Maulana Burhanuddin Qasmi*
We generally expect most of our religious, social and educational work be done by ulama. We consider them incapable on the other hand! We generally do not support them, instead criticize them in most cases. Aren't these, kind of contradictions within us?
What our modern educated class is doing right now?
A man from Hindu Sena has written a letter to the home ministry dated 29 July 2019, which is viral now, demanding a complete ban on the Qur'an citing security concern for India! We may agree or disagree with Mr Azam Khan but Jauhar University is an educational institution, an asset for India, which is being targeted and may be severely harmed. NRC issue in Assam, Talaq Bill, RTI amendment bill, UAPA amendment bill, citizenship amendment bill, new education policy of India, and many such issues on which our non-ulama intellectuals who are graduated from some of the Muslim established universities with objective as "science in one hand and the Qur'an in other" could lead the poor Muslim masses socially as well as politically. Generally they aren't in the scene. Or there are some who again blame "mullas" are not allowing them to work or they have issues with being Muslims!
Harassment of Muslim youths in the name of love jehad, lynching in the name of cows and now brutality and killing for jai sri Ram. Muslims are feeling clueless and youths are psychologically getting affected. Lack of confidence is apparent. Some even started to hide their Muslim names. Some began to curse their being Muslims!
Aren't these issues better to be addressed by those who are educated, well of and more knowledgeable about the modern world order? Or aren't these all issues serious enough to work on them? What have we done individually to at least light a single candle to do our part?
Assam, Bihar and part of WB are severely affected by floods right now. Why mainly organizations led by ulama are on relief and humanitarian work? Aren't these our work too? Or aren't those suffering human beings not enough human to help them in calamities?
The polygamy case and Muslim inheritance case will come in the Supreme Court, sooner or later, just as follow up to talaq cases, on the basis of gender justice and equality before the law in reference to article 14 and 15 of Indian Constitution.
Should ulama deal with all these alone and can they probably do it? Why not there are a group of able Muslim lawyers, experts who understand Islam as well as modern laws vis-a-vis international laws still not ready from modern educated Muslims in India who should help the community in these issues? How many law colleges have we established so far? Why the legal battles of all Muslim youths who are innocent but arrested under terror charges be fought by ulama led organizations like Jamiat etc in the courts? Why a Muslim need to hire a non-Muslim lawyer to better fight his case in the courts?
One Dr Zafar Mahmood can give us dozen plus successful UPSC candidates each year. Why not many Zafar Mahmood? Why couldn't we produce a bunch of good journalists from within our community? Why not even a single strong media house owned by a Muslim in India? Our representations in arm and police forces are very low. Have we seriously done anything about it? Do those teach in universities and colleges ever speak about all these things in their classes? Some do, most do not.
Have we ever counted how many schools, colleges are established by those who are working with religious organizations or ulama and how many by those who blame ulama for everything? Ulama established madaris and makatib in each nook and corner of the country for religious education, why couldn't we do so by establishing schools and colleges for modern education of Muslims in India?
What contribution are we all offering to the community for it's social, educational and economic development having being posted in prestigious and handsomely paid positions in India and abroad following our education?
Let's ask our inner human honestly, have we seriously responded to the aims and objectives of the founders of AMU and JMI etc.?
I am sure, some of course did respond but is or was it enough? Why can't the north Indian Muslims with same resources available make an educational revolution like that of South Indian ones? Why there is no very visible division between ulama and non-ulama in the southern part of India?
I do feel the questions above are bit direct and too many. May be not so easy reading for some of my friends here. However, I dare to put them in public to bring some of you with me in my self-introspection.
Today we the Muslim Indians are surely not in a position to remain divided anymore and keep blaming each other. We need to work hard together with Muslims as well as all fellow citizens to save our country from destruction and the future of our own children as Muslim Indians.
*Editor: Eastern Crescent, Mumbai
By Mufti Taqi Usmani
- First Ten Days
- The 9th day of Zulhijjah
- The Fast of Youmul 'Arafah
- On the Eid day
- How to Perform Eid Prayers (Hanafi School)
- Khutbah: The Address of Eidul-Adha
- Sacrifice or Qurbani: Philosophy and Rules
- The Time of Qurbani
- Who is Required to Perform Qurbani?
- No Alternate for Qurbani
- The Animals of Qurbani
- Rules about Defective Animals
- The Sunnah Method of Qurbani
- Distribution of the Meat
Zulhijjah is the last month of the Islamic calendar. Literally, it means "hajj." Obviously, this name of the month indicates that the great annual worship of "hajj" is performed in this month, which gives it special significance. Some specific merits and rules relevant to this month are mentioned below:
First Ten Days
The first ten days of Zulhijjah are among the most magnificent days in Islamic calendar. The Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, has said, "One fast during these days is equal to the fasting of one complete year, and the worship of one night during this period is equal to the worship in the "Lailatul-Qadr".
Every Muslim should avail of this wonderful opportunity by performing during this period as much Iba'dah (acts of worship) to Allah as he or she can.
The 9th day of Zulhijjah
The 9th day of Zulhijjah is called 'Youmul - "Arafah' (The Day of 'Arafah). This is the date when the Hujjaj (Haji pilgrims, plural of Haajj) assemble on the plain of 'Arafat, six miles away from Makkah al-Mukarramah, where they perform the most essential part of the prescribed duties of hajj, namely, the 'Wuqoof of'Arafat (the stay in 'Arafat).
The Fast of Youmul 'Arafah
For those not performing hajj, it is mustahabb (desirable) to fast on this day according to their own calendar. It sometimes occurs that 9th Zuihijjah falls on different days in different countries according to the sighting of the moon. In such cases, Muslims of each country should observe 'Youmul 'Arafah according to the lunar dates of their own country.
For example, if 'Youmul 'Arafah' is being observed in Saudi Arabia on Friday, and in Pakistan on Saturday, Pakistani Muslims should treat Saturday as 'Youmul 'Arafah' and should fast on that day if they desire to benefit from the fast of 'Youmul'Arafah'.
The fast of 'Youmul 'Arafah' has been emphasized by the Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, as a mustahabb (desirable) act. According to a hadith, the fast of this day becomes a cause, hopefully so, of forgiveness for sins committed in one year.
Beginning from the Fajr of the 9th Zulhijjah up to the 'Asr prayer of the 13th, it is obligatory on each Muslim to recite the Takbir of Tashriq after every fard prayer in the following words.
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar,
La Ilaha Illallahu, Wallahu Akbar,
Allahu Akbar wa lillahilhamd.
(There is no god but Allah and Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest and to Allah belongs all praise.)
According to authentic Islamic sources, it is obligatory on each Muslim, to recite this Takbir after every fard salah. For women also, it is commendable though not obligatory. Whether you are performing salah with Jama'ah (collectively) or on your own (individually) makes no difference. You must recite the Takbir. However, male Muslims should recite it in a loud voice, while females should recite it in a low voice.
On the Eid day
The following acts are sunnah on the day of Eidul- adha:
1. To wake up early in the morning.
2. To clean one's teeth with a miswak or brush
3. To take bath.
4. To put on one's best available clothes.
5. To use perfume.
6. Not to eat before the Eid prayer.
7. To recite the Takbir of Tashriq in a loud voice while going to the Eid prayer.
How to Perform Eid Prayers (Hanafi School)
The Eid prayer has two raka'at performed in the normal way, with the only addition of six Takbirs, three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah, and three of them just before ruku' in the second raka'ah. The detailed way of performing the Eid prayer is as follows:
The Imam will begin the prayer without Adhan or iqamah. He will begin the prayer by reciting Takbir of Tahrimah (Allahu Akbar). You should raise your hands up to the ears, and after reciting the Takbir, you should set your hands on your navel. The Imam will give a little pause during which you should recite Thana' (Subhanakallahumma .:.). After the completion of Thana', the Imam will recite Takbir (Allahu Akbar) three times. At the first two calls of Takbir you should raise your hands up to the ears, and after reciting Takbir (Allahu Akbar) in a low voice, should bring your hands down and leave them earthwards. But, after the third Takbir, you should set them on your navel as you do in the normal prayers.
After these three Takbirs, the Imam will recite the Holy Qur'an, which you should listen calmly and quietly. The rest of the raka'ah will be performed in the normal way.
After rising for the second raka'ah, the Imam will begin the recitations from the Holy Qur'an during which you should remain calm and quiet. When the Imam finishes his recitation, he will recite three Takbirs once again, but this time it will be just before bowing down for ruku'. At each Takbir you should raise your hands up to the ears, and after saying 'Allahu Akbar', bring them down and leave them earthwards. After these three takbirs have been called and completed, the Imam will say another takbir for bowing down into the ruku' position. At this takbir you need not raise your hands. You just bow down for your ruku' saying, 'Allahu Akbar'. The rest of the salah will be performed in its usual way.
Khutbah: The Address of Eidul-Adha
In this salah of Eid, Khutbah is a sunnah and is delivered after the salah, unlike the salah of Jumu'ah where it is fard and is delivered before the salah. However, listening to the khutbah of Eid salah is wajib or necessary and must be listened to in perfect peace and silence.
It is a sunnah that the Imam begins the first Khutbah by reciting takbir (Allahu Akbar) nine times and the second Khutbah with reciting it seven times.
The way of Eid prayer described above is according to the Hanafi school of Muslim jurists. Some other jurists, like Imam Shafi'i, have some other ways to perform it. They recite Takbir twelve times before beginning the recitations of the Holy Qur'an in both the raka'at. This way is also permissible. If the Imam, being of the Shafi'i school, follows this way, you can also follow him. Both ways are based on the practice of the Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam.
Sacrifice or Qurbani: Philosophy and Rules
The Urdu and persian word Qurbani (Sacrificial slaughter) is derived from the Arabic word Qurban. Lexically, it means an act performed to seek Allah's pleasure. Originally, the word Qurban included all acts of charity because the purpose of charity is nothing but to seek Allah's pleasure. But, in precise religious terminology, the word was later confined to the sacrifice of an animal slaughtered for the sake of Allah.
The sacrifice of an animal has always been treated as a recognized form of worship in all religious orders originating from a divine book. Even in pagan societies, the sacrifice of an animal is recognized as a form of worship, but it is done in the name of some idols and not in the name of Allah, a practice totally rejected by Islam.
In the Shari'ah of our beloved Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, the sacrifice of an animal has been recognized as a form of worship only during three days of Zulhijjah, namely, the 10th, 1lth and 12th of the month. This is to commemorate the unparalleled sacrifice offered by the Prophet Sayyidna Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, when he, in pursuance to a command of Allah conveyed to him in a dream, prepared himself to slaughter his beloved son, Sayyidna Isma'il, Alayhi Salam, and actually did so but, Allah Almighty, after testing his submission, sent down a sheep and saved his son from the logical fate of slaughter. It is from that time onwards that the sacrifice of an animal became an obligatory duty to be performed by every well to do Muslim.
Qurbani is a demonstration of total submission to Allah and a proof of complete obedience to Allah's will or command. When a Muslim offers a Qurbani, this is exactly what he intends to prove. Thus, the Qurbani offered by a Muslim signifies that he is a slave of Allah at his best and that he would not hesitate even for a moment, once he receives an absolute command from his Creator, to surrender before it, to obey it willingly, even if it be at the price of his life and possessions. When a true and perfect Muslim receives a command from Allah, he does not make his obedience dependent upon the command's reasonability' as perceived through his limited understanding. He knows that Allah is All-knowing, All-Wise and that his own reason cannot encompass the knowledge and wisdom underlying the divine command. He, therefore, submits to the divine command, even if he cannot grasp the reason or wisdom behind it.
This is exactly what the Prophet Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, did. Apparently, there was no reason why a father should slaughter his innocent son. But, when came the command from Allah, he never asked about the reason for that command, nor did he hesitate to follow it. Even his minor son when asked by his father about the dream he had seen, never questioned the legitimacy of the command, nor did he pine or whine about it, nor did he ask for one good reason why he was being slaughtered. The one and only response he made was:
'Father, do what you have been ordered to do. You shall find me, God willing, among the patient".
The present-day Qurbani is offered in memory of this great model of submission set before us by the great father and the great son. So Qurbani must be offered in our time emulating the same ideal and attitude of submission.
This, then, is the true philosophy of Qurbani. With this in mind, one can easily unveil the fallacy of those who raise objections against Qurbani on the basis of economic calculations and depict it to be a wastage of money, resources and livestock. Unable to see beyond mundane benefits, they cannot understand the spirit Islam wants to plant and nourish among its followers, the spirit of total submission to Allah's will which equips man with most superior qualities so necessary to keep humanity in a state of lasting peace and welfare.
Qurbani is nothing but a powerful symbol of the required human conduct vis-a-vis the divine commands, however "irrational" or "uneconomic" they may seem to be in their appearance. Thus, the distrustful quest for mundane economic benefits behind Qurbani is, in fact, the negation of its real philosophy and the very spirit underlying it.
No doubt, there are in every form of worship ordained by Allah, certain worldly benefits too, but they are not the main purpose of these prescribed duties, nor should they be treated as a pre-condition to submission and obedience. All acts of worship, including Qurbani, must be carried out with a spirit of total submission to Allah, irrespective of their economic, social or political benefits. This is what Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, did, and this is what every true Muslim is required to do,
Keeping this in view, we are giving here some rules governing the worship of Qurbani in our Shari'ah according to the Hanafi School.
The Time of Qurbani
Qurbani can only be performed during the three days of Eid, namely the 10th, Ilth and 12th of Zulhijjah. It is only in these days that slaughtering of an animal is recognized as an act of worship. No Qurbani can be performed in any other days of the year.
Although Qurbani is permissible on each of the three aforesaid days, yet it is preferable to perform it on the first day i.e. the 10th of Zulhijjah.
No Qurbani is allowed before the Eid prayer is over. However, in small villages where the Eid prayer is not to be performed, Qurbani can be offered' any time after the break of dawn on the 10th of Zulhijjah.
Qurbani can also be performed in the two nights following the Eid day, but it is more advisable to perform it during daytime.
Who is Required to Perform Qurbani?
Every adult Muslim, male or female, who owns 613.35 grams of silver or its equivalent in money, personal ornaments, stock-in-trade or any other form of wealth which is surplus to his basic needs, is under an obligation to offer a Qurbani. Each adult member of a family who owns the above mentioned amount must perform his own Qurbani separately. If the husband owns the required quantity, but the wife does not, the Qurbani obligatory on the husband only and vice-versa. If both of them have the prescribed amount of wealth, both should perform Qurbani separately.
If the adult children live with their parents, Qurbani is obligatory on each one of them possessing the prescribed amount. The Qurbani offered by a husband for himself does not fulfil the obligation of his wife, nor can the Qurbani offered by a father discharge his son or daughter from their obligation. Each one of them should care for his own.
However, if a husband or a father, apart from offering his own Qurbani, gives another Qurbani on behalf of his wife or his son, he can do so with their permission.
No Alternate for Qurbani
Some people think that instead of offering a Qurbani they should give its amount to some poor people as charity. This attitude is totally wrong. Actually, there are different forms of worship obligatory on Muslims. Each one of them has its own importance and none of them can stand for the other. It is not permissible for a Muslim to perform salah instead of fasting in Ramadan, nor is it permissible for him to give some charity instead of observing the obligatory Salah. Similarly, Qurbani is an independent form of worship and this obligation cannot be discharged by spending money in charity.
However, if somebody, out of his ignorance or negligence, could not offer Qurbani on the three prescribed days (10th, 1lth and 12th Zulhijjah) then, in that case only, he can give the price of a Qurbani as sadaqah to those entitled to receive Zakah. But during the days of Qurbani no Sadaqah can discharge the obligation.
The Animals of Qurbani
The following animals can be slaughtered to offer a Qurbani:
1. Goat, either male or female, of at least one year of age.
2. Sheep, either male or female, of at least six months of age.
3. Cow, ox buffalo of at least two years of age.
4. Camel, male or female, of at least five years of age.
One head of goat or sheep is enough only for one person's Qurbani. But as for all other animals like cow, buffalo or camel, one head of each is equal to seven offerings thus allowing seven persons to offer Qurbani jointly in one such animal.
If the seller of animal claims that the animal is of the recognized age and there is no apparent evidence to the contrary; one can trust his statement and the sacrifice of such an animal is lawful.
Rules about Defective Animals
The following defective animals are not acceptable in Qurbani:
1. Blind, one eyed or lame animal.
2. An animal so emaciated that it cannot walk to its slaughtering place.
3. An animal with one-third part of the ear or the nose or the tail missing.
4. An animal that has no teeth at all, or the major number of its teeth are missing.
5. An animal born without ears.
The following animals are acceptable in Qurbani:
1. A castrated he - goat. (Rather, its Qurbani is more preferable).
2. An animal that has no horns, or its horns are broken. However, if the horns of an animal are uprooted totally so as to create a defect in the brain, its Qurbani is not lawful.
3. An animal the missing part of whose ear, nose or tail is less than one third.
4. A sick or injured animal, unless it has some above mentioned defects rendering its Qurbani unlawful.
The Sunnah Method of Qurbani
It is more preferable for a Muslim to slaughter the animal of his Qurbani with his own hands. However, if he is unable to slaughter the animal himself, or does not want to do so for some reason, he can request another person to slaughter it on his behalf. In this case also, it is more preferable that he, at least, be present at the time of slaughter. However, his absence at the time of slaughter does not render the Qurbani invalid, if he has authorized the person who slaughtered the animal on his behalf. It is a Sunnah to lay the animal with its face towards the Qiblah, and to recite the following verse of the Holy Quran:
I, being upright, turn my face towards the One who has created the heavens and the earth, and I am not among those who associate partners with Allah. ( Al-An'am, 6:79)
But the most essential recitation when slaughtering an animal is: Bismillah, Allahu Akbar. (In the name of Allah, Allah is the greatest). If somebody intentionally avoids to recite it when slaughtering an animal, it does not only make his Qurbani unlawful, but also renders the animal haram, and it is not permissible to eat the meat of that animal. However, if a person did not avoid this recitation intentionally, but he forgot to recite it when slaughtering the animal, this mistake is forgiven and both the Qurbani and the slaughter are lawful.
If somebody is unable to recite "Bismillah Allahu Akbar" in the Arabic language, he can recite the name of Allah in his own language by saying, "In the name of Allah".
Distribution of the Meat
If an animal is sacrificed by more than one person, like cow or camel, its meat should be distributed equally among its owners by weighing the meat strictly and not at random or by mere guess. Even if all the partners agree on its distribution without weighing, it is still not permissible according to shari'ah.
However, if the actual weighing is not practicable due to some reason, and all the partners agree to distribute the meat without weighing, distribution by guess can be done with the condition that each share necessarily contains either a leg of the animal or some quantity of its liver.
Although the person offering a Qurbani can keep all its meat for his own use, yet, it is preferable to distribute one-third among the poor, another one-third among his relatives and then, keep the rest for his personal consumption.
All parts of the sacrificed animal can be used for personal benefit, but none can be sold, nor can be given to the butcher as a part of his wages. If somebody has sold the meat of the Qurbani or its skin, he must give the accrued price as sadaqah to a poor man who can receive Zakah.
The most important way of worship performed in this month is "hajj", one of the five pillars of Islam. The Muslims from every part of the world assemble in Arabia to perform this unique way of worship. Hajj is a worship, which requires at least five days to be performed in its proper way. There are detailed rules for different acts of hajj for which separate books are available, and the present article does not aim at explaining all these details. However, some basic information about its obligation is being given here:
1. Hajj is obligatory on every adult Muslim who can afford to go to Makkah during the hajj season, whether on foot or by any other carriage.
2. If a person can travel to Makkah to perform hajj, but he cannot travel to Madinah, hajj is obligatory on him also. He can perform hajj without visiting Madinah.
3. A Muslim woman cannot travel for hajj unless she is accompanied by a mahram (i.e. husband or relative of a prohibited degree like son, father, brother etc.) If she does not find any mahram to accompany her, hajj is not obligatory on her until she finds one. However, she must make a will that in case she dies before performing hajj, his heirs should arrange for her hajj-e-badal out of her left over property.
4. Hajj is obligated only once in one's life. After performing the obligatory hajj; one is not required to perform it again. However, he can perform the nafl (optional hajj as many times as he or she wishes.)
by: Maulana Hussain Ahmad Qasmi*
Hajj is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world. It is a demonstration of the solidarity and harmony of the Muslim people, and their submission to Almighty Allah. It is the fifth pillar of Islam, an obligation that must be carried out at least once in the life time of every Muslim who can afford to do it. The holy Quran makes it mention:
And pilgrimage to the House is duty unto Allah for mankind, for him who can find a way thither. (Quran: 22: 97)
Hajj is an Arabic word which literally means “to set out” with the intention of devotion or reward to a sacred place. However, Islamically, it means travelling for the purpose of visiting the Holy Kaba – the House of Allah - in Mecca, the direction which Muslims turn to in Prayer, in order to perform a series of rituals that are based on the actions and words reported in tradition of the holy Prophet's Hajj, such as Tawaf (walking around the Holy Kaba seven times), Sa`i (running between the hills of al-Safa and al-Marwah seven times), standing at the mountain of Arafat, and throwing pebbles at the Jamarat in Mina.
Truly, Hajj and its rites first were ordained by Allah in the time of the Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) and he was one who was entrusted by Almighty Allah to build the Holy Kaba – the House of Allah – along with his beloved son Hadhrat Ismail (PBUH) at Mecca. The holy Quran says:
And (remember) when We prepared for Abraham the place of the (holy) House, saying: Ascribe thou no thing as partner unto Me, and purify My House for those who make the round (thereof) and those who stand and those who bow and make prostration. And proclaim unto mankind the Pilgrimage. They will come unto thee on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every deep ravine. (Quran: 22: 26-27).
After building the Kaba, Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) would come to Mecca to perform Hajj every year, and after his death, this practice was continued by his son.
The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the 12th month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, eleven days shorter than the Gregorian calendar used in the Western world, the Gregorian date of the Hajj is eleven days earlier from year to year. The Hajj is associated with the life of the holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered to stretch back to the time of Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) and his beloved son Prophet Ismail (PBUH), the prominent figures in both Islam and Judaism.
One who intends to perform Hajj should first make taubah (repentance to Allah), settle his debts, prepare sufficient provision for his journey and for his family until his return, give back trust to their rightful owners, and meet his expenses by lawful means. He is recommended to accompany righteous men to help each other in their journey. If there is a group of people going out for Hajj, they should choose one of them to be their leader during their journey so as to set their affairs in order.
Mecca is the center of true and pure monotheism, and the place where Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH), The Friend of God, left as a monument for all the true believers of the world throughout history a symbol of monotheism which is the subjugation of one's carnal desires and complete submission before the divine command by bringing his beloved to the altar. Here is the place where the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) raised the flag of monotheism against the wishes of the arrogant and bullying elements and the wealthy of his time.
Hajj maintains the spirit of unity among Muslims, individuals and communities and educates Muslims, and even non-Muslims, about the true meaning of equality, which is manifested in the pilgrims' unified dress code and their observance of the rituals irrespective of their race, language, gender, or social positions. Hajj is full of lessons for Muslims whereby we can affect real changes in the way we practice Islam as well as in the way we behave. Hajj teaches us to break the barriers that separate people from one another: barriers of race, nationality, ethnicity, color, and language. Hajj instills in us the great values of faith, surrender, trust, and sacrifice for the sake of Allah the Almighty and for the truth.
Islam lays emphasis on the very principle of equality between all people. It makes it clear that people are as equal as the comb teeth. The holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) declares:
“O people! Your Lord is One, your father is one. You are all sons of Adam and Adam is created from dust.” (Abu Dawood, No. 4452)
In prayer, a person may wear his own traditional costumes and thus may be distinguished. In Hajj, it is totally different as all people put on two pieces of white cloth that resemble a shroud. This is the highest form of equality. In Hajj, man enters into a state of total sanctity that prevents him from violating the life or the safety of any human being. Hajj is the sign of the universality of this Divine message. All people come from all parts of the globe celebrating the praises of the One true God, no colors, races, regional borders. All barriers are removed and all pilgrims are molten in one brotherhood that gathers their hearts and strengthens their bonds and sense of belonging to one religion. Hajj is, above all, a revolution against all usual matters.
Hajj experience promotes peaceful coexistence, equality, and harmony. Hajj increases belief in equality and harmony among ethnic groups and Islamic sects, and the Hajis - those who have performed the Hajj - show increased belief in peace, and in equality and harmony among adherents of different religions.
Hajj is the opportunity to review and revisit these great lessons. Each and every corner of Hajj is the embodiment of unity and solidarity among the believers where natural and contractual differences fade away and the significance of the true and monotheistic unity and brotherhood is upheld. Hajj is one of the best means of Islam for the elimination of negligence. As if the universality of this ritual imparts the message that the Muslim Ummah in their collective identity, besides the individual duty of every Muslim, is duty-bound to remove negligence from them. On the other hand, the glory and grandeur of this unique congregation acquaints us with the reality of the great Islamic Ummah, which transcends the nations, races, colors and languages. This intertwined and harmonic congregation, these tongues all chanting a single word, these bodies and hearts all marching towards a single Qiblah and these human beings representing tens of countries and nations all belong to a great unit and collection, that is, the Islamic Ummah.
*The author is Web Organizer with Internet Dept, Online Darul Ifta, Darul Uloom Deoband. He can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
13th January 2019, was a shocking day for me and many others. Early in the morning, we received the heartbreaking news of the demise of well-versed scholar of Fiqh and Hadeeth after his prolonged illness which he had been fighting for about three years. As he was famous for his deep knowledge and understanding of Fiqh, he was also well-known for his academic quality of the science of Hadeeth. Due to his knowledge and sound opinion in the field of Fiqh specially, he was held in high esteem by several towering contemporary personalities. His opinions were valued and respected by the authentic scholar of Fiqh like Qazi Mujahidul Islam Qasmi (1936-2002). These words refer to the grieving death of my revered teacher Faqihe Millat Maulana Zubair Ahmad Qasmi, in a hospital in Madhubani district of his hometown, Chandarsainpur in Bihar.
Faqihe Millat’s Birth:
Faqihe Millat was born in a middle class family of a famous village known as Chndarsainpur of district Madhubani in Bihar province of India on 1st January 1936 to late Abdush Shakur. The father passed away when he was a child. This village is well-known in the area because of being the birthplace several pious and expert Islamic scholars.
Faqihe Millat began his basic education in a Maktab (nursery school) in his village. He completed reciting the Glorious Qura’an and reading basic Urdu books in the village from Maulana Ameerul Haq Miftahi (Rh.A). After the completion of the nursery level education, he left for Madrasa Basharatul Uloom which is situated in his neighbouring town Khirayan Pathra of Darbhanga district.
In Madrasa Basharatul Uloom, Khirayan Pathra, Faqihe Millat started from the primary level education of Persian language. Following the completion of the Persian language, he stared the basic of Aalim Course until he finished the first two parts of Hidayah, a celebrated book of jurisprudence of Hanafi school of thought and Jalalain, a famous book of Tafseer in that Madrasa. It must be noticed here that he learned from Persian language up to Jalalain from only one teacher, his uncle Maulana Saeed Ahmad Qasmi, an expert teacher of Darse Nizaami and student of Sheikhul Islam Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani (1879-1957).
Following the primary and secondary level education at Madrasa Basharatul Uloom, he moved to Deoband to get admission in the great revolutionary seminary Darul Uloom Deoband to quench his thirst of knowledge of the sciences of Tafseer and Hadeeth. He got admission in 1377 AH and remained two years in Darul Uloom Deoband until he completed his Fazilat-Graduation in Islamic Studies in 1379 AH. In Darul Uloom, he learnt from the expert scholars of Tafseer and Hadeeth like Sheikh Allamah Fakhruddin (1307-1393 AH), Allamah Muhammad Ibrahim Baliawi (1886-1967), Sheikh Basheer Ahmad Khan (D. 1966), Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi (1897-1983), Sheikh Zahoor Ahmad Doebandi (1900-1963), Sheikh Jalil Ahmad Kairanvi (D. 1968), Sheikh Fakhrul Hasan, Sheikh Sayyid Hasan, etc.
After completing his graduation, in the same year 1379, Faqihe Millat was appointed as a teacher at Madrasa Basharatul Uloom, Khirayan Pathra. Following almost one and half year, he resigned from this Madrasa on 15th Rabiul Awwal 1380 and joined Madrasa Islamia, Mughla Khar in Nawadah District in Bihar. As the pupils in this Madrasa were of primary level, it was unsatisfactory and he had to resign just after few months and again he joined Madrasa Basharatul Uloom and taught till Jumadal Ukhra 1387 almost 6 years then he resigned.
In Ashraful Uloom as Head-Teacher:
In Shawwal 1387, Faqihe Millat was appointed in Jamia Ashraful Uloom, Kanahwan, Sitamarhi (Bihar) as head-teacher by its long serving pious and sincere rector, Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib. With his struggles and efforts, he took the educational standard to high level. In his headship, Jamia progressed by leaps and bounds from each angles. The progress was observed everywhere. One and all valued him and praised the standard of Jamia where he took it. After serving for 10 years tirelessly as head-teacher, he resigned in Dhul Hijjah 1397 AH.
In Jamia Rahmani:
In Muharram 1398 AH, Faqihe Millat was called by Sheikh Minnatullah Rahmani (1912-1991) to teach in Jamia Rahmani, Munger. He taught the books of Fiqh and Hadeeth in Jamia. Sheikh Rahmani had every confidence in his teaching ability and appreciated his teaching methodology. He enjoyed teaching in Jamia and served here about 9 years. Then due to some internal circumstances and situations, he resigned on 10th Shawwal 1406 AH unwillingly.
In Miftahul Uloom:
After Jamia Rahmania, he reached Jamia Miftahul Uloom, Maunath Bhanjan on 16th Shawwal 1406 AH where he was called to teach Bukhari Shareef. He requested the authority to let the Bukhari Shareef being taught by another teacher and he would teach it in the coming year. He taught here completely one year. Next year, he resigned from Miftahul Uloom on 5th Shawwal 1407 as the environment was not suiting him.
From Sabilus Salam to Jamia Rahmani:
Maulana Rizwanul Qasmi (1944-2004), the rector and Maulana Khalid Saifullah Rahmani, the head-teacher of Darul Uloom Sabilus Salam, Hyderabad requested him several times to arrive in Sabilus Salam as Sheikhul Hadeeth. He left for Hyderabad on 15th Shawwal 1407 AH. But Daurah Hadeeth had not then started, so he couldn’t manage to be there, but for few months and he came back and again he joined Jamia Rahmani, Munger on 17th Muharram 1408, following the directive of Sheikh Rahmani.
In Sabilus Salam as Sheikhul Hadeeth:
In the next academic year, in Shawwal 1408, as Daurah Hadeeth had started in Sabilus Salam, Hyderabad, the rector and head-teacher were insisting him to arrive again. So, he joined Sabilus Salam the second time on 21st Shawwal 1408 AH as Sheikhul Hadeeth. He taught in Sabilus Salam as Sheikhul Hadeeth 4 years. In this period, he was requested several times to join Jamia Ashraful Uloom, Kanahwan as head-teacher as the situation of Ashraful Uloom was deteriorating. He decided to join Jamia Ashraful Uloom, so he resigned from Sabilus Salam on 14th Sha’aban 1412 AH. In the next academic year, Shawwal 1412, he joined Jamia Ashraful Uloom with his own terms and conditions which were accepted by the governing body of Ashraful Uloom.
Rector of Ashraful Uloom:
After few years, Hazrat Maulana Anwarul Haq, the rector of Ashraful Uloom, passed away. Now, Faqihe Millat was made Rector. He served Jamia Ashraful Uloom for a long period of time. Almost three year back, he suffered from a heart illness. He underwent a heart operation on 7th October, 2016 in a hospital in Patna, the capital city of Bihar. After operation, he continued suffering from different illness. Actually, he didn’t recover after heart operation fully. Then he decided to remain at his home in Chandarsainpur, Madhubani, Bihar, but frequently he used to visit Ashraful Uloom for a week or so to know and observe the activities taking place and to guide the teachers and pupils wherever the guidance was required.
When he was sick, he got proper treatment in Madhubani, Patna and New Delhi, but due to the old age, he grew weaker as well as the health continued deteriorating. Last time again his family members took him to a Hospital in Madhubani where he breathed his last in the hospital at 07:30 am, on 13th January 2019. As his death news went viral on social media, the people started gathering in his home village, where his funeral prayer was to be offered. A delegation from Ashraful Uloom reached his village under the leadership of recently selected rector of Ashraful Uloom, Maulana Izharul Haq Mazahiri to attend his funeral. One another delegation came from Imarat Shariah to attend his funeral prayer. Similarly, from different Madaaris the Ulama and other people visited his village to participate in his funeral prayer. His funeral prayer was led by his elder son, Maulana Owais Qasmi on the same day following Asr Salaah. Before the funeral prayer, Maualan Izharul Haq Mazahiri delivered a brief speech. Thousands of people participated in his funeral prayer and they laid him in his ancestral graveyard to rest. May Allah forgive his all human shortcomings and grant him eternal peace in Jannah!
Following the completion of his education, Faqihe Millat got married with the daughter of late Haji Muhammad Idris of Parsauni, Dist.: Madhubani. He is survived by his wife, two daughters and five sons. Maulana Hafiz Owais Anzar Qasmi is working in KSA. He was present at the time of his beloved father’s death. He led the funeral prayer. Hafiz Usaid Anzar is teaching in a certain Madrasa in his area. Muhammad Sajjad resides at home. Maulana Hafiz Zafar Siddiqi Qasmi is teaching in Delhi in Madrasa Talimul Qura’an. He had been a classmate of this writer. During the period of learning, he was a intelligent pupil. He is a remarkable calligrapher, though he didn’t choose it as his profession. His last born is Mr. Afzal Husain, who completed school following his basic Islamic education in a Madrasa. Currently he is in Saudi Arab. •••
* Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
A noted Islamic scholar, a remarkable Urdu columnist, a popular orator and a leading educationist, Sheikh Mohammad Asrarul Haque Qasmi passed away on 7th December 2018, at 03:30. At night he was in Tappu, a small town of Kishanganj where he addressed a gathering of the students and teachers in Darul Uloom Suffah, Tappu which is founded by him. Subsequently he went to rest at Kishanganj Circuit House and got up at around 03:00 hours in the night. When he was getting ready for Tahajjud, he felt chest pain and died of heart attack. He was 76. Because of his social, educational, religious and journalistic works and services, his death is a tremendous loss for the nation in general and for the minority community in particular. He will be recalled profoundly for his works, easily accessibility, soft-spoken and gentle approach.
Birth and Education
Sheikh Qasmi was born in Tarabari village of district Kishanganj in Bihar to late Mr. Munshi Umed Ali and Amna Khatoon on 15th Febriary 1942. Following the completion of his primary education, he got admission in the world renowned Institute of Islamic thoughts Darul Uloom, Deoband and graduated in Islamic Studies from Darul Uloom in 1964. He got married on 16th May 1965. His better-half passed away on 9th July 2012. He is survived by three sons: Mr. Suhail Asrar, Mr. Saood Asrar Nadvi Azhari and Mr. Fahad Asrar and two daughters.
Following graduation in Islamic Studies from Darul Uloom, Deoband in 1964, Mr. Qasmi chose teaching as his career. Firstly he joined Madrasa Rahimia in Madhepura as a teacher. After resigning from Rahimia, in 1968 he joined Madrasa Badrul Islam of Begusarai district in Bihar. Although he was a teacher imparting religious education in the Madrasa; he didn’t confined himself within the four walls of Madrasa only. He involved himself in social and religious activities in the vicinity along with teaching. Whenever a social issue arose, he took it in his hand sincerely and wanted to resolve or to make sure that issue is in priority to be resolved by the concerned authority. In 1973, he resigned from Madrasa Bahrul Islam.
Due to Mr. Qasmi’s talent and social services on the ground, Jamiat Ulamai Hind (JUH) selected him in 1974 to render his services from Jamiat’s platform. The JUH being an old and respected organization in Indian society, he had chance to reach one and all on national level. He seized the opportunity and performed well the responsibilities assigned to him; until he became a valued and trusted member of the JUH. Later in 1980, he was elected as General Secretary of Jamiat Ulamai Hind. Under the umbrella of JUH, he played a conspicuous role in “Mulko Millat Bachao Movement”, “Protection of Aligarh Muslim University Movement” and “Protection of Muslim Personal Law Movement”.
Being in the JUH, he visited many villages, towns and cities of India to render his services throughout the country at the time of need on innumerable critical occasions fearlessly. As he served the community under the able leadership of his mentor Maulana Sayyid Asad Madani (1928-2006), ex-President of the JUH, for a long time being a member as well as the General Secretary of Jamiat, his works and services will be lauded for a long period. For his works and services, he was loved by the elders and members of Jamiat. In 1991, he separated his path from Jamiat.
All India Talimi-Wa-Milli Foundation
Later on, Sheikh Qasmi joined newly founded 'All India Milli Council' under the leadership of Qazi Muhahidul Islam Qasmi (1936-2002) ex-President of All India Muslim Personal Law Board. Working in the JUH and All India Milli Council, Qasmi had experienced that the main cause of Muslim community’s sufferings is lagging behind in the educational field. He, therefore, founded “All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundation” in 2000. The main objective of the Foundation was serving the nation working on the key issues of education and literacy. From the beginning, he started serving the people establishing religious and modern educational institutes. He set up dozens of educational institutes. He founded “Milli Girls School” especially for girls in Tappu, Tarabari Chowk, Kishanganj. About 500 girls are getting quality education in the school. This school is with hostel and all the modern facilities required. It is an exemplary and the first school of its kind in the area. It is playing a key role in imparting education amongst the girls.
Under All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundation, Mr. Qasmi also distributed relief materials among the victims of Tsunami and flood on several occasions. In last year flood of Bihar, when Kishanganj district and its vicinity were badly affected, he did his best in providing reliefs and personally meeting the victims to console them. It is clear crystal that setting up dozens of Madaaris and schools by Qasmi, under All India TalimiWaMilli Foundation, is great and prominent work which is unforgettable.
Columns and Write-ups
Sheikh Qasmi was a well-known Urdu columnist. As he was famous for his public talks and oratory, he was equipped with writing skills as well. When he was a learner at Darul Uloom, Deoband, he started writing articles and essays. His first and formal work which was published was “Muslim Personal Law Aur Hindustani Musalman” (Muslim Personal Law and Indian Muslims), as far as I know. He authored this book when he was educational in-charge at Madrasah Badrul Islam, Begusarai. When he was in Jamiat, along with performing other activities, he was the editor of its organ “Al-Jamiat” as well. He had been Chief Editor of “Milli Ittihad”of All India Milli Council for a long. He was so prominent Urdu columnist that his write-ups were being published almost in all Urdu newspapers and monthly magazines throughout India. Due to his significant view and thought, his articles sometimes found place even in some leading Arabic and English magazines after translation.
He compiled some books which are very useful and much relevant to the age. They include “Muslim Personal Law Aur Hindustani Musalman” “Mua’ashirah Aur Islam” “Islam Aur Musalmanon Ki Zimmedariyan”, “Sulagte Masa’ail”, “Hindustani Musalman: Masa’ail Aur Muzahmaten” and “Aurat Aur Muslim Mua’ashirah”. He wrote thousands of columns. If these are compiled, it will be in volumes. Especially if his religious and social columns are compiled, without doubt, it will serve the community a lot.
Public Talks and Speeches
Qasmi was one of the best public speakers. He was a brilliant and fluent orator. He was invited in several religious or social programmes as a speaker. The first time I listened to him in Daru lUloom, Deoband, when he was invited in a programme of “Sajjad Library” as a guest speaker in 2001. Currently, any big programme was not thought without his presence. His presence in a programme was the guarantee of the programme’s success. Because of his sincerity and pain for the community in his speeches, the people used to travel from a town to another one to listen to him. It was easy to invite him as he was very simple, humble and soft-spoken. Whenever he had time, he didn’t refuse to attend a programme either it was in a city or a remote village. He was seen attending programmes in the cities and villages alike. He had deep knowledge of the current affairs. Either he was speaking in the Parliament or a religious or social programmes, he used to speak with full understanding and confidence.
Politics is also a way where one finds the required resources to serve the nation. He, therefore, contested Lok Sabha elections several times from Kishanganj constituency. But luck was not with him, so he lost with a small margin of votes. In 2009 Lok Sabha elections, he emerged as a strong candidate for Indian National Congress (INC). He got Lok Sabha ticket from the INC to contest and won the Kishanganj MP seat on its ticket. Currently he was a sitting MP as he retained the Kishanganj seat once again in 2014 defeating the BJP candidate, Dr. Dilip Kumar Jaiswal by a margin of 194,612 votes despite Prime Minister Mr. Modi’s wave was across the country.
As the MP, he made full effort to establish the branch of Aligarh Muslim University in Kishanganj. In the beginning, he had to struggle to acquire the required land for the branch. He was forced to give call to the public for agitation against the then Bihar state government of Nitish to get the land. The public listened to his call and participated in the agitation for seeking land for the branch. Even the public went on “MahaDharna” on 12th October 2010 in Kishanganj where lakhs of people gathered from different parts of Seemanchal under his leadership. Then Nitish government agreed to grant almost 224 acres land for the branch and the branch’s foundation stone was laid in the presence of the then Congress President, Mrs Gandhi, Nitish Kumar, CM of Bihar and other political and social leaders.
Humble and Selfless Servant
In his long life of social and educational works, Sheikh Qasmi had strong relation with many prominent people of different fields. But he never took the advantage of such relation by getting some favours or privileges for himself or for his near and dear ones. He himself held several prestigious posts; but he lived a very simple life. Either he was President of All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundarion, General Secretary of the JUH or Member of Indian Parliament, the people could not differentiate in his day-to-day life. He never liked a luxurious life. He remained always simple. His principle was “simple living and high thinking”.
It is suitable to mention here that Sheikh Qasmi took the oath of allegiance to Mufti Muzaffar Husain Mazahiri, ex-rector of Mazahir Uloom Waqf, Saharanpur, for his spiritual rectification. Mufti Sahib blessed him with Khilafa and authorized him to administer an oath of allegiance also. Following the death of Mufti Sahib, he joined Sheikhe Tariqat Sheikh Qamruz Zaman Allahabadi (Hafizahullah). Sheikh Allahabadi also granted him Khilafah. By these two of his mentors, he was trained in the way that he was hardly experienced showing pride and arrogance. In clear words, he was simple, humble, selfless and altruistic servant of the community.
The Tribute & Homage
Cutting a long story short, he worked sincerely in different fields as a social worker, an educationist, a religious guide, a columnist, an orator etc. His works and services were recognized. To pay tribute to his services and benefit from his wide experiences, many organisations and institutes selected him as its member. He was a member of Governing Body of prestigious Islamic University Darul Uloom, Deoband which is also his seat of learning. He was Court Member of Aligarh Muslim University. He was a valued member of All India Muslim Personal Law Board, Vice-President of All India Milli Council and founding President of All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundation. He has been twice Member of Indian Parliament from his home constituency, Kishanganj. He was patron of innumerable schools and Madrasas. He served the nation in general and the minority community in particular for more than half a century. May Allah reward him and grant him Jannah! It’s a short write-up to pay my tribute and homage and to present a glimpse of his life and services.
Learning the Mr. Qasmi’s death news, Bihar Chief Minister, Mr. Nitish Kumar paid his homage through a press release. Lauding his contributions and giving due respect, Mr. Kumar also announced that Qasmi’s last rites would be performed with full state honours; which was refused politely by his family members to follow his will as he had wished to be buried with simplicity.
His funeral was led by Sheikh Anwarul Haque, rector of Darul Uloom, Bahadurganj in Milli Girls School, Talimabad, Tappu of district Kishanganj in Bihar. About two/three lakh people performed the funeral prayer. He was buried in his ancestral graveyard of his hometown. May the Almighty Allah forgive his human shortcomings and grant him eternal peace and the highest place in Jannatul Firdaus! My deepest condolence to the bereaved family! May Allah grant them patience and courage to bear this tremendous and irreplaceable loss! Ameen!
*Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa.
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Demise is such a naked truth that no one could deny it so far; be it a brave or a pure atheist. Death has held many towering personalities and low profile people down alike and will keep on doing the same to all living beings. When the fixed time of one’s life is over, he has to depart; willingly or unwillingly; he is busy reciting the Qura’an or performing Salaah in a Masjid. One will be defeated by the death either he is much beloved to Allah, liked by thousands of Allah's slaves or cursed in the sight of Allah. When the time of life is over, the angel of death finds its wanted man and he has to taste death; even if he is between two deep valleys of tall mountains, on the peak of Himalaya, living in a glass-built bungalow or is protected in a stone-built fort. The Almighty Allah mentions in His glorious Qura’an: “Every soul has to taste death.” (Aale-Imran, Verse: 185) The Exalted Allah further mentions in another place in His miraculous book: “Wherever you are, death will make its way to you, even if you are in fortified castles.” (Al-Nisaa, Verse: 78)
Following the order of the Supreme Lord, Haji Muhammad Abdul Wahhab Sahib left the mortal world for heavenly abode on Sunday, 18th November 2018. Haji Sahib was considered one amongst the most pious people. He spent more than two third of his life in the path of Allah worrying and struggling to guide His servants to the right path. Though he was not graduated formally from any Islamic institute, however worry, concern and pain in his heart -for the sake of the Ummah- were not less than what is found in the hearts of certified Islamic scholars. He spent his days and nights concerned about the well-being of the Ummah. The goal of his life was how to make people understand that whatever happens in the world happens with the will and command of Allah and nothing can take place without His will. The Almighty Allah had blessed him with height of popularity among the learned people and the masses equally. Allah had filled the hearts of His servants with love and affection for him. So he was loved and respected wholeheartedly by one and all.
Haji Sahib was a man of religious mind from the beginning of his life. He met Sheikh Ilyas Kandhlavi (1885-1944) -May Allah have mercy upon him!- in 1944. Then he devoted the rest of his life for the service of Dawah and Tabligh work started by Sheikh Kandhlvi in 1920. He worked almost six months in the company of Sheikh Kandhlavi. When Sheikh Kandhlavi passed away, he worked with his successors. He was so much influenced by this work of Tabligh that later he resigned from his job and dedicated full time to it.
After India’s partition, he migrated to Pakistan. Following the migration, he didn’t only work for Tabligh; rather it had become part and parcel of his life. In the beginning, he went to visit every province and villages of Pakistan; big or small for the purpose of Tableegh. He taught the common and illiterate people “Kalimah Tayyibah” and its meaning, the method of Wudhu, the significance and method of Salah. He also preached to them about the value of Ilm (Knowledge) and Zikr (remembering Allah), respect and honour for a Muslim and sincerity of intention. He also encouraged them to spare some time to go in the path of Allah to learn Deen, to practice and preach what they have learnt.
With the effort of Haji Sahib, headquarter of Tabligh was established in a remote, inaccessible and unknown place; Raiwind, situated 45 km far from Lahore. Before establishment of the Tablighi headquarter, Raiwind was a forested place. Basic facility of day-to-day life was unavailable there. It was difficult to find the eatable and drinkable things. The place, where Tabligh Headquarter is standing today, was earlier full of acacia as well as other different types of thorny trees. Now it is national headquarter of all Tabligh centers of Pakistan.
With the efforts of Haji Sahib the people, who were not well-versed in Islamic knowledge, understood the value of the noble work of Tabligh and started participating in its daily activities to learn and practice Deen. As a result of it, this noble work started almost in all mosques of Pakistan. Regional center of Tabligh came into existence in each city with his effort. Due to the hard-work and struggle of the people of Tabligh, uncountable men and women were guided to the right path of Deen.
Obviously it was the concern of Tablighi people which brought about a sea change in the lives of thousands of worldwide renowned personalities; like famous cricketer Saeed Anwar and well-known rock star singer Junaid Jamshaid, and instilled in them the interest of practice of Deen and revived the powder to act upon Islamic rulings and teachings.
Haji Sahib led the movement of Tabligh as third Ameer (Chief) continuously for 25 years until he breathed his last. In Pakistan the first person to be selected as Ameer was Haji Muhammad Shafi (1903-1971). Following his death, Haji Babu Basheer Ahmad (1919-1992) had been selected as the 2nd Ameer. After his sad demise, Haji Abdul Wahhab had been selected as the third Ameer unanimously. The third Ameer of Tablighi movement in Markaz Nizamuddin in India, Sheikh Inamul Hasan (1918-1995) made an International Governing Body comprising of 10 members from different countries for Tabligh activities to keep on functioning smoothly, as the efforts of Tabligh had spread all over the world. Haji Sahib had been nominated as a prominent member of the governing body by Sheikh Ina’amul Hasan (RA). Not only he visited the small or big villages of Pakistan; but he also travelled dozens of countries in the world for the work of Tabligh.
This would be surprising for many people to know that Haji Sahib used to address the gathering in Raiwind Headquarter almost five hours every day in different times. It was his daily schedule to address the gathering following Fajr Salah, instruct the people who are going in Jama’ah and to guide those coming back from Jama’ah. With punctuality, he participated in daily Mashwarah. Later he had stopped addressing the gathering on his health ground only. However when he was physically fit, he used to perform all duties of Jama’at as usual without complaining of his old age, tiredness or exhaustion.
Currently we met a Jama’at (No. 764) from Bhawalpur. They also described as eye witness that for all his old age and weakness, when Haji Sahib used to be physically fit, he attended all Tabligh activities and discharged all responsibilities. He participated in Mashwarah, guided the Jama’at which was going and talked to the Jama’at which came back from a Tabligh journey. They further said that currently when they started their seven month-long journey on 28th August 2018, Haji Sahib guided and instructed them regarding their objectives of going out in the path of Allah as he was then physically fit. It should be noted here that this Jama’at is working in the “Northern Province” of Zambia, Africa under the leadership of Mr. Khalid. The members of this Jama’at comprise of Mr. Shareef, Mr. Basheer, Mr. Abdur Razzaq, Mr. Qasim, Mr. Ali, Mr. Sajid and Mr. Yasir (a pharmacist). As they are eager to learn and practice Islam in their daily lives, they are also worried about how to raise the degree of Muslims’ faith, how to reform them and how to guide them to practice Islam fully in their lives.
Haji Sahib was not only involved in Tabligh activities; but he also worked for different Islamic organizations whenever he got chance. He participated in the movement of “Khatme Nubuwwah”. Similarly he worked as a member of “Majlise Ahrare Islam”. Then he was made the president of a chapter of Majlise Ahrare Islam in Buriwala.
“The Muslim 500” is an annual publication which gives place in its book every year to 500 most influential Muslim leaders from across the world. It was first published in 2009. Socially, educationally, economically, politically and religiously 500 most influential Muslim leaders from all over the world are selected every year, ranked and mentioned in the book. In 2014, Haji Sahib was ranked number 10th in the book. This ranking has nothing to do in the sight of Allah; but it is a clear mark that his sacrifices and struggles to please Allah are recognized, rather than a mere appreciation in this world only.
When Haji Sahib was a student at Islamia College, Lahore, he took the oath of allegiance to Sheikh Ahmad Ali Lahori (1887-1962), a famous commentator of the Glorious Qura’an for the sake of his self rectification and spiritual development. Later on, he took the oath of allegiance to Sheikh Abdul Qadir Raipuri (1878-1962). He was authorized by Sheikh Raipuri to administer an oath of allegiance and was counted one among his distinguished disciples.
Haji Sahib was originally from “Karnal” district of “Haryana” state in India. He was born in 1923 in Delhi, the capital city of India. Following completion of his primary religious education, he joined “Islamia College”, Lahore, a famous city of Pakistan. Following graduation, he started his career in civil service as Tahsildar (executive magistrate).
He was not blessed with any child. His wife had passed away several years back. Due to his old age and a physical unfitness, he had been unwell from time to time in the recent past years. He could not attend the annual Ijtima of 2018 because of his poor health. He was seriously ill as he was suffering from the diseases of kidney, breathing etc. He also suffered from Dengue fever few days ago. At that time he was admitted in a private hospital and kept in great care of specialists. As his worldly time was over, he breathed his last on Sunday, 18th November 2018 early in the morning in the hospital after protracted illness. He died 96 years old. His funeral prayer was led by Sheikh Nazrur Rahman after Maghrib Salah in Ijtima hall of Raiwind. Approximately 1,200,000 people participated in his funeral prayer and he was laid to rest in the graveyard of Raiwind. Now he is no more among us; however his invaluable services will always be remembered by one and all. May Allah accept his good deeds and grant him Jannatul Firdaus! Aameen!•••
*Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa.
Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi: Tracing the Legacy of His Theological Paradigms and Intellectual Dimensions
Muḥammadullah Khalīli Qāsmi
The Indian Subcontinent, which lies away from Arabia and where Islam spread much later by the non-Arabs conquerors, distinguishes itself for two major factors. First, for preserving the glory of Muslim rule and its splendid civilization that once dazzled the world from its cradles of Madinah, Damascus, Baghdad and al-Andalusia, as it coincided with Ottoman Caliphate which spread in the entire Arabia, Northern Africa and a good part of Eastern Europe. Second, for intellectual contributions to the Islamic literature and Muslim progressive thoughts which they made especially following the Fall of Baghdad and the devastation of Central Asia at the hands of the Mongols. And the harbinger of the second specialty of India was Quṭbuddīn Aḥmad ibn ‘Abd ar-Raḥīm al-Fārūqi al-Dehlawi (1703-1762), commonly known as Shāh Walīullāh Dehlawi, who was an outstanding Islamic scholar, muḥaddith, reformer, theologian, philosopher and historiographer.
Shāh Walīullāh Dehlawi was born at a juncture of history when on one hand the sun of Islamic dominion in India was steadily going to set and the centuries-old Eastern system was at the verge of total collapse, while on the other hand the Western countries rose from their long slumber dismantling the religious and traditional shackles, and powered by the scientific evolutions and machine revolution.
It is a great cause of pride for India that the son of Indian soil Shāh Walīullāh Dehlawi was the first personality of the Muslim World who comprehended the intellectual dangers and academic challenges that were harboured in the clouds of scientific revolutions. So, at one side, he addressed the internal issues of Muslim society and propounded the theory of ‘Fakku Kulli Nizām’ (reconstruction and revolutionization of old system) which aimed at striking a balance between different theological and religious thoughts (such as taking Shī’a and Sunni fractions close to each other and reconciliation between different sects originating due to differences in Fiqh and Taṣawwuf ) and purifying Muslim belief and practices from alien adulterations along with introducing the teachings of the Qur’an on wider scale Quran in the society and starting a comprehensive Islamic course that gave due place to the Quran, Hadith and Fiqh. While at the other side, he sensed the most imminent danger from outside which the Muslims were to face i.e. the scientific revolution that was going to render the religious traditions and thoughts as rotten, outdated rather beastly, and to give ‘reason’ top priority in all matters. So he embarked on an ambitious project of fortification of Islamic beliefs and practices that later appeared in the form of a rarest of rare masterpiece ‘Ḥujjat al-Allāh al-Bālighah’ (Conclusive Arguments from Allah).
Syed ‘Abul Ḥasan Ali Nadwi introduces this great work in the following words:
“The magnum opus of Shāh Walīullāh, Ḥujjat al-Allāh al-Bālighah, is a comprehensive and cogent work presenting a synthesis of the Islamic creed, devotions, transactions, morals, social philosophy, statecraft and spirituality. All these have been balanced and integrated in such a perfect manner that they appear to be jewels of the same necklace or links of the same golden chain. It also does not suffer from the usual weaknesses found in most of the old works, written apologetically or aggressively. This moderation and balance is the result of the Shah’s deep and wide knowledge of Ḥadīth and his bent of mind fostered by the study of the Prophet’s character as well as keeping company with pious and virtuous scholars. Few works can compare the compendious yet clear and cohesive exposition attempted in Ḥujjat al-Allāh al-Bālighah, which laid the foundation of a new dialectical theology for the modern age of reason. It is thus a work which can satisfy any truehearted man endowed with common sense, provided, of course, he can appreciate and ponder over the profound investigations of the Shāh. So far as we are aware there is no other work in any language known to us, written for the investigation of the truth of any religion on a rational basis or if it has been written, it has not come to light.”
Shāh Walīullāh Dehlawi not only extracted and explored the scientific and intellectual aspects of Sharī’ah issues, as this type of work was done by several scholars in the past, rather he laid down foundation stone of ‘Ilm Asrār al-Sharī‘ah (Rational Interpretation of Sharī‘ah), formulated its principles and introduced it as a branch of theology.
Ḥujjat al-Islām al-Imām Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi
The legacy of Shāh Walīullāh was transferred through his family and pupils until it transformed into a dynamic movement under the leadership of Ḥujjat al-Islām al-Imām Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi (1833-1880) at Deoband. Maulāna Nānotawi established Dārul Uloom and promoted the Walīullāhi mission. Though there are several groups in the Subcontinent that claim to have inherited the legacy of Shāh Walīullāh, but it is Deoband School of Thought which assimilated and accommodated nearly all aspects of Walīullāhi thoughts and transmitted it as per the mode and requirement of the time.
Shāh Walīullāh lived at time when scientific revolution was taking place in Europe and it was yet to reach the East, but Sheikh Nānotawi was born at the peak of scientific age when the world was roaring with scientific advancements and the atheistic rather anti-religious theories were dominating the intellectual world. The West rejected religion and considered it an obstacle in the way of development; since it was a fierce reaction to the Church which unleashed a series of unprecedented cruelty and barbarism against those who talked of the Science. The bloody tussle between the Church and the modernists divided Christianity into two major sects (Catholic and Orthodox) and as a result the religion was driven out from the society and politics. The West accorded all regard to ‘matter’ and kicked out ‘spirituality’ from social and political arena. All issues of human life were tested on the touchstone of ‘reason’ and those not fitting within its frame were rejected and labelled as conservatism and regress.
When the Science got introduced in the East it came with the same mentality of negating religion and weighing everything on of parameters of ‘reason’, even some great personalities fell prey to the Newton’s law of universal gravitation and started redefining even many of the established Islamic faiths and concepts which according to them were super-natural and metaphysical. So they in fact dared to deny beliefs about the likes of angels, waḥy, Jannat, Jahannam, mu’jizāt (miracles) etc.
This was a strange situation which was described by Mirza Asadullāh Khān Ghālib (1797-1869), the legendary Urdu poet, in a verse:
ĪmāN mujhe roke hai, jo khīnche hai mujhe kufr
Ka’bah mere pīchce hai, Kalīsa mere āge
The Faith restrains me, while disbelief pulls me hard
Behind me stands Ka’bah, and the Church is in front of me
A situation where the eastern religions and culture were caught between to either chose their past and remain subordinate or accept the new thoughts and lose their identity.
It was a highly alarming condition in the Muslim world as the Western Powers were fast galloping the Muslim lands and occupying their resources while the Muslims were losing power as well as courage in the face of the western political and intellectual onslaught. Out of inferiority complex, many Muslim intelligentsia and modern-educated individuals fell prey to the Western propaganda that now religion has become useless and irrelevant and only the Science has the remedy of all human problems. Such thoughts were fast spreading among the common people and they were beginning to get fed up of the religious traditions and tending to embrace atheism and materialism.
Had these thoughts had spread among the common people and got acceptance in the society, God forbid, the majority of Muslims would have lost their faith and turned infidels. But Allah Almighty, as per His promise of preserving the Religion, raised Muslim theologians who presented logical interpretations to Islamic terms and thoughts and restored the faith of Muslims in the original Islamic beliefs and teachings. The leader of the this movement was Ḥujjat al-Islām Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi whose scholarly and precious theological contributions very successfully subdued the raging tides of atheism and naturalism. This is part of evolution and renovation process which Allah Almighty has bestowed Islam with, being a global and eternal religion for human being, it will need renovations in style and expression with the passage of time in order to suit the demands of time as well as to discard the rusts of time and space, so that it remains afresh and attracts the human intelligence as ever.
The most salient feature of Maulāna Nānotawi’s philosophical thoughts and theological contributions was that he elucidated them with living examples and promoted it to the contemporary scientific standards. He established the Islamic beliefs of tawḥīd, risālat, qiyāmat, jannat, jahannam etc as well as the Islamic teachings with irrefutable rational logics and conclusive arguments. His writings of on Islamic beliefs and teachings dispel the objections and doubts raised by the atheists, naturalists, Hindus and Christians alike.
The second most important feature is his moderate attitude towards different Schools of Thoughts among the Muslims. He wrote extensively on issues pertaining to Shī’aism, Taqlīd and many other issues that were disputed among Muslims, but he confined himself to academic discussions in sympathetic way and avoided adopting any harsh attitude. All his books dealing with disputed issued among Muslims very clearly indicate towards his moderate thinking and his respect even to opponents and adversaries. Rather he very openly advocated unity between Muslims and lamented at their dissents.
Haḍrat Nānotawi, on the other hand, established Darul Uloom Deoband and started a madrasa movement which met unprecedented success in Islamic history and brought about one of the greatest Islamic revolutions especially in the Indian Subcontinent and generally in the world over. As per the Walīullāhi mission, these madrasas focused on teaching the Qur’ānic sciences and Hadith literature with utmost attention. Haḍrat Nānotawi himself taught select disciples and produced a matchless team of scholars like Shaikh al-Hind Maulāna Maḥmūd Ḥasan, Maulāna Aḥmad Ḥasan Amrohwi and several others.
Ḥakīm al-Islām Qāri Muḥammad Ṭayyib Qāsmi (1897-1983)
There are several scholars who inherited the theological and intellectual legacy of Haḍrat Nānotawi and dispensed it as per the demand of their time, but the most prominent among them are Ḥakīm al-Ummah Maulāna Ashraf ‘Ali Thānwi (1863-1943), Shaykh al-Islām ‘Allāmah Shabbīr Aḥmad Uthmāni (1887-1949) and Ḥakīm al-Islām Maulāna Qāri Muḥammad Ṭayyib who was also his grandson.
Ḥakīm al-Islām Maulāna Qāri Muḥammad Ṭayyib, the former rector of Darul Uloom Deoband, was gifted with unique and multidimensional qualities of scholarship. He was a spokesperson of the Deoband School and a great interpreter of Qāsmi thoughts. He travelled widely across continents and transmitted the message of Islam to the world in the appealing and rationale style of Haḍrat Nānotawi. The modern educated class particularly enjoyed his academic and philosophical style of discourses and lectures.
He wrote extensively and contributed more than two dozen books on various Islamic topics. He had special mastery in discoursing the rational aspects of the Sharī'ah and in making the subjects concise and comprehensive. All his books are characterised by the interpretation of Islamic beliefs and practices in a rational style along with references from the Quran and Ḥadīth.
Khaṭīb al-Islām Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi (1926-2018)
Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi, the son of Ḥakīm al-Islām Maulāna Qāri Muḥammad Ṭayyib and great grandson of Ḥujjat al-Islām Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi, not only had blood relations with his ancestors rather he inherited their intellectual legacy as well. He was a celebrated scholar of Islam, a great muḥaddith, theologian and proficient orator. He dedicated his entire life to the mission of his father and great-grandfather and was duly considered their interpreter and a spokesperson of Deoband School of Thought.
He inherited the characteristics of his noble ancestors that make up the overall identity of the Deoband School. He spent his life in teaching the Quran, Ḥadīth and Islamic theology. Theology was the subject of his special expertise and students flocked to his class in order to benefit from his lectures.
He contributed in the establishment of Darul Uloom Waqf in 1982, headed it in turbulent circumstances and managed to make it popular educational destination that attracts students from across the country. In 1996, he embarked upon a unique educational project ‘Jamia Deeniyat Deoband’ which offered Islamic education to students of schools and colleges through correspondence. This great project has a potential to bring about a revolution in the Muslim community.
He was an outstanding orator who travelled extensively across the country and even outside to deliver high profile lectures on various Islamic topics. He was duly called Khaṭīb al-Islām (the orator of Islam). His lectures were lucid, coherent and logical. He used short sentences and limited his lecture to only necessary details explaining the main points and avoiding unnecessary and irrelevant aspects. He used to speak from such intellectual height that only educated class could have grasp of the essence of his speech.
Interpretation of Islam in Rational Style
Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi was bestowed great in-depth scholarship and versatility. He enjoyed broad study, wisdom and insight. His lectures, speeches and writings reflect a unique style of interpreting Islam in a rational style and in line with the thoughts of Shāh Walīullāh and Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi. This is the reason that he was called an interpreter of their thoughts and mission.
Due to busy teaching life in his early career and owing to extensive travels for lectures in later parts of his life he got little time to leave any academic contribution except some papers which he presented in seminars and conferences. Similarly some of his select speeches were published in two volumes. These academic contributions are indicative of his expertise in Islamic theology, rationality and prudence.
Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi was conferred with ‘Shāh Walīullāh Award’ by the prestigious Muslim think-tank Islamic Objective Studies. Similarly, he was given ‘Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi Award’ in Turkey for his unmatched contribution in the field of theology and Islamic philosophy.
I’tidāl and Moderation
The second most prominent aspect of his personality was that he stuck to i’tidāl (moderation) even in extreme situations. Not only in his personal life, rather in other social and religious issues too, he maintained equilibrium between two extremes and avoided stands that could harm the social and religious fabric of the Ummah. This was the reason that he was popular among all sections of Muslims and enjoyed their trust. He served as Vice-President of All India Personal Law Board, President of Majlis Mushāwarat and Head of Islamic Fiqh Academy.
Maulāna Qāsmi observed that the abundance of schools of thoughts is not a worrisome issue, since schools of thoughts are born in communities that have abundance of knowledge and mental capacity to think. The Judaism and Christianity have only few branches and derivations through their thousands years of history. But Islam has many schools of thoughts as it enjoys treasures of the Quran and Sunnah which are a treasure of knowledge. This is the reason that there were schools of thoughts from the very beginning till near past, and we shall witness this phenomenon occurring in future too. But the important thing is to verify these schools of thoughts which are of two kinds. Some of them are openly wrong and they will be opposed with true arguments and evidences. But there are many others which can either be true or false. If you think it wrong you have to produce your evidences and refute their arguments; if the other party is convinced then OK, otherwise your duty to convey the truth is fulfilled. This was mentioned in Hadith that a mujtahid shall get double rewards if he reaches the truth, and even if he commits mistake and does not reach the truth, then also he will get single reward. (Hadith) Therefore, such differences among the Ummah should not cause disputes and malice among one another. This is the reason that difference of opinion was termed as mercy for the Ummah as it opens the doors of options and scopes for them.
The second key point that Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi (ra) presented is that Dīn (religion) is that which was revealed by Allah and which is free from the interference of human mind and which is free from differences; therefore only religion needs to be propagated and preached. The later things like Fiqhi madhāhib and schools of thoughts are products of human mind, so they will necessarily have differences of opinions and therefore they can be preferable but will not be preached and propagated like Religion. Only religion is madār-e-najāt (cause of deliverance in the hereafter), fiqhi schools and schools of thoughts are not madār-e-najāt. This is must to place each thing in its right position; otherwise there will be chaos and disturbance.
It is painful that the Ummah does not differentiate between these things and falls prey to disunity and disputes. If this principle is held with firm resolution, the Ummah can overcome its most dangerous disease of disunity.
At a time when Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1726) was laying the foundations for classical mechanics, explaining the law of gravity and the laws of motion which was going to herald an era of scientific revolution, Shāh Walīullāh (1703-1762) was laying the foundations of interpreting Islam in a rational style. He fortified the fort of Islam with necessary academic arsenals even before Charles Darwin (1809–1882) came and dominated the world with his theory of evolution against a backdrop of disbelief and scepticism.
Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi was born at a critical time when owing to the modern scientific theories atheism and materialism ruled over the academic world and Europe was roaring with scientific revolution while the East was conquered by European explorers and invaders. So he embarked upon the high task of elucidating and consolidating the Walīullāhi mission. Later this Walīullāhi and Qāsmi mission was forwarded and expanded by a group of Ulama, especially Ḥakīm al-Islām Qāri Muḥammad Ṭayyib Qāsmi (1897-1983). Then the most prominent scholar of the next generation, Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi upheld this movement and continued to foster it with his pen and tongue.
If we look back at series of events in the religious and spiritual world, the sun of Islam faced eclipses during these crucial times, but by virtue of the intellectual efforts it came out dazzling brighter. There is a strong affinity between these events and the movement of Ahmad al-Fārūqī al-Sirhindī (1564–1624) known as Mujaddid Alf Thāni by virtue of whose efforts the Dīn-e-Akbari, the deadliest fitnah of the millennium led by Mughal Emperor Jalāluddīn Muḥammad Akbar (1542-1605), was reverted and later the Mughal throne was inherited by pious rulers like Jahāngīr (reign 1605 – 1627), Shāhjahān (reign 1628 – 1658) and Aurangzeb Ālamgīr (reign 1658 – 1707). In the same way, the modern science first gave Islam a tough challenge and promoted atheisms and materialism with its fullest strength, but with the passage of time and due to its inherent nature of change it lost vigour and attraction and fell upside down. The theories of Newton and Darwin collapsed totally and new theories replaced them slowly. Now the modern science is not only going smoothly with Islam rather it is supporting Islamic beliefs and practices. Thanks to the insightful leadership of great Ulama who defended Islam in the best possible manner and safeguarded the Muslim faith. This is the reason that the Deoband School, which is the centre of Walīullāhi Movement, left its impact throughout the world and now it is one the strongest, rather the strongest movement of the Muslim World.
 For Shia-Sunni issues, please refer to his book Izālat al-Khifa fi Khilāfat al-Khulafa.
 His two outstanding works Inṣāf fi Bayān Sabab al-Ikhtilāf and Al-‘Iqd al-Jīd fi Aḥkām al-Ijtihād wa al-Taqlīd deal with the issues of taqlīd and different branches of Fiqh in which he tried to bring two extremist groups closer. Similarly, in several books, especially Maktūb-e-Madani he reconciled between the two groups of Taṣawwuf who contended each other over the theories of waḥdat al-wujūd and waḥdat al-shuhūd, while in his book al-Tafhīmāt al-Ilāhiyah he discussed Taṣawwuf issues in great detail.
 Syed Abul Ḥasan Ali Nadwi, Saviours of Islamic Spirit, (Academy of Islamic Research & Publications, Lucknow) Vol. IV, PP 156-157
 For details see: Tafsīr al-Qurab by Sir Syed Aḥmad Khān; an analytical survey of Sir Syed‘s views can be seen in Taṣfiyat al-‘Aqāyid by Haḍrat Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi; Ulūm al-Qurān by Mufti Muḥammad Taqi Uthmāni (Deoband, 2002) pp 372-388 and Afkār-e-‘Ālam by Asīr Adrawi (Darul Uloom Deoband, 2008) vol. 1 pp 294-298.
 Among the works of Haḍrat Nānotwai, Taqrīr Dilpadhīr, Ḥujjat al-Islām, Intiṣār al-Islām, Qibla Numa and Taḥdhīr al-Nās deal with subjects related to Islamic beliefs and teachings, while Barahīin Qāsmiya, Rūdād Melakhuda Shanāsi, Tuḥfa Laḥmiya etc refute the Christian and Hindu beliefs and practices.
 His books Hidāyat al-Shī’ah and Fuyūḍ-e-Qāismiya contain discourses on issues related to Shī’aism, Bid’āt, while Laṭāyif Qāsmi, Tauthīq al-Kalām, al-Ḥaq al-Ṣarīḥ deal with issues related to Ghair Muqallids and Taṣfiyat al-Aqāyid contains the answers of some beliefs of Sir Sayed Aḥmad Khān.
 Some of his most valuable contributions are: al-Tashabbuh fi al-Islām, Science awr Islām, Aṭyab al-Thamar fi Mas’alat al-Qaḍa wa al-Qadr, Falsafa-e-Namāz, Kalimāt-e-Ṭayyibāt, Maqāmāt-e-Muqaddasa , Dīn-o-Siyāsat, Islāmi Musāwāt, Khāt al-Nabiyyīn, Islām awr Masīḥi Aqwām, al-Ijtihād wa al-Taqliīd, Uṣūl-e-Da’wat-e-Islām, Fiṭri Ḥukūmat, Naẓriya-e-Do-Qur’ān per Aik Naẓar, Islām mein Akhlāq ka Niẓām, Ulamā-e-Deoband ka Dīni Rukh awr Maslaki Mizāj etc.
 Opening Address, 17th Fiqhi Seminar of Islamic Fiqh Academy India, Burhānpūr on 5 April 2008, p 26
 Ibid, pp 26-28
Dr. Mohammad Najeeb Qasmi Sambhali
Safar al-Muzaffar is the second month the Hijri (Lunar) calendar succeeding Muharram and preceding Rabi I. Muslims should perform their worships as usual like they do in any other months, because no specific type of prayer, whether obligatory or supererogatory, has been specifically prescribed in this month. It is just like other months. Accordingly, to believe that disasters and calamities befall in this month is erroneous. During the time of ignorance, people believed it to be an ill-fated month. They would not set out on a journey in this month. It is a matter of grief that the erroneous and unsound belief of the time of ignorance has been into the social media which is widely shared by our own brethren. Besides many merits of social media, it has numerous demerits as well. One such demerit is that a considerable number of people without reading or ascertaining the truthfulness of the messages forward them to others. These messages contain matters believed to have been said by Allah’s messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) which he actually never said in his life. This is despite the fact that severe warnings have been reported in ahadith for such act. Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said: “Whoever tells lies about me deliberately, let him take his place in Hell.” (Bukhari). This saying of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) has been narrated in various books of hadith. This means Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) has prohibited from this act many times. Therefore, one should never forward anything reported to have been said by Allah’s messenger (PBUH) without ascertaining its trustworthiness. Likewise, Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said: “It is enough for a man to prove himself a liar when he goes on narrating whatever he hears.” (Muslim). In another Hadith, Allah’s messenger (PBUH) said: “Whoever narrates a Hadith from me and it is false, then he is one of the liars.” (Muslim)
Allah’s messenger ( صلى الله عليه وسلم) refuted such false belief before 1400 years. The most authentic book of hadith has narrated a saying of Allah’s messenger (PBUH) in these words: Translation of Meaning: “Nor is there any bad omen in the month of Safar”. In fact, the omen is in the deed of a human being that he disobeys the Creator of the universe, despite the fact that he needs the order of Allah, the almighty for his very existence. There will surely come a day when he will taste the death following which he shall have to give the account of each and every moment to Allah, the Almighty. Accordingly, whatever time spent in a way contrary to the commandments of Allah, the Almighty is, in fact, ominous, and not a specific month or day. Therefore, anybody doing good deeds in the month of Safar it will be the reason behind this Safar’s being the month of bliss and blessing. Likewise, the times and months in which he does bad deeds will be ominous for him. For example, some people perform prayer of Fajr at the time prescribed for it while some people remain sleeping without any justifiable reason skipping the prayer, then the same moment is a source of success and bliss for some while it is ominous for some others. This means there is no bad omen that lies in a specific moment or month, rather it depends upon our deeds. In a Qudsi hadith Allah, the Almighty says: “The offspring of Adam abuse the Dahr (Time), and I am the Dahr; in My Hands are the night and the day.” (Bukhari) Some people influenced by the events of time, prompt to curse the time, while the time does nothing, but it is by the order and consent of Allah, the Almighty that the events of the time occur.
No single verse of the Holy Quran or a hadith of Allah’s messenger (PBUH) says there is bad omen in the month of Safar or disasters or misfortunes befall in this month. Therefore, the whole Muslim nation is unanimous that the month of Safar is similar to other months having no bad omen. A number of events in the Prophet’s biography in addition to marriages of a number of the Prophet’s companions as well as entry into the fold of Islam have been reported to have occurred in this month. We should also apply our mind and think how can a month or time be ominous? Rather the month of Safar has been named as “Safar Al-Muzaffar” means the month of success. Then how a month having the meaning of goodness and success can be ominous? Some people, thinking that Allah’s messenger (PBUH) fell sick in the first thirteen days of Safar, do not arrange a marriage party during this month. This is erroneous, for there is no such teaching in the Quran and hadith. In addition, research proves that Allah’s messenger (PBUH) did not fall sick in the starting days of Safar rather at the end of Safar and in the early days of the Month of Rabi I he had fallen sick and subsequently died on 12th of Rabi I.
Some ignorant people celebrate joyfully on the last Wednesday of Safar and distribute sweets. Such celebration has no place in the Islamic Shariah. This has got currency among the people erroneously believing Allah’s messenger (PBUH) was cured that day, which is totally wrong. On the contrary, some narrations mention the worsening health condition of Allah’s messenger (PBUH). Therefore, the last Wednesday cannot be a day of joyful celebration for the Muslims. This may be the case with the Jews and Christians and it may likely have been rumoured by them. Like the Muslims of the whole world, the stand of the Muslims of all schools of thought in the subcontinent is that there is no bad omen in the month of Safar. One can contract marriage etc in this month, and celebrating joyfully on the last Wednesday of Safar is not a religious act rather it is contrary to the teachings of Allah’s messenger (PBUH).
These days, the trend of forwarding messages on social media has become a trend which is becoming more prevalent at a very fast pace, seldom taking care to go through them or ascertain as to the contents of these message are sound or based on bundle of lies, prompting many of us to hasten to forward them to others. This is despite the fact that messages are not meant for forwarding rather they are sent for reading. We are not allowed to forward a message containing erroneous information, especially when it is related to religious information. This is because in this way we would have forwarded erroneous information to others. For example, sometimes we receive a message advising us to forward five names of Allah, the Almighty to any eleven Muslims in order to have our greatest problems resolved. Likewise, if such and such message is forwarded to such and such number of people we will be awarded paradise. Sometimes the message says that only that person will not forward this message who does not love Allah, the Almighty and His Messenger, etc. Such messages have no significance or relevance in Islam, rather these are in general based on falsehood and fabrication.
Nowadays, we use social media for the cause of education and learning. This is a blessing of Allah, the Almighty provided that we use it in a sound manner. However, some people seeing the colourful look of a message hasten to forward it to others without ascertaining its soundness. As such, if a message containing erroneous information is forwarded, and it gets currency among the people, all those facilitating it will earn a sin. Therefore, we should not forward any religious material without ascertaining its soundness, as mentioned above in the light of the ahadith of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH). Beware, whatever a person speaks or writes is being continuously written in his record of deeds, as Allah, the Almighty says: “Not a word does he (or she) utter, but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it). (Surah Qaf: 18)
The Islamic history is witness to the fact that Islam and Muslims have incurred heavy losses due to the dissemination of false news. For example, at the occasion of the battle of Uhud, the news of the martyrdom of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) was rumoured, sending a wave of shock among the ranks of Muslims, leading to the repercussions detailed in history books. Likewise, at the occasion of the battle of Banu Mustaliq, the hypocrites made a slander against Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her), that had an adverse effect even on Allah’s Messenger (PBUH). At the beginning, it was rumoured by the hypocrites which subsequently took a toll on some righteous persons among the Muslims due to their ignorance. At last Allah, the Almighty sent down a verse in the Holy Quran acquitting her of the accusation levelled on her. In this verse Allah, the Almighty dispraised those who spread the rumour trying to tarnish the respectful image of Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her). Allah, the Almighty says: “Verily! those who brought forth the slander (against 'Aishah radhiallahu'anhu the wife of the Prophet SAW) are a group among you. Consider it not a bad thing for you. Nay, it is good for you. Unto every man among them will be paid that which he had earned of the sin, and as for him among them who had the greater share therein, his will be a great torment. (Surah An-Noor: 11)
Likewise, some websites conduct referendum polls (opinion survey) on some topics relating to Islam. Some brothers get obsessed by their religious zeal and take part exerting a handsome amount of their abilities in it. In general, almost all such websites are used to propagate against Islam. We should not pay any attention to such websites. Allah, the Almighty says: “O you who believe! If a Fasiq (liar — evil person) comes to you with any news, verify it, lest you should harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful for what you have done. (6). (Surah Al-Hujraat: 6). Likewise, Allah says: “Verily, those who like that audacious (leading to illegal sexual activities) should be propagated among those who believe, they will have a painful torment in this world and in the Hereafter. And Allah knows, and you know not. (19) (Surah Al-Noor: 19).
In brief: Besides using the social media for the purpose of personal, educational, social and commercial correspondence, we should use it excessively for the purpose of propagation and dissemination of the message of Islam and Prophetic sciences. This is because, at present, this is a media through which we can deliver our message to others easily, otherwise the electronic, as well as the print media, is in general in the hands of Anti-Muslim forces. If you receive a message containing religious information from a reliable source, you should go through it and forward it to others as much as you can so that the message of Islam and its sciences are spread at a large scale. However, if you receive any message from an unreliable source, you should not forward it without ascertaining its soundness. No single hadith has been reported on the topic of bad omen in the month of Safar, nor has a reliable Islamic scholar accepted it. Therefore, do not forward such types of messages to others, rather delete them promptly.
Rahimia Magazine (October,2016)
Author: Mr. Wasim Ejaz, Karachi
Translation: Mr.Faisal Zaheer, Karachi
The Waliullahi movement played a leading role in the freedom movement of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. It remained at the forefront of every effort even in extremely unfavorable circumstances. An important member of this movement is Maulana Mamlook Ali Nanotvi (RA). He was born in 1788 CE in Nanota, District Saharanpur. After obtaining initial education in his native village, he moved to Delhi and entered the tutelage of Maulana Rasheed ud Din Khan (RA), a student of Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlvi (RA). Later on, Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) started teaching in Delhi.
Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) was appointed lecturer at Delhi College in 1825 CE. He rendered his educational services at the college for approximately 25 years. His students include the following notables along with many other acclaimed scholars who played a leading role for this nation and made innumerable sacrifices for our freedom:
Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi (RA)
Hazrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi (RA)
Maulana Muhammad Mazhar Nanotvi (RA) (Lecturer at Ajmer College and founder of Madrasa Mazahir ul Uloom Saharanpur)
Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanotvi (RA)
Maulana Muhammad Ahsan Nanotvi (RA) (Lecturer at Banaras and Bareli colleges)
Maulana Zulfiqar Ali Deobandi (RA) (Deputy Inspector for Madaris)
Shams ul Ulama Muhammad Hussain Azad
Molvi Zaka Ullah (The renowned historian)
Being a member of Waliullahi movement, Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) had strong connections with the populace. He was respected and revered by the masses as well as scholars. For his services in the field of education, Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) was awarded with “Khilat Seh Parchah” in 1845 CE.
In the aftermath of the Balakot movement, Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA) relocated the headquarters of Waliullahi movement to Makkah. This was done in order to deal with unfavorable circumstances of the subcontinent and plan for the future. Since domain of Waliullahi movement was Indo-Pak subcontinent, it was imperative that: A system should be put in place to ensure communication with activists in India, and Ideological and educational efforts in India should continue.
Another objective was establishment of a new organizational system through propagation of the objectives of Waliullahi movement. Imam Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA) employed the commendable scheme for attainment of this objective and formed a consultative board of Waliullahi leaders. The president of this board was Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) while other members of this board included Maulana Qutub ud Din (RA) (successor of Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA)), Maulana Muzaffar Hussain Kandehlvi (RA) (student of Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA)) and Maulana Abdul Ghani Mujaddidi Dehlvi (RA).
Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) was an employee of a government madrassa (Delhi College). Under his supervision, the Dehli based independence struggle could continue its course without any suspicion surveillance of British Intelligence. Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) needed assistance from indigenous associates, and these were provided by Imam Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA) by constituting a board where all the matters were resolved in a democratic manner. Throughout the struggle for independence of subcontinent, democratic norms and culture were the hallmark characteristic of Waliullahi movement. Another reason for this arrangement of consultation was the aftermath of the Balakot movement. People who were associated with this movement across India and especially in Delhi were facing numerous hardships inflicted by the British Government. In these circumstances, it was pertinent that a board comprising of capable individuals should work consultatively for solution of problems and for strengthening of communication channels among the trained associates.
It was the efforts of this board, under the leadership of Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA), which made possible the establishment of an educational institution at Deoband on the model of Delhi College. After Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA), Imam Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA) sent Haji Imdad Ullah Muhajir Makki (RA) as his successor to India for furthering the efforts of Waliullahi movement. Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) developed very close friendship with Haji Imdad Ullah Muhajir Makki (RA). It was the efforts for establishment of a team by these revered elders which – after the Balakot movement – trained and nurtured the future leaders who participated wholeheartedly in the War of Independence of 1857 CE. Essentially, the fundamental community had already been established under the leadership of Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA). Later on, under the leadership of Haji Imdad Ullah Muhajir Makki (RA), this community advanced the freedom movement and even risked their lives for liberation of our beloved homeland. This leadership played a prominent role in the Battle of Shamli and became a role model for the future generations.
In addition to playing a leading role in the freedom movement, Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) also authored and translated several books including Jame Tirmizi, Tehreer e Aqlidus (Writings of Euclid), Tareekh e Yamini and Arbi Khat (Arabic Script). In his autobiography “Tazkirah tur Rasheed”, Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi (RA) has paid tribute to Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) in the following words: “after arriving at Delhi College in the service of Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA), we were thoroughly satisfied and completed numerous books in a very short period of time. It was as if the teacher had made us fully capable of absorbing all the knowledge. At that time, there were many competent teachers in Delhi, but those who had total command over the meanings of the content and could make the student understand it were our teachers Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) and Mufti Sadaruddin Azurdah (RA).”
Maulana Mamlook Ali’s (RA) services will always be remembered as a significant milestone of the Waliullahi movement. His lead an exemplary life: he was an educator par excellence and was also a leading and prominent member of the freedom movement. He passed away on 7th October, 1851 CE after suffering from jaundice for 11 days. He is buried adjacent to Hazrat Shaikh Abdul Aziz Shakkarbar (RA) in Shah Wali Ullah Dehlvi’s (RA) family graveyard. May Allah grant us the ability to follow in the footsteps of these Waliullahi role models and to struggle for the establishment of a just society. (Amen!)