This book was named 'Al-Sunan' and was called Sunan Ibn Majah attributing to the author.
Affiliation to Usool Khamsah (Five Principal Books of Hadith)
First of all, Imam Abul Fazl Muhammad bin Tahir Maqdisi (d. 507 H), in his book 'Shurootul Aaimma Al-Sittah', affiliated Sunan Ibn Majah to Usool Khamsah (the five principal books of Hadith i.e. Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawood, Jami'ut Tirmizi and Sunan Nasai.). Thereafter, these six books were known as Sihah Sittah (six most authentic books of Hadith). Some scholars of Hadith have counted Muwatta Imam Malik as the sixth one instead of Sunan Ibn Majah. Firstly, Muhaddith Razin Ibn Mu'awiyah Abdrabbi Sarqati (d. 525 H) has expressed the same view in his book 'Al-Tajreed Lis Sihah was Sunan'. Later, came Imam Ibnul Aseer who also regarded, in his book 'Jami'ul Usool', Muwatta Imam Malik as the sixth out of Sihah Sittah. While, some scholars are of the opinion that Sunan Darami deserved to be counted as the sixth one in place of Sunan Ibn Majah. Since, the traditions of Sunan Darami are better in term of authenticity and correctness that those of Sunan Ibn Majah. This view was first expressed by Hafiz Salahuddin Al-Alaai and later followed him Hafiz Ibn Hajar. .
Number of Traditions in Sunan Ibn Majah
Hafiz Ibn Kaseer introduces Sunan Ibn Majah in his book 'Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah' saying: "Sunan Ibn Majah consists of 32 books, 1500 chapters and 4000 traditions. And, all the traditions are good except some of them." But, according to Sheikh Fuwad Abdul Baqi who has done research on the Sunan mentioned the below details:
"Sunan Ibn Majah comprises of 4341 traditions while 3006 out of them are found in Usool Khamsah. The rest 1339 are not found in Usool Khamsah; 428 out of 1339 are authentic and narrated by reliable sources, 199 are Hasan and 613 are Za'eef, whereas 99 of them are extremely weak even unreliable and forged.
Sunan Ibn Majah in the Eyes of Scholars
Imam Zahabi has quoted in his book Ibn Majah saying: "I showed this Sunan to Abu Zur'ah he went through it and said: I think if people find this book they will cast aside the other books of Hadith or most of them. There will not be even 30 traditions which have some weak points."
This quotation of Abu Zur'ah is sufficient enough to throw some light at the importance of Sunan Ibn Majah. Moreover, the scholars counted it among the Sihah Sittah, though they agree that it holds the sixth position due to consisting of several Za'eef traditions. Hafiz Abul Hajjaj Al-Mizzi writes that the traditions that Ibn Majah narrates individually (not found in Usool Khamsah) are most likely Za'eef. But, this stand is not justified and scholars have criticized it, s Hafiz Ibn Hajar says: "Generally, it is not so as I have discovered, though it contains many Munkar traditions (narrated by unknown narrators)." Hafiz Ibn Hajar means that traditions individually narrated by Ibn Majah are necessarily not Za'eef, because there are many traditions that Ibn Majah only brought in his are reliable. Also, the opinion of Imam Abu Zur'ah that there are less than thirty Zae'eef traditions in Sunan Ibn Majah, is also not right. Since, the scholars have scanned his opinion and verified that the number of Za'eef traditions in Sunan Majah is more than he said. Imam Zahabi writes in his book 'Siyaru A'alamin Nubalae': "If we consider the comment of Abu Zur'ah as correct then it will imply that he meant the traditions that are entirely disapproved. As far as the matter of Za'eef traditions is concerned they might be almost thousand in number. In short, some traditions of Sunan Ibn Majah are Za'eef and 34 of them have been counted as Mauzoo' (false or forged) by Ibnul Jauzi.
Commentaries & Notes
The scholars of Ummah have served Sunan Ibn Majah and have written notes and commentaries on it. Some of these commentaries and notes are as follows:
(1) Hafiz Alauddin Mughlatai has written commentary of some parts of Sunan Ibn Majah in five volumes.
(2) Misbahuz Zujajah ala Sharh Ibn Majah (Al-Suyuti)
(3) Hafiz Burhanuddin Halabi also wrote a commentary.
(4) Al-Deebajah (in 5 volumes by Sheikh Kamaluddin bin Musa)
(5) Ibnul Mulaqqin has written a commentary of the Zawaaid (traditions of Ibn Majah that were not found in Usool Khamsah) separately which is named with 'Ma Tamussu ilaihil Hajah ala Sunan Ibn Majah'.
(6) Notes of Abul Hasan Ibn Abdul Hadi Sindhi
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
Some scholars have written that the name of Imam Nasai's book is 'Al-Mujtaba' or 'Al-Mujtana'. However, it is known as 'Al-Sunan Al-Sughra'. These three names are justified because it appears from the background story of the compilation. The story goes like this that Imam Nasai wrote a book named 'Al-Sunan' and presented it to the Emir of Ramallah. He questioned him whether all the tradition of the book are correct. Imam Nasai's reply was in negative. So, he ordered him to compile a book that contains only authentic traditions. Thus, Imam Nasai took out all the traditions from his book and named the new collection as ' Mujtaba' (selected ones). Also, it is right to call it as 'Al-Mujtana' since it also means 'selected'. This collection was named as 'Al-Sunan Al-Sughra' because it was a summary of the previous one. However, when it is called simply Sunan Nasai or if some scholar says that Imam Nasai narrates so and so, then it implies to this 'Al-Sunan Al-Sughra'. 'Al-Sunan Al-Sughra' was included in the Sihah Sittah (six most authentic books of Hadith). It is noteworthy that Imam Zahabi is of the opinion that it is Ibnus Sunni who has selected Sahih Ahadith from 'Al-Sunan Al-Sughra' and compiled 'Al-Mujtaba'. .
Position of Sunan Nasai in Sihah Sittah
The authors of books on Asmaur Rijal (biographies of the narrators) have placed Sunan Nasai on fifth position and it is commonly known. But, Imam Zahabi has written the ranking of Jami'ut Tirmizi is lesser than that of Sunan Abu Dawood and Sunan Nasai. It implies that Sunan Nasai is on the fourth position. Some Moroccan scholars have given it superiority even on Sahih Bukhari, but this is rare stand and what generally known is that Sunan Nasai holds the fifth position.
Numbers of the Traditions
The total number of traditions in this book is 5761 and most of them are authentic. Therefore, some people have called it as Sahih.
Sunan Nasai in the Eyes of Great Scholars
Abul Hasan Musiri says: "Whenever I looked it to the traditions I found that those narrated by Imam Nasai are nearer to authenticity than the traditions of others."
Hafiz Ibn Rashid has introduced Nasai with these words: "Sunan Nasai is an excellent book among Sunan as per its order and compilation. It assembled the patterns of Imam Bukhari and Muslim. Also, it contains descriptions of the points where some fault has occurred."
Muhammad bin Mu'awiyah Ahamr says: "Sunan Nasai is authentic and only some traditions are having faults, but Imam Nasai has not mentioned its weak points. The collection of traditions named with Al-Mujtaba is entirely perfect.
Most traditions of Sunan Nasai are perfect, therefore some people have regarded it as Sahih. Otherwise, all the traditions of Nasai are not Sahih. Nevertheless, the weak traditions in Sunan Nasai are less in number in comparison to other Sunan books.
Method of Sunan Nasai & Characteristics
(1) It surpasses other book as per its order and style of compilation
(2) Imam Nasai also mentions one Hadith under different chapter like Imam Bukhari.
(3) On the pattern of Imam Muslim, he writes different chains of a tradition and points out the differences in the wordings.
(4) He discusses the weak points of tradition and their reasons. Imam Nasai is known for expertise about secret weak points of narrations.
(5) If there is some confusion in the name, nickname or something else then he states it. He verified whether the narrator met his teacher or not, whether the Hadith is Muttasil or Mursal. At places, he elucidates the meaning of difficult words.
Commentaries and Notes on Sunan Nasai
Sunan Nasai was not given so homage which it deserves. There is no comprehensive commentary written on the book. However, there are some notes and commentaries:
(1) Al-Im'aan fi Sharh Sunan Al-Nasai (Sheikh Abul Hasan Ali bin Abdulah Ansari Undulusi)
(2) Sharh Ibnul Mulaqqan (Ibnul Mulaqqan has written commentary of the traditions of Sunan Nasai which are not mentioned in Sahihain, Sunan Abu Dawood and Tirmizi)
(3) Zahrur Ruba (Imam Suyuti)
(4) The notes and comments of Sheikh Abul Hasan bin Abdul Hadi Sindhi
(5) The notes and comments of Sheikh Muhammad Ataullah Hanif Bhojyani
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
This book is named 'Al-Sunan'. Also, it is called 'Sunan Abu Dawood attributing to the author. In the terms of Hadith, Suann is a book of Hadith that is compiled on the Fiqhi order. Sunan Abu Dawood has been written on Fiqhi pattern so it is called .Sunan'. It appears from the writings of Imam Abu Dawood that he also named his book with 'Sunan' as he says in his booklet written addressing the people of Makkah: "You asked me to tell you that the traditions written down in 'Al-Sunan' are the most authentic ones."
At another place he says: "There are some traditions in my book 'Al-Sunan' that are not 'Muttasil' (directly reaching to the Prophet-pbuh) but they are 'Mursal' (reaching to only a companion)."
These texts prove that Imam Abyu Dawood himself named his book as 'Al-Sunan'.
Method of Sunan Abu Dawood
Imam Abu Dawood himself has described his method with details in the booklet written for the people of Makka. He writes:
"You asked me to tell you that the traditions written down in 'Al-Sunan' are the most authentic ones, so you should know that they are most authentic. Yes, there are some traditions that are narrated by two chains; one is better as per the chain of narration and the other is better in view of the memory of the narrators. I chose the ones which were better as per the memorization. Still, there are only about ten traditions of this kind in my book. I wrote only one or two traditions under a chapter, though there were several other Sahih (authentic) traditions. I intended only to provide something beneficial for the people. If I wrote mote than one Hadith in a chapter that means that the later one comprises of additional meaning that the former does not. At places I have shortened the long traditions since it might be difficult for the people to understand why that particular Hadith was mentioned there. There is not a single Hadith in this book that is narrated by any Matrook (one who was forsaken) narrator. If there happened any Munkar Hadith I mentioned it but warned again it. I mentioned Munkar Hadith only when there were no other traditions higher in rank. In my book I have notified the traditions that were very weak; even some of them are not having authentic chain of narrator. However, the tradition about which I do not make any comment they are free from any fault. Among these traditions, some are more than authentic than others.
Concisely, the method he adopted in his book is as follows:
(1) He selects the most authentic Hadith related to the chapter.
(2) He did not mention all traditions related to the chapter but mentions only one or two of them.
(3) He shortens the long traditions and mentions only the part that is related to the chapter.
(4) He does not accept the traditions of a narrator about whom the scholars of Hadith have stated he is Matrook (one whose traditions have been forsaken by scholars of Hadith).
(5) If a Hadith is narrated by two ways and one way consists of some additions then he mentions it also.
(6) If a Hadith is narrated by several narrators then he takes the tradition of most trusted one.
(7) If he happened to mention any weak Hadith he wrote a note on it.
(8) Also, he mentions Munkar Hadith only when there is no other better Hadith present in the chapter.
(9) The traditions about which Imam Abu Dawood makes no remark and keeps silent then the Hadith is Salih.
The Ulama differ in what he meant by Salih. Imam Ibn Salah says that the traditions mentioned in Abu dawood without a comment if they are not found in Sahihain (Sahih Bukhari and Muslim) and none of the Imam of Hadith has criticized on it then we shall take that Hadith as 'Hasan' of Abu Dawood though it is not Hasan according to other scholars of Hadith. (Ibn Salah, Uloomul Hadith, 33)
But, Hafiz Ibn Hajar says that the traditions mentioned in Abu dawood without a comment cannot be said as Hasan; rather they are divided in to four sections: (a) the traditions are found in Sahihain or are merely Sahih. (b) Some of them are Hasan li Zatihi (c) some are Hasan li Ghairihi. The traditions about which Imam Abu Dawood kept mum are generally related to the second and third grades. (d) Some are Za'eef (weak), but the weakness is not so powerful; since none of the narrators of him is unanimously forsaken and rejected by scholars. (Hafiz Ibn Hajar, Al-Nukat, Vol1, P 453)
Imam Nawawi elucidated the saying of Imam Abu Dawood stating that the traditions that are mentioned in Abu Dawood without a comment and any noteworthy scholar labeled it as Hasan then we shall accept it as Hasan. And, if any trusted scholar of Hadith has labeled it as Za'eef or they pointed out any fault in the narrating chain leading to weakness and that particular fault is not removed then that Hadith will be regarded as Za'eef and the silence of Imam Abu Dawood will not be accepted. According to Hafiz Ibn Hajar, this statement of Imam Nawawi is a scholarly and research-oriented one.
Conditions of Abu Dawood for Accepting Ahadith
We have mentioned some details about the condition of Imam Abu Dawood falling under the conditions of Sahihain. Some of the remaining conditions are written below:
Hafiz Abul Fazl Muhammad bin Qahir writes the summary of the conditions in his book 'Shurootul Aaimmah Al-Sittah Page 13-16). He says that traditions of these Hadith books are of three kinds:
(1) The traditions that are mentioned in Sahihain.
(2) Traditions that are in accordance with the conditions of authors of Sunan.
(3) There are traditions which contain matters that are in a bird's view contradictory to the chapter mentioned before. But, the purpose behind it is that these traditions have not been out of the sight of these authors. They do not mean that these tradition are in fact Sahih but most of the time the authors themselves have pointed out its fault and mistake.
Some commentaries of Abu Dawood
(1) Ma'alimus Sunan (Abu Sulaiman Hamd bin Muhammad Khattabi)
(2) Mirqatus Sa'uood ila Sunan Abi Dawood (Al-Suyuti)
(3) Fathul Wadood ala Sunan Abi Dawood (Muhammad bin Abdul Hadi Sindhi)
(4) Aunul Ma'bood (Sheikh Shamsul Haq Azimabadi)
(5) Bazlul Majhood fi Hall Abi Dawood (Sheikh Khlalil Ahmad Saharanpuri)
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
This book is called with three different names:
(1) 'Al-Jami' or 'Jami'ut Tirmizi': Jami' means comprehensive. It was named so because it covers eight chapters: Jihad, Ethics, Quranic exegesis, Faith, trials, injunctions, Ashrat (signs) and Manaqib (virtues of famous personalities).
(2) 'Al-Sunan' or 'Jami'us Sunan': Sunan are called the books that were compiled on the Fiqhi order. This book was called Sunan since it was also written on the same pattern.
(3) 'Al-Jamius Sahih' or 'Al-Musnad Al-Sahih': Some scholars like Imam Hakim and Imam Khatib Baghdadi regarded it as 'Sahih'. But, according to most scholars of Hadith, can not be said as Sahih, though most of its traditions are authentic and true.
Position of Jami'ut Tirmizi
There are three opinions which differ in describing it order among the six books:
(1) It is on the third position after the Sahih Muslim and Bukhari. Those who put on the third have considered its usefulness.
(2) Some scholars who have written books on the biography of the narrators have put it on the fourth position.
(3) Imam Zahabi has counted it fifth most authentic after Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abi Dwood, Sunan Nasai.
Method of Compilation
Imam Tirmizi has compiled his book on Fiqhi pattern. First, he gives a comprehensive chapter entitled with 'Abwab' under which he mentions tradition dividing in to many subtitles. The names of titles usually are extracted from the text of the Hadith mentioned below. Thereafter, he narrates one or two Hadith. Then, he classifies the grade of the particular Hadith. Sometimes, he quotes the comments of scholars about the narrating chain and describes the status of narrators. Finally, if there are some more traditions related to the title he indicates to them saying: "there are some more traditions from so and so on."
Conditions of Imam Tirmizi for Accepting Ahadith
It is to be mentioned clearly that Imam Tirmizi or the other authors of the Hadith books did not clarify any specific conditions. The scholars of Hadith, having studied thoroughly their books, have discovered these conditions. Imam Hazimi in his book 'Shurootul Aimmah' and Imam Maqdisi in 'Shurootul Aimmah Al-Sittah' have penned down them in details. According to these scholars of Hadith the conditions of Imam Tirmizi are inferior than those of Imam Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood and Nasai. It is stated that Imam Bukhari sets the condition that the narrator is bestowed with better memory and has companied his Sheikh for a long time. Imam Muslim adheres to the conditions that the narrator should have sharp mind, he did not stick to the condition of 'companying Sheikh'. Abu Dawood and Nasai have set the condition of companying Sheikh for a long time and have not emphasized on 'sharp-mindedness' while Imam Tirmizi has not stressed on both the conditions. Also, it is worth mentioning that the meaning of the conditions that these scholars of Hadith have not gone below these conditions and have accepted traditions that were above their standard.
Sulasiyat of Jami'ut Tirmizi
'Sulasi' is a Hadith that is narrated by only a chain of three narrators reaching to the Prophet (pbuh). There is only one 'Sulasi' in Jami'ut Tirmizi. So, in this Hadith there are only three narrators between Imam Tirmizi and the Prophet (pbuh). Mulla Ali Qari has mistakenly described that there is a 'Sunai' Hadith (narrated only by two narrators). There is no such Hadith in Jami'ut Tirmizi.
False Traditions in Jami'ut Tirmizi
Imam Ibn Jauzi, in his book 'Al-Mauzuaat Al-Kubra' has counted 23 traditions of Jami'ut Tirmizi as false and forged ones. But, Imam Suyuti has defended it in his book 'Al-Qaulul Hasan fiz Zabb anil Hasan' and removed the misconceptions that were raised by Ibn Jauzi.
Importance of Jami'ut Tirmizi and Salient Features
Imam Tirmizi himself says about his book: "I compiled this book and presented it to the scholars of Hijza (Makka and Medina) they liked it, I presented it before the scholars of Iraq they also liked it, then I presented it to the scholars of Khurasan they too liked it. One who has this book in his house as if he has in his house a prophet talking. Imam Abdullah bin Muhammad Ansari says that the book of Tirmizi is more useful to him that the books of Imam Bukhari and Muslim; since, only well-versed scholar can benefit form the books of Bukhari and Muslim, but the book of Imam Tirmizi is useful for all. Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlawi writes in his book 'Bustanul Muhadditheen': "Jami'ut Tirmizi is characterized by other Hadith books for various reasons:
(1) He compiled it a better order and there is no repetition of traditions.
(2) He describes the Fiqhi stand of scholars and mentions their methods of interpretation and derivation.
(3) He gives an account of the narrators' name, nickname and other useful indications.
Sheikh Muhammad Shakir writes that the book of Imam Tirmizi includes these distinct features:
(1) After the Hadith under a chapter, he writes the names of the companions who narrated traditions having same meaning.
(2) He generally mentions the different stands of scholars of Fiqh on the matter.
(3) He pays attention to describe the weak and strong points of Hadith, and categorizes its grade. He offers a good account on the narrators.
Some commentaries of Jami'ut Tirmizi
(1) Aarizatul Ahwazi (Ibnul Arabi)
(2) Qootul Mughtazi (Al-Suyuti)
(3) Tuhfatul Ahwazi (Abdur Rahman Mubarakpuri).
(4) Taqreer-e-Tirmizi (Mahmoodul Hasan Deobandi)
(5) Dars-e-Tirmizi (Mufti Taqi Usmani)
(6) Al-Arfus Shazi (Anwar Shah Kashmiri)
(7) Naf'u Qootil Mughtazi
(8) Tuhfatul Almai (Mufti Sayeed Ahmad Palanpuri)
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
The name of the book is 'Al-Musnad Al-Sahih'. Imam Muslim himself mentions it with this name. Some people called it as 'Jami'e'. However, the book is renowned with Sahih Muslim.
Cause of Compilation
Imam Mulsim described the reason of compilation himself in the foreword of the book saying: "A person wished to acquire the teachings of Hadith regarding the fundamentals of religion, practices, reward and punishment etc, so he expressed his desire to Imam Muslim and requested him to compile a book that contains all these things without repetitions. Also, Imam Muslim was grieved at seeing people not differentiating between true and false traditions. So, Imam Muslim started this work and completed it in a span of fifteen years.
Numbers of Traditions
It is said that the number of traditions in Sahih Muslim is twelve thousand. And, with the deletion of repetitions it decreases to four thousand. Sheikh Fuwad Abdul Baqi has numbered Sahih Muslim and according to him the number of it is 3034.
Method of Compilation
Imam Muslim has compiled his Sahih on the order of 'book and chapter'. But in view of the thickness of the book, he did not write their titles. Later, the scholars of Hadith have classified it into chapters or sections with their titles. Among all these classifications, the classification of Imam Nawawi is the best.
Imam Muslim did not rely chiefly on his personal findings but consulted the great scholars of his age, as he himself says: "I did not record the Hadith that was reliable to me, but I only recorded the traditions that were agreed upon by scholars." Also, he would present all traditions to Hafiz Abu Zur'ah Razi and reject the ones about which Hafiz Abu Zur'ah indicated any defect and choose the ones which were sanctioned by Hafiz Abu Zur'ah. He says: "Whatever traditions I put in this collection are with proof and whatever I rejected are also with proof. I compiled this book selecting Ahadith from a pile of three hundred thousand traditions. He paid so exclusive attention to the compilation that he himself stated: "If the scholars of Hadith will keep on writing Ahadith for two years then also they will have to depend on this book."
Position of Sahih Muslim among Sihah Sittah
Sahih Muslim is the second among the six most authentic books of Hadith. It is believed to be second collection of truest Hadith after Sahih Bukhari. Some scholars have preferred it on Bukhari. Generally, the scholars of Maghrib (Morocco) gave preference to Sahih Muslim over Sahih Bukhari as Abu Ali Neshapuri said: "There is no book more authentic than Sahih Muslim." But, Hafiz Ibn Hajar thinks that this quotation does not mean that Sahih Muslim better than Sahih Bukhari, but it only says that both are equally authentic and perfect. Briefly, the fact is that in the sense of authenticity and accuracy Sahih Bukhari is superior, while in the sense of excellent compilation, less repetitions and much sources Sahih Muslim excels.
Some Characteristics of Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim is distinguished among other collections of tradition because of below mentioned reasons:
(1) Better compilation
(2) Fluent style
(3) Paying exclusive attention to 'Riwayah Bil Lafz' (narrating exact wordings)
(4) Distinguishing between 'Haddasana' and 'Akhbarana' (two different ways of narration)
(5) Recording the exact words of narrators
(6) Switching to chains of narrations with shortening them
His Ideology about 'Mu'an'an' Traditions
The traditions which are narrated with the word 'A'n' are called 'Mu'an'an'. Imam Muslim has accepted the 'Mu'an'an' traditions of the narrators who were not Mudallis (the narrator who narrates from the teacher of his teacher instead of narrating from his teacher) provided that the period of the narrator and the narrated is same and their meeting is possible. He, in the foreword of his book, sternly objected to those who conditioned that a 'proof of meeting' is compulsory.
Some commentaries of Sahih Muslim
The number of commentaries and annotations exceeds twenty. Here are the names of some well known ones:
(1) Ikmalul Muallim fi Sharh Muslim (Qazi E'yaz)
(2) Siyanah Sahih Muslim (Ibnus Salah)
(3) Al-Minhaj fi Sharh Sahih Muslim bin Hajjaj (Al-Nawawi)
(4) Al-dibaj ala Sahih Muslim bin Hajjaj (Al-Suyuti)
(5) Fathul Mulhim (Shabbir Ahmad Usmani)
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
This book of Imam Bukhari is known as ‘Sahih-ul-Bukhari’, but it original name is very long. According to Hafiz Ibn Hajar its name is: ‘Al-Jami’us Sahih Al-Musnad min Hadith Al-Rasool Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam wa Sunanihi wa Ayyamihi’. But, according to Ibn Salah the name is: ‘Al-Jami’ul Musnad Al-Sahih Al-Mukhtasar min Umoorir Rasool Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam wa Sunanihi wa Ayyamihi’
Hafiz Ibn Hajar, in the preface of his book Fathul Bari, has mentioned the compilation background of Sahih Bukhari, that are as follows:
(1) The books that were compiled before Imam Bukhari had both Za’eef and Sahih traditions, that might prove difficult for people to differentiate between Sahih and Za’eef. Therefore, he intended to write a book that contains only true and authentic traditions.
(2) Also, he was inspired to compile a book by his teacher Ishaq bin Rahwaih who asked his students: “It would be better if you collect the authentic traditions.” Imam Bukhari says that it stuck to his heart and he started compiling his Sahih.
(3) Imam Bukhari saw a dream that he is moving a fan on the Prophet (pbuh). The scholars of the age told that it meant that he shall remove the falsehood and lie surrounding the traditions of the Prophet (pbuh). Imam Bukhari says that it inspired him to write ‘Al-Jami’us Sahih’.
Extraordinary Caution & Carefulness in Compiling Sahih Bukhari
Imam Bukhari paid his utmost attention to compile his book. He says that he did not write even a single Hadith in his book without having bath and praying two Rak’ats. Some biographers also have quoted Imam Bukhari saying: “I did not include any Hadith in this book but when I consulted Allah, prayed to him and insured its authenticity.
Duration of Compilation
Imam Bukhari himself says that he has compiled this book within a period of sixteen years. He selected these traditions from among six hundred thousand ones.
Objective of Sahih Bukhari
The objective of Imam Bukhari is to collect Sahih and authentic traditions. The original name of the book indicates to it. Moreover, he described it on many places of his book as he says: “I mentioned in my book only Sahih traditions and rejected so many Sahih traditions because of their length. There is a famous quotation of him that he has mentioned only Sahih tradition in his book and the Sahih traditions he left is more than he mentioned.
This is a proof that he intended to collect only authentic traditions, but he did not intend to collect entire Sahih traditions. So, there are many Sahih traditions in other books of Hadith apart from Bukhari. It is worth mentioning that though Imam Bukhari had determination to collect authentic traditions but the Fiqhi derivations of Imam Bukhari sayings of the Companions and their successors mentioned under the titles of chapters are not as authentic as the other traditions. But, they also include many useful things.
Number of Traditions in Sahih Bukhari
Hafiz Ibn Salah said that the number of traditions in Bukhari is four thousand with repetations. But, the renowned commentator of Sahih Bukhari, Hafiz Ibn Hajar has mentioned the number of traditions in Bukhari with details:
(1) Number of Marfu’ Muttasil traditions with repititions 7394
(2) Number of Marfu’ Mu’allaq traditions with repititions 1341
(3) Mutab’aat etc. 344
(1) Number of Marfu’ Muttasil traditions without repititions 2602
(2) Number of Marfu’ Mu’allaq traditions without repititions 0159
Repetition of Traditions in Bukhari & its Reason
Sahih Bukhari is not only a collection of traditions but also it contains Fiqhi derivations and interpretative judgments. It is known to all that most of the time one Hadith contains so many meanings and matters so the particular Hadith is mentioned under various titles. Sahih Bukhari also consists of repeated traditions. But, Imam Bukhari has hardly repeated any Hadith with the same chain of narration and words. Most of the time, he mentioned the repeated Hadith with other chain of narration, while sometime he shortens it and mentions only the part concerning to the title.
Conditions of Imam Bukhari for Acceptance of HAdith in His Sahih
It is not easy to describe the conditions of Imam Bukhari and the authors of rest five Hadith books for accepting Hadith. Since, they have not clearly set up these conditions. They have only indicated it vaguely at some places in their books. Later, the scholars have derived their conditions after a thorough study of their books and the narrators' biography. There are two books on the subject that are complementary of each other. One is 'Shurootul Aaimmah Al-Khamsah' of Imam Abu Bakr Hazmi while the other 'Shurootul Aaimmah Al-Sittah' og Abul Fazl Maqdisi. The summary of Bukhari's condition is that he narrates from those who are reliable, trusted and narrate with continuous chain to the Prophet (pbuh). He preferred the traditions of more than one narrators and accepted the traditions of single narrator also provided he is reliable. For example, analyzing the terms and conditions of Sihah Sittah, we divided that students of Imam Zuhri in five categories:
1. Those who had high class Hifz (brainpower) and had accompanied Imam Zuhri for a long time.
2. Those who had high class Hifz (brainpower) but had not accompanied Imam Zuhri for a long time.
3. Those who did not have high class Hifz (brainpower) and had accompanied Imam Zuhri for a long time.
4. Those who did not have high class Hifz (brainpower) and have not accompanied Imam Zuhri for a long time.
5. Those who are weak or those about whom there is no details available.
From amongst the five categories, Imam Bukhari only relies on the first category of narrators and these narrators meet his conditions of accepting a Hadith. He sometimes mentions some selected traditions of narrators from the second category and in some cases he refers to the traditions of the narrators from second and third category for strength. Imam Muslim accepts the traditions of the narrators from first and second categories definitely and refers to the traditions of the narrators from third and forth category for strength. Imam Abu Dawood and Imam Nasai accept the traditions of the narrators from first to third categories wholeheartedly and refer to the traditions of the narrators from the forth and fifth categories for strength. Imam Tirmizi accepts the traditions of the narrators from first to fourth category and refers to the traditions of the narrators from fifth category for strength. While, Imam Ibn Majah accepts the traditions narrators from all categories.
It is noteworthy that the traditions narrated with the word 'a'n' (from) where the narrator did not mention clearly that he listened it from his sheikh, Imam Bukhari apply a condition that the meeting between the narrator and his sheikh should be proved. While, Imam Muslim set the condition that only a possibility of meeting should be found.
Fiqhi Derivations in Bukhari's Titles
First of all, Imam lays out a chapter and then mentions the Fiqhi matter that is derived from the below Hadith and sometimes mentions a part of the Hadith. This is called as 'Tarjamatul Bab' (headline). All the authors of Sihah Sittah, except Imam Muslim, adopt the same method. But, Imam Bukhari has presented it as an art and has applied his mind so artfully and thoroughly that scholars are amazed to realize it. At some places, the headline matches the text below while sometimes the relation between the title and the Hadith is quite ambiguous. Therefore, the commentators have paid exclusive attention to it, even some of them have written separate books over the topic.
Status of Sahih Bukhari & Its Significance
Sahih Bukhari holds the first position among Sihah Sittha, therefore it is called 'most authentic book after the Quran'. Hafiz Ibn Hajar, Imam Ibn Salah, Imam Nawawi, Hafiz Ibn Kaseer and other scholars of Islam have written that the Ummah has unanimously agreed that the traditions of Sahih Bukhari and Muslim are reliable and authentic except a few of them. Comparing Sahih Bukhari
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
Imam Malik named his book on Hadith as ‘Muwatta’ and it was known with this name. There are two reasons to name the book as Muwatta:
Hafiz Ibn-ul-Bar narrates from Mufazzal bin Muhammad bin Harb that in Medina, first of all, Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Abi Salma compiled issues that were agreed upon. This book did not include traditions. When this book was passed on to Imam Malik he looked at it with admiration and appreciation. He remarked that had I did I would have begun it with traditions. Thus, an idea of compiling book came to his mind and later it was materialized in the shape of ‘Muwatta’.
Subject of Muwatta
The subject of Muwatta is to collect the traditions of the Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), the sayings of the companions and the quotations of the Tab’een.
Manuscripts of Muwatta
Several students of Imam Malik narrated Muwatta from him. Their manuscripts differed in the numbers of the traditions as well as the order of the chapters. Among many manuscripts, four got popularity:
(1) Muwatta narrated by Yahya bin Yahya
(2) Muwatta narrated by Ibn Bukair
(3) Muwatta narrated by Abu Mus’ib
(4) Muwatta narrated by Ibn Wahab
Numbers of Traditions in Muwatta
According to the manuscript of Yahya bin Yahya Undulusi the number of Marfoo’ traditions (narrated with a continuous chain to the Prophet) in Muwatta is 853 whereas Abu Bakr Abhari says that the number of all traditions in Muwatta is 1720. The number of Marfoo’ and Muttasil Ahadith is 600, that of Marfoo’ Mursal is 222, that of Mauqoof (sayings of the companions) is 613 and that of Maqtoo’ (sayings of the Tab'een) is 285. (Al-Suyuti, Tanwirul Hawalik, 8)
However, there are differences about the number of the traditions in Muwatta that is based on the differences between its various manuscripts. Likewise, Imam Malik himself kept on making changes and modifications in his book for a period of forty years.
Duration of Compilation
After a hard work of about forty years Muwatta came in to being. Ibn Abdur Barr narrates from Umar bin Abdul Wahid that he said: We studied Muwatta before Imam Malik in forty days, so he said: "The book which I compiled in forty years, you have taken it from me in forty days.”
Importance of Muwatta & Its Position
This renowned and popular book of Hadith, on one hand, is the pioneering collection of traditions and on the other hand it enjoys a high ranking as per the authenticity of the traditions and the many more advantages. One can realize the importance of the book that, according to Ibnul Hubab, Imam Malik used to narrate one hundred thousand traditions and out of which only ten thousand were recorded in Muwatta. Thereafter, he continued making modifications until it was reduced to only 500 Ahadith. Abul Hasan bin Fahar has quoted the saying of Atiq bin Yaqub that earlier Muwatta contained ten thousand traditions, but Imam Malik kept on reviewing and excluding some of the traditions until it reached to the point where it is today. Due to untiring and tremendous efforts of Imam Malik his book earned popularity. People appreciated it and regarded its traditions as correct and authentic. Imam Shaf’ee pays tribute to him saying: "Muwatta of Imam Malik is most authentic after the book of Allah.” It is to be mentioned that this saying of Imam Shaf’ee dates to the period when Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim were not compiled. However, this quotation reflects the significance of Muwatta. Apart from Imam Shaf’ee, Imam Tahtawi also has termed Muwatta as ‘Al-Sahih’. It means that some scholars have regarded all the contents of Muwatta as authentic. His sincerity and piety also played a part to popularize his book. There were some people who tried to write books on his pattern. When he was informed of them he wished to see these books. Having seen the books, he remarked: "You should know that only the things are accepted by Allah which are based on true intentions and devotion." So, today no Muwatta of that time remains except that of Imam Malik. The below story also sheds some light on his purity of intention:
When caliph Mansoor came Hejaz for Hajj pilgrimage he requested that I want to ask people to prepare copies of your book and send them to different cities and command Muslims to follow them. Imam Malik prevented him to do so saying that the traditions have reached far and wide, and people are acting accordingly. Let them follow the way of their choice.
Imam Abu Na’eem Asfahani has mentioned a similar story related to caliph Haroon Al-Rashid and Imam Malik. Imam Malik says that Haroon requested him that Muwatta should be tied to the door of Ka’bah and people should be ordered to follow it. But, Imam Malik replied: "Do not do hat, the Companions themselves have differed in smaller details of Shariah and these opinions have spread in different cities."
These stories evidently prove that Imam Malik had true intention and sincerity. Had he wished fame he would have not missed this golden chance of spreading his book and his Fiqhi School in the Islamic world.
Commentaries of Muwatta
Imam Qazi I’yaz says that as much works were done on Muwatta no such works were done on any other book. He mentioned ninety scholars who have served Muwatta by any way. Some of the celebrated commentaries are:
(1) Al-Tamheed Lima fil Muwatta minal Ma’ani wal Asaneed
(2) Al-Istizkar (Summary of the above one) these two commentaries were written by Imam Ibnur Barr. These have been published and are found. It is said that there is one more commentary of him.
(3) Al-Qabas (Ibnul Arabi Maliki)
(4) Imam Suyuti also has written three books on Muwatta: (a) Kashful Mughatta fi Sharhil Muwatta (b) Tanweerul Hawalik ala Muwatta Imam Malik (c) Is’aful Mubatta fi Rijalil Muwatta
(5) Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlawi also has written two commentaries: (a) Al-Musaffa (in Persian) (b) Al-Musawwa (in Arabic)
(6) Awjaz al-Masalik (Shaikhul Hadith Maulana Zakariya Kandhlawi)
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
by Muahammadullah Khalili Qasmi
Madrasa Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur was established in November 1866 just months after Darul Uloom Deoband was founded in May 1866. One of the aims and objectives of Darul Uloom Deoband’s establishment was to introduce such madrasas and Islamic seminaries across the country. Following this policy, a number of such madrasas were started in several cities many of them not even exist rather flourish like Madrasa Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur and Madrasa Qasmia Shahi in Moradabad. Many such madrasas were started in Delhi, Meerut, Khurja, Buland Shahar, Amroha, Saharanpur etc. But, Madrasa Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur got more popularity among all these madrasas and was prominently known by the great UIama and scholars of Hadith it produced.
Madrasa Mazahir Uloom was established by luminaries like Hadhrat Maulana Ahmad Ali Saharanpuri (Muhaddith and Commentator of Sahih Bukhari), Hadhrat Maulana Mazhar Ali Nanotawi, Hadhrat Maulana Sa’adat Ali Faqih. The Madrasa was patronized by Hadhrat Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (1829-1905). The Madrasa touched the peak of fame and name during the time when Hadhrat Maulana Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri (185-1927) and later Shaikhul Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi (1898-1982) taught there as Shaikh al-Hadith.
The Madrasa produced a number prominent and distinguished Ulama, especially the scholars of hadith literature. The founder of Nadwatul Ulama Lucknow, Maulana Muhammad Ali (Kanpuri and later) Mongiri, Maulana Zafar Usmani of I’la al-Sunan, Maulana Badr Alam Meeruti, Maulana Idris Kandhlawi, Maulana Hayat Sambhali and Maulana Abdur Rahman Kamilpuri were products of this great seat of learning. In recent past, Maulana Yusuf Kandhlawi, Mufti Mahmood Hasan Gangohi, Hadhrat Qari Muhammad Siddiue Bandwi, Maulana Abdul Haleem Faizabad (Jaunpuri), Maulana Abrarul Haq Hardoi etc were alumni of this Madrasa. The famous Hadith commentaries like Bazl al-Majhood and Awjaz al-Masalik were written in Mazahir Uloom. Fazail Aamal was also written by Shaikh Zakariya in Mazahir Uloom.
Madrasa Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur is well known throughout Islamic world for its religious and cultural contributions. But, unfortunately this great Madrasa was also divided in 1983 and two madrasas came into being: (1) Jamia Mazahir Uloom Jadeed (2) Mazahir Uloom Waqf Qadeem. However, now both the Madrasas are actively busy in imparting high Islamic education to Muslims.
Here is the websites:
· Jamia Mazahir Uloom Jadeed: http://jamiamazahiruloom.com
· Mazahir Uloom Waqf Qadeem: http://mazahiruloom.org
Here are some articles regarding the great personalities of Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur:
BY: Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
It is the time of school examinations and subsequent summer vacation. This is an important turn in your child’s life. He or she is going to complete one year studies and is ready to stride towards the next class. At this stage of time, there are many things that should concern parents and the elder family members.
Children are the most valuable asset of a family and of a nation. They are to inherit the burden of responsibility to run a home, a society and even a nation. It is not so easy to bring up a child. It takes so much time, energy, understanding and wisdom. If the children are well-handled and well nourished they are transformed into civilized citizens and bring peace and honour to their family and country.
The children at their tender age are more vulnerable to contract physical, moral and spiritual diseases. Therefore, this age is very much significant for them and this increases the responsibility of parents many a fold. This is a stage of life from where the nature, habit and behaviour takes its direction. If the orientation of a child is not set right the same tender and little boy turns into violent and criminal man. Of course, every criminal or bad person today has surely been a child at a previous time. It is not so that only children at unhealthy and poor environment develop bad habits and criminal mentality but there are many a heinous and monstrous acts and crimes that are being perpetrated by those who have been nourished even a better and healthful environment.
ROLE OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS
Parents and teachers are the best models and ideals for a child. Undoubtedly, the first school of a child is his or her mother’s lap. From there he unconsciously is inculcated good and bad habits. With the passage of time these habits grow and gain strength. If the overall development environment for a child is better he is instilled good character, but when the home environment does not offer the necessary support structure then he takes a wrong direction.
Therefore, it is recommended that the environment of a home should be quite healthy in term of morality and spirituality. The parents should get rid of family conflicts and domestic violence. This is common problem of younger ones in this era, when at the tenderness of his and her age the child witnesses breaking of ties rather than experiencing warmth of love and sympathy. The weakening of the family unit reduces it to be no longer able to function as a support system and to be able to supply the children with a sense of stability. AAs a reaction to the stress in the environment and lack of parenting skills their physical, moral and spiritual growth is affected.
It is the parents who can know their child better. Hence, they should try to evaluate the potentiality and capability of their child and provide him with necessary support. The limits and capabilities of child should neither be underestimated nor overestimated. And, once they are identified correctly should be given full freedom to function properly.
Teachers spend so much time with their students; therefore they also play an important part in shaping the life of a child. But, it is a tragic fact of our time that student-teacher relation has been reduced to a commercial level. Teachers shirk their duty of being a role model and avoid treating their students as their children.
AVOID GIVING STRESS OR PRESSURE
Due to overloaded education system and competitive environment in school and home the children are burdened to perform better beyond their limits and energy. Sometimes, the parents and in many cases school teachers exert a pressure on students to excel. This leaves many harmful consequences upon a child. Childhood and adolescence is a time when ordinary levels of stress are heightened by physical, psychological, emotional and social changes.
It is no doubt is a universal fact that all fingers are not equal. The children vary in mental power, understanding, vision, taste and natural orientations. In schools and studies some are brilliant and sharp-minded while some are lazy and dull. But, it does not mean that the dull ones are of no use. There is not a minor thing created useless by Allah in this universe so what about a human being! It is our duty to discover the inner abilities hidden in a person and utilize it in the right direction.
Some boys or girls may be slow in studies, but they must be having some other qualities that might not exist in their brilliant fellows. So, the task of the teacher and parents is to identify their skill and deal with them accordingly. Some teachers intentionally or unintentionally end up putting a lot of pressure on youngsters. It is due to the unhealthy student teacher ratio in Indian schools. Teachers as a result fail to deal with students on an individual basis. Stress and pressure is not necessarily a bad thing; it can often push students to a better performance. But, what is needed is a positive parenting and teaching skill that opens communication channels and provides the child a chance to prosper in his or her field. We should not expect from every one the same performance.
The pressure on children to score high should be moderated, both by parents and schools. Because, when they feel like they can't fulfil their wishes and can't satisfy hopes of parents they tend to adopt escapist measures such as drugs, withdrawal, and even some succumb to the pressures of exams and competition. Suicide among teenagers was a syndrome that was known only with West till recently. But, now our own country India is witnessing an alarming upward trend of suicides among the younger generation. The highest suicide rate in the world has been reported among young women in South India. Suicide is one of the commonest causes of death among young people. Suicide is the sixth leading cause of death among children aged 5-14 years, and the third leading cause of death among all those 15-24 years old. The latest mean worldwide annual rates of suicide per 100 000 were 0.5 for females and 0.9 for males among 5-14-year-olds, and 12.0 for females and 14.2 for males among 15-24-year-olds, respectively. In most countries, males outnumber females in youth suicide statistics. Though female teens are much more likely to attempt suicide than males, male teens are four times more likely to actually kill themselves.
However, one of the main problems with our education system is that it has been made a commercial establishment rather than an educational organization. The target of education has been set fully to materialism and money-fetching industry; whereas it is more moral, spiritual and value-oriented than just earning a piece of bread. Due to this shifting of target and highly competitive society the parents and family members expect their children to surpass the competitions and overtake others.
GIVE THEM SOME TIME AND SHARE MATTERS
Today, mostly in cities and towns the parents are so busy and engaged in their daily routine that they find very little time for their children. This state of affairs is not a good thing for your child. Therefore, a generous emotional, material and intellectual support is necessary to have a child happy and confident. The lack of support and security breeds cconfusion and frustration in children. It is important to maintain open lines of communication with children. Parents need to be as open and as attentive as possible to their children's difficulties and to assure them that they can share their troubles, and gain support in the process. They should be given every opportunity to unburden their troubles and ventilate their feelings.
If you are having more than one child then any one of them should never feel that any injustice or inequality is being done against him or her. Girls deal with issues emotionally compared to boys, who handle their issues aggressively and violently. So they should not feel discouraged, controlled, rejected and abandoned. Do not let him or her unattended, but try to handle them with patience, sympathy and acceptance, and help them develop understanding.
Have you so far thought what programme you have for your child in the ongoing summer vacation? It is a precious time; either you are going to waste it in worthless things or to make it a beneficial period of time for your child. It is very important to chart out constructive programme and study materials that are helpful for developing the mental, moral and spiritual power of your child.
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
31 May is the world Tobacco day. Governments and organizations mark this day to boost awareness in the people against the dangers of smoking and tobacco consumption.Since the discovery of tobacco in the American continent in approximately1492, the epidemic of smoking has spread continually around the world. Even today, smoking is the largest addiction of the globe. There are an estimated 1.3 billion smokers. About a third of the male adult global population smokes. About 15 billion cigarettes are sold daily - or 10 million every minute. Among young teens, about one in five smokes worldwide. Between 80,000 and 100,000 children worldwide start smoking every day - roughly half of whom live in Asia. Among the Western Pacific Region - which covers East Asia and the Pacific - has the highest smoking rate, with nearly two-thirds of men smoking. About one in three cigarettes are consumed in the Western Pacific Region. The Western Pacific has one third of the world's smokers, the highest rate of male smokers and the fastest increase of smoking among children and young women. One-quarter of adults in UK smokes. Smokers puff their way through 77 billion cigarettes annually. Almost one-third of girls aged 15 and 16 smoke. People in the 20 to 24 age group smoke the most – 38 per cent of men and 34 per cent of women.
Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death. Half of long-term smokers will die from tobacco. Every cigarette smoked cuts at least five minutes of life on average - about the time taken to smoke it. Every seven seconds, someone dies from tobacco use. Tobacco claims 4.9 million lives a year, and if the present consumption patterns continue, the number of deaths will increase by 2020 to 10 million, 70% of which will occur in developing countries. There are an estimated 1.3 billion smokers and half of them (some 650 million) are expected to die prematurely of a tobacco-related disease. Smoking related-diseases kill one in 10 adults globally, or cause four million deaths. By 2030, if current trends continue, smoking will kill one in six people.
Tobacco kills more than 3000 people each day in the Western Pacific Region. Smoking is among the leading causes of death and disease in the area. About a quarter of youth alive in the region will die from smoking. About 12 times more British people have died from smoking than from World War II. Cigarettes cause more than one in five American deaths.
Tobacco is an addictive plant containing nicotine, many carcinogens and other toxins. When transformed into products designed to deliver nicotine efficiently, its toxic effects, responsible for causing many diseases, are often magnified because the process of increasing exposure to nicotine often results in increases in exposure to many poisons in the products. While, cigarettes comprise of many poisonous ingredients of which nicotine is not the only poisonous ingredient, but includes other ingredients which are more dangerous than nicotine. From amongst its poisonous ingredients are:
Smoking is the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature death. It is a prime factor in heart disease, stroke and chronic lung disease. It can cause cancer of the lungs, larynx, oesophagus, mouth, and bladder, and contributes to cancer of the cervix, pancreas, and kidneys. At least a quarter of all deaths from heart diseases and about three-quarters of world's chronic bronchitis are related to smoking.
In addition to the high public health costs of treating tobacco-caused diseases, tobacco kills people at the height of their productivity, depriving families of breadwinners and nations of a healthy workforce. Tobacco users are also less productive due to increased sickness. A 1994 report estimated that the use of tobacco resulted in an annual global net loss of US$ 200 billion, a third of this loss being in developing countries.
Our country India is home to over 250 million tobacco users and smokers. Smoking is on the rise in the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year in developing countries. At the current rate, the number of smokers will rise from today's 1.3 billion to 1.7 billion by 2025. In India, more than 900,000 people succumb to tobacco-related diseases every year. Researchers calculated that almost 200,000 people a year throughout India die from TB because they smoked; half of the smokers killed by TB are in their early 50s or younger. Among men aged 35-69 in India, smoking causes about half of TB deaths and about a quarter of all deaths. India may lose 2.5 million people a year by 2025 due to growing tobacco consumption that will prove to be a great hurdle to the country's economic growth, experts have warned.
The dealers in death
Three of the world's five biggest tobacco firms are British and make £2.9bn in pre-tax profits. The tobacco market is controlled by just a few corporations - namely American, British and Japanese multinational conglomerates. US-based multinational Philip Morris, the world's biggest cigarette company, was the world's ninth largest advertiser in 1996, spending more than $3 billion. By advertisements, the tobacco firms try to link smoking with athletic prowess, sexual attractiveness, success, adult sophistication, adventure and self-fulfilment. Studies show teenagers are heavily influenced by tobacco advertising. The youngsters are taking to tobacco as a 'hobby' while smoking has become a lifestyle statement.
Though, realizing the dangers of smoking the government has ordained Laws to discourage smoking and even today it continues taking tobacco control measures, like bans on direct and indirect tobacco advertising, tobacco tax and price increases, smoke-free environments in all public and workplaces, but this very little head is paid to it. The cigarette packets and products carry a tiny message, somewhere at the corner, that smoking is injurious to health, but who cares?
Islamic Stand on Smoking
Addiction to whatever habit is undesirable and disliked. It is a kind of slavery that one imposes upon oneself. The smokers when they do not have their daily dose go crank. Smoking is no doubt prohibited and discouraged in Islam for many reasons. In view of the vivid hazards of health that tobacco has, it is tantamount to taking slow poison. The Glorious Quran says, " Do not cast yourselves, with your own hands, into destruction.” (Surah al-Baqarah 2:195); "...nor kill yourselves..." (Surah al-Nisaa 4:29). Though, smoking is not exactly like committing suicide but one should fear that it resembles to it. Suicide is a major sin, in a Hadith, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: "Whosoever drinks poison, thereby killing himself, will sip this poison forever and ever in the fire of Hell."
Apart from the health effects, smoking is a source of wasting one’s wealth. It is also resented by Islam. Allah says, "But spend not wastefully (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift. Verily spendthrifts are brothers of the devils.” (Surah al-Israa’ 17:26-27) In another Hadith the Prophet (peace be upon him) said that: "Allah hates for you three things: gossiping, begging (while being able to work and earn), and wasting money."
WHO-WPRO-The facts about smoking and health.htm 30 May 2006
WHO-WPRO-Smoking Statistics.htm 28 May 2002
India eNews (in), 2006-05-31: Tobacco consumption by youths hampers economic growth
AP Health News - Statistics on TB and Smoking in India.htm AUGUST 16, 2003
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi can be reached at: email@example.com
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
Think of the past days when a caravan used to reach its destination, by sea or land route, passing through plains, climbing mountains and navigating in water with lots of adventures and sufferings. No need to go far; just think of your childhood days when the postman of village used to knock at your door carrying a bag full of letters, money-orders and so on. Now, all these things have gone by and the journey of information revolution surged ahead from conventional table phones to multi-function mobiles. Communication is the field in which the modern science and technology has made extra ordinary progress. Once upon a time, an incident occurring in a nearby city would take days to travel to a neighboring city. But, thanks to science, now sitting at a lonely place at a remote area one can stay informed of petty happenings going on anywhere in the world.
And, naturally, with the spread of mobile phones there arose many new problems and issues in the society. Islam, being a living and comprehensive religion, has a set of ethics and teachings related to mobile and the like. First of all, let us discuss what Islam, basically, says about the use of mobile, whether it is allowed or not. Before jumping to a conclusion, let us have a look at the things that a mobile includes. Besides being a talking tool, a mobile phone contains watch, alarm, reminder, calculator, converter, calendar, games, phonebook, tones, internet connection, audio recorder, camera, video camera and so on. The majority of these things are basically allowed in Islam, except some which are related to photography or music, they are partly disallowed. Keeping in view the nature of mobile, according to Islamic principles, it is allowed to use it since it has more advantages than disadvantages. Islam has permitted the things that are useful for the community and forbade the things that are harmful. Mobile involves more positive points than negative. So, on the basis of its positive points it will be termed as allowed for those who use them in the right way. But, if anyone utilizes mobile for an anti-social, immoral or wrong way it will be regarded as sinful and forbidden. It is just like a knife; if one uses it to cut vegetables it is quite right, but if anyone thrusts it into the belly of his fellowman then his hands shall be cuffed and he shall definitely be sent to retire behind bars.
Forbiddances of Mobile
It is noteworthy that the mobile phone involves some dangerous stuff that is principally not liked in Islam. Most important of these are music and picture. Music, which arouses carnal desires and inflames sensual passions, is prohibited in Islam. Thus, the songs that contain such attributes are disliked. The mobile tones that are based on songs or that indicate to songs fall in the same category and hence are disallowed. The Glorious Quran and Hadith have categorically dismissed music. The Quran says: “And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks (i.e. music, singing, etc.) to mislead (men) from the Path of Allah without knowledge, and takes it (the Path of Allah, the Verses of the Qur'an) by way of mockery. For such there will be a humiliating torment”. While in a number of traditions the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) warned us against music. He counted spread of dance and musical instruments', among many things, a sign of Qiyamah (Doomsday). Hazrat Ali (Raz.) reports that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: "when people start taking ‘spoils of war’ unduly, occupying trust, considering Zakat as tax, seeking the knowledge of religion for the sake of the worldly gain, obeying wife other than mother, approaching friend and distancing father, making noise in mosques, when the sinner ones rule people and the leader is the lowest one, when a man is honoured due to his mischief, when singer women and music is common, when wine is drunk and when the following people start cursing their predecessors then wait for red wind, earthquake, disface etc.” The Prophet said that Allah has sent him as mercy and guide for mankind and He commanded him to destroy all the musical instruments, idols, crosses and all the trappings of ignorance. Allah said that if a man took even a mouthful of wine, He would make him drink the same quantity of pus of the wounds of the people in Hell.”
As far as the matter of pictures is concerned, Islam prohibited making pictures of living beings as well as keeping them. Capturing pictures and scenes from a mobile camera is forbidden. Likewise, keeping pictures in a mobile phone can never be encouraged by Islam. If the pictures are hidden then it is allowed to keep it but not desirable. It is narrated by Hazrat Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "The painter of these pictures will be punished on the Day of Resurrection, and it will be said to them, make alive what you have created." It is narrated by Hazrat 'Aisha : The Prophet entered upon me while there was a curtain having pictures (of animals) in the house. His face got red with anger, and then he got hold of the curtain and tore it into pieces. The Prophet said, "Such people who paint these pictures will receive the severest punishment on the Day of Resurrection." Hazrat Ali (Raziallahu Anhu) Says that I prepared food and invited the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). When he came and entered he saw a curtain having pictures on it, he went out and said that angels do not enter a house in which there are pictures."
So, those who use the mobile phone in wrong ways are warned of their consequences. If we use the mobile in listening to songs or we set musical ringing tones then this mobile will amount to musical instruments. Likewise, if we capture pictures of living beings then using mobile in this direction will be as unlawful as a photographing camera.
General Ethics of Using Mobile Phone
However, there are many general rules that one should follow. For many people, mobile is a tool of play and amusement, they kill their most valuable time and energy. This is surely not liked in Islam. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said: "It is beauty of one's Islam that one forsakes the things that are unmeaning.” Also, it is narrated by Ibn `Abbas that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "There are two blessings which many people lose: (they are) health and free time for doing good." Also, he stated: "On the day of judgment, the feet of one cannot move until he will be questioned about four things: about his age how he spent it, about his knowledge how much he acted upon, about his wealth from where he earned and where he spent it, about his body in which things he exhausted it.” Therefore, it is strongly recommended that one should carefully watch whether or not the mobile is engaging him into rubbish things.
Generally, mobile is a dangerous device for youngsters. It affects their education and proper development. Mobile plays key role in engaging them into immoral and sinful activities.
We must remember that as acts like telling a lie, deceiving, backbiting, abusing, hurting etc are unlawful in general conditions, these things are unlawful on mobile too. Likewise, taping some one's call or listening without his consent is also prohibited.
One must switch off his mobile in mosques, religious meetings and at places where ringing mobile may disturb the people or cause interference. Similarly, while going to meet respected and elderly persons and while visiting a sick, it is better to switch mobile off.
If any one wants to call a person first he should look, in general situations, for an appropriate time to ring. It must not be time for prayer, rest or engagement as per the situation of the one who is to be called. If any one intends to talk on an important subject, seek some suggestion or talk for a considerable long time then one should have prior permission.
While calling, some people ring repeatedly for a long time that causes inconvenience. Likewise, some have habit of unnecessary miscalling; these are unlawful as they cause trouble.
While calling to a person one should greet with Islamic greeting 'Assalamu Alaikum' followed by a brief introduction so that the person at the other end should easily get informed. One should avoid uttering words like 'hello' and so on. One should greet at the end also.
One should maintain calmness while talking. It is commonly seen that some people talk with maximum volume as if the person at the other end is hard hearing. Similarly, one should avoid talking on mobile while walking as it may cause him harm. One should talk as much as is needed. Talking too much for nothing is not liked and it is wastage of time and money.
One should avoid, as much as one can, calling Ghiar Mahram (strange, to whom marriage is allowed) individuals of opposite sex. If a woman happens to talk to a man she should not speak in too complaisant of speech. She should talk only needful to men.
While calling to non-Muslims one should not greet him with Islamic greeting nor reply him with the same. One can use common words of greetings used for non-Muslims like ‘Wa’alaikum’ or ‘Hadakallah’ etc.
 Surah Luqman 31:6
 Tirmizi, chapter 32, Hadith No. 2308
 Musnad Imam Ahmad, Vol. 5, Musnad Al-Ansar, Hadith Abu Umamah
 Bukhari, Chapter 93. Oneness, Uniqueness of Allah, Hadith 646
 Bukhari, Chapter 73, Good Manners and Form (Al-Adab) Hadith 130
 Nasai, Chapter of Zinat
 Tirmizi, Chapter of Zuhd, Hadith 2419
 Bukhari, Kitabur Riqaq, Hadith No. 6049
 Tirmizi, Chapter of Doomsday, Hadith No. 2532
by: Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
In this media-controlled world, when violence is associated to the Quran and Muslims are labeled as terrorists, it may sound strange to many that it was Quran which first proclaimed the slogan of universal brotherhood, equality, justice and tolerance at a time when the humanity was fast asleep in the gruesome darkness of ignorance and injustice. The message of the Quran was very clear. That was the reason that it appealed millions of minds through ages and now also its adherents form one fifth of the entire population of the world.
Teaching of Equality
The first and foremost fundamental of the Quran about equality is that all human beings are descended from one father and mother, thus on the basis of humanity they are equal. The Quran says: “O mankind, we have created you from a male and a female, and made you into races and tribes, so that you may identify one another. Surely the noblest of you, in Allah‘s sight, is the one who is most pious of you. Surely Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware. (49:13)
The Quran very explicitly declared that the differences of races, tribes, colours and places are of no value and importance and they are only for identification. Only on the ground of race, colour and nationality one can not be considered higher and superior. By this, the Quran aimed at levelling the differences and discriminations of nations, races and tribes. The second thing which Quran proclaimed in the verse is that the cause of nobility is only ‘piety’. Thus Islam uprooted the racial pride and ego of the so-called higher classes.
This fundamental of equality was more elucidated in Hadith by the Prophet (peace be upon him): O people! Behold, your Lord is One, there is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab, nor for a non-Arab over an Arab, nor for a black on a red, nor for a red on a black, but due to piety and righteousness, in deed the best amongst you are those who are more pious and righteous. Behold, did I conveyed you the message? The people shouted: Yes, O the Messenger of Allah! Then the Prophet said: Those who are present should convey this message to those who are not present. (Baihaqi, Roohul Ma’ani 13:163-164)
Another Hadith says: O people! People are of two types; pious, righteous, estimable before Allah or nefarious, wretched, insignificant before Allah. All the people are descendants of Adam and Allah created Adam with soil. (Timizi, Baihaqi)
This was the first example of its kind in human history that the Quran eradicated racial prejudice so vehemently and emphatically, and asserted Muslims to consider the people of the world their brother and a human being like themselves. It uprooted racial hatred and asked to treat each other with good conduct. It is the fundamental principle of tolerance to consider the other communities human being like yourselves; since then only you can behave with them tolerantly and morally. If we consider them humiliated, abject and lowly then it is impossible to have a moral and tolerant conduct towards them.
Freedom of Expression
Second thing which the Quran taught about tolerance towards non-Muslims is granting freedom of expression. Islam regarded freedom of expression a birth right of human being and termed force and oppression as unfair and forbidden. The Quran strictly forbids forcing something on somebody which his conscience does not accept, it clearly and vividly declared: “There is no compulsion in Faith.” (2:256) Everyone is allowed whether to believe or to deny: “Now, whoever so wills may believe and whoever so wills may deny.” (18:29) At another place the Quran says: “We have shown him the way to be either grateful or ungrateful.” (76:3)
Islam utterly abhors conversion by force and called those who accept Islam due to any force, fear or greed as ‘munafiq’ (hypocrite). It regarded ‘nifaq’ (hypocrisy) such a great sin that the lowest part of Jahannam (Hell) has been allotted as abode of the hypocrites: “Surely, the hypocrites are in the lowest level of the Fire, and you shall never find for them a helper.” (The Quran 4:145)
Justice and Fairness with Others
The Quran asked Muslims to maintain justice and transparency with non-Muslims: “But if you judge, judge between them with justice. Surely, Allah loves those who do justice.” (5:42) At another place it says: “Allah does not forbid you as regards those who did not fight you on account of faith, and did not expel you from your homes, that you do good to them, and deal justly with them. Surely Allah loves those who maintain justice.” (60:8) Justice is to be maintained even if it goes against ones near and dear ones: “O you who believe, be upholders of justice - witnesses for Allah, even though against (the interest of) your selves or the parents, and the kinsmen. (4:135)
Muslims must hold on justice and fairness with people in every condition even if they have enmity with them to any extent, the Quran warns: “O you who believe, be steadfast for (obeying the commands of) Allah, (and) witnesses for justice. Malice against a people should not prompt you to avoid doing justice. Do justice. That is nearer to taqwa (piety).” (5:8)
The enmity against any people should not motivate you to do justice. If you have some malice and rivalry against anyone you should not find fault with him in every matter, but you must accept what is good in him. You should not violate the obligation of honesty in any matter only because the other party is your opponent, rather you must observe justice and fairness.
Tolerance through Fulfilling Promises
One of the most significant teachings of the Quran about tolerance towards others is to fulfil every promise made to them, lest government, prestige and power or racial pride make you to go against your promises. So, the Quran states: "And fulfil the covenant, surely the covenants shall be asked about (on the Day of Reckoning)." (17:34) It asserted: "So, fulfil the treaty with them up to their term, surely Allah loves the God-Fearing." (9:4)
Some Muslims enquired the Prophet (peace be upon him) about the pledges they made to non-Muslims in ‘the Days of Ignorance’ (before Islam). The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: “Fulfil the promises and pledges made in the Days of the Ignorance; since Islam emphasizes more to fulfil them.” (Mishkat p. 347, Tirmizi)
Good conduct with Others
The Quran commanded the believers to observe tolerance and good conduct with people: “Worship Allah, and do not associate with Him anything, and be good to parents and to kinsmen and orphans and the needy and the close neighbour and the distant neighbour and the companion at your side and the wayfarer and to those (slaves who are) owned by you. Surely, Allah does not like those who are arrogant, proud.” (4:36) In the abovementioned verse, those who were asked to be treated kindly have not been discriminated on the basis of their religion. Muslims were asked to have good conduct with them whether they are Muslims or non-Muslims.
The Holy Quran taught Muslims very clearly and openly to behave the non-Muslims with tolerance, good conduct and politeness: “Allah does not forbid you as regards those who did not fight you on account of faith, and did not expel you from your homes, that you do good to them, and deal justly with them. Surely Allah loves those who maintain justice.” (60:8)
While another verse says: “Allah enjoins to do justice and to adopt good behaviour and to give relatives (their due rights).” (16:90)
The Quran laid down a high scale law that no person (whether Muslim or non-Muslim) is hurt and offended. The Quran says: “Allah does not like the evil words to be said openly except from anyone wronged. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.” (4:148) Having established this law, Islam obstructed the passage of many evils that may occur due to offending and slandering others.
Treatment with Enemies
Leave alone the free people, Islam taught tolerance to such an extent that it asked Muslims to have good conduct with their enemies: The Quran requires Muslims to observe high grade tolerance with enemies in tough and trying situations as well, as it says: “Good and evil are not equal. Repel (evil) with what is best, and you will see that the one you had mutual enmity with him will turn as if he were a close friend.” (41:34)
When the oppressions and transgressions of enemies go beyond limits then punishing them is also in complete accordance with the law of nature. But, the moderate law about those oppressors deserves to be written with golden water as the Quran asserts to forgive and tend to reconcile. The Quran says: “The recompense of evil is evil like it. Then the one who forgives and opts for compromise has his reward undertaken by Allah. Surely, He does not like the unjust.” (42:40)
Love towards Other Religions
One of the tolerances which the Quran showed to non-Muslims is that it did not create any ill-will and hatred in its followers about other religions and their leaders; rather it pushed forth their love and strengthened their relation with other religions by various means. Sometime, it admitted the greatness of the leaders and prophets of other communities saying: “We did raise a messenger among every people, with the message.” (16:36) While sometimes, it sowed the seed of love in idolaters stating: “Do not revile those whom they invoke other than Allah.” (6:108)
The Quran presented a model of high grade tolerance that it regarded all the prophets and messengers of the Jews and the Christians as true prophets sent down by Allah. The Quran says: “Surely, We have revealed to you as We have revealed to Noah and to the prophets after him.” (4:163) And, it regarded the books believed by the Jews and the Christians as divine revelation from Allah: “Surely we have sent down the Torah, in which there was guidance and light.” (5:44) “We gave him the Injīl (Gospel) having guidance and light therein, and confirming the Torah that was (revealed) before it; guidance and a lesson for the God-fearing.” (5:46) Thus it extended the hand of friendship towards the Judaism and Christianity which were the well-known and prominent religions of the age. As far as other religions and nations are concerned, it declared that there were prophets from Allah to other nations and communities: “and there was no community without a Warner having passed among them.” (35:24)
Concisely, it secured the honour of the sacred figures of other religions in the eyes of Muslims forever and stopped Muslims absolutely to abuse any religious leader of others. Thus, it established the foundation of universal brotherhood, sympathy and tolerance which was extinct before the advent of Islam.
How to Preach and Argue?
Islam is for all humanity and the Prophet (peace be upon him) was sent down for all those in the world: “We did not send you but as mercy for entire people.” (The Quran 34:28) So, it was necessary to deliver the message of truth to the whole world, but the Quran observed complete tolerance in this regard also and ordered Muslims: “Invite (people) to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good counsel. And argue with them in the best of manners. Surely, your Lord knows best the one who deviates from His way, and He knows best the ones who are on the right path.” (16:125) In short, at every step the Quran enjoined Muslims to be so tolerant that no harsh and tough discussions take place during debate too.
The Quran asked Muslims to remain calm and exercise maximum restraint with people of other faith in order to avoid clash. It advised Muslims to forgive and overlook, as it says about the Jews and Christians: “They change words from their places, and they have overlooked a good deal of the Advice they were given. Every now and then you come across a certain treachery from all of them, except a few. So, forgive them and forego. Indeed, Allah loves those who are good in deeds.” (5:13) At another place it says: “So, turn away from them (disbelievers) and wish them peace.” (43:89)
Even if the non-Muslims strive to deviate Muslims from their religion then also Muslims were asked not to be provoked: “(O Muslims,) many among the people of the Book desire to turn you, after your accepting the faith, back into disbelievers — all out of envy on their part, even after the truth has become clear to them. So, forgive and overlook till Allah brings out His command.” (2:109)
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org
by: Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
"Islam is the best and Muslims are the worst”. Although this infamous quotation is an exaggeration, it carries some truth in view of the current moral situation of Muslims all around the globe. People who interact with Muslims complain of their immorality and misbehaviour. Anecdotes like the following abound: Once a Christian owed some money to a Muslim and the Christian was not prepared to pay him back. Ultimately, the Muslim went to a priest and beseeched him for help. The priest wrote a note to the Christian who paid immediately. Surprised the Muslim asked the Christian about the content of the note. The priest had written: “Since when have you become a Muslim?”
However, if we cast a cursory glance at Islamic history we will come across the best role models of morality and good manners. Not to speak of the high morals and noble character of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS). Even common Muslims were civilized and well mannered in the days of Muslim glory. Many chronicles bear witness that wherever Muslims went they impressed the local people with their transparent dealings, their disciplined and fair way of living. In Indian subcontinent, home nearly to 500 million Muslims, Islam was propagated by Muslim traders and saints who won the heart of people with their behaviour. In many regions good manners and powerful teachings were the factors that attracted people to come closer to Islam.
So why did Muslims deviate from the path they were guided on by their forefathers. There was nothing remarkably wrong with Muslims morals throughout history when they were politically stable and strong. The turning point came when Europe experienced the industrial revolution and gradually most of the Islamic world was captured by the colonial powers. A wave of inferiority complexes swept all across the Muslim regions that gradually resulted in Muslims’ distancing themselves from their religious history and cultural assets. Being dominated, they started adopting the rulers’ culture, but could not detach themselves completely from their religion. This, consequently, formed a strange type of mixture that neither had the good qualities of the western culture nor the spirit of Islamic teachings.
Muslims believe the Glorious Qur’an, which is both constitutional and divine literature, to be the perfect and eternal guide for the whole of humanity. Likewise the Prophet of Islam, Muhammad (SAWS) is a key figure whose actions and sayings are treated as living example of the Glorious Qur’an that is necessary to follow. The Glorious Qur’an itself has emphasized the need to follow the Prophet as a role model saying:
“Certainly you have in the Apostle of Allah an excellent exemplar for he who hopes in God and the latter day, and remembers God much”.
In some other verses it asserts that whatever the Prophet says is to be followed by Muslims:
“And whatsoever the messenger gives you, take it. And whatsoever he forbids, abstain (from it).”
“And it becomes not a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His messenger have decided and affair (for them), that they should (after that) claim any say in their affair; and whoso is rebellious to Allah and His messenger, verily goes astray in error manifest.”
The Glorious Qur’aan invites Muslims to be earnest, truthful, trustworthy and useful for others while it asks them to shun from hurting people, backbiting, mocking, and cheating. The Glorious Qur’an has demanded Muslims to be humble and respectful for others. They should be clean-hearted and fair in their transactions and dealings. They should not hurt any one, should not use impolite language and should neither defame one another, nor insult one another by bad names. The Prophet (SAWS) has given glad tidings that the nearer to him in paradise will be those who are the best among you in manners and the farther to me in paradise will be those who are worse among you in morals. One Holy Hadith states that one cannot be a true Muslim until one likes for his brother what one likes for himself. An other tradition of the Prophet (SAWS) says that the best amongst you are those who are useful for others. Muslims have been asked to show mercy to all because all creatures are part of the family of Allah and Allah will not have mercy on those who do not have mercy on His creatures.
The Holy Prophet of Islam (SAWS) possessed the magnificent status of prophecy and divine leadership, but his manners in dealing with the people and his way of life were so simple and gentle that when he was among the people and a newcomer wanted to know about him, he had to ask, `Which one of you is the Prophet'? He never spoke with a morose face, nor did he ever apply rough, awkward words. The Holy Prophet of Islam did not care to sit down in the seat of honour in gatherings, and on entering any place would sit down in the first empty seat available. He did not let anybody stand up before him and treated others most respectfully. When travelling, the Prophet would work like the others and would never let any of his persons do his work. Once one of his companions requested him to be allowed to help him with his chores. The Holy Prophet of Islam answered: ‘I do not like to be treated as if I were privileged because Allah does not like any of His creatures to consider themselves privileged or to be treated as if they were privileged over others'. And he got up and collected firewood.
He invariably stood by his words and pledges. He paid affectionate visits to his relatives and friends but would never take their side unduly. The Holy Prophet of Islam would never permit anybody to backbite others and said: ‘I want to meet people with a loving heart'. The Prophet treated everyone with great respect and considered nobility and honour to be owing to faith, piety, and good behaviour. He was not interested in wealth or status, nor did he revere anybody for his riches or position. The Holy Prophet of Islam never attempted to retaliate against the insults and disrespect of anybody, and forgave people's mistakes or their misconduct. His reaction to the torment and disregard of ignorant people was forgiveness and tolerance. In spite of all the tortures and torments that the Quraish had inflicted upon the Holy Prophet of Islam, on conquering Makkah, he forgave them and set them free.
You will come across people who are considered to be religious minded but they insist on tiny matters more than on morals and good behaviour. Some people are inwardly pious but when they chance to deal with others they forget the beautiful and wise lessons that were taught to them by the Messenger (SAWS). It is regrettable that those who were taught lofty manners have forgotten them completely. However, one should keep in mind that the public and social matters are much more important than individual and private ones. As far as the matter of religious practices (Huqooq al Allah) is concerned they are more private and therefore less public than moral teachings (Huqooq al Ibaad), which are related to human beings and even to every creature.
Every one knows that adultery has been sternly prohibited in Islam and those who are found guilty of it are sentenced to punishments like whipping or even death. But in Islam, backbiting, though it is not a crime of capital punishment, has been regarded as worse than adultery. The reason is clear; backbiting is taken lightly and it causes conflict and disturbance in the society while, generally, people take adultery as a grave sin and it happens less. Many people are seen to perform their religious duties enthusiastically, but in the meantime they carry out such immoral behaviour that purges away the spirit of their good deeds. For instance, during the Hajj we see people while circling the Ka’bah, stoning the Satan and in other activities where the crowds are huge, not caring for the weak, the ill and the women, lacking all social consideration and only concerned with their own well being. Islam emphatically warns against violating the moral requirements and regards them as first and foremost. But the problem is that most of us consider the word of the teachings and not the spirit and inner meaning that lay beneath. It is reported on the authority of Hazrat Sahl bin Ma’az that his father said, “we set out on a journey of Jihad with the Prophet (SAWS) and while staying at a place some people filled houses and blocked the road. So, the Prophet (SAWS) sent a person to call that one who fills a house or blocks a road there is no Jihad for him (his Jihad is useless).
The moral teachings of Islam cover all the areas of life. We have been guided how to lead our personal and social life. Islam has left no stone unturned to provide its followers with the best set of morals and manners. Cleanliness has been regarded as half of the Iman (faith). It is narrated, “Allah is clean and He likes cleanliness”. Qualities such as truth, trustworthiness, and keeping promise have been given due importance in Islam. The Prophet (SAWS) has said: “Beware of lies, they lead you to debauchery and they will take you to hell. Hold fast to truth, it leads you to righteousness and takes you to Paradise”. Likewise, there are some other traditions such as “One who deceives is not one of us”. “One who can not keep his promise can never be a true Muslim, one who can not guard a trust can never be a true Muslim”.
The Prophet of Islam (SAWS), due to his fair and transparent dealings, was called “Al-Sadiq” and “Al-Ameen” (the truthful and the trustworthy) even by his bitter enemies. Before prophethood, he used to be a successful trader and every one liked him to handle his/her business. People used to give their deposits to the Prophet for safety and he always fulfilled their expectations. Once a trader asked the Prophet in a market to wait for him till he came back and the Prophet (SAWS) promised to do so. The Prophet (SAWS) waited for three days. When the trader remembered the Prophet (SAWS) he rushed back to the market and found the Prophet (SAWS) waiting at the place of promise. The Prophet said nothing except, “You made me wait for so long”.
One of the most virtuous deed is to bid Salaam (saying ‘may peace be upon you’) while meeting each other. It has been regarded as an expression of love and great reward has been promised for the same. Paying visits to the sick, attending funeral and sharing one’s grief and joy have also been profusely emphasized in Islam. The Prophet (SAWS) used to take the lead to bid Salaam. He always instructed people to show kindness to the weak, sick and needy. His behaviour towards the needy was amazingly affectionate, and he would do his best to remove the troubles and sufferings of the poor. He loved the children very much, bid them Salaam (peace) whenever he met them and put his hand on their heads showing mercy. Hazrat Anas bin Maalik, a companion, narrates that he lived with the Prophet for ten years but the Prophet never scolded him nor asked about a reason for his action.
Today we see that youths do not pay respect to their parents. The men, instead of being a shield to the women, commit violence against them. The younger are deprived of the love of the elders, so they also grow rude and ill mannered. Whereas Muslims are asked to pay exclusive attention to their parents and to stay obedient to them, even their happiness has been regarded as the happiness of Allah.
“Thy Lord hath decreed, that ye worship none save Him, and (that ye show) kindness to parents. If one of them or both of them to attain old age with you, say not "Fie" unto them nor repulse them, but speak unto them a gracious word. And lower unto them the wing of submission through mercy, and say: My Lord! Have mercy on them both as they did care for me when I was little.”
Likewise, Muslim men were repeatedly warned not to violate the rights of women. The will and testimony, which The Prophet (SAWS) dictated on his deathbed, included repeated warnings concerning the right of the women. He is reported to have said: “The best amongst you are those who are good to their family and I, among you, am the best to my family”.
The Prophet (SAWS), in spite of being occupied with other people’s work, had fixed a time during which he used to pay visits to his wives and talk to them of love and pleasure. Hazrat Aa’ishah narrates that he never minded doing chores with them and used to stitch his shoes, milk the goats and sweep the house. Similarly, the parents have been made aware of the rights of children. The Prophet (SAWS) has been reported saying that it is the right of a child that he/she is given good name and taught in the best of manner while an other Hadith states that the best gift that parents give to their child is the teaching of ‘Adab’ (courtesy, etiquettes, and education). The elders have been ordered to behave tenderly with the young while the young have been called upon to respect the elders. In Islam it is an act of great reward to maintain ties of kinship with relatives even with those who snap them, while those who severe the ties of kinship have been strongly deplored.
The neighbours have been given much importance in Islam. Various Hadith of the Prophet (SAWS) emphasize to behave well with neighbours. The Prophet (SAWS) says: “No one who harms his neighbours can enter in to paradise.”. Once the Prophet (SAWS) swore by Allah thrice and said: “One can never be a believer whose neighbour is not secured by his mischief” and “One who is killed defending his neighbour one will die as a martyr”.
It is to be noticed that neighbour is not only one who lives besides one’s house. In its broader Islamic meaning a neighbour is everyone who shares a part of one’s life. Helping the poor and fulfilling one’s need is an act of great reward in the eye of Islam. Muslims have been immensely encouraged to feed a hungry, give drink to a thirsty, dress a naked and guide someone gone astray. The Prophet (SAWS) said to his wife Aa’ishah: “Do not send a poor away empty handed, give him even if you have only a piece of date. O Aa’ishah! Love the poor, Allah will love you.” In other Hadith he says that one who adopts an orphan will be with him in Jannah (paradise). It is worth mentioning that these acts of kindness are not confined to Muslims only. Every needy should be looked after without any distinction of caste, creed and colour.
This is a bird’s eye view on the moral system of Islam. I hope that this much will suffice to create an interest in the reader to explore the ocean of Islamic moral teachings and to adopt them as his/her way of life. For a Muslim, the only thing that can lead him/her to success in this world and the hereafter are the teachings of Islam. But, those who ignore these bright teachings will go astray and waste their life. The Glorious Qur’an mentions both the parties in its inimitable style:
“Lo! Those who believe and do good works, theirs will be Gardens underneath which rivers flow. That is the Great Success.”
“The likeness of those who disbelieve is the likeness of one who calls unto that which hears naught except a shout and cry. Deaf, dumb, blind, therefore they have no sense.”
 Short cut of ‘Sallallahu Alaihi Wa Sallam’, meaning ‘peace be upon him’. It is a blessing sent to the Prophet by Muslims.
 Surah 33, Al-Ahzab, Aayah: 21
 Surah 59, Al-Hashr, Aayah: 7
 Surah 33, Al-Ahzab, Aayah: 36
 Musnad-I-Ahmad, Musnad-us-Shamiyin, narrated by Abu Salabah Khashini
 Sahih Bukhari, Kitabul Iman, Hadith No. 13
 Al-Jami-us-Saghir, Hadith No. 4044; Kanzul Ummal, Hadith No.43065
 Kanzul Ummal, Hadith No. 16171; Majma-uz-Zawaid, Hadith No. 13706
 Kohlul Basar, pp. 67, 68.
 Mishkat, p. 340
 Sunan-i-Tirmizi, Hadith No. 2951
 Musnad-I-Ahmad, Musnad-I-Hazrat Anas bin Malik
 Kanzul Ummal, Hadith No. 18653
 Surah 17 Al-Israa or Bani Israel, Aayah: 23, 24
 Ibn-I-Majah, Kitab-un-Nikah, Hadith No. 1977
 Sahih Muslim, Kitab-ul-Iman, Hadith No. 73
 Sahih-ul-Bukhari, Kitabul Adab, Hadith No. 5670
 Kanzul Ummal, Hadith No. 11172
 Sunan-I-Tirmizi, Abwab-uz-Zuhd, Hadith No. 2457
 Surah 85. Al-Buruj. Aayah: 11
 Surah 2. Al-Baqara, Aayah: 17
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi can be reached at: email@example.com
By: Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
In our daily life, while visiting public places, taking tea in restaurants we see innocent children offering services, but we hardly realize the gravity of the matter that has pushed them in the work. At the tender and young age when their contemporaries who have affluent parents play with their mates, go school and spend their life carefree, they are compelled to shoulder the burden of family and to pose themselves to numerous magnificent hazards; mental, physical, moral and so on.
It is tragedy that data on child labour are scarcely available. It is difficult to cite a current figure for the number of children engaged in work. Combining various official sources, it is estimated that there were some 211 million children aged 5 to 14 at work in economic activity in 2000 around the world. This accounts for a little less than one fifth of all children in this age group. About 73 million working children are less than 10 years old. The total economically active child population 5-17 years old was estimated at 352 million children by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 2000.
The large majority of working children, close to 94 percent, live in developing countries, mostly in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest numbers were found in Asia - 44.6 million (13 per cent) followed by Africa - 23.6 million (by far the highest rate at 26.3 per cent) and Latin America - 5.1 million (9.8 per cent). Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest proportion of working children. Some estimates show that almost one child in three below the age of 15 is economically active in the region. In the 18 countries in this region with data on child labour, 38 percent of all children between 7 and 14 years of age are engaged in work that can be considered harmful to their development. The child work ratios in other major world regions are all below 20 per cent.
This overall estimates working children are exclusive of children who are engaged in regular non-economic activities, including those who provide services of domestic nature on a full-time basis in their own parents' or guardians' households. While it is estimated that 171 million children ages 5-17 were estimated to work in hazardous situations or conditions in 2000. In addition to the number of children in hazardous work, it is estimated that there were about 8.4 million children involved in other worst forms of child labour; which includes trafficking, forced and bonded labour, armed conflict, prostitution and pornography and illicit activities.
Available information points to the existence of traditional forms of child slavery in South Asia and sub-Saharan East Africa. A large number of ‘child slaves’ are to be found in agriculture, domestic help, the sex industry and other industries. They may number in tens of millions, according to ILO. Child slavery predominates mainly where there are social systems based on the exploitation of poverty, such as debt bondage.
The overall condition of children is not good at all in India. Poor children in India begin working at a very young age. Many children have to work to help their families and some families expect their children to continue the family business at a young age. It is difficult to cite an exact figure because of a universal difficulty in obtaining accurate data. However, it is perceived that India is the largest example of a nation affected by the problem of child labour. There is an estimation of between 60 and 115 million working children in India, the highest in the world, while there are over 15 million in bonded labour. There are 5,00,000 children in prostitution and at least 18 million children living on the streets in India. According to a World Bank report, the prevalence of underweight children in India is among the highest in the world, and is nearly double that of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Child labour is one of the most serious socioeconomic phenomena and a significant problem of modern India. Millions of children are put to work in ways that drain childhood of all joy and crush the right to normal physical and mental development. A large majority of working youngsters toil as unpaid family workers and most of those working as paid employees are paid much less than the prevailing rates in their localities. They often work long hours every day of the week doing hard physical labour. Being tender physically, children are susceptible to various work-related injuries and illnesses more than adults doing the same kind of work. They face significant threats to their health and safety because they are less aware, even completely unaware, of the potential risks involved in their specific occupations or at the workplace.
WHAT CAUSES THE WORSE CONDITIONS OF CHILDREN?
The major determinant of child and other related problems is poverty. Child labour in India is essentially a socioeconomic phenomenon arising out of poverty and lack of development. In many cases families depend on a child's wages for their survival. Families need money to survive, and children are a source of additional income for poor families. Children’s work is considered crucial to maintain the economic level of households. In India, the percentage of population living in poverty is very high; it has the largest poor population in the world. There are about 350-400 million people leading their life on less than 1$ a day.
In addition to poverty, illiteracy also contributes greatly to the worsening condition of children. The poor and illiterate parents are left with no option but to push their children to work. India’s state of education lacks effectiveness in yielding basic literacy in the population. Nearly, 40% of the Indian population is illiterate. The parents are ignorant and they are not aware of the bad consequences of their children being left illiterate. If some parents manage to send their children to school, they could not continue it due to monetary and other factors. Therefore, dropout rate is high in Indian schools than other developing nations. There are indications that few students reach fifth or sixth grade and dropout rates support this conclusion. Dropout rates measured by the Department of Education show that 35% of males and 39% of females dropout. The pressing need for the child’s earnings as well as low perceived advantages of school cause parents to withdraw children from school and put them in work. So, as a result poverty and the insufficiency of the school system play significant roles in worsening the condition of children.
HOW TO ELIMINATE IT?
From independence, India has committed itself to be against child labour. Article 24 of the Indian constitution clearly states that "No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or employed in any hazardous employment". Likewise, the Article 39 (e) directs State policy "that the health and strength of workers . . . and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength".
It has been the policy of the government to ban employment of children below the age of fourteen and to recognize the right of the children to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the their education, or to be harmful to the their health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.
Poverty: With all these policies and commitment, the tragedy of child labour and working children still remains magnificent. Since, it is clear that this goal cannot be achieved only by enforcement of law and enacting of policies. Given the complex socio-economic dimensions of the problem, improvement in the living and working conditions of parents and in their economic conditions is crucial to the elimination of child labour.
It is of no use to withdraw children from work and put them in schools without offering their families any alternative. Before attacking child labour, it should be ensured that the needs of the poor families are fulfilled. If poverty is addressed, the need for child labour will automatically be reduced to nothing. Child labour will remain until the root cause of it i.e. poverty is removed. We have to put an end to the cycle of poverty that is reborn after every generation to address the underlying causes.
Education: Education is also an indispensable component to eliminate child labour. It is widely acknowledged that the provision of compulsory primary education is the main method of controlling child labour. The concept of compulsory education, where all school aged children are required to attend school, combats the force of poverty that pulls children out of school. Policies relating to compulsory education not only force children to attend school, but also contribute appropriate funds to the primary education system, instead of higher education. Compulsory education has worked to reduce child labour. Article 45 of the Constitution of India states: "The State shall endeavour to provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years". But, it is quite surprising and annoying that there have passed five decades on independence and we have not still achieved the goal of free and compulsory education. So, the pressing need of our time is to provide free and compulsory education to each and every citizen of the country.
On the contrary, education, instead of being free, is very costly and expensive. The education is so commercialised that you can never expect the poor and ignorant parents to afford schooling. There may be some schools that offer basic education at considerable cost, but here the tragedy is that they are so below standard that instead of giving any improvement in the overall situation contribute in aggravating the poor condition of children. Schooling must be affordable and relevant to the child's circumstances, and should provide practical skills and knowledge.
Social Awareness: Social awareness is an important factor that can tackle the menace of child labour. First of all, the poor and ignorant parents should be informed of the importance of educating their children. The common people and social organizations also should strive to help the parents and create an environment that reduces the chances of a child being engaged in work. It should be considered that not only the forms of child labour that are banned by law are bad, but also every economic and other activity of a child that deprives him of education or that affects their mental and physical growth should be abolished. If the future of such a huge portion of our next generation is shrouded with darkness of poverty, ignorance and misery then how can we claim to be the largest democracy of the world; since these things are inconsistent with democracy and social justice.
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org
by: Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
The social matters that are related to morals and ethics are mainly associated to tongue. The tongue, though very small and tiny in size, holds great importance in ones social life. The good behaviours and characters are chiefly the phenomenon of tongue, while telling a lie, abusing, slandering, backbiting, gossiping, scandal mongering and other social evils are concerned with this tiny piece of flesh. Therefore, in Islamic teachings the tongue has been given due place and Muslims were warned to use it very carefully. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) has been reported saying: "Whoever protects his tongue from unlawful utterances and guards his private parts from illegal sexual relations, I shall guarantee him entrance into the Paradise." (Sahih Bukhari: Hadith No 6109)
While, at another place the Prophet (peace be upon him) is asked: “Who is the best Muslim? The Messenger of Allah replied: “He is the one from the evils of whose tongue and hands people are safe." (Sunan Nasai: Hadith No 11726)
Another Hadith explains the important position of tongue among the other parts of the body saying: "When man wakes up in the morning each day, all parts of the body warn the tongue saying, ‘Fear Allah as regards us; for we are at your mercy; if you are upright, we will be upright and if you are crooked, we become crooked." (Sunan Tirmizi: Hadith No 2407)
Islam is a religion of peace, love and compassion. Lies, suspicion, backbiting, slander and gossip are totally against the spirit of Islam. Islam demands that our relationship with our fellow society members should be one of sincerity and responsibility. There should be respect for the honor, prestige and privacy of others. These are the foundations that prop up the entire fabric of social system. If society members are sincere and responsible towards one another they gain trust and thus peace and fraternity prevails in the society. While the aforesaid social evils attack at the very root of social fabric; they cause destruction and devastation. When the society members will not be responsible towards one another and loose mutual confidence and trust, the peaceful society will cease to exist.
Today, we shall discuss one the most destructive of all social evils i.e. backbiting and slandering. They are so widespread that it has become the topic of our meetings and an avenue for expressing anger, envy and jealousy. The Glorious Quran declared it as abhorring and hateful, saying: “O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion, in deed some suspicions are sins. And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? You would hate it (so hate backbiting). And fear Allah, verily, Allah is the one who accepts repentance, Most Merciful.” (Al-Quran, Surah Hujrat, 49:12) According to the meaning of the verse, slander and backbiting are repugnant to the intelligence and heart, to humanity and conscience, to human nature and religious and societal brotherhood.
Backbiting is to speak ill of a person behind his back, including matters concerning his character, worldly affairs, physical appearance and personality. Not only is backbiting restricted to words, but also it includes every behavior and deed, whether indicating to a person by gesturing with ones eyes, hand or head.
So, backbiting is to mention something about a person in his absence that he hates to have mentioned, even though these things exist in him and are true. In order to describe the meaning of backbiting once the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked his companions: "Do you know what backbiting is?" They said, "Allah and His Messenger know best." He then said, "It is to say something about your brother that he would dislike." Someone asked him, "But what if what I say is true?" The Messenger of Allah said, "If what you say about him is true, you are backbiting him, but if it is not true then you have slandered him." (Sahih Muslim: Haidth No 2589).
Backbiting and slandering is amongst the meanest manners and serious social crimes which cause dishonour and ignominy to other fellowmen. It leads to hostilities between people of the same household and between neighbours and relatives. We have been emphatically asked to maintain good ties with relatives and neighbours and not to hurt them by our hand and tongue. ‘A perfect Muslim is one from whose hand and tongue people are safe.’ Islam strongly dislikes enmity and distrust among relatives, neighbours and other community members. The Quran has commanded believers to refrain from such utterances and statements that may sow enmity and discord among the family or society members. It says: “Say to My servants that they should only say those things that are best, for Satan does sow dissensions among them, for Satan is to man an avowed enemy.” (Al-Quran, Sura Israa, 17:53)
Backbiting is the one of the grave social evils today. Backbiting is a destructive element that devastates the social construction and spoils the tied up relations. When the ill speech reaches the one about whom it is said, it hurts him and arises feelings of hatred, distrust and enmity in him. Through its regulations, Islam intends to reinforce fraternity and develop mutual amicability, while it warns against any matter that roils the pure hearts or raises malice and contempt.
Some of the Hadith goes to define the evil of backbiting more serious than a social crime. It is reported in a Hadith that backbiting is graver even than adultery. This is because when a man commits adultery and then repents to Allah, Allah accepts his repentance, but the sin backbiting is not purged away until it is forgiven by the person who was backbitten. (Mishkatul Masabeeh by Baihaqi: 4874)
By committing backbite, a person intends to ridicule and degrade his fellowman and shows that he is superior to him. This character is again very disgusting and highly offensive. Backbiting is the weapon of the weak and the low. Backbiting is a shameful weapon and most commonly used by people of enmity, envy and obstinacy; no self-respecting, honorable man will ever demean himself by resorting to such a vile weapon. Those who indulge in backbiting hide their own imperfections by speaking ill of others and flinging mud upon them.
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi can be reached at: email@example.com
by: Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
The issue of women's right has been the most complicated one in the human history. All the Civilizations of the world have adopted the two extreme positions on this matter. Rome, Greece and Europe had tested the two extremes throughout their history. Some civilized nations like Greece once and presently the so-called civilized Western nations have equated them with men in every sphere of life. They drew them out of their homes for total emancipation. While other Country like ancient Persia went to other extreme, describing women as a blunder of Nature and a creature, which ought to be ignored. (1) The Greece, Rome and Christian Europe regarded women as the root cause of evil, gateway to Satan and an unavoidable creature. The women had no value and no status in the society. (2) Hinduism regarded women as a salable commodity. The women were deprived of basic human rights. Even a widow had to burn herself with the dead body of her husband. (3) The Islamic viewpoint regarding women is quite moderate. Unlike the other religions and civilizations of the world, it offers a divine solution to this matter. It directly addresses the nature and appeals to the heart of human beings. It adopts middle path and takes into consideration the physical formation of the women to give them their due status in human society.
Women in Islam
According to Islam women are equal partners to men in building a human society. They have their own rights, privileges and status. They play important and equally significant role in the development of human civilization. They must be given education and training so that they can efficiently perform their duties. They have right to chose their spouse and enjoy their life. They inherit property from their father and husband. When she is a child her father has responsibility to bring her up and to provide educational facilities. When she is a wife it is her husband's duty to respect her sentiments and give her due rights. When she is a mother her son is asked to behave gently and provide extraordinary love and care and remain obedient to her. The women have been assigned the duty to look after homely affairs. They have to arrange home well and take care of the family members. They have been given instructions by Islam to put veil on their bodies and not to display their feminist charm to outsiders.
Why women have been ordered to manage home?
Here is a common question asked by Non-Muslims 'why only women are forced to cover and veil. Before we go to answer we must understand some natural facts so that we can realize the situation in a broader perspective.
It is a universal fact that every creature doesn't hold same status. As human beings are supreme to all, so only a senseless person is going to equate them with animals. In the same fashion all the creatures have been categorized by nature itself. Even the duties and mental approach of them differ from sex to sex. This is an absolute truth, none can deny.
The women have been given a different type of physical and psychological system from men. The biological and scientific researches reveal the fact that the women have entirely different structure ranging from body formation to the cells and particles of body. Having being grown up she undergoes menstruation every month and pregnancy now and then. It is medically proved that a woman is nearer to illness in menstruating and pregnancy days. She loses her temper and suffers from many abnormal changes. A mother has to suckle her baby and nourish. It requires full time attention.(4) Because of these natural and physical reasons a woman is not able to discharge her duties like earning livelihood, sponsoring family, working hard, govern a country, fighting in the battle field and deal with the challenges of the world. It is unjust on her part to put these duties on her weak shoulder. Biologically women are to bear a child and nurse. Their advancement is to make their biological nature grow not to suppress it and turn to an opposite direction. Therefor Islam has drawn a different framework for both man and woman. The women have full freedom to excel in their field. The duty of nursing a child and management of the house is of greater value than to earn money. If a woman earns bread she serves an ordinary purpose and leaves the important one incomplete. If she nourishes a child with full attention she will cooperate the society to produce a good and noble member for it. This job is much more important for her than the first one. Even Antom Nimlov, a renowned communist scientist of Soviet Union admits this fact and writes in his book "The Biological Tragedy of Women”:
"Biologically men and women are not equal and they were not put equal burdens."(5)
Apart from biological aspect, the women were equal to men historically. There passed many civilizations on this earth which gave them chances to go ahead shoulder to shoulder with men but they failed. Nowhere in the world women could prevail over the men. There were only men who ruled the world, in general, and dominated the history.
Purdah for Women
Purdah code in Islam is well connected with that of marriage and Islamic family system. The West considers the society a group of individuals free to indulge in any activity that involves them personally. On the contrary, Islam considers all society a unit. It does not allow an individual to carry out such an action that damages the social structure though it is confined apparently to his/her personality.
Islam believes that a human civilization can survive only when the society is clean, pious, systematic, and responsible. The success of the society lies in its spiritual development. Free sexual relation, uncontrolled carnal desires, shamelessness and nudity is disastrous for society. It will lead it to a horrible end. Even some western writers have admitted that the family system is a must for any flourishing society. The last president of Soviet Union Michael Gorbachov says in his book "Prostraika" chapter "status of women":
"Our family system has been destroyed. It will put an end to our nation. The disadvantages of women emancipation are more than its advantages"(6)
So Islam has put certain restrictions and regulations in order to protect. It has forbidden marriage between close relatives (Gair Mahram) to purify the family atmosphere and lessen the chances of sexual relations to the least degree. It commands Muslims to marry as soon as it is possible. Islam asks men to cover always their body from umbilicus centre to kneel while the women were commanded to cover their body except the face, hand and feet all the time. It is unlawful for both men and women to open these parts before any person other than their spouses. Women have been prohibited to go out and walk about without any obvious reason. They should lower their voice and not to talk to outsiders with softness in their speech. If they go outside they have to fulfill the condition of Purdah. The Holy Qura'an says:
"Stay at home and do not show off in the manner of the women of the days of ignorance."(7)
"O' prophet! direct the wives and daughters and the women of the believers that they should put down their outer cloaks from their head over their faces. This will make it possible for them to be distinguished so that they will not be molested"(8)
(3)" Direct the believing women to restrain their looks and guard their senses and not disclose any part their beauty or adornments, save that which is apparent thereof……"(9)
According to these verses she has to cover her face too when outside. Nearly all the Islamic scholars have stated that women should cover their faces. They can open the eyes if needed. It is better for them to open only one eye.
In Islam a woman should stay in house even it is better for her to offer prayers in a corner of her home. It is of greater virtue than to attend congregation in the mosque. When a woman goes out she attracts the undue attention of people. This attention promotes sexual lust and urges a man to commit adultery. So in the sight of Islam a bad glimpse is the first step towards adultery that causes a good deal of harm and ruination to the society. That is why the Prophet (pbuh) said:
"the eyes commit adultery and it is their looking (at forbidden things), the hands commit adultery and it is their catching (the forbidden), the legs commit adultery and it is their walking (towards forbidden) and the adultery of tongue is talking (to prohibited persons), and the heart wishes then (finally) the private parts confirm it (by doing) or belie it (by avoiding)."(10)
Looking deeply into the social teachings of Islam and the capital punishments set for adulterers and adulteress, it appears that Islam has eased the conditions of marriage and made adultery difficult enough. Isalm not only ordered women to veil their body but it has commanded men also to shun to cast a brazen and bad look at women. They were instructed to lower their gaze and guard their modesty. The Quraan says:
“Direct the believing men to restrain their looks and to guard their senses. That is purer for them.”(11)
Here a question may be raised that according to Islam when women are not permitted to come out of home then how they will satisfy their need. It is noteworthy that Islam has solved their financial problem. Being a daughter she will be fed and brought up by her father. Being a wife she will be paid and given all facilitates by her husband. If she is a sister or mother her brother or son will provide money, food and all necessities of life. If there happens no male to care for her then the Muslims of the locality or an Islamic state is responsible respectively. It is obligatory on men to give the women their due rights. All the details are mentioned in Fiqh books.
Employment & Business for Woman
Apart from this she can do business and make money. She is allowed to join an institution or office to strengthen her economic status. But there is a condition she must fulfill it. She will never be allowed to show her body and be a plaything in the hands of males. She cannot work at a place where she is not safe from male intervention. (12)
Some people object that Islam has deprived women of opportunities to advance and suppressed their inner abilities. Only those who have no knowledge of Islamic history and women’s natural abilities raise this question. Muslim women have their own remarkable history. There were women teachers who used to teach men. The women used to be scholars, writers and pious (waliah). There were mothers who follow Hijab code brought up countless giant, genius and towering personalities of the world. Instead of being hurdle, Hijab helped them to reach the heights of fame and utilize the inner capabilities given to them. Hijab helps men and women both to utilize their time and opportunities in a constructive direction. When a man and woman are attracted towards each other they waste their time, money and abilities in frivolities. It is only Hijab that prevents them to kill their energies in petty rather destructive matters.
Equality in Islam Today the West shouts slogans of women emancipation and equality. As per the West a woman is free to live as she likes. None can object on her action, relation and speech. She can run in the work field parallel with men. Islam also gives her equality and liberty, but they differ from those of the West. Islam gives a woman equal justice, equal protection, equal honour and equal rights to live. But it does not believe in the equality of work field because the field of their work is different from men. If the women are driven out of their field and taken to that of men the whole system will be reduced to chaos. It will harm the society more, for they will not be able to produce a good person for the future of the society. It will be just “killing the goose that lays the golden eggs”. Islam provides her full freedom in term of speech, movement and relationship. Interestingly, the advancements that the West has given to women is not appreciable because it has not given them these advancements as a woman. They have brought them to this height turning them into men. Their slogans of equality and freedom are empty and hollowed. There is no ground reality that is seen. Not only this but they have added burdens to the women’s homely work cleverly in the name of emancipation and equality. Now women are supposed to look after the child, cook the food, arrange the home and go to office to earn money. Men share their responsibilities with women but none comes the women’s burden and work. This is not only a mere exploitation but also rather a criminal act. The women in West could not come yet upto the grade of men. Men have been occupying all the important posts and status. Women are only exploited employees and workers. Equality and liberty is just a lip service and paper writing. On the contrary they have used women as an instrument of entertainment and enjoyment. They have pulled them out of their houses to the streets, offices, dancing clubs and beer bars just to serve their own end. The concept of women emancipation is nothing but an illusion. Antom Nimlov, a communist author is bound to say in his book "The Biological Tragedy of Women:
"If any one talk of giving less right to women a few people will support it. We ourselves will oppose. But we should not deceive ourselves that a practical equality between men and women is as easy as we think. Soviet Union has given them more rights than any country of the world, but the fact is that women could not find their positions."(13)
“If a man treats women equally the women themselves consider it a weakness of the man. There is neither a scientist, an author, a businessman, a communist nor a student who considers women equal to him."(14)
Finally, the sisters are requested to deliberate the matter thoroughly. It is better for them not to fall prey of “women emancipation & equality” because they biologically, naturally and historically are not to chase the men. Producing a noble, intelligent and talented child is, in no way, of less important. Actually it is women to whom goes the credit of men’s greatness. The West has deprived them of their freedom and mental peace. It has made them a puppet in the hands of tyrant men. They use women on every step of life and put extra burdens on them.
1. Insani Dunya par Musalmanon ke Urooj w Zawal ka Asar, Ali Miyan Nadvi
2. Purdah, 10 to 18 , Abul Aala Maududi
3. Purdah 153, Abul Aala Maududi
4. Islam aor Jadid Maddi Afkar 334, Muhammad Qutub Misri\ Purdah 139 to 145, Abul Aaala Maududi
5. The Biological Tragedy of Women 77, Antom Nimlov (with reference to Purdah 157
6. Islahi Khutbat 144, Md Taqui Usmani
7. Al- Quraan Surah Al-Ahzab 33\33 (Trans. By Zufarullah Khan)
8. Al-Quraan Surah Al-Ahazab 33\60 (*********************)
9. Al-Quraan Surah Al-Noor 24\32 (**********************)
10. Ahmad Bin Hanbal (with reference to Al-Mojam Al-Mofahras Lialfaz-il-Hadis Al-Nabevi, v 4, 454)
11. Al-Quraan Surah Al-Noor 24 / 31
13. Fatawa Rahimia v 10, 318
14. The Biological Tragedy of Women , Antom Nimlov (with reference to Purdah 157)
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org
by: Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
The foundation history of Darul Uloom dates back to the fall of Muslim Empire in India in 1857 in the hands of East India Company. It was a tragic turn of history that not only Muslim government was thrown out but multitude Muslim leaders and scholars were beheaded, gunned down and even hanged to death. The Muslim monuments, mosques, madrasas and institutions were razed and pulled down. Nearly, all the Muslim educational places which used to survive on the donations of Muslim rulers and nawabs ceased to exist and the entire Muslim culture and Islamic heritage was at verge of destruction and perishing. The government was bitterly against Muslims and it utilized every means to crush their first enemies, Muslims. Moreover, the Colonial forces were embedded with scores of missionaries ready to convert the heartbroken and poverty-stricken masses to Christianity.
In this critical time, there were few fortunate Ulama who escaped the deadly reprisal launched against Muslims, particularly Ulama. They did not sit back quietly. Though, they were defeated at the battlefield of weapons, but they did not spare hope to preserve the Muslim honour and Islamic heritage entrusted to them by their elders and ancestors. So, they planned to start a madrasa in Deoband as centre of their activities with public contributions and co-operations.
May 30, 1866 (15 Muharram, 1283) Thursday was that blessed and auspicious day in the Islamic history of India when the foundation stone for the renaissance of Islam was laid in the land of Deoband. Seeing the simple and ordinary manner in which it had been started, it was difficult to visualize that a madrasa beginning so humbly, with utter lack of equipments, was destined to become the centre of the Islamic sciences in the world.
The head of founding committee of Darul Uloom Deoband was Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotavi. The other founding members were: Hazrat Haji Aabid Hussain, Maulana Mahtab Ali, Maulana Zul Faqqar Ali, Maulana Fazrulr Rahman and Munshi Fazle Haq.
Fundamental Principles of Darul Uloom
Darul Uloom Deoband was established to fulfil these fundamental objectives aimed at by their founders:
Contribution of Darul Uloom Deoband
Darul-Uloom Deoband is today a renowned religious and academic centre in the Islamic world. In the sub-continent it is the largest institution, even the fountain head of all Islamic institutions, for the dissemination and propagation of Islam and the biggest headspring of education in the Islamic sciences. For the last one and half century, the Darul Uloom, Deoband, is considered an incomparable teaching institution for the religious education of the Muslims not only in the sub-continent but also throughout the Islamic world.
As the fame of Deoband reached farther, students began flocking in droves from this sub continent as well as from neighbouring and distant countries like Afghanistan, Iran, Bukhara, Samarqand, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey and the far off regions of the continent of Africa. Within a short time, the radiant rays of knowledge and wisdom illumined the heart and mind of the Muslims with the light of faith and Islamic culture. Having acquired the knowledge of religion from Darul Uloom Deoband, these accomplished scholars, in accordance with the demands of religious needs of the time, rendered valuable services in spreading correct religious beliefs and religious sciences in their concerned areas.
Till last year nearly one lakh ten thousand students got educated there and went out to represent Islam in the Muslim community. The majority of personalities, well-versed in the religions sciences who find mention in the history of post- Moghul era across the length and breadth of the sub-continent either have quenched their thirst from this very great river of knowledge or they are related to educational institution by near or far.
Darul Uloom produced countless celebrated and towering personalities who left matchless impressions in nearly every sphere of life. More renowned among them are Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotavi, Hazrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi, Hazrat Shaikhul Hind Mahmood Hasan, Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi, Hazrat Allama Anwar Shah Kashmiri, Hazrat Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madani, Hazrat Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Hazrat Qari Muhammad Tayyib etc etc.
Hazrat Haji Aabid Hussain (1250-1331 AH) was the first Mohtamim of Darul Uloom. Later, Hazrat Maulana Rafiuddin (1252-1308 AH) Hazrat Haji Fazle Haq, Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Muneer (b. 1247 AH) Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Ahmad (1279-1347 AH) Hazrat Maulana Habibur Rahman Usmani (d. 1348 AH) Hazrat Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (1305-1369 AH) also discharged their duties as Mohtamims. Darul Uloom witnessed extraordinary developments and expansions during Hazrat Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib’s half century long administration.
Today’s Darul Uloom Deoband
Now, Darul Uloom spreads at an area of 1,32,084 sq.m. with its main building of Darut Tafseer, Naudarah, Dar-e-Jadid, Masjid-e-Rashid and others covering an area of 33035 sq.m. and accommodating four thousand students. The education system starts from Primary and Hifz up to Daurah (graduation in Arabic and Islamic Sciences). After Daurah, there are some specialization courses like Ifta (Islamic Jurisprudence), Arabic Literature, Tasfeer, Hadith and Islamic Sciences while some of them have research sections too in which topper students get enrolled for further studies and training.
Besides, Darul Uloom provides some job-oriented training in Computer Applications, Calligraphy and tailoring. From past several years Darul Uloom started a two year Diploma in English Language and Literature where students are given extensive training in English reading, writing and speaking. Shaikhul Hind Academy at Darul Uloom offers diploma in Urdu journalism with some other departments presenting Comparative Studies in Religions and Sects.
Darul Uloom enjoys the oldest Darul Ifta of India which receives questions related to Islam and Muslim issues from around the globe. Darul Ifta preserves more than 500 big registers of fatwas containing millions of questions and answers. Darul Uloom has Internet Dept from where its official website is maintained and another Darul Ifta database website is run for Muslims around the world to get their questions answered. Darul Uloom Deoband has two monthlies ‘Darul Uloom’ in Urdu and ‘Al-Daie’ in Arabic, these two are published online as well. Darul Uloom has another bimonthly ‘Aaina-e-Darul Uloom’ in Urdu.
Darul Uloom is headed by Majlis-e-Shura (Advisory Board) comprising of 21 eminent Muslim scholars and personalities from across the country, while the internal system is supervised by a Mohtamim (Vice Chancellor). The administration of Darul Uloom is run through its 33 departments and offices with Darul Ihtemam (VC Office) at the top.
Darul Uloom Deoband is undoubtedly the centre of Islamic revival and renaissance in the Indian Subcontinent in the post-Moghul era. Such tremendous and all-round services and contributions offered Darul Uloom has no match in the Muslim history, as no such single institution brought about such an encompassing revolutions in the history of any community and country.
May Allah keep this lofty tree flourishing and blooming!
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi can be reached at: email@example.com