufail Dausi (RA) had arrived Makkah and embraced Islam. Then he returned to his homeland. Following the migration of the Prophet (SAWS), he came to Madinah. Once he went to Daus, his homeland. He invited the people of his tribe towards Islam; but they refused to accept his invitation. After returning, he came to the Prophet (SAWS) and said: “O Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)! The people of the Daus tribe disobeyed and refused to follow you (to embrace Islam); so invoke Allah against them.” The people said, “The tribe of Daus is ruined (if the Prophet (SAWS) would invoke Allah against it.).” The Prophet (SAWS) said: “O Allah! Give guidance to the people of Daus, and let them embrace Islam”. (Sahih Bukhari: 2937)
Similar to the previous narration, we find one another narration about the Thaqif tribe. On the occasion of the battle of Taif, when the Muslims laid siege to this town; the Thaqif began raining down arrows on the Muslims. The companions requested the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) to invoke Allah against the people of Thaqif; but he (SAWS) didn’t want that the Thaqif should be destroyed. He (SAWS) wanted guidance for them. So, he expressed his kindness and prayed for them. The companions said: ‘O Messenger of Allah (SAWS)! Thaqif has razed us with their arrows. So, supplicate to Allah against them!’ The Prophet (SAWS) replied: ‘O Allah! Guide The Thaqif!’ (Then the whole tribe embraced Islam.) (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3942)
Death of a Hypocrite & Kindness of the Prophet (SAWS):
Famous hypocrite, but let me say the chief of the hypocrites, Abdullah, son of Ubayy died. His son, Abdullah (RA) was a sincere Muslim and the companion. He came to Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) and requested him to grant his Qamis (Shirt) so that he could shroud his father in it. He (SAWS) gave him. Then he asked the Prophet (SAWS) to perform the funeral prayer for him. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) got up to perform the funeral prayer for him. Umar (RA) stood up and got hold of the garment of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) and said: “O Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)! Will you offer the funeral prayer for him; while your Lord has forbidden you to offer the prayer for him?” The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “But Allah has given me the choice by saying: ‘Whether you (O Muhammad) ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites) or ask not forgiveness for them- (and even) if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness -‘ (Al-Taubah: 80) so I will ask more than seventy times.” Umar (RA) said: “But he is a hypocrite!” The narrator says: However, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) offered the funeral prayer for him. Then Allah revealed: “And never (O Muhammad) pray (funeral prayer) for anyone of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave. (Al-Taubah: 84) (Sahih Bukhari: 4670)
Here is an important point that the Prophet (SAWS) gave his Qamis for shrouding that chief of the hypocrites and perform his funeral prayer. It is him who cheated the Prophet (SAWS) on the day of the battle of Uhud. He deserted the Muslims together with his followers, reducing the strength of the Muslims by three hundred. Despite that fact, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) showed his kindness for such a hypocrite; until he (SAWS) was stopped by the Almighty Allah clearly not to offer the funeral prayer for a hypocrite. The history can’t cite an example of the character which may match the character of the Prophet (SAWS).
Revenge of the Battle of Uhud:
The battle of Uhud took place in Shawwal 3rd Hijrah. In this battle, 70 companions, sixty-four of Ansar and six of Muhajirin, were martyred. Hamzah (RA), the beloved uncle of the Prophet (SAWS) was one of them. The martyrs were mutilated by the non-Muslim enemies. It made the companions furious. They had planned that if they had such chance, they would take its revenge in the same manner. Then the day of the Conquest of Makkah came. Allah the Almighty revealed the verse: “And if you punish them, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. But if you have patience with them, then it is better for those who are patient.” With the intention of revenge, a companion said: “There shall be no Quraish after today.” He meant that the Quraish would be wiped out; because the Muslims were in the position to take revenge of the battle of Uhud on the day of the Conquest of Makkah. In such situation, the Messenger of mercy and kindness Muhammad (SAWS) said: “We will have patience and we will not punish.” (Musnad Ahmad: 21229) According to another narration, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “Leave the people, except for four.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3129) Briefly, the Prophet (SAWS) declared the general amnesty for the people of Makkah despite their well-known enmity, curtly and tyranny against the Muslims.
Conquest of Makkah and General Amnesty:
After the Conquest of Makkah, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) entered Al-Masjid Al-Haram. He (SAWS) made Tawaaf of Ka’bah. The door of Ka’bah was opened. He (SAWS) entered the Ka’bah. Then coming out the Ka’bah, he (SAWS) found a crowd of people gathered in Al-Masjid Al-Haram. The Chieftains of Quraish were waiting for him to see that what he (SAWS) was going to do against them. They had not embraced Islam then. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) was standing at the door of Ka’bah. He (SAWS) addressing the people, said at a point in his speech: ‘O group of Quraish! What do you say and think (I am going to do to you)?’ They replied: ‘We say you are a brother and the son of a kind and forbearing uncle.’ He (SAWS) said: ‘I am saying to you the same thing which Yusuf (AS) said (to his brothers): “No reproach upon you today! May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most-Merciful of all the merciful.” (Yusuf: 92) Following this announcement of the general amnesty, “They went out of the Ka’bah as they have been raised from the graves. Then they embraced Islam.” (Sharhu Ma’ani Al-Athar: 5454)
Battle of Hunain and Returning the Captives:
There is a valley between Makkah and Taif is called Hunian. There were two tribes: Hawazin and Thaqif living in that valley. Following the Conquest of Makkah, they planned to attack the Muslims of Makkah. When the Prophet (SAWS) heard of their preparation for attack, he (SAWS) sent Abdullah (RA), a companion for an investigation. When the fact was established, the Prophet (SAWS) made preparation and advanced towards Hunain on 8th Shawwal of 8th Hijrah with an army of 12,000 men. There were 10,000 men who had come from Madinah to Makkah and 2000 men from Makkah who were new Muslims. The war started in the early morning of the 10th Shawwal. The Hawazin and Thaqif tribes were lying in ambush. They were very good archers. As the Muslim army reached the valley of Hunain, the enemies attacking the Muslims began raining down arrows on them from all sides. The Muslims were scattered and defeated in the beginning. Within a few moments, the tables turned and the enemies were defeated badly. Seventy enemies were killed. The battle ended in a decisive victory for the Muslims. The Muslims got the booty which comprised 6000 prisoners of war, 24000 camels, 40000 goats and 4000 ounces of silver.
The booty was gathered at a place called Ji’irranah. Showing his kindness and mercy, the Prophet (SAWS) didn’t distribute the booty and captives hoping that their relatives would come to request to free them. However, when none came to request, the Prophet (SAWS) began distributing the booty and the captives.
After the booty had been distributed among the recipients, a delegation of the Hawazin came to Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). They embraced Islam. They requested to return their wealth and captives to them. The Prophet (SAWS) was a mercy for the entire universe; so he became soft-hearted hearing their request and decided to return their captives. Then he (SAWS) got up among the Muslims and said: “Your brothers have come to you with repentance and I see (it logical) to return their captives. So, whoever of you likes to do that as a favour, then he can do it. And whoever of you likes to stick to his share till we give him from the very first booty which Allah will give us, then he can do so.” The Muslims said: “We do that willingly as a favour, O Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)!” (Sahih Bukhari: 4318) (It means that they agreed to return the captives willingly to the delegation of the Hawazin Tribe.)
It is noteworthy that the Hawazin tribe first decided to attack the Muslims. They prepared for war. They fought war against Muslims according to their plan. As the end, they were defeated. Their people were made captives. Then they came to the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) requesting to free their captives and return their wealth. In such situation, the Prophet (SAWS) didn’t behave like a ruthless ruler with those people; rather he showed his kindness and mercy for them. Not to speak of returning the captives of his own share; even he (SAWS) suggested his companions to return the captives to them. They obeyed his suggestion and returned the captives of their shares.
Prohibition of Killing Women and Children in War:
Nowadays, some countries consider themselves to be on the highest level of civilization. They think that whatever they practice in the name of culture and civilization should be adopted by the whole world. They are so much proud of their civilization and culture that they consider all other religions and civilizations, found in the world, revolving around the extremism or conservativeness. But the modern world has observed with its opened eyes that these so-called civilized and cultured nations decide in a few days that such and such a country and its ruler are a threat to the world, they have mass destructive weapons and whenever they want, they will destroy the region.
Under the cover of this fabricated story, the so-called civilized country starts bombarding a country, the whole world turns a blind eye and the conscience of none forces him to speak the truth and oppose such madness. Then in a few days, the country is destroyed. Its civilians, elderly citizens, housewives and even the children are not excluded from the attack. A good number of them are killed mercilessly. Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was also the Commander-in-Chief of thousands of brave army men. When the enemies forced him to fight wars; he fought against them. But he (SAWS) didn’t like the oppression and tyranny; rather, he proved himself to be wise, sensible and mercy for one and all at all the times. The people including the enemies benefited from His mercy and kindness on every occasion; even in the war. He didn’t command his army to attack the elderly, housewives, children, priests and saints; but he commanded to avoid attacking such people even in the war. It is in a narration that a woman was found slain during one of the campaigns of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). Then he (SAWS) prohibited killing the women and the children. (Sahih Muslim: 1744)
Study of Biography of the Prophet (SAWS):
The aim and goal of this article is to present that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was not only a mercy for his friends, not only he dealt with his companions with forgiveness and kindness; but he was a mercy also for the entire humanity. He didn’t show his kindness and mercy only to his companions; but also to his enemies. He (SAWS) proved to be a mercy for non-Muslims as well. Today, under the cover of the freedom of expression and speech, the teachings of the Prophet (SAWS) are targeted, his pious life is mocked and various questions are raised against him. The biography of the Prophet (SAWS) is the most preserved one with the authentic chains. Those who have any question or objection about his great personality and noble character, they should first study the biography of the Prophet (SAWS). When they study it; for sure, they will find that he (SAWS) was a humanitarian person. He worked for the betterment of the human being. He tried his level best to bring the misled people on the straight path. He also showed favour to his enemies and forgave them on several occasions. Then it is hoped that the questions and objections will be resolved automatically, In Shaa Allah.
* The author is Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa and can be accessed at firstname.lastname@example.org