By: Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
First of all, I would like to greet our respected Principal, our respected teachers, and my fellow classmates with a very good morning. I’m delighted to have the privilege to share some words regarding Republic day of our glorious nation. I would like to take this opportunity to greet all of you a very Happy Republic Day.
It is an auspicious day of our life that we celebrate 26 January. The Constitution of India came into force on this day in 1950.
Republic Day is our national festival day. We celebrate this day as an Indian and feel proud to be a citizen of India. The Constitution is the living spirit of our democracy. The Constitution is the backbone of the country. The Constitution gives all India equal rights and privileges. The Constitution guarantees freedom to all Indians. The Constitution promotes equality and justice to all individuals, irrespective of their caste, colour and creed.
At this occasion, I would like to read out the Preamble to the Constitution. The preamble very clearly outlines the great Idea of India that binds us together. It reads:
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA,
Having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a
SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
And to secure to all its citizens
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
Our beloved country achieved independence from British on 15 August 1947 following the long freedom movement. We must not forget architects of this freedom and the builders our nations. They held aloft the torch of freedom and lighted up the darkness that once surrounded us. We must not the countless unknown volunteers and soldiers of freedom who, without praise or reward, have served India even unto death.
The best complements we can pay to these freedom fighters is to protect our Constitution. The best homage we can pay to them is to safeguard the true spirit of the democracy. The best memorial is to them to protect the idea of India that they dreamed of. An India that embraces its arms to each and every citizen of the country. An India that wants to all its children flourishing and prospering. An India that is full of justice, equality and fraternity.
At the end, I repeat the words of Jawaharlal Nehru which he spoke on the eve of India's Independence, he said:
“We are citizens of a great country, and we have to live up to that high standard. All of us, to whatever religion we may belong, are equally the children of India with equal rights, privileges and obligations. We cannot encourage communalism or narrow-mindedness, for no nation can be great whose people are narrow in thought or in action. …… And to India, our much-loved motherland, the ancient, the eternal and the ever-new, we pay our reverent homage and we bind ourselves afresh to her service. Jai Hind.”
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
(An Extract from A GIFT TO THE HUSBAND AND WIFE )
Friends! since Allah Ta'ala Himself has instituted the rights of women, who has the authority to change them? If the husband fails to fulfil their rights, he will be guilty of trampling the rights of fellow humans. Men should ponder over the most exquisite manner of how Allah Ta'ala intercedes on behalf of the women. Allah Ta'ala says: "And treat them (the women) with kindness, if you take a dislike to them, it may be that you dislike a certain thing and (whereas) Allah Ta'ala brings about through it a great deal of good."
Obviously, many factors can contribute to disliking them. However, the main factor which brings about a dislike towards them is their offensive character. And this is really disturbing and obnoxious to a man. However, it is as though Allah Ta'ala promises you, the men, that He will ensure that their offensive character etc. will be a great deal of goodness for you. Allah Ta'ala is all-wise; He has the capability of doing everything. For instance, Allah Ta'ala may bring forth from this woman some
children who will assist you on the day of judgement.
Examine very closely the verses I have recited on this topic and judge for yourself the clarity with which Allah Ta'ala institutes the women's rights. (At-Tableegh Kisaaun-Nisaa volume 7 page 120 & 126)
Summary of a wife's rights
The following is a list of a wife's rights over her husband:
(1) To confront with exceptional character and to treat her with kindness.
(2) To endure patiently, albeit with moderation, all her excesses and harassment.
(3) To be moderate in one's ghairat. In other words don't become suspicious of her nor remain totally ignorant. (Ghairat is an arabic word which refers to a spfrit of possessiveness or sense of honour particularly when the wife speaks to or is involved with strange men. This attribute, although scorned upon by the western world, is quite acceptable in Islam.)
(4) To be moderate in spending upon her; avoid being niggardly nor permit her to be extravagant.
(5) To learn and teach her the Masaail (propositions) of Haidh (and other masaail exclusively related to women) and to emphasise the institution of Salaah and other tenets of Deen and to prevent her from Bid'aat (innovations) and religious prohibitions.
(6) To maintain equality between the wives.
(7) In keeping with her needs, to have sexual intercourse with her.
(8) To refrain from coitus interruptus without her permission.
(9) To provide her with her house sufficient enough to attend to her needs.
( 1 0) To allow her to meet her close relatives such as her parents, father's brothers, father's sisters, her own brothers and sisters etc.
(11) To abstain from disclosing her intimate and personal habits, such as her sexual preferences etc.
(12) To refrain from beating her excessively. (This in no way implies thai he must beat her. Although he is permitted to beat her, the best is to abstain from lifting the hand upon this weak creation of Allah Ta'ala.)
(13) To desist from divorcing her unnecessarily. Both spouses have numerous rights upon one another. I have written down whatever has come to mind. I have extracted these from lhyaaul-Uloom etc. (Imdaadul-Fataawaa volume 2 page 185 question 278)
Why the wife's maintenance is Wajib
The Fuqahaa (jurists) are explicit over the fact that maintenance is also awarded in lieu of confinement or restraint. In other words, a person who is confined to the services etc. of another person and due to this confinement he is unable to earn a living for himself, the person confining him is compelled to attend to his upkeep and expenses. This can be likened lo the meals provided to the witnesses. The witnesses arc confined to the task of testifying on beha'f of the defendant or plaintiff. Hence, they will be provided wih meals during those limes. The rulers of today have retained this Islamic law until this present day. In short, the maintenance awarded to the wife is in lieu of the restraint placed upon her. (Islaahe-lnqilaab page 191)
When docs maintenance became obligatory?
The only condition for the obligation of maintenance is the surrender of the wife before her husband. In other words, she wholly submits herself to her husband without any shortcoming on her part. However, on valid grounds if she refuses to do so, for example, the husband has not as yet paid the agreed cash mahr, she will still be eligible to claim maintenance because the shortcoming is on the side of the husband, not the wife. Nonetheless, if she defiantly leaves the husband's home, she will
not be eligible to claim until she returns. Some women flee to their parent's home following a row or contention with their husbands. Whilst there, they claim maintenance. Remember, maintenance is not Wajib (obligatory) upon the husband whilst she defiantly remains at her parent's home. (Islaahe-Inqilaab page 1 82)
Minor or senior - the wife's maintenance is obligatory
If the wife is so young (physically immature) that she is unable to endure intercourse but she is big enough to stay with her husband, amuse him and carry out some odd jobs for him, he is compelled to financially maintain her if she submits herself to him.
However, if she has not as yet reached such an age - as prevalent amongst certain nations where the children are married off at a very young age - her maintenance is not compulsory upon her husband whilst she is still a child. A minor girl who is not physically fit for intercourse and she is presently only fit to offer her husband congenial company and a bit of odd jobs, her husband is not compelled to keep her in his own house. He is at liberty; he may keep her whereupon he is compelled to maintain
her or else he may not keep her whereupon he is not compelled to pay her maintenance.
Amongst some nations, a minor boy is married off to a senior woman. The boy is presently not fit for anything but since the woman has submitted herself and the shortcoming is on the part of the boy, maintenance will be compulsory upon the boy. In this case, if the boy owns property or cash, the maintenance will be paid from his own wealth. (Durre-Mukhtaar - Islaahe-Inqilaab page 182)
Maintenance is Waajib regardless of the wife's affluence or poverty
Some people are of the opinion that the wife's maintenance will only be Waajib if she is poor and if she is wealthy, she is not eligible to receive maintenance. This is totally erroneous on their part. Maintenance is compulsory irrespective of her condition of affluence or poverty. The only condition for the compulsion of maintenance is that there is no shortcoming on her part in respect of submitting herself over to her husband. (Islaahe-Inqilaabpage 182)
Separate accommodation also falls within the purview of maintenance
One of the constituents of maintenance is separate accommodation. There is a general misconception amongst many people, even amongst religious people, that it is not compulsory to provide separate accommodation for the wife. She is dumped amongst the husband's relatives or parents. The Shariah decrees that if she is willingly prepared to stay with her in-laws it is fine. However, if she wishes to stay alone, the husband is compelled to provide separate accommodation.
"Willingly" in the above context refers to total pleasure and satisfaction of the heart. If the husband, on some indication or the other, perceives that she wishes to remain separately but she does not express herself verbally, then too he is not permitted to keep her with other members of his family. Nowadays, even if the wife is willing to stay with the husband's relatives and the relatives are dissatisfied with the couple living separately, then too circumstances and prevailing conditions require that it is best for them to live separately. This will put a plug on numerous problems and complications. The relatives might feel offended for a few days, but they will be satisfied with this arrangement after a few days once they witness its benefits.
However, if he is unable to provide a complete house for her, he may, within a big house, provide just one room sufficient for her needs. In this room she should be able to keep her personal possessions under lock and key and feel free to sit, converse and sit with her husband in total privacy. Such a provision is sufficient to fulfil the Waajib obligation.
The stove (kitchen) in particular should most definitely be separate as the fires of dissension rage from this very stove (kitchen). Some people consider it their great fortune to Keep their wives subjected to their mothers. To achieve this end, she is subjected to various forms of cruelty and hardship. Remember well! A woman is not compelled to serve her mother-in-law. If you are noble, serve her yourself or employ a servant to serve her. (Islaahe-Inqilaab volume 2 page 188)
Maintenance according to the affluence and poverty of the husband and where possible, provision of a maid is also waajib
According to your financial capacity, just as you spend upon yourself, permit her to spend upon herself as well. This is the injunction of Shariah.
Some people, in spite of affluent circumstances, tend to be niggardly in the expenses of their wives. They provide so little maintenance that it may only suffice if she prepares the food with her own hands. The scant maintenance provides no scope whatsoever to employ a maid. In fact, if the husband can afford it, he is compelled to provide the expenses of a domestic servant as well.
In destitution, the wife is compelled to do all the housework herself
Some women display erratic behaviour in that they demand a domestic servant in spite of the husband's poverty. The husband is not compelled to provide a servant if he cannot afford it. If the wife is able to prepare the food etc. she should prepare her own meals as well as the meals of her husband. (Dune-Mukhtaar - Islaahe-lnqilaab page 183)
If the wife is incapable of doing household work
II, on the other hand, she is unable to perform household work - either due to some illness or because she hails from a very affluent family - neither is the husband compelled to provide a maid nor is the wife compelled to prepare the meals. In fact the husband wi-ll be ordered to provide cooked meals either from the shops (restaurants etc.) or wherever else, (Ibid)
Extra expenses for fruit, paan etc, is not binding upon the husband
Some women tend to squander their husband's wealth mercilessly. They consider it compulsory upon the husband to provide the money for their useless expenses and luxuries such as paan and betel-nut etc. Some women have a habit of tea or coffee and they not only consume themselves but provide these luxuries, from the husband's wealth, to their friends as well. They consider such provisions to be binding upon the husband whereas the Fuqahaa (jurists) have explicitly mentioned that the piovision of coffee, tobacco, seasonal fruit etc. is not necessary upon the husband. If she has the habit of coffee, tobacco etc. and quitting the habit will, be detrimental to her, then too she should not demand the money for these habits from her husband.
Whatever expenses the husband gladly assumes and takes the responsibility to provide wholeheartedly, it is his favour unto you. Nonetheless, the honour of the husband demands that if he
is financially favoured by Allah Ta'ala, he should not be reluctant to provide certain comforts for his wife. However, it does not befit the wife to harass her husband in return of his favours upon her.
The exigency of polite behaviour
According to the financial status bestowed upon you by Allah Ta'ala, spend upon her just as you spend upon yourself. Shariah decrees that as far as possible, make her comfortable and keep her gratified. Don't impose any difficulty whatsoever upon her. When giving her money (as maintenance, or household expenses etc.) be very lenient and liberal with her. Endeavour to please and console her and exercise tolerance upon her tormenting excesses. Muslims should always endeavour to treat their wives according to the Sunnah of Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam. (At-Tableegh volume 7 page 140)
Provision of extra clothing for Eid, weddings etc. is not compulsory upon the husband
Another deficiency very common amongst women is that they will have heaps of clothing in their trunks (or cupboards) but (his wouldn't deter them from requesting their husbands to get more clothes made for them. Remember that as long as you have (old) clothing provided by your husband, he is not compelled to get a new set of clothing made for you. Similarly, making new clothing for Eidul Fitr, Eidul Adha and weddings etc. is not the responsibility of the husband. However, if he does provide for you, it is a great favour of him upon you. (Islaahe-Inqilaab volume 2 page 185)
Zakaat, Sadaqatul-fitr, Qurbaani etc- on behalf of the wife is not compulsory upon the husband
The husband is not compelled to pay Zakaat on his wife's jewellery or to pay her Sadqatul-Fitr, make Qurbaani etc. on her behalf. However, in view of such occasions, it is most appropriate for the husband to give his wife, according to his financial capability, a little more than the necessary expenses.
This extra amount will enable the wives to pay their Waajibaat (compulsory dues). However, he is not compelled to do this. If he does not provide extra money, she should sell part of her jewellery to meet these compulsory expenses. Without her husband's consent, she is not permitted to spend any part of his wealth in fulfilment of her monetary dues. Women are very apathetic towards this. In fact they don't even doubt its prohibition in the least bit. (Islaahe-Inqilaab page 1 86)
Prohibition regarding the disbursement of charity from the husband's wealth without his consent
According to the Hadith, Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam says, it is not permissible for the wife to give anything without the consent of the husband. According to another Hadith, in her husband's home, a woman should nol give away anything (in charily) without his consent. Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam was then asked: "She is not even permitted to give food to anyone?" He replied: "Food is (he most superior form of wealth." (Jam'ul-Fawaaid)
In another Hadith, whilst encouraging the women to give in charity, Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam employed the words; "from their own jewellery." He did not say "from the jewellery of their husbands." In other words, the encouragement of charity applied to the women's own wealth and not the wealth of the husband. (At-Tableegh volume 7 page 39)
From the above we deduce that even on occasions of religious disbursements, like giving from the husband's wealth to a beggar, donations to a madrasah etc. or to financially serve an aalim, lecture, orphan, widow etc. is not permissible without the husband's consent. In fact such charities are not even accepted in the court of Allah Ta'ala. According to the Hadith, Allah Ta'ala is pure and He only accepts pure (charities etc.) [Islaahe-lnqilaab volume 2 page 185)
Purchasing from the husband's wealth without his consent is prohibited
Similarly, some women have a penchant for unnecessary and . frivolous things. The moment they take a liking to something, they purchase the item and continue to amass a whole heap of unnecessary possessions. However, what is quite surprising is that those items are never put to any use nor are they cared for, ending up in those items being "wasted away and ruined. She will be taken to task on the day of Qiyaamah for squandering her husband's wealth in this manner. Similarly, she is not permitted to make clothing for the occasions of Eidul Fitr, Eidul Adha, weddings etc. from his wealth without his consent. (Islaahe-lnqilaab volume 2 page 185)
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
Alim: One who has attained a considerable amount of Islamic knowledge. He could also be referred to as an Islamic scholar.
Barakah: Literally means "blessings". It refers to the experiencing of abundance in things, which are apparently insignificant or little, both in value and amount.
Bid’ah: Literally means "innovation". In Islam it refers to introducing new things into religion which have no basis in the Quran or Sunnah, and in addition to this, to regard these new things as acts of ‘ibadah. A bid'ah is a major sin in Islam.
Dua ul-maghfirah: Supplicating to Allah Ta'ala and asking Him for His forgiveness.
I’la: Annulment of a marriage after the husband's sworn testimony to have refrained from sexual intercourse with his wife for a period of at least four months. For further details, refer to the chapter on ‘i la’.
Fard: Literally means "compulsory". In Islam it refers to those acts and things which are compulsory on a Muslim. Abandoning or abstaining from a fard act is a major sin. Rejecting a fard act amounts to kufr.
Fatwa: A formal legal opinion or verdict in Islamic law.
Ghayr mahram: Refers to all those persons with whom marriage is permissible. Based on this, it is incumbent to observe purdah with all ghayr mahrams.
Ghibah: Slander or backbiting.
Hayd: Monthly periods or menstruation experienced by a woman.
Hajj: Literally means "pilgrimage". In Islam it refers to the annual pilgrimage to Makkah.
Halal: That which is lawful or permissible in Islam.
Haram: That which is unlawful or prohibited in Islam.
Hur: Refers to the large-eyed women of jannah, promised to the believers.
Ibadah: Literally means "worship". In Islam it refers to all those acts of worship which one renders to Allah Ta'ala.
Iddah: A period of waiting during which a woman may not remarry after being widowed or divorced. For further details, refer to the chapter on iddah.
Ihram: Two pieces of unstitched cloth donned by the person performing hajj or umrah.
Jama’ah: A group, party, community.
Kafir: Literally means "a disbeliever". In Islam it refers to one who rejects Allah and does not believe in Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as the final messenger of Allah.
Kaffarah: Literally means "penance, atonement, expiation". In Islamic law it refers to redemption from the omission of certain religious duties by a material donation or a ritual act. For further details, refer to the chapter on kaffarah.
Khula: Divorce at the instance of the wife who must pay compensation. For further details, refer to the chapter on khula.
Kuffar: Plural of kafir.
Li'an: Sworn allegation of adultery committed by either husband or wife. For further details, refer to the chapter on li'an.
Madrasah: Literally means "a school". Also used to refer to a religious school.
Maghrib: Literally means "evening or sunset". Also refers to the time of sunset and the salat that is offered thereafter.
Mahr: Dower or bridal money.
Mahram: Refers to the person with whom marriage is not permissible and with whom strict purdah is not incumbent.
Mahrul mithl: The dower or bridal money that is equal to or similar than that which was given to a girl's paternal grandmothers. For further details, refer to the chapter on mahrul mithl.
Masa'il: Plural of mas'ala.
Mas'ala: Literally means "an issue, problem or question". In Islamic jurisprudence, it refers to a rule or regulation.
Mustahab: Literally means "preferable or desirable". Refers to that act which was carried out by Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam or the Sahabah occasionally. Carrying out these actions entails reward and leaving them out does not entail punishment.
Nadhr: A vow or solemn pledge.
Nifas: Refers to the flowing of blood after child-birth.
Perdah: An Urdu word meaning "seclusion". It is an equivalent of the Arabic word "hijab". Refers to the seclusion of women from strangers. There are different stages of purdah, the highest of which is that the woman should not come out of her home except for a valid Islamic reason.
Qada: Literally means "carrying out or fulfilling". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to fulfilling or completing those duties that one may have missed out due to some reason or the other.
Qadiani: A heretical sect which regards Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani as a prophet of Allah. Qadianis are regarded as disbelievers.
Qiblah: The direction in which one faces when offering salat.
Qurbani: Literally means "sacrifice". In Islam it refers to the sacrificing of animals solely for the pleasure of Allah Ta'ala on the day of idul-Ad'ha and the two days following it.
Ramadan: The ninth month of the Islamic calendar which is regarded as the most sacred month.
Salam: Literally means "peace".
Shari‘ah: The Islamic Law.
Shaytan: Satan or the devil.
Shi’ah: A heretical sect found primarily in Iran.
Sunnat-e-Mu’akkadah: Refers to those actions which Rasulullah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam carried out continuously. It is a sin to leave out such a sunnah without any valid excuse.
Sunni: Refers to those who belong to the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama'ah. This term is generally used as an opposite to Sh i ‘ah.
Surmah: Antimony. A black powdery substance that is applied to the eyes. It is sunnah to apply surmah.
Talaq-e-kinayah: A divorce that is issued in vague terms without clearly uttering the words of talaq.
Talaq-e-sarih: A divorce that is issued in clear terms without leaving any vagueness or doubt.
Talaqul ba'in: A divorce, which causes the annulment of the marriage. If a person wishes to retain his wife to whom he had issued a talaqul ba'in, he will have to remarry her, i.e. their nikah will have to be re-performed.
Talaqul mughallazah: A divorce which not only causes the annulment of the marriage, but if the couple wish to remarry, the woman will have to marry another person first, when he divorces her or passes away, only then can she remarry her first husband.
Talaqur raj'ai : A revocable divorce.
For further details with regard to all the above forms of talaq, refer to the relevant chapters.
Ulama: Plural of alim.
Ummah: Literally means "community or nation". Here it refers to the Muslim community and nation.
Wajib: Literally means "obligatory". In Islamic jurisprudence it refers to that act which has not been established by an absolute proof. Leaving out a wajib without any valid reason makes one a fasiq and entails punishment.
Wali: In the context of marriage or divorce, it refers to the legal guardian of a minor.
Walimah: Refers to the feast that is organized after a marriage. It usually takes place after the bride and bride groom have spent a night together.
Zihar: Likening one's wife to one's mother. It is a form of divorce. For further details, refer to the chapter on zihar.
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
Rights of Husband
Allah TaAla has given great rights to the husband and has attached a lot of virtue to him. Pleasing the husband and keeping him happy is a great act of ‘ibadah and displeasing him or keeping him unhappy is a major sin.
One of the rights of the husband is that the wife should not keep any optional fasts nor offer any optional salat in his presence without his permission. Among the rights of the husband is that she should not remain in an untidy, dishevelled state. Instead, she should always remain clean and beautiful for her husband. In fact, if she remains untidy and dishevelled despite her husband ordering her to remain clean, he has the right of beating her (lightly) in order that she may obey him. Another right of the husband is that she should not leave the house without his permission irrespective of whether it be the house of a friend, relative or anyone else.
The Rights of Parents
Meet her with respect. If she is in need of money and you are able to help her, then help her.
Since she is an associate of your father, and we have been commanded to be kind and friendly to our parents' associates, the step-mother, therefore, also has certain rights over you as mentioned previously.
The elder brother
In the light of the Hadith, the elder brother is similar to one's father. From this we can deduce that the younger brother is similar to one's children. Based on this, they will have rights similar to those of parents and children. The elder sister and the younger sister should also be treated in the same manner.
If any of your blood relatives is in need and is unable to earn, help him out with his expenses according to your financial position. Go and meet them occasionally. Do not cut-off relations with them. In fact, even if they cause you harm, it will be best for you to exercise patience.
In the Quran, Allah Ta'ala has mentioned the in-laws together with one's lineage. We learn from this that the father-in-law, mother-in-law, wife's brother, sister's husband, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, the previous children of the wife, the previous children of the husband - all of these have certain rights. Therefore, you have to be more considerate to them as opposed to others.
The Rights of Muslims
Rights of the Neighbour
Rights of the Traveling Companion
Rights of the Weak and Old
Those people who are in need, such as orphans, widows, the weak, the poor, the sick, the cripple, travellers, beggars, etc. have additional rights. They are:
Rights of Human beings
Rights of Animals
If there is any shortcoming in fulfilling the rights of a person, fulfil that which can be fulfilled or else, ask for forgiveness. For example, you are still owing someone some money or you cheated someone, etc. (In such a case you should try and pay the debt, but if you cannot do so, then seek forgiveness from the person). As for the right which can only be forgiven, seek forgiveness for it, e.g. you spoke ill of a person or beat him (In such a case, it is obvious that you cannot pay him anything. Instead, you will have to seek his forgiveness).
If, due to some reason, you cannot fulfil their rights nor can you seek their forgiveness, then you should continue making dua for these people. It is possible that on the day of judgement Allah Ta'ala will try and influence them to forgive you. However, later if you are in a position to fulfil their rights or seek their forgiveness, then do not hesitate in doing so.
As for the rights that are due to you and there is a hope of their being fulfilled, then be lenient when asking for them. As for those where there is no hope of their being fulfilled or, they are such that they cannot be fulfilled, such as ghibah, then although there is the hope of your receiving rewards in return for them on the day of judgement, however, more reward has been mentioned with regard to forgiving them in this world. It will be much better if you forgive them completely or absolve them completely. This is especially when the person earnestly seeks forgiveness from you.
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
The Marriages of the Kuffar
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
The person who has the power or choice of getting a boy or girl married is called a wali.
The Question of Compatibility or Kufu1. The Shar i ‘ah has taken great precautions in ensuring that nikah with an incompatible person or a person of a lower social standing does not take place. In other words, do not perform the nikah of a girl with a man who is not equal to her in status or who is of no match to her.
2. Compatibility or equality is considered in several factors: (1) lineage, (2) Islam, (3) piety, (4) wealth, (5) profession or occupation.
Equality in Lineage
1. Equality in lineage is that the Shaykh, Sayyid, Ansari, and ‘Alawi are all equal to each other. In other words, although the status of a Sayyid is more than the others, if the daughter of a Sayyid marries a Shaykh boy; it will not be said that she did not marry someone who is of her family relations. Instead, it will also be regarded as if she has married one of her relatives.
2. In matters of lineage, the lineage of the father is considered and not the mother. If the father is a Sayyid, the son is also a Sayyid; and if the father is a Shaykh, the son is also a Shaykh - irrespective of what the mother may be. If a Sayyid marries a woman who is not a Sayyid, their son will be regarded as a Sayyid. This son will be equal in status to all other Sayyids. Although the son whose father and mother are both from a noble family is respected more, according to the Shariah they will all be regarded as relatives or of the same social standing.
3. The Moghuls and Pathans are regarded as one nation and are not of the same class as that of the Sayyids and Shaykhs. If the daughter of a Sayyid or Shaykh gets married with one of them, it will be said that she married someone who is of a lower social standing than her.
Equality in being a Muslim
1. Equality in being a Muslim is only considered among the Moghuls, Pathans, and other non-Arab nations. There is no consideration of this among the Shaykhs, Sayyids, ‘Alawis, and Ansaris. A man who accepts Islam and his father was a kafir cannot be on par or equal to a woman who is a Muslim and her father was also a Muslim. The man who is a Muslim, his father is also a Muslim, but his grandfather was a kafir; cannot be equal to a woman whose grandfather was also a Muslim.
2. A man whose father and grandfather were Muslims, but his great grandfather was a kafir will be regarded as equal to a woman whose several forefathers were Muslims. In short, this equality is only considered till the grandfather. Equality beyond the grandfather, such as the great grandfather and beyond him is not considered.
Equality in Piety
Equality in piety means that a man who does not follow the dictates of the Shar i ‘ah - who is a wicked person, a scoundrel, an alcoholic, a shameless person - will not be considered to be equal to a pious, chaste and religious woman.
Equality in Wealth
Equality in wealth means that a person who is an absolute pauper cannot be compatible to a rich woman. If the man is not an absolute pauper, but is capable of giving that amount of mahr that is normally given on the first night and is also capable of giving her maintenance, then he will be regarded to be equal to her in status even if he is unable to give the entire amount of mahr. It is not necessary for the man to be in exactly the same financial position as that of the woman. Nor is it necessary for him to be close to that financial position.
Equality in Occupation
1. Equality in occupation is that, e.g. weavers are not regarded as equal to tailors and are accorded a status that is lower than that of tailors. Similarly, barbers, washermen, etc. are not regarded as being equal to tailors, but are regarded as being lower than tailors.
2. A mad, lunatic person cannot be equal to an intelligent, understanding woman.
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
Hadhrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi
1. It is mentioned in a Hadith that this world has been created to be utilised and that of all the things that are utilised in this world, there is nothing better than a pious woman. In other words, if a person is fortunate enough to get a pious wife, it will be a great blessing. It is also a mercy from Allah Ta'ala that she is actually a comfort for the husband and a means for his success in this world and in the hereafter. A person enjoys comfort from such a woman for his worldly needs and she also assists him in fulfilling his religious duties.
2. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said : "Marriage is my way and my sunnah." "The one who does not act upon my sunnah is not of me." That is, there is no relationship between him and me. This is actually a warning and a threat to the one who does not practice on the sunnah and a mention of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam anger on such a person. It is therefore necessary to be extremely cautious in this regard. Furthermore, how can a Muslim bear to have Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam displeased with him for even a moment. May Allah Ta'ala grant us death before that day comes when a Muslim is able to bear the displeasure of Allah and His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.
It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "Marry so that I can be proud (of your numbers) on the day of judgement over the other nations." In other words, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam likes his ’ummah to be in large numbers and more than the other nations. If this happens, his ummah will be carrying out more good deeds, and in so doing he will receive more rewards and gain closer proximity to Allah Ta'ala. This is because whoever from his ummah does good deeds, does so through his teachings. Therefore, the more people who act on his teachings, the more reward he will receive for conveying those teachings. We also learn from this that whenever and however possible, we should undertake to carry out those tasks and actions that will take us closer to Allah Ta'ala, and that we should not display any laziness in this regard.
It is mentioned in a Hadith that on the day of judgement the people will be standing in 120 lines. Out of these, 40 lines of people will be from the other nations while 80 lines of people will be from the ummah of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. Glory be to Allah! How beloved Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam is to Him.
The one who is able to (fulfil the rights of a wife) should marry. As for the one who does not have sufficient wealth (to fulfil the rights of a wife), he should fast. That is, he should fast so that there will be a decrease in his desires. Fasting is actually a means of curbing his desires. If a person does not have a very dire need for women, and instead has an average need, and he is able to pay for her necessities, then nikah is sunnat-e-mu’akkadah for such a person. As for the person who has a very urgent need, nikah will be fard upon him. This is because there is a fear that he will commit adultery and thereby get the sin of committing a haram act. If a person has a very urgent need but is financially incapable of maintaining a wife, then such a person must fast abundantly. Later, when he has sufficient funds to maintain a wife, he must get married.
3. It is mentioned in a Hadith that children are the flowers of jannah. This means that the amount of joy and happiness one will experience on seeing the flowers of paradise, that same amount of joy and happiness is experienced when he looks at his children. And we know fully well that children can only be obtained through marriage.
4. It is mentioned in a Hadith that when the status of a person is increased in jannah, he asks out of wonder: "How did I receive all this?" (That is, "How did I receive such a high status when I hadn't carried out so many good deeds to deserve such a status?") It will be said to this person that this high status is on account of your children asking for forgiveness on your behalf. In other words, your children had asked for forgiveness on your behalf. In return for that, you have been accorded this status.
5. It is mentioned that the child who is born out of a miscarriage (i.e. it is born before the due date) will "fight"(wrangle) with its Creator when its parents are entered into jahannam. In other words, this child will go to extremes in interceding on behalf of its parents and will ask Allah Ta'ala to remove its parents from jahannam. Through His bounty, Allah Ta'ala will accept the intercession of this child and He will be soft and lenient towards it. It will be said to this child: "O siqt (which means, miscarried foetus) who is quarrelling with its Lord! Enter your parents into jannah." So this child will draw its parents out of jahannam with its navel cord and enter both of them into jannah. We learn from this, that children of this sort, who are actually a by-product of marriage, will also be of help in the hereafter.
6. It is mentioned in a Hadith that when the husband and wife look at each other (with love), Allah Ta'ala looks at both of them with mercy.
7. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Allah Ta'ala has taken it upon Himself (i.e. out of His mercy, He as taken the responsibility) of helping the person who gets married in order to attain purity from that which Allah has made haram. In other words, the person who marries in order to save himself from adultery with the intention of obeying Allah Ta'ala, Allah will help and assist him in his expenses and other affairs.
8. It is mentioned in a Hadith that two rak‘ats of salat performed by a married person is better than 82 rak‘ats performed by an unmarried person. In another Hadith, 70 rak‘ats have been mentioned instead of 82 rak‘ats. It is possible that this means that 70 rak‘ats are written in favour of the person who fulfils the necessary rights of his wife and family, and that 82 rak‘ats are in favour of the person who apart from fulfilling their necessary rights, serves them more with his life, wealth and good habits.
9. It is mentioned in a Hadith that it is a major sin for a person to be neglectful with regard to those whom he is responsible for (and to have shortcomings in fulfilling their needs).
10. It is mentioned in a Hadith that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: "I have not left behind any test and tribulation on men more harmful than women." In other words, of all the things that are harmful for men, women are the most harmful. This is because, out of his love for a woman, a man loses all his senses, so much so that he does not even take the commands and orders of Allah Ta'ala into consideration. Therefore, a person must not fall in love with a woman in such a way that he has to act contrary to the Shari‘ah. For example, her demands for her food and clothing are more than what the husband can afford. In such circumstances, never accept any bribes in order to supplement your present income. Instead, give her from the halal earnings, which Allah Ta'ala has blessed you. You should continue teaching your womenfolk and inculcate respect and good manners in them. Do not allow them to become impudent and disrespectful. The intellect of women is deficient; it is therefore incumbent to take special measures in reforming them.
11. It is mentioned in a Hadith that you should not propose to a girl when your fellow Muslim brother has already proposed to her until he gets married or gives up this proposal. In other words, when a person has sent a proposal to a particular family and there is a likelihood of their replying in the affirmative, another person should not send a proposal to that same family. However, if they reject this first person, or he himself changes his mind, or they are not too happy with him and are still hesitant in giving a reply, it will be permissible for another person to send a proposal for the same girl.
The same rule applies to the transactions of buying and selling. That is, if a person is busy buying or selling something, then as long as they do not separate or abandon the transaction, another person should not enter into their transaction and should not offer a price above or below that which has been already offered when there is an indication that they are about to come to an agreement. Understand this well, and know that a kafir is also included in this rule.
12. It is mentioned in a Hadith that a woman is either married because of her Din, her wealth or her beauty. Choose the one with Din, may your hands become dusty. In other words, a man may prefer a woman who is religiously inclined. While another may prefer one who is wealthy. While yet another may prefer one who is beautiful. However, Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam says that one should choose a religiously inclined woman and that it is preferable to marry such a woman. However, if the circumstances are such that a woman is very pious but at the same time she is so ugly that one's nature does not find her acceptable and there is a fear that if he marries such a woman there will be no mutual understanding between them, and that he will be neglectful in fulfilling her rights, then in such a case he should not marry such a woman. "May your hands become dusty" is an Arabic mode of expression, which is used on different occasions. In this context, it is meant to create a yearning and a desire for a pious woman.
13. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the best wife is one whose mahr is very simple. That is, it is very easy for the man to fulfil her mahr. These days, there is the habit of specifying a very high mahr. People should abstain from this.
14. It is mentioned in a Hadith that you should look for a good place for your sperms because a woman gives birth to children that resemble her brothers and sisters. In other words, marry a woman who comes from a pious and noble family because the children generally resemble the maternal relations. Although the father also has some influence over the child's resemblance, we learn from this Hadith that the mother's influence is greater. If the wife is from a disreputable and irreligious family, the children who will be born will be similar to that family. But if this is not so, then the children who will be born will be pious and religious.
15. It is mentioned in a Hadith that the greatest right that a woman has to fulfil is to her husband, and that the greatest right that he has to fulfil is to his mother. In other words, after the rights of Allah and His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam the woman has a very great right to fulfil to her husband, so much so that the husband's rights supersede the rights of her parents. As for the man, after the rights of Allah and His Rasul sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, the greatest right that he has to fulfil is to his mother. We learn from this that the right of the mother supersedes that of the father.
16. It is mentioned in a Hadith that if anyone of you wishes to engage in sexual intercourse with his wife, he should recite du‘a. The virtue of du‘a is that if a child is conceived through this intercourse, shaytan will not be able to harm this child in any way.
17. There is a lengthy Hadith in which Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam addressed Abdur Rahman bin Auf radiyallahu anhu asking him to have a walimah even if it is with one sheep. In other words, even if you possess very little, you should spend. It is preferable to have the walimah after engaging in sexual intercourse with one's bride. However, many ulama have permitted it immediately after the nikah as well. It is mustahab to have a walimah.
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Blessed Birth: Allah’s last and final Messenger, Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was born on Monday 12th Rabiu al-Awwal in the year of the Elephant corresponding 20th April 571 AC to Abdullah son of Abdul Muttalib and Aminah daughter of Wahab son of Abdu Manaaf in Makkah, the city where holy Ka’bah is situated.
Golden Lineage of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS): The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim bin Abd Munaaf bin Qusei bin Kilaab bin Murrah bin Ka’ab bin Lawei bin Ghalib bin Fehr bin Malik bin Nadhr bin Kinanah bin Khuzaimah bin Mudrakah bin Ilyas bin Mudhar bin Nazaar bin Ma’add bin Adnan. (Seerate Mustafa 1/22)
Father’s Death: The father, Abdullah died before the Prophet’s blessed birth.
Blessed Names: On seventh day of his birth, Abdul Muttalib performed his Aqiqah and invited all the members of the Qureish. Abdul Muttalib gave him unique name “Muhammad”; while his mother named him “Ahmad”. Both the names were unique traditionally for the peoples of the Qureish as such names were not given to anyone before by their elders. (Seerate Mustafa 1/61-62)
Five Names: According to one narration in Sahih Bukhari, the Prophet (SAWS) described his five names: Muhammad, Ahmad, Maahee, Haashir and Aaqib. (Seerate Mustafa 1/66)
Kunniyah: Abul Qasim and Abu Ibrahim (SAWS). (Seerate Mustafa 1/67)
Nursing: Firstly the Prophet (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was breastfed by his mother for 3/4 days. For few days more, he (SAWS) was also breastfed by Thuweibiyah, the girl-slave of his uncle Abu Lahab, who was set free by Abu Lahab as soon as she informed him about the blessed birth of Muhammad (SAWS). (Seerate Mustafa 1/68)
According to the Arab custom, the prominent Arab used to send their newly born babies to the rural area during the breastfeeding period, so that they will be brought up in clean envirounment and they will have command over eloquent language. Muhammad (SAWS), therefore, was also taken by Halimah Sa’adiyah (RA), a blessed lady from “Bnu Sa’ad Tribe” for upbringing and breastfeeding. (Seerate Mustafa 1/69)
When the Prophet (SAWS) turned two years, Halimah Sa’adiyah weaned him from breastfeeding and brought him (SAWS) back to his mother, Aaminah. But she remembered the blessing which she was bestowed upon because of him (SAWS), so she requested to his mother to give him back for further upbringing for little longer. She was given back. After some months, he started going with his foster brothers for grazing the goats. (Seerate Mustafa 1/72)
Shaqqus Sadr: When he (SAWS) was four years old still in Banu Sa’ad Tribe, once he went for grazing the goats with his foster brother. Two angels, Jabraeel and Mikaeel (AS) dressed in white clothes descended in form of the human beings and caught him. They split his chest open, took out the heart, cleaned it, put it back at its place and stitched it. (Seerate Mustafa 1/72)
Second Shaqqus Sadr: The second time Shaqqus Sadr took place when he (SAWS) had turned 10. The third time Shaqqus Sadr took place at the time of the Prophethood when he was 40 years old. Fourth Shaqqus Sadr took place at the time of Miraaj; (while he was 51 years old.) (Seerate Mustafa 1/75-76)
Mother’s Demise: Because of the incident of Shaqqus Sadr, Halimah and her husband got frightened and hastily brought him back to his mother. Now he (SAWS) was in the care of his beloved mother. When he (SAWS) was 6 years old, his mother took him to Madinah to visit the relatives. His mother died, while coming back from Madinah at a place called “Abwa”. (Seerate Mustafa 1/83)
In Charge of Grandfather: The doubly orphaned Muhammad (SAWS) was put under the charge of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib who took care of him. After two years, Abdul Muttalib died. (Seerate Mustafa 1/84)
In Charge of Uncle Abu Taalib: When he was just 8 years old, he was in charge of his uncle Abu Talib as Abdul Muttalib confided to his son Abu Talib the charge of the little double orphan on his deathbed. (Seerate Mustafa 1/84)
First Journey to Syria: When the Prophet (SAWS) was 12 years old, he started his journey to Syria with his uncle Abu Talib. When they reached nearby Busra, they met a Christian Priest, Jarjees, who informed the Qureish about his being Prophet in the future and suggested to not take him to Syria. Then he was returned back to Makkah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/85-87)
Participation in Harbul Fijaar: Following the Event of the Elephant, the War which took place between Qais and Qureish is called “Harbul Fijaar”. The Qureish won the battle. The Prophet (SAWS) participated in the battle on insistent of his uncles. (Seerate Mustafa 1/90)
Hilful Fuzul: On behest of Zubair bin Abdul Muttalib, the people from Bnu Hashim and Bnu Tameem gather together at the place of Abdullah bin Jada’an and they agreed upon to assist and help the oppressed ones either they are from their own people or some else. The Prophet (SAWS) participated in this agreement. This time he was 15. (Seerate Mustafa 1/91)
As the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) used to go for grazing goats when he was in Banu Sa’ad tribe in his childhood, in the same way he also grazed the goat in Makkah when he was a youth. (Seerate Mustafa 1/94)
The 2nd Journey to Syria: Siyyidah Khadijah (RA) was a pious, rich and businesswoman of Arabia. When he (SAWS) turned 25, he was offered by Khadijah (RA) to go Syria for her business. Because of poor economic condition of his uncle Abu Talib, he (SAWS) accepted this offer. He went Syria with her slave Meisarh. (Seerate Mustafa 1/96-97)
Wedding with Khadijah (RA): Following the 2 months and 25-day of the Syria trip, Sayyidah Khadijah (RA), then 40, proposed the Prophet (SAWS), then 25, for marriage. After consultation with his uncle, he (SAWS) got ready. Date was fixed. On the date, the Prophet (SAWS) reached Khadijah’s home in the company of his uncles: Abu Talib, Hamzah and other elders of the family and Nikaah was performed by Abu Talib. (Seerate Mustafa 1/107-108)
Hakam (Mediator/Judge): When the Prophet (SAWS) was 35, the Qureish wanted to reconstruct the Holy Ka’abah. When the construction of the holy Ka’abah reached the level at which the Hajar-e-Aswad (Black Stone) was to be placed, a dispute erupted among the tribe of the Qureish regarding whom to grant the honour of placing the Stone back on its corner. Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah Makhzumi suggested that the first person to enter the Haram the following morning would be made Hakam (Judge) to give the final decision. They agreed upon it. The Next day in the morning, it was the Prophet (SAWS) who entered the Haram first. Then he (SAWS) was made Hakam. He told the people to put the Black Stone in his Sheet and asked the Chiefs of each tribe to lift it up to the level. Then he (SAWS) himself placed it at its place. (Seerate Mustafa 1/111-112)
In the Cave of Hiraa: When the Prophet (SAWS) turned 37-year old, he started visiting the Cave of Hiraa repeatedly and loving seclusion and loneliness to worship Allah the Almighty.
Prophethood: When the Prophet (SAWS) turned 40, once he was in the Cave of Hiraa, Allah the Almighty selected him as His Nabi (Prophet) and Rasool (Messenger) sending the Frist Revelation (Wahee). (Seerate Mustafa 1/128) The Prophet (SAWS) was blessed with Prophethood and Messenger-hood on Monday, 8th Rabiul Awwal. (Seerate Mustafa 1/138-139) Following the Prophethood, Sayyidah Khadijah (RA), Warqah bin Naufal, Ali bin Abi Talib, Zaid bin Harathah and Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/148-49)
Because of the invitation of Siyyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA), some prominent members of Qureish, like Uthman bin Affan, Zubeir bin Awwam, Abdur Rahman bin Awf, Talha bin Obaidullah and Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/151)
2nd Year of Prophethood: He (SAWS) announced about his Prophethood secretly and almost 40 people embraced Islam. The Home of Arqam (RA), situated at mount Safaa, was selected as the Revert Center. The Muslims used to get together there as long as Sayyiduna Umar had not embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/165)
4th Year of Prophethood: For the first three years, he (SAWS) used to call the people towards Islam secretly. After 3-year, the Prophet (SAWS) announced his Prophethood openly and invited his relatives towards Islam from the mount Safaa. (Seerate Mustafa 1/165-66)
Some Personal Enemies of the Prophet (SAWS) and Muslims: Abu Jahl, Abu Lahab, Aswad, Harith bin Qeis, Waleed bin Mughirah, Umayyah bin Khalf, Uqbah bin Abi Muaeet etc. (Seerate Mustafa 1/203)
5th Year of Prophethood: When the polytheists felt that the number of the people embracing Islam is growing, they started torturing and oppressing them ruthlessly. When the torture and oppression of the polytheists of Makkah against the Muslim became unbearable, the Prophet (SAWS) suggested the newly reverted Muslims to migrate to Habsha (Ethiopia). The first time 11 males and 5 females and the 2nd time 86 males and 16 females migrated to Habsha secretly. (Seerate Mustafa 1/234-41)
6th Year of Prophethood: (Sayyiduna Hamzah and) Sayyiduna Umar (RA) embraced Islam. Then the Muslims started offering Salaah in the Holy Ka’abah openly. (Seerate Mustafa 1/251)
7th Year of Prophethood: While on the one hand the King of Ethiopia, Najashi rejected the demands of the Qureish’s ambassadors and gave high respect to Jafar (RA) and his friends, Hamzah and Umar (RA) embraced Islam on the other. Then the polytheists became hopeless and agreed upon to boycott the Prophet (SAWS), Banu Hashim and his Supporters socially. They were detained in the Valley of Abu Talib and had to stay 3-year there in the Valley in worst condition. (Seerate Mustafa 1/257)
10th Year of Prophethood: Social Boycott came to an end and the Muslims took the sigh of relief. (Seerate Mustafa 1/261)
The 10th Year of Prophethood is known as “Aamul Huzn”, because uncle, Abu Talib and Sayyidatuna Khadijah (RA) passed away. After their death, the Prophet (SAWS) was apparently helpless. He (SAWS), therefore, made a journey to Ta’if and presented Islam to famous three brothers: Abd Yaa Leil, Masood and Habib of Ta’if; but in return, he (SAWS) was tortured and attacked by the unfortunate folks of Ta’if until he got wounded and his shoes were full with blood. (Seerate Mustafa 1/264-67)
Miracle of Splitting the Moon: When the polytheists: Waleed bin Mughirah, Abu Jahl, Aas bin Waail etc. demanded the Prophet (SAWS) to prove his Prophethood by splitting the moon into two, if he was a Prophet. The Prophet (SAWS) did so with the help of Allah the Almighty, but they didn’t embrace Islam rather they said that he had been a magician and had played magic. (Seerate Mustafa 1/230-31)
11th Year of Prophethood: On 27th Rajab, the Prophet (SAWS) was taken on a unique tour of the Kingdom of the Universe, which is known as Miraaj. He proceeded from Masjide Haram to Masjide Aqsa. Then from Masjide Aqsa, he was taken up to the skies until he reached heavenly tree known as Sidratul Muntaha. The polytheists negated this tour; while Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) accepted it without a doubt. (Seerate Mustafa 1/279)
Islam in Yathrib (Madinah): A group of Khazraj from Yathrib (Madinah) came to Makkah in the Hajj season. The Prophet (SAWS) invited them towards Islam and recited few verses of the Glorious Qura’an in front of them. As they saw the Prophet (SAWS) recognized him and they started whispering that this is the same Prophet about whom we heard from the Jew of Madinah. Then they embraced Islam in the same gathering. They were six people (RA) who embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/319)
12th Year of Prophethood: From Yathrib, next year 12 people came to Makkah to meet the Prophet (SAWS). Five of them were those who had already embraced Islam in the previous journey and seven people were new. They embraced Islam and took pledge on the hands of the Prophet (SAWS). When they were going back to Madinah, the Prophet (SAWS) sent Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Ummu Maktoom and Mus’ab bin Umeir with them to teach the Qura’an and the Islamic rulings. (Seerate Mustafa 1/320-21)
Jumuah Salaah in Madinah: In the same year, As’ad bin Zurarah (RA) encouraged the Muslims to establish Jumuah Salah and it took place. After few days, a letter from the Prophet (SAWS) to Musab bin Umeir came, where he (SAWS) had instructed to establish Jumuah Salaah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/324)
13th Year of Prophethood: Sayyiduna Mus’ab bin Umeir came from Madinah to Makkah with a group of Muslims to perform Hajj. In this group there were 73 males and 2 females who took the pledge on the hands of the Prophet (SAWS) in Valley. This pledge is called “Beiate Aqabah Thaaniyah”. (Seerate Mustafa 1/325)
Selection of Chiefs: Following the completion of the Pledge, the Prophet (SAWS) informed them that the Prophet Musa (AS) had selected 12 Chiefs from the children of Israel; therefore he (SAWS) also selected 12 leaders and chiefs from them on behest of Jabraeel (AS) and guided them to lead and head their people. (Seerate Mustafa 1/332)
Beginning of Hijrah (Migration) and Welcome in Madinah: In the beginning, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Aleih Wa Sallam) was shown the Hijrah place, a land of date palm trees, between two mountains, the two stony tracts, in a dream. Up to the time, he (SAWS) was undecided about the place of Hijrah, until it was confirmed and the place was decided through Wahi (Revelation). Then the Prophet (SAWS) directed his followers to migrate to Madinah with the command of Allah, the Almighty. They were received and welcomed in Madinah with enthusiasm and much hospitality. (Seerate Mustafa 1/340)
The Polytheists Plot to Kill the Prophet (SAWS): The polytheists, after observing the Hijrah of the Sahabah (RA) one after another, thought that Rasulullah (SAWS) will migrate today or tomorrow as well. So, they started thinking seriously to prevent him from the Hijrah. They met in all haste. After several milder expedients had been rejected, Abu Jahl opined that he should be killed and for killing one man should be chosen out of every tribe and that each man should strike a blow at him with his sword so that responsibility of the guilt would rest equally on all tribes. The Banu Abd Manaaf was much inferior and therefore would not be able to revenge their kinsman's death. Iblis, who participated in the meeting pretending to be a Sheikh from Najd, conquered with this opinion.
Following the meeting, Jabraeel (AS) came and informed Rasulullah (SAWS) about the polytheists’ plot. The Prophet (SAWS) informed Abu Bakr (RA) about his plan to migrate. A number of youths were selected for the bloody deed. As the night advanced, the assassins posted themselves round the house of the Prophet (SAWS). They watched all night long, waiting to murder the Prophet (SAWS) when he should leave his house at the early dawn. By some the Prophet (SAWS) had warned of the danger, and he directed Ali (RA) to lie down in his place and wrap himself up in his green clock, which he did. The Prophet (SAWS) miraculously escaped through the window and he appeared to the house of Abu Bakr (RA), unperceived by door. In the meantime, they, looking through a crevice and seeing Ali (RA), whom they mistook for Muhammad (SAWS) himself, asleep, continued watching there until morning.
When Ali (RA) arose, they found themselves deceived. The fury of the Qureish was now unbounded. The news that they would be assassins had returned unsuccessful and Muhammad (SAWS) had escaped aroused their whole energy. A prize of a hundred camels was set upon Muhammad's head. (Seerate Mustafa 1/344-49)
Then Rasulullah (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) reached a cave on the mountain of Thaur and stayed there for three nights. Abdullah Ibn Abi Bakr who was an intelligent and sagacious youth, used to stay with them overnight. He used to leave them before daybreak so that he would be with Qureish in the morning as if he had spent the night in Makkah. He would keep in mind any plot made against them and when it became dark, he would go and inform them of it. Aamir Ibn Fuhaira, the freed slave of Abu Bakr (RA), used to bring the milch sheep (of Abu Bakr) to them a little while after nightfall in order to rest the sheep there. So they always had fresh milk at night, the milk of their sheep, and the milk which they warmed by throwing heated stones in it. Aamir Ibn Fuhaira would then call the herd away when it was still dark (before daybreak). He did the same in each of those three nights. Rasulullah (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) had hired a man from the tribe of Bani Ad-Dail from the family of Banu Abd Ibn Adi as an expert guide, and he was in alliance with the family of Al-As Ibn Wail As-Sahmi and he was in the religion of the infidels of Quraish. The Prophet (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) trusted him and gave him their two she-camels and took his promise to bring their camels to the cave of the mountain of Thaur in the morning after three nights later. And when they set out, Aamir Ibn Futhaira and the guide went along with them and the guide led them, along the seashore." (Sahihul Bukhari, Hadith: 3905)
When the Prophet (SAWS) was on his way to Madinah, Suraqa Ibn Ju'sham followed to get the prize of 100 camels. After approaching them, his horse stumbled and he fell down. He stood up and took out the divining arrows and drew lots as to whether he should harm them or not, and the lot which he disliked came out. Despite that he continued his plot. When he was close to them, suddenly the forelegs of his horse sank into the ground up to the knees and he fell down. The horse got up, but could hardly take out its forelegs from the ground. When it stood up straight again, its forelegs caused dust to rise up in the sky like smoke. Latter, he called upon them to feel secure. At this point, he felt that the cause of Rasulullah (SAWS) would become victorious. He informed them the plans of the Qureish concerning them. The Prophet (SAWS) said: 'Do not tell others about us.' Then Suraqa requested him to write a statement of security for him. He (SAWS) ordered Amir Ibn Fuhaira, who wrote it on a parchment. Then Rasulullah (SAWS) proceeded on his way." (Summarised from Sahihul Bukhari, Hadith: 3906)
The Prophet (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) were also followed by Buraidah Aslami who was with 70 peoples. But at the end, all of them embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 1/382)
The news of the Prophet’s Hijrah was spread already in Madinah. The Ansaar were waiting eagerly for him and ready to receive with enthusiasm. Anyway, the Prophet (SAWS) reached the place called Qubaa on Monday, 12th Rabiul Awwal 13th year of Prophethood. He stayed for few days in Qubaa, at the home of Kulthoom bin Hadm and constructed Masjidut Taqwaa. After leading Jumuah Salaah, he (SAWS) left for Madinah. In his Khutbah, he didn’t mention any point about his perpetual enemies and didn’t condemn them; rather he highlighted the topic of Taqwaa and the preparation for the Hereafter. When he reached Madinah, everyone was wishing to make him a guest; but he (SAWS) stayed at the home of Abu Ayyub Ansari (RA) according to the will of Allah. (Seerate Mustafa 1/383-93)
1st Hijrah: After Hijrah reaching in Madinah, the Prophet (SAWS) was interviewed by some Jew scholars. Some prominent Jews and great Jew scholars like, Maimoon bin Yaameen, Abdullah bin Salam, Abul Qeis embraced Islam. Sayyiduna Sarmah bin Abi Anas, a monotheist embraced Islam. The place was bought and the price was paid by Abu Bakr (RA) and Masjide Nabawi was built. The Prophet (SAWS) constructed the homes for Ummahaatul Moomineen. He made Brotherhood between Ansar and Muhajireen because the Muhaajireen had left their homes, properties and relatives in Makkah. To create familiarity among the Ansaar and Muhaajireen, the brotherhood between them was made. 45 Muhaajireen were made brothers of other 45 Ansaar. Ansaar played the role with their Muhajireen brothers was matchless. This relation of brotherhood was so strong that when an Ansari died, his Muhajir brother used to be his inheritor (later it was abrogated.). Adhan was introduced to call the Muslims for Salaah. To protect Muslims from the mischief of Jews, the written treaty was made between Muslims and Jews of Banu Qainqa’a, Bani Nadheer and Bani Qureizah. Battle of Wuddan took place. In brief, the migration marked the beginning of new era in their lives. (Seerate Mustafa 1/396-442)
The Prophet (SAWS) sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Sayyiduna Ubaidah bin Harith (RA) towards Rabigh to follow the caravan of polytheists in Shawwal. He (SAWS) also sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas towards Kharrar. (Seerate Mustafa 2/49)
2nd Hjirah: Before Hijrah, Rasulullah (SAWS) used to offer Salaah in the way that it was easy to face both the Qiblahs: Beitullah nad Beitul Maqdis; but when he (SAWS) migrated to Madinah, it was not possible. So, he faced the Beitul Maqdis in Salaah only as it was impossible to face both the Qiblahs. Following 16-17 months, Allah the Almighty altered the Qiblah from Beitul Maqdis to the Holy Ka’abah permanently as it was also the desire of the Prophet (SAWS). In the last ten days of Sha’baan, the fasting in the month of Ramdhan was made compulsory. In the month of Ramadhan, the rulings regarding the Sadqatul Fitr and Eidu Fitr were revealed. The ruling regarding Eidul Adhhaa and the Sacrifice was revealed. Invoking Durud upon the Prophet (SAWS) was revealed. Zakaah (Alms) was made compulsory. (Seerate Mustafa 1/444-54)
The Sariyyah was sent under the leadership of Sayyiduna Hamzah (RA) towards Seiful Bahr to follow the Caravan of polytheists coming from Syria under the leadership of Abu Jahl. The Prophet (SAWS) himself participated in the Battle of Abwa/Wuddan. The battles of Buwaat and Oshairah, Badr Sughra, Sariyyah of Abdullah bin Jahash and famous battle of Badr (Badr Kubra) occurred. In Badr Kubra, Muslims got clear victory, 70 enemies were killed and 70 were arrested who were released after paying ransom. The battles of Qainqa’a and Saweeq took place. Siyyadah Fatimah (RA) was married to Sayyiduna Ali (RA). (Seerate Mustafa 2/48-166)
3rd Hijrah: Battles of Ghtfaan, Buhraan took place. Sariyyah of Zaid bin Hartha took place. Because of the attack from the Polytheists of Makkah, the Battle of Uhah took place. The tooth of the Prophet (SAWS) got martyred. Sayyidna Hamzah and Hanzalah along with other 70 sincere Sahabah got martyred. The body of Sayyiduna Hamzah (RA) was mutilated. The Battle of Hamraul Asad occurred. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Hafsah bint Umar (RA). The Prophet’s daughter Ummu Kulthoom (RA) got married with Sayyiduna Uthman (RA). Sayyiduna Ali and Fatimah (RA) were blessed with baby boy, Hasan (RA). Alcohol was made Haraam (Prohibited). (Seerate Mustafa 2/167-246)
4th Hijrah: The Prophet (SAWS) sent different Sariyyah towards several tribes when he (SAWS) came to know their planning to attack. It was Sariyyah of Abu Salmah Abdullah bin Abdul Asad (RA) and Sariyyah Abdullah bin Uneis (RA). The Tragedy of Rajee’ occurred. Actually some people from Adhl and Qaarah came to the Prophet (SAWS) and asked him to send some scholars to teach them Islamic Rulings as they had embraced Islam. The Prophet (SAWS) sent 10 Sahabah under the leadership of Aasim bin Thaabi (RA), but they betrayed and killed 7 of them. Three of them: Abdullah, Zaid and Khubeib (RA) were arrested who were killed latter. Tragedy of Beeru Maunah: On the request and guarantee of Abu Barra, the Prophet (SAWS) sent 70 Sahabah towards Najd to preach Islam under the leadership of Mundhir bin Amr (RA). They stayed at Beer Maunah. On the conspiracy of Aamir bin Tufail, nephew of Abu Barra, the Ra’al, Asiyyah and Dhakwaan tribes killed the Sahabah (RA) except two of them. On this incident and tragedy, the Prophet (SAWS) started reading Qunut Naazilah and cursing those killers. Battles of Bnu Nazeer, Dhaatur Riqaa and Badr Mau’ad took place. Sayyiduna Husain (RA) was born. The Prophet (SAWS) married with Umme Salmah Makhzumiyah (RA) and Zainab bin Khuzaimah (RA). The Prophet (SAWS) ordered Sayyiduna Zaid bin Thaabit to learn Jew’s language, Hebrew. Ruling regarding Hijaab was revealed. (Seerate Mustafa 2/246-67)
5th Hijrah: Battle of Domatul Jandal occurred; because the Prophet (SAWS) came to know that the people of Dumatul Jandal wanted to attack on Madinah, due to that the Prophet (SAWS) went in the company of one thousand Sahabah. As the people of Dumatul Jandal came to know, they ran away. The battle of Bani Mustaliq occurred and the whole tribe of Mustaliq embraced Islam. While returning from the battle, the story forged statement (Slander-Ifk) against Ummul Moomineen Aaisha (RA), fabricated by the hypocrites, took place. The Almighty Allah gave verdict through the holy Qura’an that she was innocent. According to some narrations, the ruling regarding Tayammum was revealed. The battle of trench occurred, because Hai bin Akhtab and Kinanah bin Rabee’ provoked the Qureish and Banu Ghatfa respectively to attack on Madina. About ten thousand people left for Madinah to finish Muslims. When the Prophet (SAWS) came to know it, he called a Meeting of Sahaba, where Sayyiduna Salman Farsi (RA) suggested digging Trench and it was done. This battle continued for 15 days. Three non-Muslims and six Muslims were killed. The battle of Quraizah occurred. On the occasion of the battle of Trench, Banu Quraizah broke the agreement; this was why this battle occurred. The people of Banu Quraizah were detained for 25 days, until they agreed upon to accept any decision of the Prophet (SAWS). He (SAWS) made Sayyiduna Sa’ad bin Mua’ad a judge of this case. He gave verdict to kill the male and to arrest the female. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Zainab bint Jahash (RA). On the occasion of Walimah, the ruling regarding Hijab was revealed. (Seerate Mustafa 2/267-320) A delegation 400 people of Muzainah Tribe came to visit the Prophet (SAWS) and they embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/120)
6th Hijrah: Sariyyah Muhammad bin Maslamah: Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) sent thirty Sahaabah (RA) towards Qurtaa, under the leadership of Sayyiduna Muhammad bin Maslamah. The chief of Banu Hanifah, Thumamah bin Uthaal (RA) was arrested. Latter he was released with the order of the Prophet (SAWS). Following release, he took bath and embraced Islam in Masjid Nabawi. The Battle of Bani Lahyaan: The Prophet (SAWS) wanted to take revenge of the Martyrs of Rajee’, Khubaib, Aasim (RA) etc. but when the Prophet (SAWS) reached, they ran away. He (SAWS) and Sahabah came back after two days, without any fight. The battle of De Qarad (Qarad: Name of a spring in Ghtfaan): Abdur Rahman bin Oyainah, in the company of 40 riders, raided the pasture and confiscated the camels of the Prophet (SAWS) killing the son of Abu Zar (RA), caretaker of the camels. Hence, this battle occurred. The Prophet (SAWS) and the Sahabah followed them. Two of them were killed and remaining ran away. Sariyyah Okashan bin Muhsin, Sariyyah Muhammad bin Maslamah, Sariyyah Abu Obaidah, Sariyyah Jamoom, Sariyyah Aeis, Sariyyah Tarif, Sariyyah Hasma, Sariyyah Waadil Qura, Sariyyah Domatul Jandal, Sariyyah Fidak, Sariyyah Umme Qirfah, Sariyyah Abdullah bin Atik, Sariyyah Abdullah bin Rawaha and Sariyyah Kazr bin Jabir occurred. Umratul Hudaibiyyah and later the treaty of Hudaibiyyah took place. Following the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the Prophet (SAWS) felt ease and started sending the letter to non-Muslim rulers of the world; like Qaisar of Rome through Dahya Kalabi, Kisra of Iran through Abdulllah bin Huzafah Sahmi (RA), As’hamah, the king of Ethiopia (Najashi) through Amr bin Umaiyyah (RA), Muqauqis, the King of Egypt through Hatib bin Abi Balta’ah, Munzir bin Sawaa, the king of Bahrain through Alaa bin Hazrami (RA), (Julandi and his sons,) Jaifar and Abd, Jaifar was the king of Oman, through Amr bin A’as (RA) (8th Hijrah), Hauzah bin Ali, the chief of Yamamah through Saleet bin Amr (RA), Harith Ghassani, the Ameer of Damascus through Shuja’ bin Wahab (RA), wherein he invited them towards Islam. Sayyiduna Ashamah (RA) embraced Islam and died in 9th Hijrah. The Prophet (SAWS) offered his Janazah Salaah. Munzir, the king of Bahrain also embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 2/321-397)
7th Hijrah: Khaibar Victory: With commandment of Allah, the Almighty, the Prophet (SAWS) left for Khaibar in the company of 1,600 Sahabah (RA) against the rebellious Jews who had provoked and supported the Qureish in the battle of Trench. The first and foremost, the Na’aim Fort was conquered. Then Qamoos Fort was conquered at the hands of Ali (RA) following the struggle of 20 days. Then Sa’ab bin Mua’adh fort was conquered. Then Qullah Fort was conquered following the big struggle. At this point, almost all forts were conquered except two forts: Wateeh and Salalim. The fort was being conquered one after another, until the Jews requested to let them go in exile and it was granted. Victory of Fidak: When the dwellers of Fidak learnt about Khaibar’s difficult situation, they also requested to let them go in exile, it was also accepted. The Prophet (SAWS) made Nikaah with Safiyyah (RA). Zainab bint Harith gifted the Prophet (SAWS) a roasted poisoned goat. The Prophet (SAWS) was informed. He stopped eating and stopped his friends too. On the request from the Jews, latter the deal was made on share-cropping contract on the basis of dividing the yield into halves. Muta’h was prohibited. Some Immigrants to Ethiopia came back the day Khaibar was conquered. Waadi Al-Quraa was conquered after four days detention. The Prophet (SAWS) performed Umrah in the company of 2000 companions. Wedding of the Prophet (SASWS) with Maimunah bint Harith was made. Sariyyah Akram bin Abil Awjaa took place. Polytheists of Makkah broke treaty.
(Seerate Mustafa 2/400-434)
8th Hijrah: Sayyidna Khalid bin Waleed, Uthman bin Talha and Amr bin Aas (RA) embraced Islam. The battle of Mauta: The Prophet (SAWS) sent Haarith bin Umair with a letter to Sharahbeel, the Ameer of Syria. When he had reached in Mauta, a place in Syria, Sharahbeel made him killed. This was why, the Prophet (SAWS) sent three thousand Sahabah. The Sahabah (RA) invited them to Islam firstly, but they didn’t accept Islam until the group of three thousand Muslims started fighting against 2 hundred thousand non-Muslim army. One after another, three Commanders in Chief: Zaid bin Haritha, Jafar bin Abi Talib and Abdullah bin Rawaha, along with other nine Sahabah (RA) got martyred. At the end, the battle was won under the leadership of Khalid bin Waleed (RA) and the warriors were welcomed by the Prophet (SAWS) and other Muslims on return near Madinah. Sariyyah Amr bin Aas: The Prophet (SAWS) came to know that the people of Qadha’ah tribe want attacking Madinah. The Prophet (SAWS), therefore, sent a Sariyyah towards Datus Salaasil. They attacked on Qadha’ah tribe. The people of the tribe ran away and it was won easily. A group of army was sent towards Seiful Bahr to fight against Juhainah tribe under the leadership of Abu Obaidah bin Jarrah. (Seerate Mustafa 2/434-52) The Delegation of Asharee Tribe from Yemen came to visit the Prophet (SAWS) (Seerate Mustafa 3/117-18)
The victory of Makkah: In accordance with the treaty of Hudaibiyyah, the other tribes had choice to ally with any group. Banu Bakr, therefore, allied itself with the Qureish and Banu Khuza’ah allied itself with the Rasoolullah (SAWS). Once the Banu Nafathah from the Banu Bakr, with the support of the Qureish, attacked on Banu Khuza’ah and killed some people. This was clear breach of the agreement. Then the Prophet (SAWS) sent a message to the Qureish asking them to pay blood-money to Khuza’ah, to separate Banu Nafatha from the agreement or end the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah. They preferred to break the treaty. Hence, the Prophet (SAWS) left for Makkah on 10th Ramadhan, in the company of 10 thousand Sahabah. Before entering Makkah, the Prophet (SAWS) had announced about Makkah people that those who entered in the Holy Ka’abah are safe, those who entered in Abu Sufyan’s home are secured and those who closed the doors of their homes are protected. This news was publicized by Sufyan (RA) in Makkah. The people followed it. Two Muslims got martyred and almost 12/13 polytheists were killed. Makkah was conquered easily. After the victory, Rasulullah (SAWS) entered Majid Haraam and made Tawaaf of Holy Ka’abah. Sayyiduna Abbas and Sayyiduna Abu Sufyan embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/1-34) The Battles of Hunain, Auwtaas and Taaif occurred. Sayyiduna Ibrahim was born to the Prophet (SAWS) and passed away in the same year. (Seerate Mustafa 3/62-74)
9th Hijrah: Sariyyah Oyainah towards Banu Tameem: Rasulullah (SAWS) sent Bashr bin Sufyan (RA) to collect Zakaah (Alms). All the people got ready to pay it, but Banu Tamim refused, rather got ready to fight. On this, Rasulullah (SAWS) sent a Sariyyah under the leadership of Oyainah (RA). They raided in the night and 11 men, 21 women and 30 children were arrested. Latter, they embraced Islam and all the arrested people were released. Sariyyah Abdullah bin Awjsah was sent with the letter of the Prophet (SAWS) to invite Bani Amr bin Hartha to Islam, but they refused. Sariyyah Qutbah bin Aamir was sent to Khath’am. The fight took place and the Khath’am was defeated. Sariyyah Zahhak bin Sufyan was sent to invite Banu Kilaab towards Islam. They refused to embrace Islam and started insulting and got ready to fight. When the fight started the Banu Kilaab was defeated. Renowned poet of Arabic language, Ka’ab bin Zuhair (RA), who had run away from Makkah on the Victory day, embraced Islam arriving in Madinah. (Seerate Mustafa 3/79-89)
The Battle of Tabook: Heracles, the King of Rome prepared 40 thousands army and wanted to attack on Madinah. When the Prophet (SAWS) came to know it, he (SAWS) commanded his companions to get ready at once and fight against them at the boarder of Tabook. The economic condition of the Muslims was not good, so the Sahabah started donating whatever they can manage. Uthman (RA) donated 300 camels and one thousand Danaanir. The prophet (SAWS) left for Tabook with Sahabah and Muhammad bin Muslamah (RA) was deputed charge of Madinah. The prophet (SAWS) stayed in Tabook for 20 days; but the fight didn’t take place. Some tribes themselves came and agreed upon paying Jizyah (Tax). Then the Prophet (SAWS) sent 420 Muslims under the leadership of Khalid bin Waleed (RA) towards Akeedar, the ruler of Domatul Jandal from Heracles. He was arrested and brought to Rasulullah (SAWS). A deal was made on paying 2000 camels, 800 horses, 400 armors and 400 spares. Hajj was made Fardh. A good number of people went for Hajj and Sayyiduna Abu Bakr was made Ameerul Hajj. The Najashi passed away and his Salatul Janazah was offered by the Prophet (SAWS). Riba (usury) was prohibited. (Seerate Mustafa 3/90-105) Thaqeef delegation visited the Prophet (SAWS). (3/110) Those who didn’t accept Islam, Jizyah was imposed on them. Delegation of Bani Hanifah came. Musailam Kazzab was also a member of this delegation. He insisted to be nominated. The Prophet (SAWS) refused and they went back. (3/114-115) When the Prophet (SAWS) came back from Tabook, a delegation of Hamdan from Yemen came to visit the Prophet (SAWS), while already they had accepted Islam at the hands of Sayyiduna Ali (RA) (3/120) A delegation of Christian of Najran from Yemen came to Madinah, but they didn’t accept Islam and got ready to pay Jizyah. (3/121) A delegation of Bani Asad visited the Prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam with the guidance of the Almighty Allah. (3/133) In brief, many delegations, like: delegation Ghudara, delegation of Baliyy and delegation of Bani Murrah etc. visited the prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam (Seerate Mustafa 3/134-35)
10th Hijrah: Several delegations, which started from 8th Hijrah, from different tribes visited the Prophet (SAWS). Amongst them were the delegation of Hawaazin, consisting 14 people, the delegation of Bani Aamir bin Sa’sa’ah and delegation’s two members: Aamir bin Tufail and Arbad bin Qeis talked in very bad manner. They died also in bad manner without embracing Islam, delegation of Abdul Qeis from Bahrain also visited the Prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam, a delegation of Tai arrived and embraced Islam. Delegation of Kindah from Yemen arrived to visit the Prophet (SAWS). A delegation Azad Tribe consisting 15 people came and embraced Islam. The Prophet (SASW) sent Khalid bin Waleed (RA) to Banu Harith, a tribe of Najran to preach Islam. They accepted Islam at once and latter a delegation of the said tribe, in the company of Khalid bin Waleed (RA), came to visit the Prophet (SAWS). A delegation of Bahra’a from Yemen came to Madinah and stayed at the home of Sayyiduna Miqdad (RA) and after learning the Masa’il and rulings of Islam went back. Briefly, many delegations, like: Delegation of Khaulan from Yemen, delegation of Muhaarib, Delegation of Ghassan and the delegation of Salaamaan etc. visited the Prophet (SASWS) and embraced Islam. (Seerate Mustafa 3/107-137)
Before Hijrah, the Prophet (SAWS) performed two or so Hajjs. But after Hijrah, the Prophet (SAWS) performed the first and last Hajj in the 10th Hijrah which is called Farewell Hajj (Hajjatul Wada’). He (SAWS) left for Makkah on 25th Dul-Qaadah and reached on 4th Dul-Hijjah. Almost 114,000 people performed Hajj in the company of Rasulullah (SAWS). The Prophet (SAWS) gave his last Sermon, which includes the important issues along with several points protecting the Human Rights.
Few Sentences from his Farewell Hajj’s Sermon: “O people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take interest; therefore, all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all interest due to Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib shall henceforth be waived.” (Seerate Mustafa 3/147-48)
11th Hijrah: The delegation of Nakha’ visited the prophet (SAWS) and embraced Islam. (3/140) The Prophet (SAWS) sent the last Sariyyah under the leadership of Usamah bin Zaid towards Romans on Monday, 26th Safar. The Prophet (SAWS) fell sick on Wednesday. One Thursday he (SAWS) fell seriously sick. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (RA) was selected for leading Salaah. One Monday (12th Rabiul Awwal), the Prophet (SAWS) passed away and was buried in the home of Aaisha (RA) where he (SAWS) passed away. (Seerate Mustafa 3/152-53)
While the Prophet (SAWS) was sick, he came to know that while on the one hand Aswad Anasi, Musailmah Kadhdhaab and Tulaiha Asadi had claimed Prophethood falsely, some Muslims had forsaken Islam on the other. Rasulullah (SAWS), therefore, sent a Sariyyah to follow Aswad Anasi and he was killed just a day before his sad demise. May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon him! (Seeratul Mustafa 3/156) ***
*Head Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa.
Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi,
Moon Rays Trust School,
By M. Burhanuddin Qasmi
The Babri Masjid and Ram Janam Bhomi dispute has been an unparalleled and extraordinary case in the entire history of India. For last more than one century, the matter has been a source of Indian polity including this post independence past 50 years where it took a centre stage in Indian's divisive and polarising political chessboard. Hundreds of political figures rose, shined or paled; half a dozen political parties formed, won or simply fell to dust, thanks to Babri Masjid - Ram Temple issue. Formation of governments both in the Centre and in the state of Uttar Pradesh were heavily influenced by this emotive issue in post 1992 India. Previously less popular political formation came to power riding on temple yatras and some other, on the other hand, lost chairs owing to Babri issue polarized majority for their opponents.
Lengthy legal battle is on since independence between parties of India's two major faith holders - - Hindus and Muslims. In the post 1992, Babri Masjid demolition case and it's land ownership suit, combined, has been the single major case for whole of India's judicial system. Babri linked cases are still date under regular causelists in the Allahabad High Court as well as in the Supreme Court of India.
Thousands of human lives, directly or indirectly, lost or affected because of this dispute. Billions of rupees spent, enormous energy utilized; ASI, history archives and modern scientific methods from within India and abroad put to use to prove claims and counter claims by the parties involved. India's core value of unity in diversity had major setbacks due to this uncalled for incidence. The whole world has been carefully observing our businesses in the apex court.
Of late this title suite became a battle of secular, democratic and constitutional principle of India. Stronger muscle power group always tried to use force against the weaker side. Constitutional safe-guard in protection of the Babri structure proved to be in vain. Thus, it is time now to deliver by the honourable Court that in India judiciary is on straight path and it is the "Supreme" power in our system of republic and democratic governance.
Having all these, aforementioned, to the credit of Babri Masjid - Ram Temple saga, the apex court of the country took a good initiative to give it's verdict on the land suit case sooner than later. Of course, the present ruling dispensation might have asked or pave the way for this fast-tracking legal stride, may be as display of it's political adventurism.
Nevertheless, following the failed out of the Court settlement attempt, regular hearing by a Special Bench in the Supreme Court of India, headed by the Chief Justice himself is going on for last a few months. The case is about to be locked this week, a judgment is expected soon, as the hearings and arguments from all concerned parties are nearly completed.
Here comes one new twist from a few so-called goodwill shooters from among the Muslim Indians. One gentleman reported to proclaim that Muslim should donate the Babri Masjid land to Hindus even if they win the title suit. The other argues that the judgment on the title suit need not be delivered, instead Muslim should handover the land voluntarily to their Hindu counter part.
To me, these are planted players to derail the on going and smooth constitutional and legal process in the dispute. It may be not in the interest of some political power houses if the honourable apex court gives a verdict on merits. Thus agents are out on streets to sabotage the whole process ensuring further confusion among the masses and prolonging the political mess for future elections.
Muslims were ready for out of the court settlement which did not come out to be fruitful. Muslims have unanimously stated, what may come, they will respect the court verdict.
Then where this goodwill gesture theory is coming from now, why and who are these people? Answers are but individual guesses. Are they party in the case in anyway or did they make any contribution in the matter in the past? Answers are No in both cases. Who should make a goodwill gesture? Obviously the opposite party in the case which is battling for it.
I think, without slightest ambiguity, Muslim should wait for the final judgment. Let the constitutional supremacy prevail in India - be it in favour or not, by all parties. How can one speak about donating a piece of land when it is yet not clear whose land is this! However, goodwill gestures are very much in demand given the present boiling condition in India. But a goodwill gesture is a goodwill only when done with equal respect, mutual share and on the basis of equal justice. Else it becomes indirect fear mongering and plotting tactics of blackmailing to meet interests of the stronger player in the race.
If the Muslim party wins the Babri title suit in the apex court in the upcoming days then only they will be in a position to think and decide about its use in view of the sentiments of majority fellow citizens of India.
However, if the Court verdict goes in favour of Hindus, then the Muslim party already stated will accept the order. Thus, speaking about donating the land and goodwill gesture in this case makes no sense.
It is expected that the urgently called meeting of the All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) in Nadwatul Ulama Lucknow this week will deliberate on this issue too and take a wise and respectable stand for minority Muslims in India. We cannot make a whole long constitutional process undone simply for wishful good wills of a few agents. Contribution to keep India peaceful, it's constitutional values are guaranteed, citizens' rights are respected and it's good image in the international stages is protected is everybody's duty as citizens of India.
By following Gandhiji's principles, the atmosphere of violence and intolerance within the country can be changed
Dr. Mohammad Najeeb Qasmi Sambhali
A member of the Hindu Muslim Alliance who also played an important role in the country's independence, Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi was born in Gujarat on October 2, 1869, 150 years ago. Gandhiji employed the Satyagraha as his weapon. Satyagraha means to raise public voice against oppression in a peaceful way. This process led the campaign for India's independence and the spirit of human rights and freedom movements for the world. He is respectfully called Mahatma Gandhi and Bapu. He was awarded the title of “Father of the Nation” by the Indian Government. Gandhiji's birth day, known as “Gandhi Jayanti”, is a national holiday across the country and is celebrated worldwide as a Day of Non-Violence. Gandhiji's constant struggle with the Hindu-Muslim alliance forced the British to leave India and our country was finally liberated on August 15, 1947.
While advocating in South Africa, he used Civil Disobedience for the first time to fight for the rights of Indians. After his return to India in 1915, he protested against the indiscriminate discrimination of land with farmers and labourers.
After taking over the leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhiji launched a campaign to eradicate poverty from the country, exercise women's rights, religious and ethnic well-being, abolish untouchability and economic self-reliance. He vowed to liberate India from foreign control. Mahatma Gandhi led the Non-Cooperation Movement, after which in March 1930, a 400-kilometer long journey (Dandi Yatra) was launched to oppose the British for imposing tax on salt. Then in 1942, he started Quit India Movement “ Bharat Chodo Aandolan” civil disobedience movement with the demand for independence. Mahatma Gandhi spent many years in prison in both Africa and India. As a leader of non violence, Gandhiji vowed to speak the truth and appealed others to do the same. He lived a simple life in the Sabarmati Ashram ands adopted a traditional Indian dhoti and a another piece of cloth to cover his upper body, both woven with yarn spun by him on spinning wheel. He used to eat green vegetables and was a devotee of spiritual purity and social protest for which he observed fasts.
Among Gandhiji's main achievements are the Hindu-Muslim unity and the philosophy of non-violence (ahimsa) that if they were to be treated with integrity even today, the atmosphere of violence and intolerance created within the country could be removed.
Given the prevailing situation in the country, it is imperative that social workers, who are in accordance with the thoughts of Gandhiji, should come forward and follow the principles of Gandhiji and strive for Hindu-Muslim unity and put maximum potential on the education of the nation, that is need of the hour.
Gandhiji's principle was "Sarva Dharma Sadbhav" i-e- freedom of all religions to flourish or in easy words "Live and let live". This is that principle which can guarantee the development of our country even today. According to Indian laws, every person has complete freedom to practice his own religion. When we examine Gandhiji's speeches, it is clear that he has tried to create harmony between different classes on the basis of caste, religion, regionalism, color, race and language.
Mahatma Gandhi realized that India could not get freedom until the two major classes of people living in the area, namely, Hindus and Muslims, learned to live together. Even if freedom is granted, it would not be the freedom that we want. That is why Gandhiji was a staunch supporter of the Hindu-Muslim unity. He believed that if Hindus and Muslims did not learn to live peacefully, then the existence of this country, which we know as India, would be ceased.
Gandhiji studied books of different religions and ideas of notable intellectuals of the world. He is said to have studied the Quran and the Gospel with the Gita, daily in the morning. In his famous book "The Story of My Experiments with Truth" he himself confesses that he had many good relations with many Muslims during his stay in South Africa, which was very useful for him in understanding the Islamic teachings. When he was asked what kind of government he would like to establish as the “Ram Rajya”, he replied, "It will be in the style of the second Caliph Hazrat Omar Farooq (RA)". During his stay in England, he also tried to understand the teachings of the Pharisees by by mixing with the Parsi people while practicing Christianity and advocacy. He respected all religions even though he had a deep connection to his native Hindu religion.
While Mahatma Gandhi's concern was that the British should leave India and go back to their country, he also wanted to engage the people of the country with the adoration of education and take them towards development.
When Sir Syed Ahmad Khan founded an educational institution under the patronage of the British, those who fought for the independence of India from the British also founded Jamia Millia Islamia under the patronage of Sheikh al Hind Maulana Mahmood al-Hassan in which Mahatma Gandhi's services to cultivate can never be forgotten. I too got a doctorate from Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, which is now a Central University and one of the few prestigious universities in India, so I have a moral obligation that I should remember Gandhiji's services on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti. The University is the only university in India with the majority of the founders sacrificing in the country's independence.
Gandhiji was a strong opponent of communal riots. When there was a riot in Bihar's Nawakhali area, he himself went there and stayed for a long time trying his best to normalize the situation. Gandhiji also looked very sad over the communal riots that broke out after India's independence. Some misunderstood people have interpreted it as anti hindu which is certainly wrong. Rather, the fact is that, Gandhi's sensitive heart did not tolerate oppression against anyone and he was forced to raise his voice against it.
All of Gandhiji's ideals, whether it be Non-violence (ahimsa), Satya- graha or brotherhood, have become popular not only in India but all over the world and have been praised by international thinkers, writers and artists. On the other hand, it is also a fact that the efforts of Gandhi's Hindu-Muslim unity were hated by some who tried to spread corruption and these elements cost India to lose its great hero . Finally, the country also saw that Mahatma Gandhi, a member of the Hindu Muslim League and a prominent figure in the country's independence, was shot on Friday, January 30, 1948. Not even six months had passed since the country was liberated, and the lamp that lit up the whole country with its light and taught us that we should not think that we are only Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs or Christians, but we are Indians and true Indians had extinguished. We all have a responsibility to remember Mahatma Gandhi and to continue to play his role in the development of our country by adopting his valuable principles and to provide our services for Hindu Muslim unity.
One of the secrets of Gandhiji being a successful leader is that after the independence of the country, he took no part in the power but vowed to serve the nation without having any office of government. This distance from power also made him a great leader and he became an example of Allama Iqbal's poem:
“Religion does not teach us to have enmity among ourselves; we are Indians and India is our nation.
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Markazul Ma’arif as an NGO:
Inspired by his father’s charitable work, then a young graduate of Darul Uloom Deoband, Mualana Badrudding Ajmal Qasmi, founded Markazul Ma’arif (NGO) in 1983 to work for the needy people. It’s a social-welfare Non-Government Organization with the sole aim and motto of striving for the upliftment of economically and educationally backward section of the society, with its headquarter located in Hojai town of Assam. From its inception, the NGO laid special emphasis on Education by establishing dozens of schools and colleges. It also works in several important fields by establishing, hospitals, orphanages, providing houses to homeless people, distributing reliefs at the time of natural disasters and extending financial assistance for marriage. The NGO is not only serving in Assam vicinity, but it also works in different parts of India through its branch offices located in Assam, Manipur, New Delhi, Deoband and Mumbai. One of its noteworthy works is to equip fresh Ulama with English language under Markazul Ma’arf Education and Research Center (MMERC).
Need of English Language for Ulama (Islamic Scholar):
No doubt, English language is an international language in our age. If one wants to communicate with international community or just wants to use a commonly understood language to convey his messages at large, he must learn English language. Ulama being the suitable people to represent Islam and convey the peace messages of Islam, throughout the world, were not aware of the ABC of English language. It was difficult for them to present their thoughts at global level to reach international community, where much misunderstanding has been spread against Islam due to biased media houses. The English language has become essential and crying need of the hour; but Ulama were not able to understand, speak and write English language properly. Need of English language for Ulama (Islamic Scholars) was felt by many individuals; but no one knew how to materialize this dream.
Markazul Ma’arif Education & Research Center Establishment:
Comprehending the importance of English language and apprehending the need of the hour, Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Center (MMERC) was established in 1994 by a Darul Uloom Deoband graduate and a successful businessman, Muhsin-e-Millat Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi. Maulana Qasmi is a member of Darul Uloom Deoband’s governing body, President of a political party: AIUDF and Lok Sabha MP for Dhubri constituency of Assam. The mission of this institution was to equip the young promising Ulama with English language, computer science etc. so that they can face the current challenges and play a pivotal role in preaching Islam and serve the nation and international community at large. Thus, MMERC became the first institution of its kind in India, which started training Ulama in accordance with the need of hour.
Initially the MMERC was established in New Delhi. Mr. Mohammad Umar Gautam, ex-Lecturer of Jamia Millia Islamia and famous Da’aee was given the charge to work on the MMERC project and to run it as its first director. A two-year course was designed and named, “Diploma in English Language & Literature (DELL)”. Under Mr. Gautam stalwart directorship, this course started its journey. The newly graduated Ulama were selected after entrance exams. It was first time in the history that more than a dozen Ulama gathered under one roof to learn English language and computer science. It functioned well. Following some years, it was shifted to Mumbai. Maulana M. Burhanuddin Qasmi, an alumnus of MMERC’s first batch, was assigned to take the charge of its daily affairs as its second director. Under the dynamic leadership of Mr. Qasmi, some more activities were added to this programme. Each year, a good number of Ulama are benefiting and graduating since more than two decades and the MMERC is moving ahead.
MMERC Silver Jubilee Celebration:
The MMERC has completed 25 years. Now it’s going to celebrate its “Silver Jubilee Celebration and a 3-Day International Seminar on Muslim Youth, Ulama and Contemporary Challenges with Special Reference to DELL Course and Post-Madrasa Education” on 4th-6th October, 2019, in New Delhi. The period of 25 years is not a small one; but to get a tremendous success, this period is not too long as well. Anyway, within 25 years of its commencement, the MMERC got tremendous success and big achievement in its mission of equipping fresh Ulama with English language and computer science. A just and fair historian will surely endorse and record the services of the MMERC for equipping the Ulama with modern tools and removing the hindrance from their paths to face any challenge of this age.
MMERC has produced almost 450 graduates armed with modern tools like English language, computer science etc. By completing two-year Diploma in English language & Literature, Ulama, in moving forward, find no obstacles which stop them. They find themselves fully equipped to choose whichever field they intend to serve the Ummah and the nation. The MMERC Alumni chose different fields and have played important role in their chosen fields be it teaching, research, Dawah, social work, journalism or administration, etc. Whichever field they stepped in, their success is remarkable. Due to their talent, quality and outstanding performance, they have been respected and embraced by their administration and colleagues with enthusiasm.
For instance, I mention here few names of the MMERC products. Maulana M. Burhanuddin Qasmi is the present serving director of the MMERC, a freelance writer and Editor of the Eastern Crescent, a Mumbai based monthly English magazine. Maulana Mohammad Atiqur Rahman Qasmi is the Coordinator: DIPR of Markazul Ma’arif and Environmentalist Awardee from UNEP. Maulana Dr. Ansar Azmi Qasmi, professor Malik Saud University, Riyadh, KSA. Maulana Iftikhar Ahmad Qasmi is the bilingual English and Arabic writer and teacher of Hadith at Jamia Akkalkuwa. Maulana Dr. Md. Rafiq Qasmi is a research associate at MANNU, Hyderabad. Mufti Dr. Md. Obaidullah Qasmi is Assistant Professor and Head of Arabic Department in Zakir Husain College, University of Delhi and ex-Head of English Department, Darul Uloom Deoband. Maulana Mohammad Afzal Qasmi is Teacher of Hadith at Aljamiatul Islamiyyah, Bolton, Lecturer at Blackburn College, UK and ex-teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband’s English Department. Mufti Abdur Rasheed Qasmi is a teacher of Hadeeth and V-Chairman of Haq Education & Research Foundation, Kanpur. Mufti Dr. Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi, freelance writer, is Head: Internet Department and Coordinator: Online DarulIfta, Darul Uloom, Deoband. Mualana Shamsul Huda Qasmi is the Head of English Department and Editor of The Light, an English magazine published form Jamia Islamia, Akkalkuwa. Late Maulana Ismail Moosa Makrod (May Allah grant him Jannah!), the founder of Markaze Islami Education & Research Center, Ankleshwar, Gujarat. Maulana Manzar Imam Qasmi (PhD) is a bilingual freelance journalist, research scholar on International Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi and Contending Modernities from University of Notre Dame, USA. Maulana Dr. Rafiqul Islam Qasmi is Assistant Professor at UG, GS: AIUDF and an ex-MLA of Assam. Maulana Dr. Gufran Najeeb (BUMS) is a medical practitioner. Maulana Dr. Abdur Rahman Qasmi is currently on post-doctoral fellowship and had worked as News Reader in All India Radio. Maulana Dr. Rahmat Ali Qasmi is Assist-Editor of Hajj Magazine in Hajj Committee, Gov. of India. Maulana Ghufran Sajid Qasmi is the Founder and Chief Editor of Baseeratonline and Milli Baseerat Weekly. Maulana Mohammad Sajid Qasmi (M Ed. From American College of Education, USA) is administrator of Darul Uloom, Atlanta, USA. Maulana Mohammad Khalid Qasmi is teacher of Hadith at Jamia Abdullah bin Masood and ex-Head-Imam Al-farooq Masjid, Atlanta, USA. Maulana Muddissir Ahmad Qasmi is the Assistant Editor of the Eastern Crescent, a columnist of Urdu leading daily Inquilab and director of Al-Ghazali International School, Araria, Bihar. Maulana Tauqeer Ahmad Qasmi is a gifted speaker and Head of English Department, Darul Uloom Deoband. Maulana Dr. Hifzur Rahman Qasmi is a research scholar at JNU, New Delhi and translator of several books.
These individuals have performed tremendously in different fields as it’s understood from their designations. They have also authored and translated several books. It’s truth that the English language, which they learned in the MMERC under the patronage of Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi and the directorship of Mr. Gautam and Mualana M Burhanuddin Qasmi, played a key role in their successes and achievements.
Launching of the Eastern Crescent:
In 2006, MMERC launched its monthly magazine, in English language, with beautiful name “Eastern Crescent” (EC) with the motto of “Alternative Media, People’s Choice”. The first issue was published in May 2006. It’s published under able editorship of MMERC director, Maulana M. Burhanuddin Qasmi from the day one. As it publishes the articles and stories of the MMERC alumni, it gives spaces to the modern educated scholars, without any discrimination, as well. It’s a good platform for the MMERC alumni to share their ideas, views and opinions with the English knowing people. Keeping focus on Indian issues and Islamic topics, the magazine covers current affairs and issues related to Indian Muslim community mostly. Because of its opining making articles, stories and beautiful printing, the magazine has been appreciated by several learned people and research scholars. This magazine is being published since last 14 years without fail. It’s a big achievement for the MMERC in the field of journalism.
Maktab Markazul Ma’arif:
The importance of Makaatib for Muslim children is acknowledged by one and all. As it imparts basic Islamic teachings to young children, it inculcates moral values in their minds. The pupils who go to the Makaatib in the early age of their lives are able to understand the significance of their faith and religion. They learn how to make Wudhu and how to perform five times daily Salaah etc. Bearing the aforesaid points, it’s necessary to establish Makaatib. It must be appreciated that the MMERC authorities are running a successful Maktab namely “Maktab Markazul Ma’arif” for the children under the supervision of the eligible teachers. Currently, about 170 children are enrolled in the Maktab. The success of the children of this Maktab is distinguished. The authorities must be thanked for this service to the community.
Workshop for School Pupils:
It’s very necessary to be informed of essentials of Deen. When one is aware of essentials of Deen, it provides spiritual strength and it gives confidence in the life to practice it. Currently our pupils who go to the schools are hardly taught adequately about Islamic teachings and values. Most of them don’t know the articles of faith. Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Center holds workshops on the occasion of school’s vacations. It’s held completely in an Islamic environment to promote the values of Islamic teachings and inculcate them in the minds of young learners coming from different schools. This workshop assists and encourages the pupils to practice Islamic teachings in their day-to-day lives.
MMERC’s DELL Embracement:
In the initial stage, when this MMERC’s Diploma in English Language and Literature (DELL) course was introduced, two and a half decades ago, none would have thought that this course would be as successful as it’s observed today. But the hard work, sincerity, dedication, devotion, commitment and enthusiasm of the management, teachers and learners bore fruits and paid fully. Today, it’s a model successful course to enhance the ability of the newly graduates of Madaaris. Following the success, this course has been widely embraced and introduced not only in the campus of some celebrated Islamic seminary or Madrasas in India, but also in a certain university like Aligarh Muslim University. This programme is known as “Bridge Course” in the university.
Really the MMERC has played a significant role in shaping the young Madrasa graduates for the service of the nation and the Ummah at national and international levels. As an institution, the MMERC is a role model to be followed. Currently, almost a dozen of such institutions are found in India following the footsteps of the MMERC. For a country like India where thousands of Ulama are produced from several Madaaris, it’s need of the time to introduce the DELL programme in a big number as the existing institutions do not seem to be enough comparing to the number of the graduating Ulama annually. In these institutions, along with the DELL programme, one special lecture in a moth, on an important topic, should be also arranged as it will be much beneficial for the learners, in my view. ***
*Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By Manzar Imam -
Madrasas in India have contributed immensely to Muslim education. They are still doing so. However, the madrasa syllabi have for long been in discussion both in the media and academia for being outdated, orthodox and irrelevant. Further, the madrasa system of education is often blamed by certain quarters of being rigid, typically traditional, promoting sectarian hatred among madrasa graduates with spillover effects in the larger Muslim society. There is some truth in these claims but there are more allegations than realities.
That most madrasas have avoided modern subjects is true to a large extent. If not aversion, then at least a discomfort with English language is another problem afflicting the madrasa education system, affecting prospects of career growth and advancement for madrasa graduates.
While this has been the case on the one hand, on the other hand majority of the college-going Muslim youth lack knowledge of Deen (religion) and Islam. Many of them can’t even read the Qur’an with proper Arabic phonetics, leave aside knowing its meaning and exegesis. And, there is a general tendency of shifting the blame from both sides, thus missing a balance.
Markazul Ma’arif Education & Research Centre (MMERC), a part of northeast India-based Markazul Ma’arif NGO, was set up to narrow this gap and achieve some balance. Under the guardianship of famous ‘aalim (plural, ‘ulama i.e. scholar, theologian), renowned perfume-baron and successful businessman Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Al-Qasmi, presently a Member of Parliament for a consecutive third term, the Markaz started a centre namely Markazul Ma’arif Education & Research Centre in New Delhi in 1994 with the objective to select a batch of 10 to 20 students (‘ulama) from different madrsas to mainly train them in English language and computers. The impact of this unique initiative was so powerful that a senior lecturer of English of Jamia Millia Islamia, who visited the MMERC in 1994 and interacted with students of its first batch, called it an “enthralling experience” which will undoubtedly be counted as a “yeoman’s service” in educating the ‘ulama. His words have come precisely true.
Within a span of less than a decade around 50 ‘ulama started to show great promises. Their oratorical skills were acknowledged and appreciated by senior academicians. Soon many of them also began writing in English. This captured readers’ imagination, something which journalist Syed Ubaidur Rahman aptly described in these words: “They have everything to surprise anyone believing in the orthodoxy of madrasa graduates.”
This year the MMERC completes 25 years of its establishment and, it is celebrating its Silver Jubilee with a-three-day international seminar in New Delhi from 4 to 6 October, 2019. It is also bringing out a souvenir titled Ulama, Post-Madrasa Education, Muslim Youth and Contemporary Challenges which contains well-written and researched papers on important socio-political and religious topics by the alumni.
Over these 25 years the prevailing misconception about ‘ulama not knowing the global English language of academics, business and communication has evaporated like a non-entity. Other changes are also taking place, thanks to MMERC. Presently there are about 15 such centres of language training across India.
The bearded-‘ulama are gradually becoming kings of the Queen’s language. Many of them have established themselves as journalists, interpreters, translators and authors having their works published in prestigious publication houses in India and abroad.
Although a lot remains to be done in terms of contents taught in madrasas, the English language has opened for the madrasa graduates new avenues of post-madrasa education. MMERC has been a trend-setter and its products are now shining with new knowledge and confidence. Kudos to MMERC and its founder Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi!
(Author is a senior journalist based in New Delhi. He can be contacted at email@example.com)
By: Manzar Imam*
New Delhi: Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind, the largest and probably the oldest organization of Indian ulama, founded against the backdrop of freedom struggle in 1919, has been celebrating 100 years of its completion. In a series of events, national level conferences and seminars are being organized at its headquarters in Delhi and elsewhere in the country. One such two-day seminar was held on 21-22 September in New Delhi in memory of two of its founding members Maulana Ahmad Saeed Dehlawi and Maulana Abdul Bari Firangi Mahalli.
Scholarly papers were presented on the two personalities in different sessions. The papers highlighted the stellar role played by Maulana Ahmad Saeed and Maulana Firangi Mahalli in freedom struggle and in mobilizing the masses for it. A paper presented by a young Deoband scholar Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi marked the “historic churning” simultaneously taking place in two North Indian cities Lucknow and Delhi during the receding Mughal power which took revolutionary form.
The centre of Lucknow’s movement was the Firangi Mahal family of Mulla Nizamuddin Sahalwi (d. 1748) whereas the gravity of the Delhi movement was Madrasa Rahimiya started by Shah Abdur Rahim (1644-1719), father of the eighteenth century great Islamic scholar and reformer Shah Waliullah Dehlawi. Following the crushing defeat of 1857, the two movements were continued by the ulama of Deoband and Firangi Mahal. Among the proud sons of the Firangi Mahal family is Maulana Qayamuddin Muhammad Abdul Bari Firangi Mahallhi (1868-1926) who was not only an ‘aalim (scholar, theologian) of great stature but founder of several movements. He treaded in the thorny path of national and social service.
Among his remarkable religious services is the establishment of Madrasa Aliya Nizamia on 12 July 1905 under the auspices of Anjuman Mu’ayyid-ul-Uloom. Khalili said that the 37 principles which Maulana Firangi Mahalli formed are the benchmarks of pedagogy which could not be fully implemented by him due to his engagement in other activities and his death in 1926.
Maulana Firangi Mahalli was in close contact of many nationalist leaders including Mahatma Gandhi who sought his advice to continue the freedom struggle. Scholars maintained that the credit for encouraging Gandhi to leave his suit-boot and British lifestyle by wearing dhoti, to a large extent, goes to him.
A paper of Mahmood Jamal, grandson of Maulana Firangi Mahalli, living in London, focused on the letters written by Gandhi to Maulana Firangi Mahalli. Most of these letters are in English but a few of them were written in Urdu by Gandhi himself. These correspondences, according to Jamal, “give us a glimpse of a unique moment in the history of Indian Independence when the Non-cooperation Movement and Khilafat Movements worked in unison.”
Maulana Ahmad Saeed Dehlawi (1888-1959) was an outstanding politician, a great orator, a committed nationalist and author of several books. He started participating in national movements in 1919 and became the first General Secretary of Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind, its Vice-President and President after the demise of Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madani. According to Dr Mohammad Ajmal, an Assistant Professor at Jawaharlal Nehru University, if one read about religious and social issues in the books of scholars of those times one would easily get bored. However, the writings of Maulana Ahmad Saeed on those issues are different which make an interesting reading because of his facility of language and style of writing. They “inform about the prevalent socio-cultural conditions of his time”.
Dr Abdul Malik writes that Maulana Ahmad Saeed was arrested at least eight times by the British and in all he spent seven years in jail. One can understand his political stature with the fact that when he died on 4 December 1959, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi and other senior leaders not only came for his last glimpse but many of them including Indira Gandhi accompanied his janazah (dead body) till the graveyard.
Journalist Nurullah Jawaid made a special mention of Ahmad Saeed’s exegesis of the Qur’an, Kashfur Rahman which was written painstakingly over a period of 18 years. He also mentioned about Maulana Saeed’s concerns about the need for change in the syllabus of madrasas. However, one of his biggest services could be his stand on the Palestine and Kashmir issue. For Jawaid, Kashmir is going through a difficult phase and the stand of many organizations on it remains vague and beyond description. He quoted from Maulana Saeed’s historic speech delivered in a conference on “Islamic unity and the issue of Kashmir” held in Delhi. Maulana Ahmad Saeed had then said, “The Kashmir issue is being seen with a communal lens. The day when decisions on the Kashmir issue and about people of Kashmir are taken on the basis of humanity, there is no reason that the crisis cannot be solved and the people of Kashmir cannot join the national stream.”
Earlier, Maulana Mahmood Madani, General Secretary of Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind said that from the beginning of the movement for freedom to its culmination the role of Jamiat and its leaders and elders cannot be denied. Maulana Asghar Ali Imam Mahdi Salafi expressed happiness for holding the seminar on such eminent personalities.
Prof Saiyid Zaheer Husain Jafri, a senior professor of history of the University of Delhi remarked that books of history of freedom struggle that are generally taught in universities give a different sense from what is written in Urdu books. Therefore, there is need to highlight the ulama’s role in India’s freedom struggle and do fresh research on them. Scholars put various suggestions to underscore the role that Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind and ulama had played in the country’s freedom struggle.
Dr Abdul Malik Rasoolpuri, Maulana Imranullah Qasmi and Mufti Muhammad Affan Mansurpuri coordinated the proceedings of different sessions of the seminar. The two-day seminar ended with concluding remarks and prayers for world peace and peace and stability of India by Qari Muhammad Usman Mansurpuri.
*(A graduate of Darul Uloom Deoband, Manzar Imam is a senior journalist based in New Delhi)
Maulana Burhanuddin Qasmi*
We generally expect most of our religious, social and educational work be done by ulama. We consider them incapable on the other hand! We generally do not support them, instead criticize them in most cases. Aren't these, kind of contradictions within us?
What our modern educated class is doing right now?
A man from Hindu Sena has written a letter to the home ministry dated 29 July 2019, which is viral now, demanding a complete ban on the Qur'an citing security concern for India! We may agree or disagree with Mr Azam Khan but Jauhar University is an educational institution, an asset for India, which is being targeted and may be severely harmed. NRC issue in Assam, Talaq Bill, RTI amendment bill, UAPA amendment bill, citizenship amendment bill, new education policy of India, and many such issues on which our non-ulama intellectuals who are graduated from some of the Muslim established universities with objective as "science in one hand and the Qur'an in other" could lead the poor Muslim masses socially as well as politically. Generally they aren't in the scene. Or there are some who again blame "mullas" are not allowing them to work or they have issues with being Muslims!
Harassment of Muslim youths in the name of love jehad, lynching in the name of cows and now brutality and killing for jai sri Ram. Muslims are feeling clueless and youths are psychologically getting affected. Lack of confidence is apparent. Some even started to hide their Muslim names. Some began to curse their being Muslims!
Aren't these issues better to be addressed by those who are educated, well of and more knowledgeable about the modern world order? Or aren't these all issues serious enough to work on them? What have we done individually to at least light a single candle to do our part?
Assam, Bihar and part of WB are severely affected by floods right now. Why mainly organizations led by ulama are on relief and humanitarian work? Aren't these our work too? Or aren't those suffering human beings not enough human to help them in calamities?
The polygamy case and Muslim inheritance case will come in the Supreme Court, sooner or later, just as follow up to talaq cases, on the basis of gender justice and equality before the law in reference to article 14 and 15 of Indian Constitution.
Should ulama deal with all these alone and can they probably do it? Why not there are a group of able Muslim lawyers, experts who understand Islam as well as modern laws vis-a-vis international laws still not ready from modern educated Muslims in India who should help the community in these issues? How many law colleges have we established so far? Why the legal battles of all Muslim youths who are innocent but arrested under terror charges be fought by ulama led organizations like Jamiat etc in the courts? Why a Muslim need to hire a non-Muslim lawyer to better fight his case in the courts?
One Dr Zafar Mahmood can give us dozen plus successful UPSC candidates each year. Why not many Zafar Mahmood? Why couldn't we produce a bunch of good journalists from within our community? Why not even a single strong media house owned by a Muslim in India? Our representations in arm and police forces are very low. Have we seriously done anything about it? Do those teach in universities and colleges ever speak about all these things in their classes? Some do, most do not.
Have we ever counted how many schools, colleges are established by those who are working with religious organizations or ulama and how many by those who blame ulama for everything? Ulama established madaris and makatib in each nook and corner of the country for religious education, why couldn't we do so by establishing schools and colleges for modern education of Muslims in India?
What contribution are we all offering to the community for it's social, educational and economic development having being posted in prestigious and handsomely paid positions in India and abroad following our education?
Let's ask our inner human honestly, have we seriously responded to the aims and objectives of the founders of AMU and JMI etc.?
I am sure, some of course did respond but is or was it enough? Why can't the north Indian Muslims with same resources available make an educational revolution like that of South Indian ones? Why there is no very visible division between ulama and non-ulama in the southern part of India?
I do feel the questions above are bit direct and too many. May be not so easy reading for some of my friends here. However, I dare to put them in public to bring some of you with me in my self-introspection.
Today we the Muslim Indians are surely not in a position to remain divided anymore and keep blaming each other. We need to work hard together with Muslims as well as all fellow citizens to save our country from destruction and the future of our own children as Muslim Indians.
*Editor: Eastern Crescent, Mumbai
By Mufti Taqi Usmani
- First Ten Days
- The 9th day of Zulhijjah
- The Fast of Youmul 'Arafah
- On the Eid day
- How to Perform Eid Prayers (Hanafi School)
- Khutbah: The Address of Eidul-Adha
- Sacrifice or Qurbani: Philosophy and Rules
- The Time of Qurbani
- Who is Required to Perform Qurbani?
- No Alternate for Qurbani
- The Animals of Qurbani
- Rules about Defective Animals
- The Sunnah Method of Qurbani
- Distribution of the Meat
Zulhijjah is the last month of the Islamic calendar. Literally, it means "hajj." Obviously, this name of the month indicates that the great annual worship of "hajj" is performed in this month, which gives it special significance. Some specific merits and rules relevant to this month are mentioned below:
First Ten Days
The first ten days of Zulhijjah are among the most magnificent days in Islamic calendar. The Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, has said, "One fast during these days is equal to the fasting of one complete year, and the worship of one night during this period is equal to the worship in the "Lailatul-Qadr".
Every Muslim should avail of this wonderful opportunity by performing during this period as much Iba'dah (acts of worship) to Allah as he or she can.
The 9th day of Zulhijjah
The 9th day of Zulhijjah is called 'Youmul - "Arafah' (The Day of 'Arafah). This is the date when the Hujjaj (Haji pilgrims, plural of Haajj) assemble on the plain of 'Arafat, six miles away from Makkah al-Mukarramah, where they perform the most essential part of the prescribed duties of hajj, namely, the 'Wuqoof of'Arafat (the stay in 'Arafat).
The Fast of Youmul 'Arafah
For those not performing hajj, it is mustahabb (desirable) to fast on this day according to their own calendar. It sometimes occurs that 9th Zuihijjah falls on different days in different countries according to the sighting of the moon. In such cases, Muslims of each country should observe 'Youmul 'Arafah according to the lunar dates of their own country.
For example, if 'Youmul 'Arafah' is being observed in Saudi Arabia on Friday, and in Pakistan on Saturday, Pakistani Muslims should treat Saturday as 'Youmul 'Arafah' and should fast on that day if they desire to benefit from the fast of 'Youmul'Arafah'.
The fast of 'Youmul 'Arafah' has been emphasized by the Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, as a mustahabb (desirable) act. According to a hadith, the fast of this day becomes a cause, hopefully so, of forgiveness for sins committed in one year.
Beginning from the Fajr of the 9th Zulhijjah up to the 'Asr prayer of the 13th, it is obligatory on each Muslim to recite the Takbir of Tashriq after every fard prayer in the following words.
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar,
La Ilaha Illallahu, Wallahu Akbar,
Allahu Akbar wa lillahilhamd.
(There is no god but Allah and Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest and to Allah belongs all praise.)
According to authentic Islamic sources, it is obligatory on each Muslim, to recite this Takbir after every fard salah. For women also, it is commendable though not obligatory. Whether you are performing salah with Jama'ah (collectively) or on your own (individually) makes no difference. You must recite the Takbir. However, male Muslims should recite it in a loud voice, while females should recite it in a low voice.
On the Eid day
The following acts are sunnah on the day of Eidul- adha:
1. To wake up early in the morning.
2. To clean one's teeth with a miswak or brush
3. To take bath.
4. To put on one's best available clothes.
5. To use perfume.
6. Not to eat before the Eid prayer.
7. To recite the Takbir of Tashriq in a loud voice while going to the Eid prayer.
How to Perform Eid Prayers (Hanafi School)
The Eid prayer has two raka'at performed in the normal way, with the only addition of six Takbirs, three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah, and three of them just before ruku' in the second raka'ah. The detailed way of performing the Eid prayer is as follows:
The Imam will begin the prayer without Adhan or iqamah. He will begin the prayer by reciting Takbir of Tahrimah (Allahu Akbar). You should raise your hands up to the ears, and after reciting the Takbir, you should set your hands on your navel. The Imam will give a little pause during which you should recite Thana' (Subhanakallahumma .:.). After the completion of Thana', the Imam will recite Takbir (Allahu Akbar) three times. At the first two calls of Takbir you should raise your hands up to the ears, and after reciting Takbir (Allahu Akbar) in a low voice, should bring your hands down and leave them earthwards. But, after the third Takbir, you should set them on your navel as you do in the normal prayers.
After these three Takbirs, the Imam will recite the Holy Qur'an, which you should listen calmly and quietly. The rest of the raka'ah will be performed in the normal way.
After rising for the second raka'ah, the Imam will begin the recitations from the Holy Qur'an during which you should remain calm and quiet. When the Imam finishes his recitation, he will recite three Takbirs once again, but this time it will be just before bowing down for ruku'. At each Takbir you should raise your hands up to the ears, and after saying 'Allahu Akbar', bring them down and leave them earthwards. After these three takbirs have been called and completed, the Imam will say another takbir for bowing down into the ruku' position. At this takbir you need not raise your hands. You just bow down for your ruku' saying, 'Allahu Akbar'. The rest of the salah will be performed in its usual way.
Khutbah: The Address of Eidul-Adha
In this salah of Eid, Khutbah is a sunnah and is delivered after the salah, unlike the salah of Jumu'ah where it is fard and is delivered before the salah. However, listening to the khutbah of Eid salah is wajib or necessary and must be listened to in perfect peace and silence.
It is a sunnah that the Imam begins the first Khutbah by reciting takbir (Allahu Akbar) nine times and the second Khutbah with reciting it seven times.
The way of Eid prayer described above is according to the Hanafi school of Muslim jurists. Some other jurists, like Imam Shafi'i, have some other ways to perform it. They recite Takbir twelve times before beginning the recitations of the Holy Qur'an in both the raka'at. This way is also permissible. If the Imam, being of the Shafi'i school, follows this way, you can also follow him. Both ways are based on the practice of the Holy Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam.
Sacrifice or Qurbani: Philosophy and Rules
The Urdu and persian word Qurbani (Sacrificial slaughter) is derived from the Arabic word Qurban. Lexically, it means an act performed to seek Allah's pleasure. Originally, the word Qurban included all acts of charity because the purpose of charity is nothing but to seek Allah's pleasure. But, in precise religious terminology, the word was later confined to the sacrifice of an animal slaughtered for the sake of Allah.
The sacrifice of an animal has always been treated as a recognized form of worship in all religious orders originating from a divine book. Even in pagan societies, the sacrifice of an animal is recognized as a form of worship, but it is done in the name of some idols and not in the name of Allah, a practice totally rejected by Islam.
In the Shari'ah of our beloved Prophet, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, the sacrifice of an animal has been recognized as a form of worship only during three days of Zulhijjah, namely, the 10th, 1lth and 12th of the month. This is to commemorate the unparalleled sacrifice offered by the Prophet Sayyidna Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, when he, in pursuance to a command of Allah conveyed to him in a dream, prepared himself to slaughter his beloved son, Sayyidna Isma'il, Alayhi Salam, and actually did so but, Allah Almighty, after testing his submission, sent down a sheep and saved his son from the logical fate of slaughter. It is from that time onwards that the sacrifice of an animal became an obligatory duty to be performed by every well to do Muslim.
Qurbani is a demonstration of total submission to Allah and a proof of complete obedience to Allah's will or command. When a Muslim offers a Qurbani, this is exactly what he intends to prove. Thus, the Qurbani offered by a Muslim signifies that he is a slave of Allah at his best and that he would not hesitate even for a moment, once he receives an absolute command from his Creator, to surrender before it, to obey it willingly, even if it be at the price of his life and possessions. When a true and perfect Muslim receives a command from Allah, he does not make his obedience dependent upon the command's reasonability' as perceived through his limited understanding. He knows that Allah is All-knowing, All-Wise and that his own reason cannot encompass the knowledge and wisdom underlying the divine command. He, therefore, submits to the divine command, even if he cannot grasp the reason or wisdom behind it.
This is exactly what the Prophet Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, did. Apparently, there was no reason why a father should slaughter his innocent son. But, when came the command from Allah, he never asked about the reason for that command, nor did he hesitate to follow it. Even his minor son when asked by his father about the dream he had seen, never questioned the legitimacy of the command, nor did he pine or whine about it, nor did he ask for one good reason why he was being slaughtered. The one and only response he made was:
'Father, do what you have been ordered to do. You shall find me, God willing, among the patient".
The present-day Qurbani is offered in memory of this great model of submission set before us by the great father and the great son. So Qurbani must be offered in our time emulating the same ideal and attitude of submission.
This, then, is the true philosophy of Qurbani. With this in mind, one can easily unveil the fallacy of those who raise objections against Qurbani on the basis of economic calculations and depict it to be a wastage of money, resources and livestock. Unable to see beyond mundane benefits, they cannot understand the spirit Islam wants to plant and nourish among its followers, the spirit of total submission to Allah's will which equips man with most superior qualities so necessary to keep humanity in a state of lasting peace and welfare.
Qurbani is nothing but a powerful symbol of the required human conduct vis-a-vis the divine commands, however "irrational" or "uneconomic" they may seem to be in their appearance. Thus, the distrustful quest for mundane economic benefits behind Qurbani is, in fact, the negation of its real philosophy and the very spirit underlying it.
No doubt, there are in every form of worship ordained by Allah, certain worldly benefits too, but they are not the main purpose of these prescribed duties, nor should they be treated as a pre-condition to submission and obedience. All acts of worship, including Qurbani, must be carried out with a spirit of total submission to Allah, irrespective of their economic, social or political benefits. This is what Ibrahim, Alayhi Salam, did, and this is what every true Muslim is required to do,
Keeping this in view, we are giving here some rules governing the worship of Qurbani in our Shari'ah according to the Hanafi School.
The Time of Qurbani
Qurbani can only be performed during the three days of Eid, namely the 10th, Ilth and 12th of Zulhijjah. It is only in these days that slaughtering of an animal is recognized as an act of worship. No Qurbani can be performed in any other days of the year.
Although Qurbani is permissible on each of the three aforesaid days, yet it is preferable to perform it on the first day i.e. the 10th of Zulhijjah.
No Qurbani is allowed before the Eid prayer is over. However, in small villages where the Eid prayer is not to be performed, Qurbani can be offered' any time after the break of dawn on the 10th of Zulhijjah.
Qurbani can also be performed in the two nights following the Eid day, but it is more advisable to perform it during daytime.
Who is Required to Perform Qurbani?
Every adult Muslim, male or female, who owns 613.35 grams of silver or its equivalent in money, personal ornaments, stock-in-trade or any other form of wealth which is surplus to his basic needs, is under an obligation to offer a Qurbani. Each adult member of a family who owns the above mentioned amount must perform his own Qurbani separately. If the husband owns the required quantity, but the wife does not, the Qurbani obligatory on the husband only and vice-versa. If both of them have the prescribed amount of wealth, both should perform Qurbani separately.
If the adult children live with their parents, Qurbani is obligatory on each one of them possessing the prescribed amount. The Qurbani offered by a husband for himself does not fulfil the obligation of his wife, nor can the Qurbani offered by a father discharge his son or daughter from their obligation. Each one of them should care for his own.
However, if a husband or a father, apart from offering his own Qurbani, gives another Qurbani on behalf of his wife or his son, he can do so with their permission.
No Alternate for Qurbani
Some people think that instead of offering a Qurbani they should give its amount to some poor people as charity. This attitude is totally wrong. Actually, there are different forms of worship obligatory on Muslims. Each one of them has its own importance and none of them can stand for the other. It is not permissible for a Muslim to perform salah instead of fasting in Ramadan, nor is it permissible for him to give some charity instead of observing the obligatory Salah. Similarly, Qurbani is an independent form of worship and this obligation cannot be discharged by spending money in charity.
However, if somebody, out of his ignorance or negligence, could not offer Qurbani on the three prescribed days (10th, 1lth and 12th Zulhijjah) then, in that case only, he can give the price of a Qurbani as sadaqah to those entitled to receive Zakah. But during the days of Qurbani no Sadaqah can discharge the obligation.
The Animals of Qurbani
The following animals can be slaughtered to offer a Qurbani:
1. Goat, either male or female, of at least one year of age.
2. Sheep, either male or female, of at least six months of age.
3. Cow, ox buffalo of at least two years of age.
4. Camel, male or female, of at least five years of age.
One head of goat or sheep is enough only for one person's Qurbani. But as for all other animals like cow, buffalo or camel, one head of each is equal to seven offerings thus allowing seven persons to offer Qurbani jointly in one such animal.
If the seller of animal claims that the animal is of the recognized age and there is no apparent evidence to the contrary; one can trust his statement and the sacrifice of such an animal is lawful.
Rules about Defective Animals
The following defective animals are not acceptable in Qurbani:
1. Blind, one eyed or lame animal.
2. An animal so emaciated that it cannot walk to its slaughtering place.
3. An animal with one-third part of the ear or the nose or the tail missing.
4. An animal that has no teeth at all, or the major number of its teeth are missing.
5. An animal born without ears.
The following animals are acceptable in Qurbani:
1. A castrated he - goat. (Rather, its Qurbani is more preferable).
2. An animal that has no horns, or its horns are broken. However, if the horns of an animal are uprooted totally so as to create a defect in the brain, its Qurbani is not lawful.
3. An animal the missing part of whose ear, nose or tail is less than one third.
4. A sick or injured animal, unless it has some above mentioned defects rendering its Qurbani unlawful.
The Sunnah Method of Qurbani
It is more preferable for a Muslim to slaughter the animal of his Qurbani with his own hands. However, if he is unable to slaughter the animal himself, or does not want to do so for some reason, he can request another person to slaughter it on his behalf. In this case also, it is more preferable that he, at least, be present at the time of slaughter. However, his absence at the time of slaughter does not render the Qurbani invalid, if he has authorized the person who slaughtered the animal on his behalf. It is a Sunnah to lay the animal with its face towards the Qiblah, and to recite the following verse of the Holy Quran:
I, being upright, turn my face towards the One who has created the heavens and the earth, and I am not among those who associate partners with Allah. ( Al-An'am, 6:79)
But the most essential recitation when slaughtering an animal is: Bismillah, Allahu Akbar. (In the name of Allah, Allah is the greatest). If somebody intentionally avoids to recite it when slaughtering an animal, it does not only make his Qurbani unlawful, but also renders the animal haram, and it is not permissible to eat the meat of that animal. However, if a person did not avoid this recitation intentionally, but he forgot to recite it when slaughtering the animal, this mistake is forgiven and both the Qurbani and the slaughter are lawful.
If somebody is unable to recite "Bismillah Allahu Akbar" in the Arabic language, he can recite the name of Allah in his own language by saying, "In the name of Allah".
Distribution of the Meat
If an animal is sacrificed by more than one person, like cow or camel, its meat should be distributed equally among its owners by weighing the meat strictly and not at random or by mere guess. Even if all the partners agree on its distribution without weighing, it is still not permissible according to shari'ah.
However, if the actual weighing is not practicable due to some reason, and all the partners agree to distribute the meat without weighing, distribution by guess can be done with the condition that each share necessarily contains either a leg of the animal or some quantity of its liver.
Although the person offering a Qurbani can keep all its meat for his own use, yet, it is preferable to distribute one-third among the poor, another one-third among his relatives and then, keep the rest for his personal consumption.
All parts of the sacrificed animal can be used for personal benefit, but none can be sold, nor can be given to the butcher as a part of his wages. If somebody has sold the meat of the Qurbani or its skin, he must give the accrued price as sadaqah to a poor man who can receive Zakah.
The most important way of worship performed in this month is "hajj", one of the five pillars of Islam. The Muslims from every part of the world assemble in Arabia to perform this unique way of worship. Hajj is a worship, which requires at least five days to be performed in its proper way. There are detailed rules for different acts of hajj for which separate books are available, and the present article does not aim at explaining all these details. However, some basic information about its obligation is being given here:
1. Hajj is obligatory on every adult Muslim who can afford to go to Makkah during the hajj season, whether on foot or by any other carriage.
2. If a person can travel to Makkah to perform hajj, but he cannot travel to Madinah, hajj is obligatory on him also. He can perform hajj without visiting Madinah.
3. A Muslim woman cannot travel for hajj unless she is accompanied by a mahram (i.e. husband or relative of a prohibited degree like son, father, brother etc.) If she does not find any mahram to accompany her, hajj is not obligatory on her until she finds one. However, she must make a will that in case she dies before performing hajj, his heirs should arrange for her hajj-e-badal out of her left over property.
4. Hajj is obligated only once in one's life. After performing the obligatory hajj; one is not required to perform it again. However, he can perform the nafl (optional hajj as many times as he or she wishes.)
by: Maulana Hussain Ahmad Qasmi*
Hajj is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world. It is a demonstration of the solidarity and harmony of the Muslim people, and their submission to Almighty Allah. It is the fifth pillar of Islam, an obligation that must be carried out at least once in the life time of every Muslim who can afford to do it. The holy Quran makes it mention:
And pilgrimage to the House is duty unto Allah for mankind, for him who can find a way thither. (Quran: 22: 97)
Hajj is an Arabic word which literally means “to set out” with the intention of devotion or reward to a sacred place. However, Islamically, it means travelling for the purpose of visiting the Holy Kaba – the House of Allah - in Mecca, the direction which Muslims turn to in Prayer, in order to perform a series of rituals that are based on the actions and words reported in tradition of the holy Prophet's Hajj, such as Tawaf (walking around the Holy Kaba seven times), Sa`i (running between the hills of al-Safa and al-Marwah seven times), standing at the mountain of Arafat, and throwing pebbles at the Jamarat in Mina.
Truly, Hajj and its rites first were ordained by Allah in the time of the Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) and he was one who was entrusted by Almighty Allah to build the Holy Kaba – the House of Allah – along with his beloved son Hadhrat Ismail (PBUH) at Mecca. The holy Quran says:
And (remember) when We prepared for Abraham the place of the (holy) House, saying: Ascribe thou no thing as partner unto Me, and purify My House for those who make the round (thereof) and those who stand and those who bow and make prostration. And proclaim unto mankind the Pilgrimage. They will come unto thee on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every deep ravine. (Quran: 22: 26-27).
After building the Kaba, Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) would come to Mecca to perform Hajj every year, and after his death, this practice was continued by his son.
The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the 12th month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, eleven days shorter than the Gregorian calendar used in the Western world, the Gregorian date of the Hajj is eleven days earlier from year to year. The Hajj is associated with the life of the holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered to stretch back to the time of Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) and his beloved son Prophet Ismail (PBUH), the prominent figures in both Islam and Judaism.
One who intends to perform Hajj should first make taubah (repentance to Allah), settle his debts, prepare sufficient provision for his journey and for his family until his return, give back trust to their rightful owners, and meet his expenses by lawful means. He is recommended to accompany righteous men to help each other in their journey. If there is a group of people going out for Hajj, they should choose one of them to be their leader during their journey so as to set their affairs in order.
Mecca is the center of true and pure monotheism, and the place where Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH), The Friend of God, left as a monument for all the true believers of the world throughout history a symbol of monotheism which is the subjugation of one's carnal desires and complete submission before the divine command by bringing his beloved to the altar. Here is the place where the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) raised the flag of monotheism against the wishes of the arrogant and bullying elements and the wealthy of his time.
Hajj maintains the spirit of unity among Muslims, individuals and communities and educates Muslims, and even non-Muslims, about the true meaning of equality, which is manifested in the pilgrims' unified dress code and their observance of the rituals irrespective of their race, language, gender, or social positions. Hajj is full of lessons for Muslims whereby we can affect real changes in the way we practice Islam as well as in the way we behave. Hajj teaches us to break the barriers that separate people from one another: barriers of race, nationality, ethnicity, color, and language. Hajj instills in us the great values of faith, surrender, trust, and sacrifice for the sake of Allah the Almighty and for the truth.
Islam lays emphasis on the very principle of equality between all people. It makes it clear that people are as equal as the comb teeth. The holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) declares:
“O people! Your Lord is One, your father is one. You are all sons of Adam and Adam is created from dust.” (Abu Dawood, No. 4452)
In prayer, a person may wear his own traditional costumes and thus may be distinguished. In Hajj, it is totally different as all people put on two pieces of white cloth that resemble a shroud. This is the highest form of equality. In Hajj, man enters into a state of total sanctity that prevents him from violating the life or the safety of any human being. Hajj is the sign of the universality of this Divine message. All people come from all parts of the globe celebrating the praises of the One true God, no colors, races, regional borders. All barriers are removed and all pilgrims are molten in one brotherhood that gathers their hearts and strengthens their bonds and sense of belonging to one religion. Hajj is, above all, a revolution against all usual matters.
Hajj experience promotes peaceful coexistence, equality, and harmony. Hajj increases belief in equality and harmony among ethnic groups and Islamic sects, and the Hajis - those who have performed the Hajj - show increased belief in peace, and in equality and harmony among adherents of different religions.
Hajj is the opportunity to review and revisit these great lessons. Each and every corner of Hajj is the embodiment of unity and solidarity among the believers where natural and contractual differences fade away and the significance of the true and monotheistic unity and brotherhood is upheld. Hajj is one of the best means of Islam for the elimination of negligence. As if the universality of this ritual imparts the message that the Muslim Ummah in their collective identity, besides the individual duty of every Muslim, is duty-bound to remove negligence from them. On the other hand, the glory and grandeur of this unique congregation acquaints us with the reality of the great Islamic Ummah, which transcends the nations, races, colors and languages. This intertwined and harmonic congregation, these tongues all chanting a single word, these bodies and hearts all marching towards a single Qiblah and these human beings representing tens of countries and nations all belong to a great unit and collection, that is, the Islamic Ummah.
*The author is Web Organizer with Internet Dept, Online Darul Ifta, Darul Uloom Deoband. He can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
13th January 2019, was a shocking day for me and many others. Early in the morning, we received the heartbreaking news of the demise of well-versed scholar of Fiqh and Hadeeth after his prolonged illness which he had been fighting for about three years. As he was famous for his deep knowledge and understanding of Fiqh, he was also well-known for his academic quality of the science of Hadeeth. Due to his knowledge and sound opinion in the field of Fiqh specially, he was held in high esteem by several towering contemporary personalities. His opinions were valued and respected by the authentic scholar of Fiqh like Qazi Mujahidul Islam Qasmi (1936-2002). These words refer to the grieving death of my revered teacher Faqihe Millat Maulana Zubair Ahmad Qasmi, in a hospital in Madhubani district of his hometown, Chandarsainpur in Bihar.
Faqihe Millat’s Birth:
Faqihe Millat was born in a middle class family of a famous village known as Chndarsainpur of district Madhubani in Bihar province of India on 1st January 1936 to late Abdush Shakur. The father passed away when he was a child. This village is well-known in the area because of being the birthplace several pious and expert Islamic scholars.
Faqihe Millat began his basic education in a Maktab (nursery school) in his village. He completed reciting the Glorious Qura’an and reading basic Urdu books in the village from Maulana Ameerul Haq Miftahi (Rh.A). After the completion of the nursery level education, he left for Madrasa Basharatul Uloom which is situated in his neighbouring town Khirayan Pathra of Darbhanga district.
In Madrasa Basharatul Uloom, Khirayan Pathra, Faqihe Millat started from the primary level education of Persian language. Following the completion of the Persian language, he stared the basic of Aalim Course until he finished the first two parts of Hidayah, a celebrated book of jurisprudence of Hanafi school of thought and Jalalain, a famous book of Tafseer in that Madrasa. It must be noticed here that he learned from Persian language up to Jalalain from only one teacher, his uncle Maulana Saeed Ahmad Qasmi, an expert teacher of Darse Nizaami and student of Sheikhul Islam Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani (1879-1957).
Following the primary and secondary level education at Madrasa Basharatul Uloom, he moved to Deoband to get admission in the great revolutionary seminary Darul Uloom Deoband to quench his thirst of knowledge of the sciences of Tafseer and Hadeeth. He got admission in 1377 AH and remained two years in Darul Uloom Deoband until he completed his Fazilat-Graduation in Islamic Studies in 1379 AH. In Darul Uloom, he learnt from the expert scholars of Tafseer and Hadeeth like Sheikh Allamah Fakhruddin (1307-1393 AH), Allamah Muhammad Ibrahim Baliawi (1886-1967), Sheikh Basheer Ahmad Khan (D. 1966), Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi (1897-1983), Sheikh Zahoor Ahmad Doebandi (1900-1963), Sheikh Jalil Ahmad Kairanvi (D. 1968), Sheikh Fakhrul Hasan, Sheikh Sayyid Hasan, etc.
After completing his graduation, in the same year 1379, Faqihe Millat was appointed as a teacher at Madrasa Basharatul Uloom, Khirayan Pathra. Following almost one and half year, he resigned from this Madrasa on 15th Rabiul Awwal 1380 and joined Madrasa Islamia, Mughla Khar in Nawadah District in Bihar. As the pupils in this Madrasa were of primary level, it was unsatisfactory and he had to resign just after few months and again he joined Madrasa Basharatul Uloom and taught till Jumadal Ukhra 1387 almost 6 years then he resigned.
In Ashraful Uloom as Head-Teacher:
In Shawwal 1387, Faqihe Millat was appointed in Jamia Ashraful Uloom, Kanahwan, Sitamarhi (Bihar) as head-teacher by its long serving pious and sincere rector, Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib. With his struggles and efforts, he took the educational standard to high level. In his headship, Jamia progressed by leaps and bounds from each angles. The progress was observed everywhere. One and all valued him and praised the standard of Jamia where he took it. After serving for 10 years tirelessly as head-teacher, he resigned in Dhul Hijjah 1397 AH.
In Jamia Rahmani:
In Muharram 1398 AH, Faqihe Millat was called by Sheikh Minnatullah Rahmani (1912-1991) to teach in Jamia Rahmani, Munger. He taught the books of Fiqh and Hadeeth in Jamia. Sheikh Rahmani had every confidence in his teaching ability and appreciated his teaching methodology. He enjoyed teaching in Jamia and served here about 9 years. Then due to some internal circumstances and situations, he resigned on 10th Shawwal 1406 AH unwillingly.
In Miftahul Uloom:
After Jamia Rahmania, he reached Jamia Miftahul Uloom, Maunath Bhanjan on 16th Shawwal 1406 AH where he was called to teach Bukhari Shareef. He requested the authority to let the Bukhari Shareef being taught by another teacher and he would teach it in the coming year. He taught here completely one year. Next year, he resigned from Miftahul Uloom on 5th Shawwal 1407 as the environment was not suiting him.
From Sabilus Salam to Jamia Rahmani:
Maulana Rizwanul Qasmi (1944-2004), the rector and Maulana Khalid Saifullah Rahmani, the head-teacher of Darul Uloom Sabilus Salam, Hyderabad requested him several times to arrive in Sabilus Salam as Sheikhul Hadeeth. He left for Hyderabad on 15th Shawwal 1407 AH. But Daurah Hadeeth had not then started, so he couldn’t manage to be there, but for few months and he came back and again he joined Jamia Rahmani, Munger on 17th Muharram 1408, following the directive of Sheikh Rahmani.
In Sabilus Salam as Sheikhul Hadeeth:
In the next academic year, in Shawwal 1408, as Daurah Hadeeth had started in Sabilus Salam, Hyderabad, the rector and head-teacher were insisting him to arrive again. So, he joined Sabilus Salam the second time on 21st Shawwal 1408 AH as Sheikhul Hadeeth. He taught in Sabilus Salam as Sheikhul Hadeeth 4 years. In this period, he was requested several times to join Jamia Ashraful Uloom, Kanahwan as head-teacher as the situation of Ashraful Uloom was deteriorating. He decided to join Jamia Ashraful Uloom, so he resigned from Sabilus Salam on 14th Sha’aban 1412 AH. In the next academic year, Shawwal 1412, he joined Jamia Ashraful Uloom with his own terms and conditions which were accepted by the governing body of Ashraful Uloom.
Rector of Ashraful Uloom:
After few years, Hazrat Maulana Anwarul Haq, the rector of Ashraful Uloom, passed away. Now, Faqihe Millat was made Rector. He served Jamia Ashraful Uloom for a long period of time. Almost three year back, he suffered from a heart illness. He underwent a heart operation on 7th October, 2016 in a hospital in Patna, the capital city of Bihar. After operation, he continued suffering from different illness. Actually, he didn’t recover after heart operation fully. Then he decided to remain at his home in Chandarsainpur, Madhubani, Bihar, but frequently he used to visit Ashraful Uloom for a week or so to know and observe the activities taking place and to guide the teachers and pupils wherever the guidance was required.
When he was sick, he got proper treatment in Madhubani, Patna and New Delhi, but due to the old age, he grew weaker as well as the health continued deteriorating. Last time again his family members took him to a Hospital in Madhubani where he breathed his last in the hospital at 07:30 am, on 13th January 2019. As his death news went viral on social media, the people started gathering in his home village, where his funeral prayer was to be offered. A delegation from Ashraful Uloom reached his village under the leadership of recently selected rector of Ashraful Uloom, Maulana Izharul Haq Mazahiri to attend his funeral. One another delegation came from Imarat Shariah to attend his funeral prayer. Similarly, from different Madaaris the Ulama and other people visited his village to participate in his funeral prayer. His funeral prayer was led by his elder son, Maulana Owais Qasmi on the same day following Asr Salaah. Before the funeral prayer, Maualan Izharul Haq Mazahiri delivered a brief speech. Thousands of people participated in his funeral prayer and they laid him in his ancestral graveyard to rest. May Allah forgive his all human shortcomings and grant him eternal peace in Jannah!
Following the completion of his education, Faqihe Millat got married with the daughter of late Haji Muhammad Idris of Parsauni, Dist.: Madhubani. He is survived by his wife, two daughters and five sons. Maulana Hafiz Owais Anzar Qasmi is working in KSA. He was present at the time of his beloved father’s death. He led the funeral prayer. Hafiz Usaid Anzar is teaching in a certain Madrasa in his area. Muhammad Sajjad resides at home. Maulana Hafiz Zafar Siddiqi Qasmi is teaching in Delhi in Madrasa Talimul Qura’an. He had been a classmate of this writer. During the period of learning, he was a intelligent pupil. He is a remarkable calligrapher, though he didn’t choose it as his profession. His last born is Mr. Afzal Husain, who completed school following his basic Islamic education in a Madrasa. Currently he is in Saudi Arab. •••
* Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
A noted Islamic scholar, a remarkable Urdu columnist, a popular orator and a leading educationist, Sheikh Mohammad Asrarul Haque Qasmi passed away on 7th December 2018, at 03:30. At night he was in Tappu, a small town of Kishanganj where he addressed a gathering of the students and teachers in Darul Uloom Suffah, Tappu which is founded by him. Subsequently he went to rest at Kishanganj Circuit House and got up at around 03:00 hours in the night. When he was getting ready for Tahajjud, he felt chest pain and died of heart attack. He was 76. Because of his social, educational, religious and journalistic works and services, his death is a tremendous loss for the nation in general and for the minority community in particular. He will be recalled profoundly for his works, easily accessibility, soft-spoken and gentle approach.
Birth and Education
Sheikh Qasmi was born in Tarabari village of district Kishanganj in Bihar to late Mr. Munshi Umed Ali and Amna Khatoon on 15th Febriary 1942. Following the completion of his primary education, he got admission in the world renowned Institute of Islamic thoughts Darul Uloom, Deoband and graduated in Islamic Studies from Darul Uloom in 1964. He got married on 16th May 1965. His better-half passed away on 9th July 2012. He is survived by three sons: Mr. Suhail Asrar, Mr. Saood Asrar Nadvi Azhari and Mr. Fahad Asrar and two daughters.
Following graduation in Islamic Studies from Darul Uloom, Deoband in 1964, Mr. Qasmi chose teaching as his career. Firstly he joined Madrasa Rahimia in Madhepura as a teacher. After resigning from Rahimia, in 1968 he joined Madrasa Badrul Islam of Begusarai district in Bihar. Although he was a teacher imparting religious education in the Madrasa; he didn’t confined himself within the four walls of Madrasa only. He involved himself in social and religious activities in the vicinity along with teaching. Whenever a social issue arose, he took it in his hand sincerely and wanted to resolve or to make sure that issue is in priority to be resolved by the concerned authority. In 1973, he resigned from Madrasa Bahrul Islam.
Due to Mr. Qasmi’s talent and social services on the ground, Jamiat Ulamai Hind (JUH) selected him in 1974 to render his services from Jamiat’s platform. The JUH being an old and respected organization in Indian society, he had chance to reach one and all on national level. He seized the opportunity and performed well the responsibilities assigned to him; until he became a valued and trusted member of the JUH. Later in 1980, he was elected as General Secretary of Jamiat Ulamai Hind. Under the umbrella of JUH, he played a conspicuous role in “Mulko Millat Bachao Movement”, “Protection of Aligarh Muslim University Movement” and “Protection of Muslim Personal Law Movement”.
Being in the JUH, he visited many villages, towns and cities of India to render his services throughout the country at the time of need on innumerable critical occasions fearlessly. As he served the community under the able leadership of his mentor Maulana Sayyid Asad Madani (1928-2006), ex-President of the JUH, for a long time being a member as well as the General Secretary of Jamiat, his works and services will be lauded for a long period. For his works and services, he was loved by the elders and members of Jamiat. In 1991, he separated his path from Jamiat.
All India Talimi-Wa-Milli Foundation
Later on, Sheikh Qasmi joined newly founded 'All India Milli Council' under the leadership of Qazi Muhahidul Islam Qasmi (1936-2002) ex-President of All India Muslim Personal Law Board. Working in the JUH and All India Milli Council, Qasmi had experienced that the main cause of Muslim community’s sufferings is lagging behind in the educational field. He, therefore, founded “All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundation” in 2000. The main objective of the Foundation was serving the nation working on the key issues of education and literacy. From the beginning, he started serving the people establishing religious and modern educational institutes. He set up dozens of educational institutes. He founded “Milli Girls School” especially for girls in Tappu, Tarabari Chowk, Kishanganj. About 500 girls are getting quality education in the school. This school is with hostel and all the modern facilities required. It is an exemplary and the first school of its kind in the area. It is playing a key role in imparting education amongst the girls.
Under All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundation, Mr. Qasmi also distributed relief materials among the victims of Tsunami and flood on several occasions. In last year flood of Bihar, when Kishanganj district and its vicinity were badly affected, he did his best in providing reliefs and personally meeting the victims to console them. It is clear crystal that setting up dozens of Madaaris and schools by Qasmi, under All India TalimiWaMilli Foundation, is great and prominent work which is unforgettable.
Columns and Write-ups
Sheikh Qasmi was a well-known Urdu columnist. As he was famous for his public talks and oratory, he was equipped with writing skills as well. When he was a learner at Darul Uloom, Deoband, he started writing articles and essays. His first and formal work which was published was “Muslim Personal Law Aur Hindustani Musalman” (Muslim Personal Law and Indian Muslims), as far as I know. He authored this book when he was educational in-charge at Madrasah Badrul Islam, Begusarai. When he was in Jamiat, along with performing other activities, he was the editor of its organ “Al-Jamiat” as well. He had been Chief Editor of “Milli Ittihad”of All India Milli Council for a long. He was so prominent Urdu columnist that his write-ups were being published almost in all Urdu newspapers and monthly magazines throughout India. Due to his significant view and thought, his articles sometimes found place even in some leading Arabic and English magazines after translation.
He compiled some books which are very useful and much relevant to the age. They include “Muslim Personal Law Aur Hindustani Musalman” “Mua’ashirah Aur Islam” “Islam Aur Musalmanon Ki Zimmedariyan”, “Sulagte Masa’ail”, “Hindustani Musalman: Masa’ail Aur Muzahmaten” and “Aurat Aur Muslim Mua’ashirah”. He wrote thousands of columns. If these are compiled, it will be in volumes. Especially if his religious and social columns are compiled, without doubt, it will serve the community a lot.
Public Talks and Speeches
Qasmi was one of the best public speakers. He was a brilliant and fluent orator. He was invited in several religious or social programmes as a speaker. The first time I listened to him in Daru lUloom, Deoband, when he was invited in a programme of “Sajjad Library” as a guest speaker in 2001. Currently, any big programme was not thought without his presence. His presence in a programme was the guarantee of the programme’s success. Because of his sincerity and pain for the community in his speeches, the people used to travel from a town to another one to listen to him. It was easy to invite him as he was very simple, humble and soft-spoken. Whenever he had time, he didn’t refuse to attend a programme either it was in a city or a remote village. He was seen attending programmes in the cities and villages alike. He had deep knowledge of the current affairs. Either he was speaking in the Parliament or a religious or social programmes, he used to speak with full understanding and confidence.
Politics is also a way where one finds the required resources to serve the nation. He, therefore, contested Lok Sabha elections several times from Kishanganj constituency. But luck was not with him, so he lost with a small margin of votes. In 2009 Lok Sabha elections, he emerged as a strong candidate for Indian National Congress (INC). He got Lok Sabha ticket from the INC to contest and won the Kishanganj MP seat on its ticket. Currently he was a sitting MP as he retained the Kishanganj seat once again in 2014 defeating the BJP candidate, Dr. Dilip Kumar Jaiswal by a margin of 194,612 votes despite Prime Minister Mr. Modi’s wave was across the country.
As the MP, he made full effort to establish the branch of Aligarh Muslim University in Kishanganj. In the beginning, he had to struggle to acquire the required land for the branch. He was forced to give call to the public for agitation against the then Bihar state government of Nitish to get the land. The public listened to his call and participated in the agitation for seeking land for the branch. Even the public went on “MahaDharna” on 12th October 2010 in Kishanganj where lakhs of people gathered from different parts of Seemanchal under his leadership. Then Nitish government agreed to grant almost 224 acres land for the branch and the branch’s foundation stone was laid in the presence of the then Congress President, Mrs Gandhi, Nitish Kumar, CM of Bihar and other political and social leaders.
Humble and Selfless Servant
In his long life of social and educational works, Sheikh Qasmi had strong relation with many prominent people of different fields. But he never took the advantage of such relation by getting some favours or privileges for himself or for his near and dear ones. He himself held several prestigious posts; but he lived a very simple life. Either he was President of All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundarion, General Secretary of the JUH or Member of Indian Parliament, the people could not differentiate in his day-to-day life. He never liked a luxurious life. He remained always simple. His principle was “simple living and high thinking”.
It is suitable to mention here that Sheikh Qasmi took the oath of allegiance to Mufti Muzaffar Husain Mazahiri, ex-rector of Mazahir Uloom Waqf, Saharanpur, for his spiritual rectification. Mufti Sahib blessed him with Khilafa and authorized him to administer an oath of allegiance also. Following the death of Mufti Sahib, he joined Sheikhe Tariqat Sheikh Qamruz Zaman Allahabadi (Hafizahullah). Sheikh Allahabadi also granted him Khilafah. By these two of his mentors, he was trained in the way that he was hardly experienced showing pride and arrogance. In clear words, he was simple, humble, selfless and altruistic servant of the community.
The Tribute & Homage
Cutting a long story short, he worked sincerely in different fields as a social worker, an educationist, a religious guide, a columnist, an orator etc. His works and services were recognized. To pay tribute to his services and benefit from his wide experiences, many organisations and institutes selected him as its member. He was a member of Governing Body of prestigious Islamic University Darul Uloom, Deoband which is also his seat of learning. He was Court Member of Aligarh Muslim University. He was a valued member of All India Muslim Personal Law Board, Vice-President of All India Milli Council and founding President of All India Talimi Wa Milli Foundation. He has been twice Member of Indian Parliament from his home constituency, Kishanganj. He was patron of innumerable schools and Madrasas. He served the nation in general and the minority community in particular for more than half a century. May Allah reward him and grant him Jannah! It’s a short write-up to pay my tribute and homage and to present a glimpse of his life and services.
Learning the Mr. Qasmi’s death news, Bihar Chief Minister, Mr. Nitish Kumar paid his homage through a press release. Lauding his contributions and giving due respect, Mr. Kumar also announced that Qasmi’s last rites would be performed with full state honours; which was refused politely by his family members to follow his will as he had wished to be buried with simplicity.
His funeral was led by Sheikh Anwarul Haque, rector of Darul Uloom, Bahadurganj in Milli Girls School, Talimabad, Tappu of district Kishanganj in Bihar. About two/three lakh people performed the funeral prayer. He was buried in his ancestral graveyard of his hometown. May the Almighty Allah forgive his human shortcomings and grant him eternal peace and the highest place in Jannatul Firdaus! My deepest condolence to the bereaved family! May Allah grant them patience and courage to bear this tremendous and irreplaceable loss! Ameen!
*Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa.
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Demise is such a naked truth that no one could deny it so far; be it a brave or a pure atheist. Death has held many towering personalities and low profile people down alike and will keep on doing the same to all living beings. When the fixed time of one’s life is over, he has to depart; willingly or unwillingly; he is busy reciting the Qura’an or performing Salaah in a Masjid. One will be defeated by the death either he is much beloved to Allah, liked by thousands of Allah's slaves or cursed in the sight of Allah. When the time of life is over, the angel of death finds its wanted man and he has to taste death; even if he is between two deep valleys of tall mountains, on the peak of Himalaya, living in a glass-built bungalow or is protected in a stone-built fort. The Almighty Allah mentions in His glorious Qura’an: “Every soul has to taste death.” (Aale-Imran, Verse: 185) The Exalted Allah further mentions in another place in His miraculous book: “Wherever you are, death will make its way to you, even if you are in fortified castles.” (Al-Nisaa, Verse: 78)
Following the order of the Supreme Lord, Haji Muhammad Abdul Wahhab Sahib left the mortal world for heavenly abode on Sunday, 18th November 2018. Haji Sahib was considered one amongst the most pious people. He spent more than two third of his life in the path of Allah worrying and struggling to guide His servants to the right path. Though he was not graduated formally from any Islamic institute, however worry, concern and pain in his heart -for the sake of the Ummah- were not less than what is found in the hearts of certified Islamic scholars. He spent his days and nights concerned about the well-being of the Ummah. The goal of his life was how to make people understand that whatever happens in the world happens with the will and command of Allah and nothing can take place without His will. The Almighty Allah had blessed him with height of popularity among the learned people and the masses equally. Allah had filled the hearts of His servants with love and affection for him. So he was loved and respected wholeheartedly by one and all.
Haji Sahib was a man of religious mind from the beginning of his life. He met Sheikh Ilyas Kandhlavi (1885-1944) -May Allah have mercy upon him!- in 1944. Then he devoted the rest of his life for the service of Dawah and Tabligh work started by Sheikh Kandhlvi in 1920. He worked almost six months in the company of Sheikh Kandhlavi. When Sheikh Kandhlavi passed away, he worked with his successors. He was so much influenced by this work of Tabligh that later he resigned from his job and dedicated full time to it.
After India’s partition, he migrated to Pakistan. Following the migration, he didn’t only work for Tabligh; rather it had become part and parcel of his life. In the beginning, he went to visit every province and villages of Pakistan; big or small for the purpose of Tableegh. He taught the common and illiterate people “Kalimah Tayyibah” and its meaning, the method of Wudhu, the significance and method of Salah. He also preached to them about the value of Ilm (Knowledge) and Zikr (remembering Allah), respect and honour for a Muslim and sincerity of intention. He also encouraged them to spare some time to go in the path of Allah to learn Deen, to practice and preach what they have learnt.
With the effort of Haji Sahib, headquarter of Tabligh was established in a remote, inaccessible and unknown place; Raiwind, situated 45 km far from Lahore. Before establishment of the Tablighi headquarter, Raiwind was a forested place. Basic facility of day-to-day life was unavailable there. It was difficult to find the eatable and drinkable things. The place, where Tabligh Headquarter is standing today, was earlier full of acacia as well as other different types of thorny trees. Now it is national headquarter of all Tabligh centers of Pakistan.
With the efforts of Haji Sahib the people, who were not well-versed in Islamic knowledge, understood the value of the noble work of Tabligh and started participating in its daily activities to learn and practice Deen. As a result of it, this noble work started almost in all mosques of Pakistan. Regional center of Tabligh came into existence in each city with his effort. Due to the hard-work and struggle of the people of Tabligh, uncountable men and women were guided to the right path of Deen.
Obviously it was the concern of Tablighi people which brought about a sea change in the lives of thousands of worldwide renowned personalities; like famous cricketer Saeed Anwar and well-known rock star singer Junaid Jamshaid, and instilled in them the interest of practice of Deen and revived the powder to act upon Islamic rulings and teachings.
Haji Sahib led the movement of Tabligh as third Ameer (Chief) continuously for 25 years until he breathed his last. In Pakistan the first person to be selected as Ameer was Haji Muhammad Shafi (1903-1971). Following his death, Haji Babu Basheer Ahmad (1919-1992) had been selected as the 2nd Ameer. After his sad demise, Haji Abdul Wahhab had been selected as the third Ameer unanimously. The third Ameer of Tablighi movement in Markaz Nizamuddin in India, Sheikh Inamul Hasan (1918-1995) made an International Governing Body comprising of 10 members from different countries for Tabligh activities to keep on functioning smoothly, as the efforts of Tabligh had spread all over the world. Haji Sahib had been nominated as a prominent member of the governing body by Sheikh Ina’amul Hasan (RA). Not only he visited the small or big villages of Pakistan; but he also travelled dozens of countries in the world for the work of Tabligh.
This would be surprising for many people to know that Haji Sahib used to address the gathering in Raiwind Headquarter almost five hours every day in different times. It was his daily schedule to address the gathering following Fajr Salah, instruct the people who are going in Jama’ah and to guide those coming back from Jama’ah. With punctuality, he participated in daily Mashwarah. Later he had stopped addressing the gathering on his health ground only. However when he was physically fit, he used to perform all duties of Jama’at as usual without complaining of his old age, tiredness or exhaustion.
Currently we met a Jama’at (No. 764) from Bhawalpur. They also described as eye witness that for all his old age and weakness, when Haji Sahib used to be physically fit, he attended all Tabligh activities and discharged all responsibilities. He participated in Mashwarah, guided the Jama’at which was going and talked to the Jama’at which came back from a Tabligh journey. They further said that currently when they started their seven month-long journey on 28th August 2018, Haji Sahib guided and instructed them regarding their objectives of going out in the path of Allah as he was then physically fit. It should be noted here that this Jama’at is working in the “Northern Province” of Zambia, Africa under the leadership of Mr. Khalid. The members of this Jama’at comprise of Mr. Shareef, Mr. Basheer, Mr. Abdur Razzaq, Mr. Qasim, Mr. Ali, Mr. Sajid and Mr. Yasir (a pharmacist). As they are eager to learn and practice Islam in their daily lives, they are also worried about how to raise the degree of Muslims’ faith, how to reform them and how to guide them to practice Islam fully in their lives.
Haji Sahib was not only involved in Tabligh activities; but he also worked for different Islamic organizations whenever he got chance. He participated in the movement of “Khatme Nubuwwah”. Similarly he worked as a member of “Majlise Ahrare Islam”. Then he was made the president of a chapter of Majlise Ahrare Islam in Buriwala.
“The Muslim 500” is an annual publication which gives place in its book every year to 500 most influential Muslim leaders from across the world. It was first published in 2009. Socially, educationally, economically, politically and religiously 500 most influential Muslim leaders from all over the world are selected every year, ranked and mentioned in the book. In 2014, Haji Sahib was ranked number 10th in the book. This ranking has nothing to do in the sight of Allah; but it is a clear mark that his sacrifices and struggles to please Allah are recognized, rather than a mere appreciation in this world only.
When Haji Sahib was a student at Islamia College, Lahore, he took the oath of allegiance to Sheikh Ahmad Ali Lahori (1887-1962), a famous commentator of the Glorious Qura’an for the sake of his self rectification and spiritual development. Later on, he took the oath of allegiance to Sheikh Abdul Qadir Raipuri (1878-1962). He was authorized by Sheikh Raipuri to administer an oath of allegiance and was counted one among his distinguished disciples.
Haji Sahib was originally from “Karnal” district of “Haryana” state in India. He was born in 1923 in Delhi, the capital city of India. Following completion of his primary religious education, he joined “Islamia College”, Lahore, a famous city of Pakistan. Following graduation, he started his career in civil service as Tahsildar (executive magistrate).
He was not blessed with any child. His wife had passed away several years back. Due to his old age and a physical unfitness, he had been unwell from time to time in the recent past years. He could not attend the annual Ijtima of 2018 because of his poor health. He was seriously ill as he was suffering from the diseases of kidney, breathing etc. He also suffered from Dengue fever few days ago. At that time he was admitted in a private hospital and kept in great care of specialists. As his worldly time was over, he breathed his last on Sunday, 18th November 2018 early in the morning in the hospital after protracted illness. He died 96 years old. His funeral prayer was led by Sheikh Nazrur Rahman after Maghrib Salah in Ijtima hall of Raiwind. Approximately 1,200,000 people participated in his funeral prayer and he was laid to rest in the graveyard of Raiwind. Now he is no more among us; however his invaluable services will always be remembered by one and all. May Allah accept his good deeds and grant him Jannatul Firdaus! Aameen!•••
*Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa.
Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi: Tracing the Legacy of His Theological Paradigms and Intellectual Dimensions
Muḥammadullah Khalīli Qāsmi
The Indian Subcontinent, which lies away from Arabia and where Islam spread much later by the non-Arabs conquerors, distinguishes itself for two major factors. First, for preserving the glory of Muslim rule and its splendid civilization that once dazzled the world from its cradles of Madinah, Damascus, Baghdad and al-Andalusia, as it coincided with Ottoman Caliphate which spread in the entire Arabia, Northern Africa and a good part of Eastern Europe. Second, for intellectual contributions to the Islamic literature and Muslim progressive thoughts which they made especially following the Fall of Baghdad and the devastation of Central Asia at the hands of the Mongols. And the harbinger of the second specialty of India was Quṭbuddīn Aḥmad ibn ‘Abd ar-Raḥīm al-Fārūqi al-Dehlawi (1703-1762), commonly known as Shāh Walīullāh Dehlawi, who was an outstanding Islamic scholar, muḥaddith, reformer, theologian, philosopher and historiographer.
Shāh Walīullāh Dehlawi was born at a juncture of history when on one hand the sun of Islamic dominion in India was steadily going to set and the centuries-old Eastern system was at the verge of total collapse, while on the other hand the Western countries rose from their long slumber dismantling the religious and traditional shackles, and powered by the scientific evolutions and machine revolution.
It is a great cause of pride for India that the son of Indian soil Shāh Walīullāh Dehlawi was the first personality of the Muslim World who comprehended the intellectual dangers and academic challenges that were harboured in the clouds of scientific revolutions. So, at one side, he addressed the internal issues of Muslim society and propounded the theory of ‘Fakku Kulli Nizām’ (reconstruction and revolutionization of old system) which aimed at striking a balance between different theological and religious thoughts (such as taking Shī’a and Sunni fractions close to each other and reconciliation between different sects originating due to differences in Fiqh and Taṣawwuf ) and purifying Muslim belief and practices from alien adulterations along with introducing the teachings of the Qur’an on wider scale Quran in the society and starting a comprehensive Islamic course that gave due place to the Quran, Hadith and Fiqh. While at the other side, he sensed the most imminent danger from outside which the Muslims were to face i.e. the scientific revolution that was going to render the religious traditions and thoughts as rotten, outdated rather beastly, and to give ‘reason’ top priority in all matters. So he embarked on an ambitious project of fortification of Islamic beliefs and practices that later appeared in the form of a rarest of rare masterpiece ‘Ḥujjat al-Allāh al-Bālighah’ (Conclusive Arguments from Allah).
Syed ‘Abul Ḥasan Ali Nadwi introduces this great work in the following words:
“The magnum opus of Shāh Walīullāh, Ḥujjat al-Allāh al-Bālighah, is a comprehensive and cogent work presenting a synthesis of the Islamic creed, devotions, transactions, morals, social philosophy, statecraft and spirituality. All these have been balanced and integrated in such a perfect manner that they appear to be jewels of the same necklace or links of the same golden chain. It also does not suffer from the usual weaknesses found in most of the old works, written apologetically or aggressively. This moderation and balance is the result of the Shah’s deep and wide knowledge of Ḥadīth and his bent of mind fostered by the study of the Prophet’s character as well as keeping company with pious and virtuous scholars. Few works can compare the compendious yet clear and cohesive exposition attempted in Ḥujjat al-Allāh al-Bālighah, which laid the foundation of a new dialectical theology for the modern age of reason. It is thus a work which can satisfy any truehearted man endowed with common sense, provided, of course, he can appreciate and ponder over the profound investigations of the Shāh. So far as we are aware there is no other work in any language known to us, written for the investigation of the truth of any religion on a rational basis or if it has been written, it has not come to light.”
Shāh Walīullāh Dehlawi not only extracted and explored the scientific and intellectual aspects of Sharī’ah issues, as this type of work was done by several scholars in the past, rather he laid down foundation stone of ‘Ilm Asrār al-Sharī‘ah (Rational Interpretation of Sharī‘ah), formulated its principles and introduced it as a branch of theology.
Ḥujjat al-Islām al-Imām Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi
The legacy of Shāh Walīullāh was transferred through his family and pupils until it transformed into a dynamic movement under the leadership of Ḥujjat al-Islām al-Imām Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi (1833-1880) at Deoband. Maulāna Nānotawi established Dārul Uloom and promoted the Walīullāhi mission. Though there are several groups in the Subcontinent that claim to have inherited the legacy of Shāh Walīullāh, but it is Deoband School of Thought which assimilated and accommodated nearly all aspects of Walīullāhi thoughts and transmitted it as per the mode and requirement of the time.
Shāh Walīullāh lived at time when scientific revolution was taking place in Europe and it was yet to reach the East, but Sheikh Nānotawi was born at the peak of scientific age when the world was roaring with scientific advancements and the atheistic rather anti-religious theories were dominating the intellectual world. The West rejected religion and considered it an obstacle in the way of development; since it was a fierce reaction to the Church which unleashed a series of unprecedented cruelty and barbarism against those who talked of the Science. The bloody tussle between the Church and the modernists divided Christianity into two major sects (Catholic and Orthodox) and as a result the religion was driven out from the society and politics. The West accorded all regard to ‘matter’ and kicked out ‘spirituality’ from social and political arena. All issues of human life were tested on the touchstone of ‘reason’ and those not fitting within its frame were rejected and labelled as conservatism and regress.
When the Science got introduced in the East it came with the same mentality of negating religion and weighing everything on of parameters of ‘reason’, even some great personalities fell prey to the Newton’s law of universal gravitation and started redefining even many of the established Islamic faiths and concepts which according to them were super-natural and metaphysical. So they in fact dared to deny beliefs about the likes of angels, waḥy, Jannat, Jahannam, mu’jizāt (miracles) etc.
This was a strange situation which was described by Mirza Asadullāh Khān Ghālib (1797-1869), the legendary Urdu poet, in a verse:
ĪmāN mujhe roke hai, jo khīnche hai mujhe kufr
Ka’bah mere pīchce hai, Kalīsa mere āge
The Faith restrains me, while disbelief pulls me hard
Behind me stands Ka’bah, and the Church is in front of me
A situation where the eastern religions and culture were caught between to either chose their past and remain subordinate or accept the new thoughts and lose their identity.
It was a highly alarming condition in the Muslim world as the Western Powers were fast galloping the Muslim lands and occupying their resources while the Muslims were losing power as well as courage in the face of the western political and intellectual onslaught. Out of inferiority complex, many Muslim intelligentsia and modern-educated individuals fell prey to the Western propaganda that now religion has become useless and irrelevant and only the Science has the remedy of all human problems. Such thoughts were fast spreading among the common people and they were beginning to get fed up of the religious traditions and tending to embrace atheism and materialism.
Had these thoughts had spread among the common people and got acceptance in the society, God forbid, the majority of Muslims would have lost their faith and turned infidels. But Allah Almighty, as per His promise of preserving the Religion, raised Muslim theologians who presented logical interpretations to Islamic terms and thoughts and restored the faith of Muslims in the original Islamic beliefs and teachings. The leader of the this movement was Ḥujjat al-Islām Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi whose scholarly and precious theological contributions very successfully subdued the raging tides of atheism and naturalism. This is part of evolution and renovation process which Allah Almighty has bestowed Islam with, being a global and eternal religion for human being, it will need renovations in style and expression with the passage of time in order to suit the demands of time as well as to discard the rusts of time and space, so that it remains afresh and attracts the human intelligence as ever.
The most salient feature of Maulāna Nānotawi’s philosophical thoughts and theological contributions was that he elucidated them with living examples and promoted it to the contemporary scientific standards. He established the Islamic beliefs of tawḥīd, risālat, qiyāmat, jannat, jahannam etc as well as the Islamic teachings with irrefutable rational logics and conclusive arguments. His writings of on Islamic beliefs and teachings dispel the objections and doubts raised by the atheists, naturalists, Hindus and Christians alike.
The second most important feature is his moderate attitude towards different Schools of Thoughts among the Muslims. He wrote extensively on issues pertaining to Shī’aism, Taqlīd and many other issues that were disputed among Muslims, but he confined himself to academic discussions in sympathetic way and avoided adopting any harsh attitude. All his books dealing with disputed issued among Muslims very clearly indicate towards his moderate thinking and his respect even to opponents and adversaries. Rather he very openly advocated unity between Muslims and lamented at their dissents.
Haḍrat Nānotawi, on the other hand, established Darul Uloom Deoband and started a madrasa movement which met unprecedented success in Islamic history and brought about one of the greatest Islamic revolutions especially in the Indian Subcontinent and generally in the world over. As per the Walīullāhi mission, these madrasas focused on teaching the Qur’ānic sciences and Hadith literature with utmost attention. Haḍrat Nānotawi himself taught select disciples and produced a matchless team of scholars like Shaikh al-Hind Maulāna Maḥmūd Ḥasan, Maulāna Aḥmad Ḥasan Amrohwi and several others.
Ḥakīm al-Islām Qāri Muḥammad Ṭayyib Qāsmi (1897-1983)
There are several scholars who inherited the theological and intellectual legacy of Haḍrat Nānotawi and dispensed it as per the demand of their time, but the most prominent among them are Ḥakīm al-Ummah Maulāna Ashraf ‘Ali Thānwi (1863-1943), Shaykh al-Islām ‘Allāmah Shabbīr Aḥmad Uthmāni (1887-1949) and Ḥakīm al-Islām Maulāna Qāri Muḥammad Ṭayyib who was also his grandson.
Ḥakīm al-Islām Maulāna Qāri Muḥammad Ṭayyib, the former rector of Darul Uloom Deoband, was gifted with unique and multidimensional qualities of scholarship. He was a spokesperson of the Deoband School and a great interpreter of Qāsmi thoughts. He travelled widely across continents and transmitted the message of Islam to the world in the appealing and rationale style of Haḍrat Nānotawi. The modern educated class particularly enjoyed his academic and philosophical style of discourses and lectures.
He wrote extensively and contributed more than two dozen books on various Islamic topics. He had special mastery in discoursing the rational aspects of the Sharī'ah and in making the subjects concise and comprehensive. All his books are characterised by the interpretation of Islamic beliefs and practices in a rational style along with references from the Quran and Ḥadīth.
Khaṭīb al-Islām Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi (1926-2018)
Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi, the son of Ḥakīm al-Islām Maulāna Qāri Muḥammad Ṭayyib and great grandson of Ḥujjat al-Islām Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi, not only had blood relations with his ancestors rather he inherited their intellectual legacy as well. He was a celebrated scholar of Islam, a great muḥaddith, theologian and proficient orator. He dedicated his entire life to the mission of his father and great-grandfather and was duly considered their interpreter and a spokesperson of Deoband School of Thought.
He inherited the characteristics of his noble ancestors that make up the overall identity of the Deoband School. He spent his life in teaching the Quran, Ḥadīth and Islamic theology. Theology was the subject of his special expertise and students flocked to his class in order to benefit from his lectures.
He contributed in the establishment of Darul Uloom Waqf in 1982, headed it in turbulent circumstances and managed to make it popular educational destination that attracts students from across the country. In 1996, he embarked upon a unique educational project ‘Jamia Deeniyat Deoband’ which offered Islamic education to students of schools and colleges through correspondence. This great project has a potential to bring about a revolution in the Muslim community.
He was an outstanding orator who travelled extensively across the country and even outside to deliver high profile lectures on various Islamic topics. He was duly called Khaṭīb al-Islām (the orator of Islam). His lectures were lucid, coherent and logical. He used short sentences and limited his lecture to only necessary details explaining the main points and avoiding unnecessary and irrelevant aspects. He used to speak from such intellectual height that only educated class could have grasp of the essence of his speech.
Interpretation of Islam in Rational Style
Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi was bestowed great in-depth scholarship and versatility. He enjoyed broad study, wisdom and insight. His lectures, speeches and writings reflect a unique style of interpreting Islam in a rational style and in line with the thoughts of Shāh Walīullāh and Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi. This is the reason that he was called an interpreter of their thoughts and mission.
Due to busy teaching life in his early career and owing to extensive travels for lectures in later parts of his life he got little time to leave any academic contribution except some papers which he presented in seminars and conferences. Similarly some of his select speeches were published in two volumes. These academic contributions are indicative of his expertise in Islamic theology, rationality and prudence.
Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi was conferred with ‘Shāh Walīullāh Award’ by the prestigious Muslim think-tank Islamic Objective Studies. Similarly, he was given ‘Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi Award’ in Turkey for his unmatched contribution in the field of theology and Islamic philosophy.
I’tidāl and Moderation
The second most prominent aspect of his personality was that he stuck to i’tidāl (moderation) even in extreme situations. Not only in his personal life, rather in other social and religious issues too, he maintained equilibrium between two extremes and avoided stands that could harm the social and religious fabric of the Ummah. This was the reason that he was popular among all sections of Muslims and enjoyed their trust. He served as Vice-President of All India Personal Law Board, President of Majlis Mushāwarat and Head of Islamic Fiqh Academy.
Maulāna Qāsmi observed that the abundance of schools of thoughts is not a worrisome issue, since schools of thoughts are born in communities that have abundance of knowledge and mental capacity to think. The Judaism and Christianity have only few branches and derivations through their thousands years of history. But Islam has many schools of thoughts as it enjoys treasures of the Quran and Sunnah which are a treasure of knowledge. This is the reason that there were schools of thoughts from the very beginning till near past, and we shall witness this phenomenon occurring in future too. But the important thing is to verify these schools of thoughts which are of two kinds. Some of them are openly wrong and they will be opposed with true arguments and evidences. But there are many others which can either be true or false. If you think it wrong you have to produce your evidences and refute their arguments; if the other party is convinced then OK, otherwise your duty to convey the truth is fulfilled. This was mentioned in Hadith that a mujtahid shall get double rewards if he reaches the truth, and even if he commits mistake and does not reach the truth, then also he will get single reward. (Hadith) Therefore, such differences among the Ummah should not cause disputes and malice among one another. This is the reason that difference of opinion was termed as mercy for the Ummah as it opens the doors of options and scopes for them.
The second key point that Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi (ra) presented is that Dīn (religion) is that which was revealed by Allah and which is free from the interference of human mind and which is free from differences; therefore only religion needs to be propagated and preached. The later things like Fiqhi madhāhib and schools of thoughts are products of human mind, so they will necessarily have differences of opinions and therefore they can be preferable but will not be preached and propagated like Religion. Only religion is madār-e-najāt (cause of deliverance in the hereafter), fiqhi schools and schools of thoughts are not madār-e-najāt. This is must to place each thing in its right position; otherwise there will be chaos and disturbance.
It is painful that the Ummah does not differentiate between these things and falls prey to disunity and disputes. If this principle is held with firm resolution, the Ummah can overcome its most dangerous disease of disunity.
At a time when Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1726) was laying the foundations for classical mechanics, explaining the law of gravity and the laws of motion which was going to herald an era of scientific revolution, Shāh Walīullāh (1703-1762) was laying the foundations of interpreting Islam in a rational style. He fortified the fort of Islam with necessary academic arsenals even before Charles Darwin (1809–1882) came and dominated the world with his theory of evolution against a backdrop of disbelief and scepticism.
Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi was born at a critical time when owing to the modern scientific theories atheism and materialism ruled over the academic world and Europe was roaring with scientific revolution while the East was conquered by European explorers and invaders. So he embarked upon the high task of elucidating and consolidating the Walīullāhi mission. Later this Walīullāhi and Qāsmi mission was forwarded and expanded by a group of Ulama, especially Ḥakīm al-Islām Qāri Muḥammad Ṭayyib Qāsmi (1897-1983). Then the most prominent scholar of the next generation, Maulāna Muḥammad Sālim Qāsmi upheld this movement and continued to foster it with his pen and tongue.
If we look back at series of events in the religious and spiritual world, the sun of Islam faced eclipses during these crucial times, but by virtue of the intellectual efforts it came out dazzling brighter. There is a strong affinity between these events and the movement of Ahmad al-Fārūqī al-Sirhindī (1564–1624) known as Mujaddid Alf Thāni by virtue of whose efforts the Dīn-e-Akbari, the deadliest fitnah of the millennium led by Mughal Emperor Jalāluddīn Muḥammad Akbar (1542-1605), was reverted and later the Mughal throne was inherited by pious rulers like Jahāngīr (reign 1605 – 1627), Shāhjahān (reign 1628 – 1658) and Aurangzeb Ālamgīr (reign 1658 – 1707). In the same way, the modern science first gave Islam a tough challenge and promoted atheisms and materialism with its fullest strength, but with the passage of time and due to its inherent nature of change it lost vigour and attraction and fell upside down. The theories of Newton and Darwin collapsed totally and new theories replaced them slowly. Now the modern science is not only going smoothly with Islam rather it is supporting Islamic beliefs and practices. Thanks to the insightful leadership of great Ulama who defended Islam in the best possible manner and safeguarded the Muslim faith. This is the reason that the Deoband School, which is the centre of Walīullāhi Movement, left its impact throughout the world and now it is one the strongest, rather the strongest movement of the Muslim World.
 For Shia-Sunni issues, please refer to his book Izālat al-Khifa fi Khilāfat al-Khulafa.
 His two outstanding works Inṣāf fi Bayān Sabab al-Ikhtilāf and Al-‘Iqd al-Jīd fi Aḥkām al-Ijtihād wa al-Taqlīd deal with the issues of taqlīd and different branches of Fiqh in which he tried to bring two extremist groups closer. Similarly, in several books, especially Maktūb-e-Madani he reconciled between the two groups of Taṣawwuf who contended each other over the theories of waḥdat al-wujūd and waḥdat al-shuhūd, while in his book al-Tafhīmāt al-Ilāhiyah he discussed Taṣawwuf issues in great detail.
 Syed Abul Ḥasan Ali Nadwi, Saviours of Islamic Spirit, (Academy of Islamic Research & Publications, Lucknow) Vol. IV, PP 156-157
 For details see: Tafsīr al-Qurab by Sir Syed Aḥmad Khān; an analytical survey of Sir Syed‘s views can be seen in Taṣfiyat al-‘Aqāyid by Haḍrat Maulāna Muḥammad Qāsim Nānotawi; Ulūm al-Qurān by Mufti Muḥammad Taqi Uthmāni (Deoband, 2002) pp 372-388 and Afkār-e-‘Ālam by Asīr Adrawi (Darul Uloom Deoband, 2008) vol. 1 pp 294-298.
 Among the works of Haḍrat Nānotwai, Taqrīr Dilpadhīr, Ḥujjat al-Islām, Intiṣār al-Islām, Qibla Numa and Taḥdhīr al-Nās deal with subjects related to Islamic beliefs and teachings, while Barahīin Qāsmiya, Rūdād Melakhuda Shanāsi, Tuḥfa Laḥmiya etc refute the Christian and Hindu beliefs and practices.
 His books Hidāyat al-Shī’ah and Fuyūḍ-e-Qāismiya contain discourses on issues related to Shī’aism, Bid’āt, while Laṭāyif Qāsmi, Tauthīq al-Kalām, al-Ḥaq al-Ṣarīḥ deal with issues related to Ghair Muqallids and Taṣfiyat al-Aqāyid contains the answers of some beliefs of Sir Sayed Aḥmad Khān.
 Some of his most valuable contributions are: al-Tashabbuh fi al-Islām, Science awr Islām, Aṭyab al-Thamar fi Mas’alat al-Qaḍa wa al-Qadr, Falsafa-e-Namāz, Kalimāt-e-Ṭayyibāt, Maqāmāt-e-Muqaddasa , Dīn-o-Siyāsat, Islāmi Musāwāt, Khāt al-Nabiyyīn, Islām awr Masīḥi Aqwām, al-Ijtihād wa al-Taqliīd, Uṣūl-e-Da’wat-e-Islām, Fiṭri Ḥukūmat, Naẓriya-e-Do-Qur’ān per Aik Naẓar, Islām mein Akhlāq ka Niẓām, Ulamā-e-Deoband ka Dīni Rukh awr Maslaki Mizāj etc.
 Opening Address, 17th Fiqhi Seminar of Islamic Fiqh Academy India, Burhānpūr on 5 April 2008, p 26
 Ibid, pp 26-28
Dr. Mohammad Najeeb Qasmi Sambhali
Safar al-Muzaffar is the second month the Hijri (Lunar) calendar succeeding Muharram and preceding Rabi I. Muslims should perform their worships as usual like they do in any other months, because no specific type of prayer, whether obligatory or supererogatory, has been specifically prescribed in this month. It is just like other months. Accordingly, to believe that disasters and calamities befall in this month is erroneous. During the time of ignorance, people believed it to be an ill-fated month. They would not set out on a journey in this month. It is a matter of grief that the erroneous and unsound belief of the time of ignorance has been into the social media which is widely shared by our own brethren. Besides many merits of social media, it has numerous demerits as well. One such demerit is that a considerable number of people without reading or ascertaining the truthfulness of the messages forward them to others. These messages contain matters believed to have been said by Allah’s messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) which he actually never said in his life. This is despite the fact that severe warnings have been reported in ahadith for such act. Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said: “Whoever tells lies about me deliberately, let him take his place in Hell.” (Bukhari). This saying of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) has been narrated in various books of hadith. This means Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) has prohibited from this act many times. Therefore, one should never forward anything reported to have been said by Allah’s messenger (PBUH) without ascertaining its trustworthiness. Likewise, Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said: “It is enough for a man to prove himself a liar when he goes on narrating whatever he hears.” (Muslim). In another Hadith, Allah’s messenger (PBUH) said: “Whoever narrates a Hadith from me and it is false, then he is one of the liars.” (Muslim)
Allah’s messenger ( صلى الله عليه وسلم) refuted such false belief before 1400 years. The most authentic book of hadith has narrated a saying of Allah’s messenger (PBUH) in these words: Translation of Meaning: “Nor is there any bad omen in the month of Safar”. In fact, the omen is in the deed of a human being that he disobeys the Creator of the universe, despite the fact that he needs the order of Allah, the almighty for his very existence. There will surely come a day when he will taste the death following which he shall have to give the account of each and every moment to Allah, the Almighty. Accordingly, whatever time spent in a way contrary to the commandments of Allah, the Almighty is, in fact, ominous, and not a specific month or day. Therefore, anybody doing good deeds in the month of Safar it will be the reason behind this Safar’s being the month of bliss and blessing. Likewise, the times and months in which he does bad deeds will be ominous for him. For example, some people perform prayer of Fajr at the time prescribed for it while some people remain sleeping without any justifiable reason skipping the prayer, then the same moment is a source of success and bliss for some while it is ominous for some others. This means there is no bad omen that lies in a specific moment or month, rather it depends upon our deeds. In a Qudsi hadith Allah, the Almighty says: “The offspring of Adam abuse the Dahr (Time), and I am the Dahr; in My Hands are the night and the day.” (Bukhari) Some people influenced by the events of time, prompt to curse the time, while the time does nothing, but it is by the order and consent of Allah, the Almighty that the events of the time occur.
No single verse of the Holy Quran or a hadith of Allah’s messenger (PBUH) says there is bad omen in the month of Safar or disasters or misfortunes befall in this month. Therefore, the whole Muslim nation is unanimous that the month of Safar is similar to other months having no bad omen. A number of events in the Prophet’s biography in addition to marriages of a number of the Prophet’s companions as well as entry into the fold of Islam have been reported to have occurred in this month. We should also apply our mind and think how can a month or time be ominous? Rather the month of Safar has been named as “Safar Al-Muzaffar” means the month of success. Then how a month having the meaning of goodness and success can be ominous? Some people, thinking that Allah’s messenger (PBUH) fell sick in the first thirteen days of Safar, do not arrange a marriage party during this month. This is erroneous, for there is no such teaching in the Quran and hadith. In addition, research proves that Allah’s messenger (PBUH) did not fall sick in the starting days of Safar rather at the end of Safar and in the early days of the Month of Rabi I he had fallen sick and subsequently died on 12th of Rabi I.
Some ignorant people celebrate joyfully on the last Wednesday of Safar and distribute sweets. Such celebration has no place in the Islamic Shariah. This has got currency among the people erroneously believing Allah’s messenger (PBUH) was cured that day, which is totally wrong. On the contrary, some narrations mention the worsening health condition of Allah’s messenger (PBUH). Therefore, the last Wednesday cannot be a day of joyful celebration for the Muslims. This may be the case with the Jews and Christians and it may likely have been rumoured by them. Like the Muslims of the whole world, the stand of the Muslims of all schools of thought in the subcontinent is that there is no bad omen in the month of Safar. One can contract marriage etc in this month, and celebrating joyfully on the last Wednesday of Safar is not a religious act rather it is contrary to the teachings of Allah’s messenger (PBUH).
These days, the trend of forwarding messages on social media has become a trend which is becoming more prevalent at a very fast pace, seldom taking care to go through them or ascertain as to the contents of these message are sound or based on bundle of lies, prompting many of us to hasten to forward them to others. This is despite the fact that messages are not meant for forwarding rather they are sent for reading. We are not allowed to forward a message containing erroneous information, especially when it is related to religious information. This is because in this way we would have forwarded erroneous information to others. For example, sometimes we receive a message advising us to forward five names of Allah, the Almighty to any eleven Muslims in order to have our greatest problems resolved. Likewise, if such and such message is forwarded to such and such number of people we will be awarded paradise. Sometimes the message says that only that person will not forward this message who does not love Allah, the Almighty and His Messenger, etc. Such messages have no significance or relevance in Islam, rather these are in general based on falsehood and fabrication.
Nowadays, we use social media for the cause of education and learning. This is a blessing of Allah, the Almighty provided that we use it in a sound manner. However, some people seeing the colourful look of a message hasten to forward it to others without ascertaining its soundness. As such, if a message containing erroneous information is forwarded, and it gets currency among the people, all those facilitating it will earn a sin. Therefore, we should not forward any religious material without ascertaining its soundness, as mentioned above in the light of the ahadith of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH). Beware, whatever a person speaks or writes is being continuously written in his record of deeds, as Allah, the Almighty says: “Not a word does he (or she) utter, but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it). (Surah Qaf: 18)
The Islamic history is witness to the fact that Islam and Muslims have incurred heavy losses due to the dissemination of false news. For example, at the occasion of the battle of Uhud, the news of the martyrdom of Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) was rumoured, sending a wave of shock among the ranks of Muslims, leading to the repercussions detailed in history books. Likewise, at the occasion of the battle of Banu Mustaliq, the hypocrites made a slander against Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her), that had an adverse effect even on Allah’s Messenger (PBUH). At the beginning, it was rumoured by the hypocrites which subsequently took a toll on some righteous persons among the Muslims due to their ignorance. At last Allah, the Almighty sent down a verse in the Holy Quran acquitting her of the accusation levelled on her. In this verse Allah, the Almighty dispraised those who spread the rumour trying to tarnish the respectful image of Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her). Allah, the Almighty says: “Verily! those who brought forth the slander (against 'Aishah radhiallahu'anhu the wife of the Prophet SAW) are a group among you. Consider it not a bad thing for you. Nay, it is good for you. Unto every man among them will be paid that which he had earned of the sin, and as for him among them who had the greater share therein, his will be a great torment. (Surah An-Noor: 11)
Likewise, some websites conduct referendum polls (opinion survey) on some topics relating to Islam. Some brothers get obsessed by their religious zeal and take part exerting a handsome amount of their abilities in it. In general, almost all such websites are used to propagate against Islam. We should not pay any attention to such websites. Allah, the Almighty says: “O you who believe! If a Fasiq (liar — evil person) comes to you with any news, verify it, lest you should harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful for what you have done. (6). (Surah Al-Hujraat: 6). Likewise, Allah says: “Verily, those who like that audacious (leading to illegal sexual activities) should be propagated among those who believe, they will have a painful torment in this world and in the Hereafter. And Allah knows, and you know not. (19) (Surah Al-Noor: 19).
In brief: Besides using the social media for the purpose of personal, educational, social and commercial correspondence, we should use it excessively for the purpose of propagation and dissemination of the message of Islam and Prophetic sciences. This is because, at present, this is a media through which we can deliver our message to others easily, otherwise the electronic, as well as the print media, is in general in the hands of Anti-Muslim forces. If you receive a message containing religious information from a reliable source, you should go through it and forward it to others as much as you can so that the message of Islam and its sciences are spread at a large scale. However, if you receive any message from an unreliable source, you should not forward it without ascertaining its soundness. No single hadith has been reported on the topic of bad omen in the month of Safar, nor has a reliable Islamic scholar accepted it. Therefore, do not forward such types of messages to others, rather delete them promptly.
Rahimia Magazine (October,2016)
Author: Mr. Wasim Ejaz, Karachi
Translation: Mr.Faisal Zaheer, Karachi
The Waliullahi movement played a leading role in the freedom movement of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. It remained at the forefront of every effort even in extremely unfavorable circumstances. An important member of this movement is Maulana Mamlook Ali Nanotvi (RA). He was born in 1788 CE in Nanota, District Saharanpur. After obtaining initial education in his native village, he moved to Delhi and entered the tutelage of Maulana Rasheed ud Din Khan (RA), a student of Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlvi (RA). Later on, Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) started teaching in Delhi.
Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) was appointed lecturer at Delhi College in 1825 CE. He rendered his educational services at the college for approximately 25 years. His students include the following notables along with many other acclaimed scholars who played a leading role for this nation and made innumerable sacrifices for our freedom:
Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi (RA)
Hazrat Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi (RA)
Maulana Muhammad Mazhar Nanotvi (RA) (Lecturer at Ajmer College and founder of Madrasa Mazahir ul Uloom Saharanpur)
Maulana Muhammad Yaqub Nanotvi (RA)
Maulana Muhammad Ahsan Nanotvi (RA) (Lecturer at Banaras and Bareli colleges)
Maulana Zulfiqar Ali Deobandi (RA) (Deputy Inspector for Madaris)
Shams ul Ulama Muhammad Hussain Azad
Molvi Zaka Ullah (The renowned historian)
Being a member of Waliullahi movement, Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) had strong connections with the populace. He was respected and revered by the masses as well as scholars. For his services in the field of education, Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) was awarded with “Khilat Seh Parchah” in 1845 CE.
In the aftermath of the Balakot movement, Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA) relocated the headquarters of Waliullahi movement to Makkah. This was done in order to deal with unfavorable circumstances of the subcontinent and plan for the future. Since domain of Waliullahi movement was Indo-Pak subcontinent, it was imperative that: A system should be put in place to ensure communication with activists in India, and Ideological and educational efforts in India should continue.
Another objective was establishment of a new organizational system through propagation of the objectives of Waliullahi movement. Imam Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA) employed the commendable scheme for attainment of this objective and formed a consultative board of Waliullahi leaders. The president of this board was Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) while other members of this board included Maulana Qutub ud Din (RA) (successor of Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA)), Maulana Muzaffar Hussain Kandehlvi (RA) (student of Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA)) and Maulana Abdul Ghani Mujaddidi Dehlvi (RA).
Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) was an employee of a government madrassa (Delhi College). Under his supervision, the Dehli based independence struggle could continue its course without any suspicion surveillance of British Intelligence. Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) needed assistance from indigenous associates, and these were provided by Imam Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA) by constituting a board where all the matters were resolved in a democratic manner. Throughout the struggle for independence of subcontinent, democratic norms and culture were the hallmark characteristic of Waliullahi movement. Another reason for this arrangement of consultation was the aftermath of the Balakot movement. People who were associated with this movement across India and especially in Delhi were facing numerous hardships inflicted by the British Government. In these circumstances, it was pertinent that a board comprising of capable individuals should work consultatively for solution of problems and for strengthening of communication channels among the trained associates.
It was the efforts of this board, under the leadership of Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA), which made possible the establishment of an educational institution at Deoband on the model of Delhi College. After Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA), Imam Shah Muhammad Ishaq Dehlvi (RA) sent Haji Imdad Ullah Muhajir Makki (RA) as his successor to India for furthering the efforts of Waliullahi movement. Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) developed very close friendship with Haji Imdad Ullah Muhajir Makki (RA). It was the efforts for establishment of a team by these revered elders which – after the Balakot movement – trained and nurtured the future leaders who participated wholeheartedly in the War of Independence of 1857 CE. Essentially, the fundamental community had already been established under the leadership of Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA). Later on, under the leadership of Haji Imdad Ullah Muhajir Makki (RA), this community advanced the freedom movement and even risked their lives for liberation of our beloved homeland. This leadership played a prominent role in the Battle of Shamli and became a role model for the future generations.
In addition to playing a leading role in the freedom movement, Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) also authored and translated several books including Jame Tirmizi, Tehreer e Aqlidus (Writings of Euclid), Tareekh e Yamini and Arbi Khat (Arabic Script). In his autobiography “Tazkirah tur Rasheed”, Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi (RA) has paid tribute to Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) in the following words: “after arriving at Delhi College in the service of Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA), we were thoroughly satisfied and completed numerous books in a very short period of time. It was as if the teacher had made us fully capable of absorbing all the knowledge. At that time, there were many competent teachers in Delhi, but those who had total command over the meanings of the content and could make the student understand it were our teachers Maulana Mamlook Ali (RA) and Mufti Sadaruddin Azurdah (RA).”
Maulana Mamlook Ali’s (RA) services will always be remembered as a significant milestone of the Waliullahi movement. His lead an exemplary life: he was an educator par excellence and was also a leading and prominent member of the freedom movement. He passed away on 7th October, 1851 CE after suffering from jaundice for 11 days. He is buried adjacent to Hazrat Shaikh Abdul Aziz Shakkarbar (RA) in Shah Wali Ullah Dehlvi’s (RA) family graveyard. May Allah grant us the ability to follow in the footsteps of these Waliullahi role models and to struggle for the establishment of a just society. (Amen!)
We are not sure if Eidul Fitr is declared in Delhi for Friday, 15 June, following 29 days of Ramadhan, will it be for Mumbai too because then they will have observed only 28 days of Ramadhan and in the lunar calendar a complete month is either of 29 or 30 days only?
By M. Burhanuddin Qasmi*
From the early days of Islam, Hilal, Crescent in English, is very significant in all Muslims' social and religious functioning across the globe. The Islamic or Hijrah calendar, which began from the day when Prophet Mohammad (saws) first set for Hijrah (migration journey) with his friend Abu Bakr from Makkah to Madinah on 12/13 September 622 CE, is officially followed by most Muslim countries in the world. This is lunar calendar and revolves around the moon sighting in each month. Similarly all major Muslim festivals and worship like the beginning of the month of Ramadhan, Eidul Fitr, Hajj and Eidul Adha are actually based on moon sighting around the world.
The 57 OIC member states or Muslim countries, including 22 Arab nations, have developed some sorts of moon sighting mechanism. Among them are Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Malaysia, which are equipped with advanced technological means and both astronomical and religious resources to deal with one of the very important issues of Muslims – the new moon or the crescent which impacts their day-to-day business as all as religious practices. Majority of independent gulf countries, though place their own means to see the Eid and Ramadhan crescent, they follow the announcement from Saudi Arabia only.
One hardly finds any dispute among the citizens of a Muslim country with Ramadhan or Eid moon. All citizens of a country, at least, begin fasting with unity and celebrate Eids together without much botheration about moon sighting as how, where and who sighted the new moon. This is mainly because the moon sighting mechanism there is unified and controlled by the governments under the supervision of expert scholars. The case was the same in India too in the pre-British Muslim era with even a larger size and landscape of the country.
The modern India with nearly 180 million Muslims living here, which is 11 percent of total 1.8 billion world Muslim population and roughly half of the total population of 22 Arab League countries put together, could not develop a system with all easy means of communication and advanced technology of twenty first century era by which one country one date, one day of Eid, same day of beginning of Ramadhan for all Muslims and a same day of national holiday can be assured for all Indians. The religion of Islam in India is as old as it has been in any Arab country. The shores of Malabar in the South and the coast of Konkan in the West found the light of Islam as early as during the life time of Prophet Mohammad (saws) in 624 CE and during the reign of second caliph Umar bin al-Khattab (634 – 644 CE) respectively.
This year in 2018 the Islamic month of Ramadhan began in two different dates in India and this can be the case with Eidul Fitr too. The metro city of Mumbai along with a few adjacent cities to it and some other places here and there began fasting on Friday, that was 18 May and rest of the country from South to North and from East to West began their Fast on Thursday, 17 May, 2018. The new moon for the month of Ramadhan was sighted in three Southern states of India – Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Telangana on Wednesday, 16 May besides Kerala, which generally follows Saudi Arabia in matters of moon sighting, Arab countries and other neighboring Muslim countries. The Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad Hilal Committees, therefore, officially made announcements for the beginning of the month of Ramadhan from Thursday, 17 June, so was the announcements from Riyadh, Kabul and Islamabad.
The Indian Hilal Committees in rest of India like Imarat-e Shariah Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa, Jamiat Ulama-e Hind and the Central Hilal Committees of Jama Masjid Delhi and Nakhoda Masjid, Kolkata after due consideration went with South Indian announcements thus declared Thursday, 17 May, the first day of Ramadhanul Mubarak for the year 1439 AH or 2018 CE. On the other hand, the Hilal Committees of Mumbai both from Deobandi and Barelvi schools rejected announcements from southern states and did not consider witnesses or proofs of moon sighting from that part of India positively thus they declared on 16 May that the moon of Ramadhan was not sighted this evening, therefore, the first day of Ramadhan would be on Friday, 18 May, 2018 only.
This, however, was again rejected by Ahle Hadith group in Mumbai which officially went with its main body in Delhi and declared 17 June, Friday, as the first day of Ramadhan. Members of Ahle Hadith School in Mumbai and a few individuals from Deoband School who did not find the decision of Central Hilal Committee of Jama Masjid Mumbai convincing went with rest of India and observed Fast from Thursday. Mumbai itself is a divided city as far as beginning of Ramadhan is concerned in this 2018, majority of Muslim Mumbaikers began fasting from 18 June, Friday, but a section of Muslims within the city did observe Roza from the previous day.
The pertaining question arises here is, why this is so? If Hilal Committees situated as far as in Guwahati, Kolkata, Patna, Lucknow and Delhi find it acceptable to go with Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad, then why the same Hilal Committees of Mumbai who are just a few hundred kms away from some of these South Indian cities find it unacceptable? If rest of India considers the Crescent in the sky over the Indian city of Chennai is same for whole of India then why some of the members of Mumbai Hilal Committees make it an issue and decide otherwise? Are these gentlemen religiously and scientifically capable enough to make such a bold overturn which impacts millions? They might have, of course, some arguments to put forth but the main issue is not done. There is a confusion among common Muslims, when will be Eid and whom to follow.
Something is seriously wrong somewhere. Muslims of India need to fix it sooner than later and once for all. At one point of time both Mumbai and rest of India cannot be right or wrong in the same issue with different decisions. One party is right and the other one is obviously wrong, this is common sense.
This is uncalled for and against beautiful unity of Islam that two Muslims living as neighbors in the same city but one is fasting and the other is celebrating Eid! There is no complication in Islamic Fiqh (jurisprudence) in this issue. Muslim scholars have unanimously resolved the issue of moon sighting much earlier in India. The Hanafi school of Fiqh which is followed by majority Muslims in Indian sub-continent makes it clear that matla (astronomic boundary of moon) will be considered same for an entire country. Therefore, moon sighted in Karnataka or Chennai will be considered for all of India. The same is placed in the constitution of Central Hilal Committee of Jama Masjid Mumbai under article No 12, it reads: “(A) the difference in Mataly (plural of matla) is valid. (B) Our country India is a single matla.”
It is obviously clear that the problem is not with Islamic text, nor with Fiqh, it may be with the understanding or explanation of the text by certain individuals. Hence, this whole mess of Roza beginning in different dates within India and subsequently a possible Eid on different days in Delhi and Mumbai is a creation of various Hilal Committees which cropped up like unwanted plants in the rainy season on streets at all major district centers, big cities and the states of India. We have a Hilal Committee in Kishanganj of Bihar which makes announcement contrary to what the one in Patna has done from Bihar’s capital city. Similarly, Bhatkal of Karnataka and Malegaon of Maharashtra have their own Hilal Committees in addition to those in their capital cities. Pune which is just 150 kms from Mumbai has a different Hilal Committee which decided to begin with Ramadhan Fast from 17th June this year, with rest of India, and did not follow Mumbai.
The issue has been of lack of coordination and trust among various Hilal Committees in India. There seems to be a race of branding and marketing among some Muslims NGOs with this pure spiritual issue of moon sighting as whose letterhead would go first in public with a text message for media and social networking groups with news of the Crescent either sighted or not sighted, hereby the particular name of NGO avails popularity.
Muslim Indians can permanently resolve this serious issue by adopting one of the following three options:
Jamiat Ulama-e Hind, with pan India mass bases, and All India Muslim Personal Law Board, an umbrella body with members from all Muslim sects, may initiate the process if they wish to keep it free from government influence. Else now or then a Central Government will take the call to settle the boiling issue without much opposition from common Muslims.
*M. Burhanuddin Qasmi
Editor, English monthly Eastern Crescent, Mumbai
Director, Markazul Ma'arif Education and Research Centree
Patliputra Nagar, Oshiwara, Jogeshwari (W), Mumbai - 102
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- Book Sellers in Deoband
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- Tablighi Jamat and Darul Uloom