"Maulana Ahmad Ali Badarpuri is a great gift of Allah Ta'ala and a man of extreme virtue and piety (taqwa) like him shall be found nowhere even if you search with a flambeau or light."- Hussain Ahmad Madani (RA)
Qutub-ul 'Alam, Sultanul 'Arifeen, Mujahid-e-Millat Hazrat Maulana Shaykh Ahmad Ali Badarpuri (Ra), also known as Ahmad Ali Assami or Ahmad Ali Banskandi and popularly as Banskandi Huzur, was one of the greatest or legendary Sufi saints ever born. He was an Indian Islamic scholar, a freedom fighter and an educationist.He served as the president of Assam State Jamiat Ulama-e Hind for 44 years. He dedicated his life to the poor, the downtrodden, and particularly for the orphans. He tried to maintain peace in society by spreading the message of love and social harmony. He was a man of great personality occupying profound love and honor in the hearts of millions of people all over the country.
Birth and Early life
Shaykh Ahmad Ali (Ra) was born in 1915 in Badarpur town of Assam into a sufi and respectable family. His parents were highly pious and God-fearing persons. They attained him by praying to Allah for twelve years. Thus, he was a born saint whose noble lineage reaches back to Hazrat Manowar Khadim Yemeni, the attendant of Sikandar Khan Ghazi (ra), a distinguished colleague of Shah Jalal Yemeni (ra).
He lost his mother at an early age and was raised by his step mother with special care and attention. He was not like the other children who spent their time in play and amusement. Rather, he used to spend his time listening to the Qur'an recitation by a local Hafiz.
Education and bai'ah
Ahmad Ali completed his primary education in Badarpur and then enrolled at Sylhet Government Alia Madrasa (now in Bangladesh). From there, he appeared in the Matriculation Examination in 1938 and came out in first position securing high marks in all subjects. In 1940, he completed his graduation (Daura-e-Hadith) in Islamic studies and took the oath of allegiance (bai'ah) at the holy hand of Hazrat Madani (ra). In the same year, he went to the greatest Islamic university, Darul Uloom Deoband, to re-complete his graduation and to study Daora-e Tafsir in accordance with the will of his Shaykh. There, he surprised all the teachers and students with his extraordinary scholarship on Hadith and relentless pursuit. He was constant in offering salat. He placed himself as the most favorite of Hazrat Madani (RA) and the other teachers, overcoming all the students. He achieved the titles of Jinne Mumin and Imam Bayhaqi for his life practice, devoutness, and memory power. He completed his Hifz-e-Quran only in two and a half months.
Participation in the freedom struggleDuring that time, the freedom struggle was at its peak, and Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib participated in the movement being inspired by the saying of the Prophet (saws), "Love of your own country is a part of your faith." He was arrested and imprisoned in various jails for his anti-British activities. He always opposed the partitioning of India and stood in support of Madani's composite nationhood. He also took a bold step to get Sylhet into India during the Sylhet Referendum. Though India gained independence in 1947, its partition brought with it a scourge of violence that swept many parts of India, including Assam. During that critical period, Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib stood before the minorities as a barrier of protection and tried to maintain peace among the different sections of the people. For his lifelong effort to spreading the message of peace, many of his contemporaries called him Messenger of Peace.
Spiritual training and khilafat
In 1952, Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib went to Harmain-Sharifain for the enrichment of his Elm-e Ma'rifat. He spent one year near the Roza Mubarak of the Prophet (saws) and then returned to his own country with the treasure of knowledge and gnosis (ma'rifat). Arriving in India, he directly met Hazrat Madani (ra) who gave him the sabak on Muraqabah. Through this spiritual striving, he went on attaining the last sufi maqams one after another and ultimately the pinnacle of spiritual glory. In 1954, he achieved spiritual successorship (khilafat), or the authority to initiate others on the Sufi path from Shaykhul Islam, in a large meeting held at his own home.
Service to Masjid-e Nabawi
His staying in the holy city of Madina gave him a great opportunity to serve Masjid al Nabawi. In 1953, King Saud ascended the throne of Saudi Arabia and paid a visit to the holy cities of Makkah and Madina Sharif. Upon arriving in Madina, he arranged a meeting with a view to extending Masjid-e Nabawi and laid the foundation stone for it. The meeting was concluded with a du'a program where Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib was present too. Later, he brought stones along with the labourers on a daily basis for the construction of the mosque.
Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib started his career as a teacher at Darul Uloom Banskandi. In 1955, Hazrat Madani (ra) selected him for Banskandi Madrasa, declining all other offers for him from the reputed madrassas of India and Pakistan. He then sent him there from Madina Sharif without any invitation from the institution. Thus, Ahmad Ali reached Banskandi Madrassa as an uninvited guest. The madrassa authority refused to appoint him as a teacher. However, they later accepted him after they had obtained a letter from Madani (RA). Soon after, he had to take over the charge of the institution. Thereafter, Hazrat Madani (ra) spent there his last two Ramadhans and inaugurated the Prophetic Tradition (Hadith). In 1957, he was appointed to the post of Shaykh al-Hadith. Under his patronage, the institution went up in leaps and bounds and turned into an Islamic university from a simple cottage. He was just like the director general of the seminary and controlled all sides remaining on the post of Shaykh al-Hadith. He retained the position until his last breath. Thus, his glorious teaching career at Darul Uloom Banskandi lasted for over 45 years.
Jamiat president and fight against injustice
In 1957, he was unanimously elected the president of Assam State Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind and continued in the same office for 44 years until his last breath. He worked day and night and proved his exceptional leadership quality by placing the state Jamiat as the strongest branch in all India level.As a Jamiat leader, he took bold steps against the so-called Pakistani Deportation Movement, also known as the Bongal Kheda Movement which intensified in the 1960s and continued into the 1970s and 1980s. Thousands of minorities including male, female, and children were inhumanely driven away to East Pakistan in the name of foreigners under the scheme, Prevention Of Infiltration from Pakistan. Muslim houses were looted, burnt and the occupants were beaten up, knifed, and driven out. In fear, they had to leave home and take shelter in jungle. The minority Muslims of Dhubri, Barpeta, Bongaigaon, Goalpara, Cachar, and Nowgaon districts were mainly the victims of this torture. During that critical period, it was only Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib who along with his Jamiat strongly protested against this inhumane torture and persecution. He along with his Jamiat companions Maulana Abdul Hoque Sahib, Abdul Jalil Rageebi Sahib, Kafiluddin Qasmi Sahib, Maulana Sikandar Ali Sahib, and some others, created an intense agitation against the government holding a series of protest meetings in different parts of Assam. He frequently met ministers like Moinul Hoque Choudhury, Fakruddin Ali Ahmed, Debakanta Barua, Sarat Chandra Singha, and many others and forced them to protest against it on the floor of the assembly. Thus, his five year continuous protest compelled the then Chaliha government to stop this inhumane torture and to declare in assembly that there was no foreigner in Assam. In 1969, the state government even wrote a letter to Hazrat Shaykh (RA) with a solemn promise that this type of inhumane torture upon the legal Indian citizens would never happen again. Thus, he was able to save the minorities from catastrophic danger. Remembering his strong leadership quality, former president Mr. Fakruddin Ali Ahmed Saheb once said in a public meeting, "If Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib had not protested against the Bongal Kheda Movement, it might have endangered the Muslims in Assam." However, the minorities could remain no longer in peace. In 1979, AASU started another movement known as the Assam Movement or Assam Agitation which peaked in 1983 with the massacres of Nellie, Gahpur, Chaulkhowa, Bahbari, and some other places where more than 3,000 minority people including men, women, children and infants were brutally killed. During this critical time, Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib and his Jamiat again came out in protest of this massacre. He along with his followers rushed into the affected areas and stood by the victims providing immediate relief to them. He forced chief minister Hiteswar Saikia and law minister Abdul Muhib Mazumdar to discuss the matter with the then prime minister, Smt. Indira Gandhi and also to arrange a meeting where he would present himself. Mr. Saikia then accompanied Hazrat Shaykh (RA) and Mazumdar Saheb in a discussion with Indira Gandhi. There, the Maulana Saheb demanded them to provide some special protections against undue harassment to the minority Muslims and Bengali Hindus affected by Assam agitation. Mr. Mazumdar also made a proposal for a new legislation instead of the Foreigners Act, 1946, to detect illegal immigrants. The result was the IMDT Act, 1983. After the Assam Agitation, the minority people of lower Assam fell a victim to the cruelty of the Bodo Movement. Though it began in the 1960s, it intensified in the early 1990s.
Autonomous Bodoland was the main claim of this movement. Initially, all the non-bodos were mostly targeted. But later, the movement turned into an anti-Muslim agitation. In October 1993, the Bodo mob attacked Muslim settlements and killed more than hundreds of Muslim people. Houses belonging to the Muslims were burned, looted, and vandalized. During this crucial period, Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib (RA) was the first person to stand by the victims. He intensely protested against this cruel massacre from his Jamiat platform and raised the demand to the government for their security and rehabilitation. He even shouldered the burden of six hundred (600) homeless orphans affected by this movement and sheltered them in Banskandi Madrasa with food, lodging and education.
His enthusiasm for work had never come down till his last breath. In 1998, he protested against the report of Governor S. K. Sinha regarding illegal migration which was full of misinformations. Of course, many other parties, organizations, and intellectuals accompanied him in this protest. As a result, the report could not harm the minority people of Assam.
Shortly after that, the then chief minister of Assam made a communal remark in a press conference at Guwahati where he called the Islamic institutions stations of ISI. Soon after this remark, new harassment came down upon the Ulama in different places of Assam. In protest of it, Hazrat Shaykh (ra) arranged a large Jamiat meeting at Guwahati on 1st April, 2000. Amirul Hind Hazrat Maulana Syed As'ad Madani (RA) also accompanied him. Through this historical meeting, he warned the government against their communal remarks describing the unimaginable sacrifices of the Islamic scholars in the Freedom Struggle. His revolutionary cry, just three months before his death, compelled the government to stop their false propoganda and the harassment on Ulama. Thus, he sacrifices his entire life for the interests of minorities which will be long remembered. He seems to be happy in their happiness and sad in their sadness.
Imprisonment in Tihar Jail
Hazrat Shaykh (RA) and Maulana Syed As'ad Madani (RA) used to work together for the interests of minorities whenever they were in distress. In 1979, he was imprisoned in Tihar Jail for some days along with his colleagues due to his participation in "Mulk O Millat Bachaw Tahreek" (Save the country and the nation movement), led by Fida-e-Millat Hazrat Maulana Syed As'ad Al Madani Saheb (ra).
Badarpuri as Amir-e-Shariat
In 1990, he was selected unanimously as Amir-e-Shariat of North East India and continued on the post till his death. He visited many places and founded 34 Mahqamay-e shariahs (Islamic Lower Courts) in different parts of the North-Eastern Region to handle cases related to Islamic shariah such as marriage, talaq (divorce), jumma prayer, etc. Being satisfied with his works, Maulana Habibar Rahman Azmi (ra), the then president of All India Imarat-e-Sharia, made a high remark on him and called his works 'an unparalleled deed'.
Religious and Qaumi services
Hazrat Shaykh (ra) spent his entire life in the service of his qaum (nation) and Islam. His Islamic mission is able to affect Europe, Africa, and the continent of America by crossing India. He travelled to various cities and villages with a view to reforming people and founded thousands of mosques, khanqahs, madrasas, and maktabs for their religious education. He created a new era, spreading the message of the Holy Qur'an and Hadith in the time of great deterioration in the following of the Sunnah.
He also opposed the hypocrisy and deviance (gumrahi) of the Qadianis and warned people not to be tempted by their satanic doctrines. He even wrote a book named "Irrefutable Proofs of Khatm-e-Nabuwwat and the Deviances of the Qadianis" and proved Hazrat Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihe Wasallam as the last in the series of prophets. To eradicate Qadiani blashphemy, he visited many places, including Barpeta, time and again.
He kept a sharp eye on the so-called Ahle-Hadith too. As soon as he saw any criticism from them, he replied to it and saved people from their gumrahi.
Foundation of Gauhati Khanqah
In 1996, Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib (Ra) founded a permanent khanqah at Dispur (Hatigaon), the capital city of Assam, where millions of people from all over the country and outside India visited him to take spiritual guidance during every Ramadhan. Under his expert guidance, many people became sufi, pious, virtuous, true and practicing Muslims. He taught his visitors to strengthen their relationship with Almighty Allah. Upon hearing his sweet voice, any sitter in his Majlis could feel that he was hearing the words of a true successor (Naib-e-Nabi) of the Prophet (saws).
His pursuit and ibaadatHe proved the Quranic āyah "Wa maa khalaqtul-jinna wal-insa illa liya'budūn" in his own life. He used to remain absorbed in deep meditation and worship of Almighty Allah, and thus reached the highest peak of spirituality. Zikr ran with his respiration. Nafl prayers, recitation of the holy Quran, and zikrullah were ornaments of his life. He even performed Salat-ut-tasbih every night during his youth. His continuous awakening of nights in prayers led a great sufi of Deoband to ask Madani (ra): " Is Maulana Ahmad Ali a jinnat or an insaan?" His backbone bent for performing excessive salaat.
After Isha, he got some sleep and stood up before Allah for tahajjud which he never missed in life. He surprisingly carried on his spiritual pursuit until the last day of his life.
Salah in congregation
Hazrat Shaykh (ra) never performed his obligatory salah without congregation (jama'ah) in his whole life. Sometimes he performed it at home with two or three persons if he could not go to the mosque due to his physical illness. Many times he went to the mosque for a congregation supported by others.
Hospitality was one of the outstanding qualities of Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib (ra). He used to offer respect, love, peace, and cordiality to his guests and take special care of them himself. None of his visitors could come back without taking any food or drink.
Dislike of worldly possessions
The main feature of his life was - his dislike of worldly possessions. His contemporary people knew that he transacted billions of rupees in his lifetime but nobody had ever seen him being tempted for the slightest of any earthly possession. He was self-sufficient and generous. He never felt a shortage of anything in his personal life. All of his needs were unknowingly generated by the grace of Allah. Whatever he received, he gave it away to the poor and needy. He was seen completely indifferent to this material world. He directly rejected the memberships of the Assam Assembly (MLA) and Indian Parliament (MP), though he was offered these ranks time and again. Former law minister Abdul Muhib Mazumdar has said about this in his article on Hazrat Shaykh (ra).
His piety (taqwa)
He was a man of extreme virtue and taqwa (fear of Allah) which he maintained at every moment of his life. Some events of his taqwa are mentioned below.
He was a true lover of the Prophet (saws) and could never tolerate any work contrary to sunnah. His life was an exact picture of the sunnah of Rasulullah (saws). He was blessed with the ziyarat (spiritual meeting) of the Prophet (pbuh) whenever he wished to have it. He had profound love for the country of the Prophet (S.A.W.). He never used slippers or shoes on the holy land of Hijaz because he considered it an act of disrespect to the Prophet (pbuh). Eyewitness
Hafiz Hikmat Ullah Sahib Muradabadi said that in 1955, Maulana Ahmad Ali Badarpuri (ra) went to Makkah with Shaykhul Islam Maulana Syed Hussain Ahmad Madani (ra) for the performance of Hajj. As soon as their ship reached Jeddah Seaport, he took his slippers off and threw them to the sea before entering Makka Sharif. During his days in Saudi Arabia, he used to walk barefooted across the hot desert for which his legs scaled off.
Badarpuri: A Caller to Allah
Preaching Islam and calling people to the way of Almighty Allah was an essential part of Hazrat Rahimahullah's life. He prevented the spread of apostasy through his speeches and writings and rooted out the irreligious practices people performed in the name of religion. He will be long remembered as a reformer of the masses and an exemplary spiritual guide (shaykh). According to the ulama, he was the flag-bearer of Islam and sacrificed every second of his life for the revival of the spirit of Iman. His luminous (Noorani) appearance also worked like a magnet and attracted people of different sections to Islam.
Ocean of Ma'rifa
Hazrat Shaykh (ra) was a sound practitioner of the tasawwuf that the other scholars of Deoband, such as Syed Hussain Ahmad Madani (ra), Maulana Rashid Ahmad Ganguhi (ra), Shaykh-ul-Hind (ra), and Haji Imdadullah Makki (ra), advocated. In spite of being a swimmer in the ocean of Ma'rifa, he was able to keep himself under complete control. In the world of Suluk, he was the Paramount Emperor of his time. Mufti Bashir Ahmed Saheb of Banskandi Madrasa who was known as Mufti-e-Azam has been called the Junayed Baghdadi of the modern world in the field of tasawwuf.
Hazrat Shaykh (ra): A rare example
Those acquainted with Hazrat Shaykh (ra) will bear ample testimony to his sincerity, piety, strength of worship and spiritual exercises, generosity, modesty, patience, firm belief, good will, sublime character, abstention from worldly pleasures, compassion, human value, knowledge, as well as many other amazing qualities. The combination of all these great qualities in a single body—Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib (ra)—is a rare example in the world.
His literary composition
Quaid-e Millat Maulana Shaykh Ahmad Ali Sahib (ra) was not only a great Sufi saint but also a writer. He wrote a number of books on religion, Jamiat, and the history of Harmain-Sharifain. The main feature of his books is that they speak little but express much. These are:
His major contribution
His greatest contribution to the Muslim ummah is Darul Uloom Banskandi which is called the Shantiniketan (abode of peace) of north-east India. The institution has gained a widespread reputation through him and flourished in his hands. So, he is called the maker of this seminary which is blessed with the Ruhani visit of the Prophet (saws) every day. Regarding this madrassa, Hazrat Madani (ra) predicted, "A ray of ilm would come up from here that would shine the world very soon."
Hakimul Islam Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi Sahib (ra), the former vice chancellor of Darul Uloom Deoband, remarked, "I visited Darul Uloom Banskandi on March 23, 1974. The institution was founded by Haji Akbar Ali Sahib, a pious disciple of Haji Imdadullah Makki (ra) and is run by Hazrat Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib, Khalifa of Hazrat Maulana Syed Hussain Ahmad Madani (ra). It seems to me that the other picture of Darul Uloom Deoband. Actually, it is Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib who can be called the second founder of the institution."
Besides his disciples, a large number of people irrespective of caste, creed, communities, parties, high and low, the rich and the poor, were after him and visited him. As per the narration of eyewitnesses, political leaders of different levels, such as Hiteswar Saikia, Prafulla Kr Mahanta, Abdul Muhib Mazumdar, Debakanta Barua, Tarun Gogoi, Shohidul Alom Choudhury, Nurul Hussain, and many more ministers, MPs, and MLAs, often visited him and waited for his duwa. Mr. Kanak Sen Deka, editor of Dainik Agradoot, has also written that great political leaders like Fakruddin Ali Ahmed, Sarat Chandra Singha, Moinul Hoque Choudhury, Smt. Indira Gandhi, and Rajiv Gandhi also met him seeking his duwa and valuable advice. Former Vice President of Karimganj District Jamiat Mujir Uddin Saheb said in his article that among the visitors of Maulana Ahmad Ali Saheb (Ra), the eminent surgeon of the continent of Asia like Anil Kumar Deshmukh was also there. He respected Hazrat Shaykh (ra) and felt proud calling him Baba.
To him, people of all classes and communities were equally welcomed. They got mental peace after coming into contact with him.
Badarpuri grew physically much weaker and got infected with various diseases due to his immense hard work and lifelong struggle against injustice. For his increasing kidney and heart disease, he entrusted the responsibility of teaching Bukhari Sharif to Hazrat Maulana Shaykh Abdul Bari Sahib. One night, he predicted with tears in his eyes to Maulana Bashir that I might be no more and have to be brought back in a coffin from Bombay. After a few days, he was admitted to Lilavati Hospital, Mumbai, though he expressed his extreme unwillingness to go there. Tilawat-e Quran and du'a were continued for his recovery in every mosque and madrasa, and the Hindus did prayer in their temples. He remained in the same state for fifteen days and passed on to the mercy of his Lord on June 11, 2000, at the age of eighty-six. (Inna lillahi wa inna ilaihi rajioon.)
Funeral prayer (Janaza)
The news of his death spread immediately all over the country and outside India. In a moment, the whole world had stunned. Millions of people had become speechless, and tears came down from their eyes.
His dead body was flown to Guwahati, and from Guwahati, it was brought by road. The people of Badarpur were preparing to engrave him at Badarpur. On the other side, the students and the people of Banskandi were demanding for taking his dead body and engraving at Banskandi within the campus of Darul Uloom where he spent his whole life with full of activities.
Thus, there was a great tussle among the people of Badarpur and the people of Banskandi pulling the dead body of this untiring Mujahid. At last, a meeting was held to finalize his burial place, and it was decided that he would be buried within the campus of his alma mater, Darul Uloom Banskandi. Accordingly, his dead body was brought from Badarpur to Banskandi. Shaykh Maulana Yahya Sahib (db) performed his second funeral prayer (the first one was done at Badarpur) attended by more than five lakhs grieved people. Then, this great son of Assam and darling of millions was buried there on June 13, 2000. May Allah offer him Jannatul Firdous, the best abode of paradise.
The late Maulana is survived by one son and four daughters, among whom Shaykh Maulana Yahya Sahib (db), Amir-e Shariat of North-East India, is seen as his successor.
Hazrat's death is a great loss to the Muslim community as well as the nation, which seems difficult to fill.
Comments and condolences
The status of a person and his acceptance amongst the people can easily be gauged from the tributes offered by people after his death. The amount of tribute offered by the various press departments is a clear proof of the acceptance Hazrat Shaykh (ra) had amongst the masses. Articles in his praise were published in various magazines and papers. Besides, many great personalities expressed deep shock in their condolence letters shortly after his death on June 11, 2000. A few comments from those letters and articles are mentioned below:
Mrs. Sonia Gandhi, UPA Chairperson, writes in her condolence message, In the death of Maulana Ahmad Ali Sahib, the country has lost a great religious leader, a freedom fighter, and an educationist. He was the founder of Banskandi Madrassa, a well-known Islamic cultural institute. He has dedicated his life to the poor, the downtrodden, and particularly for the orphans. His contributions in maintaining peace and social harmony among different sections of people would be long remembered."
Prafulla Kumar Mahanta, the then chief minister of Assam, remarked in his condolence letter (12 June 2000) that Jamiat president Maulana Ahmad Ali Saheb was a great freedom fighter and in actuality, a symbol of peace, love, and social harmony. He spent his whole life spreading madrassa education in Assam and for the unity and sovereignty of our country. In his death, the people of north-east India have lost a real well-wisher of them.
Shohidul Alam Choudhury, the then minister of panchayat and rural development, Assam, said that Maulana Ahmad Ali Saheb was very popular among the people irrespective of caste, creed, and community. He expressed his deep shock in Dainik Sonar Cachar (2000, June 12), terming him a great humanitarian and an ideal person.
In his condolence message to the family members of Hazrat Shaykh (ra), Mr. Alam writes that the people of Assam, especially the minorities, would be indebted to him forever due to his selfless service. He says that the vacuum created by his demise will not be filled.
Sri Tarun Gogoi, former president of the Assam State Congress (I) Committee, remarks: "Maulana Ahmad Ali Saheb, president of Assam State Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind, was really a symbol of social harmony. His death is a loss to Assam that seems difficult to fill."
Mr. Santosh Mohan Dev, Indian politician and former union minister of state for Home Affairs, opined in Dainik Sonar Cachar (2000, June 12) that the death of Maulana Ahmad Ali Saheb was a loss not only to Barak Valley and north-east India but also to the whole country.
Abdul Muhib Mazumdar, former minister of law and justice, Assam, wrote in his article that Maulana Ahmad Ali Saheb was such a person who used to render selfless service to human society and stand by the persecuted. Victims of the Bongal Kheda movement (1960s), victims of the Nellie massacres, and the BTAD riot are living witnesses to it.
Sarat Chandra Singha, former chief minister of Assam, wrote in his article, "It is very hard to evaluate the depth of his knowledge, extra-ordinary working skills, and gigantic personality. While holding discussions on different issues, we became very close to each other."
Irabat Singha, advocate and social worker, District Bar Association, Cachar, said in Dainik Sonar Cachar how he was impressed by the great personality and kind-heartedness of Maulana Ahmad Ali Saheb who possessed the authority of conquering the hearts of people. He called him a man of milk-heartedness.
Haidor Hussain, chief editor, Asomiya Pratidin, said that Peer Maulana Ahmad Ali Saheb (ra) was a man of rare personality and a humanitarian who used to stand by the minorities whenever they were in dire need and trouble.
Homen Borgohain, eminent intellectual, author, and former editor of the Assamese daily Amar Asom, said, "In the death of Maulana Ahmad Ali Saheb, the Muslims of north-east India have become perplexed. His acceptance amongst the masses was so much that it has become difficult to find out a substitute for him."
Kanak Sen Deka, eminent journalist, wrote in the Dainik Agradoot, "The Muslims of Assam seem to lose their father in the death of Maulana Ahmad Ali Saheb who used to try to strengthen social harmony among different sections of people."
Dr. Sujit Kumar Nandi Purkayastha, former principal of Silchar Medical College and Hospital, called him a humanitarian and a man of great personality, expressing his condolences in Dainik Sonar Cachar.
Abdul Malik Arif, President, Bangla Muslim Sahitya Parishad & Zakiganj Press Club, Dhaka, Bangladesh, says that the contribution of Maulana Ahmad Ali Banskandi (Ra) touches not only India but also Bangladesh where thousands of his disciples are there His death is a loss to both countries that seems difficult to fill. He tried to develop the relationship between the two countries.
The members of Jamiatul Ulama, South Africa, also praised the foresight of Shaykhul Islam Hazrat Madani (ra) and the dedication of Hazrat Maulana Ahmad Ali Saheb (ra) after paying a visit to this great center of learning, Darul Uloom Banskandi.
All India Radio, Delhi, also termed Hazrat Shaykh (ra), a prominent Islamic scholar, a great sufi of the spiritual world, a patriot and a freedom fighter. His death has created a great vacuum in the entire Northeast that is difficult to fill.
Various Newspapers: Almost all the newspapers of north-east India and also of West Bengal, such as The Assam Tribune, The North-east Daily, Dainik Janambhumi, Dainik Agradoot, Amar Asom, Sonar Cachar, Gana Shakti, Gati Dainik, Ananda Bazar Patrika, and many more, called him a great sufi, a scholar, and an eminent freedom fighter.
Amirul Hind Hazrat Maulana Syed As'ad Madani (ra), former president of All India Jamiat Ulama-e-Hind, called him a great Sufi saint whose uloom was so deep and sturdy that it is difficult to explain in language. He termed his death the greatest tragedy of the 20th century.
Kashf and KaramatsHis full life, right from his birth until his death, was full of events of kashf and karamats. A few of his miracles are mentioned below:
Composed by Amjed Ali
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Bravery and courage is such an admirable quality and attribute that everyone wants to be attributed to it. This quality doesn’t depend on a man being powerful and physically strong; rather this attribute is based on the strength of one’s heart. There are many incidents of the bravery, courage, valour and boldness of Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) which prove that he (SAWS) was a very brave and courageous person. The polytheists were standing at mouth of the cave, searching for him and he was resting in it calmly. When there is a scary sound in the night in the town, he goes alone outside town to follow it. When the flames of war flare up; he is present in the first line to fight the enemies. By raising the slogan “I am a prophet, who doesn’t speak a lie, I am son of Abdul Muttalib”, he warns the enemies that he is not going to run and flee away from the battlefield; rather, he is going to fight the enemies with courage. Some examples of his bravery and courage are being presented here in this write-up.
When the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings be upon him!) left Makkah with Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq (May Allah be pleased with him!) for Madinah migrating; the polytheists of Makkah set a reward of one hundred camels for the one who arrests him (SAWS). Being greedy to receive this reward, many polytheists were wandering here and there for hunting for Rasulullah (SAWS). Searching in every possible direction, they reached the “Cave of Thaur”, where the Prophet (SAWS) and Abu Bakr (RA) had sought refuge with the will of Allah the Almighty. The footsteps of the polytheists were visible to Abu Bakr Siddiq from the mouth of the cave. Abu Akbar (RA) addressed the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) and said: “O Prophet of Allah! If one of them has to lower his gaze, he is certainly bound to spot us.”
Hearing the worry of Abu Bakr (RA), the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) replied expressing his courage and bravery like this: “What is your opinion, O Abu Bakr, of those two people amongst whom the third is Allah.” In a form of an interrogative sentence, this satisfactory answer of the Prophet was enough to end Abu Akbar’s worry and apprehension.
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) describes this incident as follows: “I looked at the feet of the idolaters above our heads when we were in the cave, and I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah (SAWS), if one of them were to look down at his feet, he would see us beneath his feet.’ He (SAWS) said: ‘O Abu Bakr, what do you think of two, of whom Allah is the third of them?” (Sahih Muslim: 2381)
Allah Ta’ala has described this incident in the Glorious Qur’an as follows: “If you do not help him, (it makes no difference to the Prophet, because) Allah has already helped him when the disbelievers expelled him, and he was the second of the two, when they were in the cave, and he was saying to his companion, “Do not grieve. Allah is surely with us.” So, Allah caused His tranquillity to descend on him, and supported him with troops that you did not see, and rendered the word of the disbelievers humiliated. And the word of Allah is the uppermost. Allah is Mighty, Wise.” (Surah Taubah: 40)
Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani writes in the commentary of this verse: “Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA) was worried that the enemy should not see the one who is more beloved than his life, for whom he had sacrificed everything. Being afraid he said, O Messenger of Allah (SAWS)! If these people look down at their feet bowing down a bit, they will be able to see us. At that time, the Almighty placed a special kind of situation, tranquility and assurance in the blessed heart of the Prophet (SAWS), and with his blessing, in the heart of Abu Bakr (RA) and they were protected and supported by the troops of angels. It was the charisma of this unseen support that the spider’s web, which is described as “the weakest of houses” became, a source of protection, more than a big, strong and stable fortresses. (Tafseer Usmani)
At the time of the Prophet’s returning from the “Battle of Zaatur Raqqa”, the incident, that took place due to a villager, is very faith-inspiring and instructive regarding the Prophet’s confidence, faith, patience, courage, bravery and trust in Allah the Almighty. The Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) went towards the region of Najd along with his companions (May Allah be pleased with them!) for Jihad. While returning, the time of the afternoon nap overtook them when they were in a valley full of thorny trees. The Prophet (SAWS) and the companions dismounted at that place. The companions dispersed amongst the thorny trees, seeking the shade of the trees for resting for a while. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS), hanging his sword on a Samura tree, took shelter under that tree for a nap as well. Suddenly the companions heard Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) calling them. When they went to him (SAWS), they found a bedouin sitting with him.
Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) inform them, “This (Bedouin-Ghaurath bin la-Harith) took my sword out of its sheath; while I was asleep. When I woke up, the naked sword was in his hand and he said to me, ‘Who can save you from me?’ I replied, ‘Allah.’ Now here he is sitting.” Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) didn’t punish him (for that and let him go freely).” (Bukhari: 4135)
A blood-thirsty enemy is standing in front with a naked sword in his hand, despite this dangerous situation; there was no fear and panic observed at the blessed face of the Prophet (SAWS). He replied to the question of the villager with great satisfaction. That villager was awestruck and frightened by the patience, courage and bravery of the Prophet (SAWS) and the sword fell down from his hand. This incident is one of the best examples of the courage and bravery of the Prophet (SAWS) and his trust in Allah the Almighty. Then, not taking revenge from the villager, forgiving him and releasing him without any punishment, is a great example of the forgiveness of the Prophet (SAWS).
Sayyiduna Anas (RA) narrates that the Prophet (SAWS) was the best among the people (both in looks and character) and was the most generous of them, and was the bravest of them. (Then Sayyiduna Anas mentions an incident regarding his bravery.) Once, during the night, the people of Madinah got afraid (of a sound). So the people went towards that sound. But the Prophet (SAWS) already had gone to that sound before them (alone, ridding a saddleless horse and carrying a sword slung in his neck). He (SAWS) met them while he was saying (to them while returning), “Don’t be afraid, don’t be afraid.” (because he was returning after seeing from that side, there was nothing to worry.) (Sahih Bukhari: 6033)
Sayyiduna Ali (May Allah be pleased with him!) says: “When the flames of war flared up and one nation fought against another nation, we used to save ourselves through the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!). None of us was closer to the enemy than the Messenger of Allah (SAWS).” (Musnad Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal: 1347, Sunanul Kubara Lil-Nasai: 8585)
Imran bin Haseen (RA) says: “Whenever the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) faced an army, he was the first among those who attacked.” (Akhlaqun Nabi wa Adaba by Abu Sheikh Asbahani 1/327)
Sayyiduna Ali (May Allah be pleased with him!) reports: “On the day of Badr, we used to seek refuge from the polytheists under the protection of the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!). On that day, he (SAWS) fought a very fierce and intense battle and no one was closer to the polytheists than him (SAWS).” (Subalul Huda and al-Rashad in Seerah Khair al-Abad 7/46)
The story of the battle of Hunain shows also the bravery and courage of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS). On that day, when the Muslims turned and fled the battlefield, the Prophet (SAWS) remained alone in the battlefield and challenged the enemy. Sayyiduna Abbas (RA), uncle of the Prophet (SAWS), says: I was present with the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) on the day of (of the battle of) Hunain. Abu Sufyan bin Harith bin Abdul Muttalib and I stayed close to the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) and did not leave him. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) was riding his white mule that had been gifted to him by Farwah bin Nufaathah Judhaami. When the Muslims and the Kuffar met, the Muslims turned and fled, but the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) spurred his mule (so that it can go fast) towards the Kuffar. Abbas (RA) said: I was holding on to the reins of the mule of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) checking it so that it did not go too fast, and Abu Sufyan was holding on to the stirrup of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). Then the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “O Abbas, call the people of Samurah”(this is the same tree beneath which the companions swore the Baitur Rizwaan). Abbas (RA) –who was a man with a loud voice– said: I said at the top of my voice: Where are the people of Samurah? He said: By Allah, when they heard my voice, they came back like cows coming back to their calves, saying: “Here we are, here we are!” They fought with the Kuffar. Then the call went out to the Ansar: O Ansar, O Ansar! And the last to be called were Banu Harith bin Khazraj. They said: O Banu Harith bin Khazraj, O Banu Harith bin Khazraj! The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) seated on his mule, craned his neck to watch the fighting, and the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “Now the battle is raging.” Then the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) took some pebbles and flung them at the faces of the Kuffar, then he said: “They are defeated, by the Lord of Muhammad!” Then I went and looked, and saw that the fighting was as it had been before. He said: By Allah, all he did was throw some pebbles at them. Then their force was spent and they began to retreat. (Sahih Muslim: 1775)
The incidents and stories which have been presented here, there are several other incidents like them about the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). These incidents proved undoubtedly that the Prophet (SAWS) was a very brave and courageous person. He did not feel any fear. He (SAWS) presented different examples of his courage and bravery on various occasions so fearlessly that no realistic person can deny his courage and bravery. ••••
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
If the educational and literacy rate is evaluated fairly, it will become clear that in any town, city and country, the Muslim community and nation is far behind in comparison to the other communities and nations in the world. If we assess specially the situation of the Muslim and Arab countries in the field of education, we will not find their situations different as well. Amongst so many Muslim and Arab countries, there is no such institute or university found, which has any international reputation and recognition. Any university of a Muslim or Arab country has not yet discovered or invented something remarkable and noteworthy after the research in its own campus. We are followers of Islam, which gave much importance to education. We believe in the Prophet and Messenger (Muhammad SAWS), in whose eyes the learners, teachers and scholars had great status and position. While on the one hand, the Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) was sent as the last and final Prophet and Messenger for the entire universe, he was sent as a great teacher, outstanding instructor and extraordinary educator for the humanity on the other.
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) said on an occasion, “Verily I have been sent as a teacher.” The occasion on which the Prophet (SAWS) gave this statement is mentioned as follows. “The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) came out of one of his apartments one day and entered the mosque, where he saw two circles. One was reciting the Qura’an and supplicating to Allah and the other learning and teaching. The Prophet (SAWS) said: ‘Both of them are good. These people are reciting Qur’an and supplicating to Allah, and if He wills, He will give them, and if He wills He will withhold from them. And these people (of the other circle) are learning and teaching. Verily I have been sent as a teacher.’ Then he sat down with them (busy in learning and teaching).” (Sunan Ibn Majah: 229)
From the above Hadith, it is understood that the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) not only referred to himself as a teacher to indicate the great status of a teacher; rather, he further highlighted the importance of circle of teachers and learners by sitting in their circle. He (SAWS) made it clear that in his eyes, the rank and status of those who teach and learn Qura’an, Sunnah and Islam is great and superior. In addition to this, the several sayings and teachings of the Prophet (SAWS) are preserved in the books of Hadith, from which the status of the scholars and teachers in the eyes of the Teacher of Humanity, Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) is known well.
According to a narration, the Prophet (SAWS) describing the status and greatness of those who are learning and teaching mentioned them similar to those who fight in the cause of Allah. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) says: “Whoever comes to this mosque of mine, and only comes for a good purpose, such as to learn or to teach, his status is like that of one who fights in Jihad in the cause of Allah. Whoever comes for any other purpose, his status is that of a man who is keeping an eye on other people’s property.” (Sunan Ibn Majah: 227)
The Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) while describing the greatness and excellence of those who learn, said that whoever sets out to seek the knowledge, Allah makes the path to Paradise easy for him. Those who are engaged in learning and teaching, the peace and equanimity will descend on them and so on. This Hadith is long one. Here a part of it is being quoted: “Whoever follows a path seeking knowledge, Allah will make a path to Paradise easy for him. No people gather in one of the houses of Allah, reciting the Book of Allah and studying it together, but tranquillity will descend upon them, mercy will overshadow them, the angels will surround them and Allah will mention them to those who are with Him.” (Sahih Muslim: 2699)
The Messenger of Allah (SAWS), describing the status, significance and virtue of the person equipped with knowledge, said: “Whoever travels a road seeking knowledge thereby, Allah will cause him to travel one of the roads of Paradise. The angels lower their wings in approval of the seeker of knowledge. Those who are in the heavens and on earth, and the fish in the depths of the water, pray for forgiveness for the knowledgeable person. The superiority of the scholar over the worshiper is like the superiority of the moon, on the night when it is full, over all other heavenly bodies. The scholars are the heirs of the Prophets. The Prophets did not leave behind Dinars or Dirhams, rather they left behind a heritage of knowledge, and the one who acquires it acquires an abundant portion.” (Sunan Abu Dawood: 3641)
Many people used to come to the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) to acquire knowledge and learn the rulings of Islam. He (SAWS) welcomed them happily. Sayyiduna Safwan bin Assal (RA) once also attended the service of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) to gain knowledge. At that time, he (SAWS) was reclining on his cloak in the mosque. When he stated his aim and goal to seek knowledge, Allah’s Messenger (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) said: “I welcome the student. The angels shade the student with their wings. Then they spread over one another, until they reach the heavens and the world, due to their love for the seekers of knowledge.” (Al-Mujam Al-Kabeer Lil-Tabarani: 7347)
Whoever came to Sayyiduna Safwan bin Assal (RA) to learn knowledge, he would also welcome them with a smiling face, just like the Prophet (SAWS) welcomed him. Then he would also recite the said Hadith to the student, which has glad tidings for a learner.
The Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) also instructed the scholars of his Ummah that in the future when people would come to them to learn knowledge, how should they treat with them? Abu Sa’eed Khudri (RA) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “The people will come to you seeking knowledge. When you see them, say to them, ‘Welcome, welcome,’ in obedience to the injunctions of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) and instruct them in knowledge.” (One of the narrators said) I asked Hakam: “What is ‘Iqnuhum (Arabic phrase mentioned in the Hadith)?” He replied: “Instruct them.” (Sunan Ibn Majah: 247)
Islam has preferred politeness and easiness in comparison to strictness, difficulty. The Prophet (SAWS) has guided the preacher, the teacher and the educator to be gentle and kind. In a Hadith, the Prophet (SAWS) commands to create ease with the teaching of knowledge: “Teach the people knowledge, create ease, do not create hardship, when one of you is angry, let him be silent.” (Musnad Ahmad: 2136)
Imam Bukhari mentioned a Hadith in his book under the “Book of Knowledge” where the Prophet (SAWS) said: “Make things easy for the people, do not make things difficult for them and give them glad tidings and do not repel them. (Sahih Bukhari: 69)
According to the Islamic teaching, the status of a teacher to a student is like of a father. The Prophet (PBUH) used to present himself to his companions (May Allah be pleased with them!) like a father. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “I am to you like a father to his son and I teach you. So, when you go to relieve yourselves, do not face the Qiblah or turn your backs towards it.” (Sunan Ibn Majah: 313)
One who teaches the people to do good deeds and guides them, even the creature like the ant in its hole makes Duaa of mercy for him. Abu Umamah Bahili (RA) reports: “Two men were mentioned before the Messenger of Allah (SAWS): one of them being a worshipper and the other being a scholar. So the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: ‘The superiority of the scholar over the worshipper is like my superiority over the least of you.’ Then the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: ‘Indeed Allah, His Angels, the inhabitants of the heavens and the earths – even the ant in his hole, even the fish – make Duaa for the one who teaches the people to do good.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 2685)
A teacher who educates the people the religious education, this act of teaching has been described as the best of charity by the Prophet (SAWS). The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “The best of charity is that when a Muslim man gains knowledge, then he teaches it to his Muslim brother.” (Sunan Ibn Majah: 243)
If a person learns even one word of religion and teaches it to others, the Prophet (SAWS) has given such person the glad tidings of entering Jannah. The Prophet (SAWS) said: “Whoever learns one thing, two things, three things, four things or five things that Allah the Exalted has made obligatory for him to learn, then he learns them and continues teaching them, he will enter Jannah.” Dhaeef Al-Targheeb Wa Al-Tarheeb: 56)
During the time of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), the red camel was of the great importance among the Arabs. It was considered as the best wealth. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) addressing his son in law, Sayyiduna Ali (RA) said: “By Allah, even if a single man is led on the right path (Islam) by Allah through you, then that will be better for you than the nice red camels.” The actual story is that on the day of the battle of Khaibar, one fort namely “Qamoos” was not being conquered. Then the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “Tomorrow I will give this flag to a man through whose hands Allah will give us victory.” Next day, the flag was given to Sayyiduna Ali (RA). The Prophet (SAWS) guided him; while Ali (RA) was going to conquer that fort. “Proceed, and do not hurry. When you enter their territory, call them to embrace Islam and inform them of Allah’s Rights which they should observe, for by Allah, even if a single man is led on the right path (Islam) by Allah through you, then that will be better for you than the nice red camels.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4210)
The Prophetic messages which have been presented here so far, they reveal the excellence and greatness of those who have acquired religious knowledge and teach it. It does not mean that Islam has not given any importance to worldly sciences apart from the religious sciences; rather, any knowledge that can benefit humanity, wherever and by whomever it can be gained, must be gained. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said as a principle: “The wise statement is the lost property of the believer, so wherever he finds it, then he is more worthy of it.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 2687) In the light of this Hadith, it becomes clear that Muslim should learn any knowledge. Yes, it is necessary that the science should be useful for the humanity and the intention of the learner should be correct.
In today’s world, those countries who invested in establishing educational institutions and those nations who equipped themselves with education, their situations are not hidden from anyone. They are ahead in every field. They lead the world. Today, several countries have become dependent on those countries and nations. Those countries and nations are ruling the world today. Those people who remained behind in education are the mental slaves of these countries. If we pay attention to education even today, very soon we can control our deteriorating situation, In Shaa Allah. ●●●●
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa,
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) was sent as a mercy for all the worlds. Each and every one benefited from his favours and blessings. The people are indebted to so many favours done to them by the Prophet (SAWS). Allah’s all creations: humans, jinns, animals, plants etc. were blessed with his favours and mercy. Allah the Almighty says: “And We have not sent you but as mercy for all the worlds.” The Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) is the greatest benefactor and well-wisher of this Ummah. He (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) has innumerable favors on the Ummah. There are several rights of Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) over this Ummah. It is the right of the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) that the people should believe in his prophet-hood and messenger-hood. They should obey his instruction. They should follow his Sunnah. They should abide by his command and order. They should love him more than anyone. They should respect and honour him. One of the rights of the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) is that the Ummah send Salaah and Salaam upon him abundantly. The word: “Salaah” is an Arabic word. It has several meanings. Here it is used to convey the sense of Mercy (Rahmah), prayer (Dua) and praise (Madh and Thana). When “Durood” is used in a technical meaning, at that time, “It is a prayer and a greeting that is sent upon the Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!)”.
Command of Salaah in the Glorious Qura’an:
Allah the Almighty has commanded to send Salaah upon the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) in Surah Al-Ahzab of the Glorious Qur’an. This verse clearly shows that Allah the Almighty Himself and His angels send Salaah (Durood) and Salaam (salutation) to His beloved Prophet. After that, Allah, the Exalted, has ordered all the believers to send Salaah upon the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!). It should be clear that attributing Salaah to Allah the Almighty means showering and sending of mercy on the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!). When Salaah is attributed to the angels, at that time, it means their prayer for the Prophet. When Salaah is on behalf of the common believers, at that time, it means the combination of Duaa (Prayer) and Thana (praise). The verse wherein Allah has commanded us to send Salaah is this one: “Surely, Allah and His angels send blessings to the Prophet. O you who believe, do pray Allah to bless him, and send your Salam (prayer for his being in peace) to him in abundance”. (Surah Ahzaab: 56)
Mufti Muhammad Shafi (1897-1976) Rahimahullah writes under the commentary of the above verse: “The real purpose of the verse was to obligate Muslims to send Salah (Durood) and Salam upon the Holy Prophet (SAWS). But the command was given in a manner that, first of all, Allah Ta’ala pointed out that He Himself and His angels perform the act of Salaah for the Holy Prophet (SAWS). After that, common Muslims were ordered to follow suit. By doing so, it is indicated that the station of the Holy Prophet (SAWS) is so high that the act asked to be done by common Muslims in his respect is something already done by Allah Ta’ala Himself as well as angels with Him. Now then, common believers who are indebted to so many favours done to them by as their noble Prophet should certainly give high priority to making this act their essential concern. Then there is yet another good outcome of this modality of expression. It proves the great merit accredited to Muslims who send Salah and Salam as Allah Ta’ala makes them share in doing what Allah Ta’ala Himself does and so do His angels.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 7/228)
Most Virtuous Durood Sharif:
Durood Sharif is found in different words and forms in the books. In this regard, we have to keep in mind that every Durood in which the words of Salaah and Salaam are found, will fulfill the requirement and obligation of sending the Durood and Salaam upon the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) and the sender will be rewarded for it. Durood-e-Ibrahimi (Salaah wherein Ibrahim (AS) has been mentioned) contains the best words compared to other Salaahs. The Prophet (SAWS) chose Durood-e-Ibrahimi for prayers. It is the most virtuous and the best Durood.
“…. many different forms of Salah (Durood), have been authentically reported from the Holy Prophet himself. The requirement of sending Salah and Salam can be fulfilled by every such sentence that has the words of Salah and Salam in it. Then, it is also not necessary that those words should have been reported exactly as said by the Holy Prophet (SAWS). In fact, the obligation may be discharged and the reward of sending Salah may be achieved by any style of address that conveys the words of Salah and Salam. But, it is obvious that the exact words reported from the Holy Prophet are certainly much more blessed and are the cause of bringing many more rewards. It was for this very reason that the noble Sahabah had asked the Holy Prophet (SAWS) himself to determine the words of Salah.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 7/230)
It is narrated by Ahdur Rahman bin Abi Laila that Ka’b bin ‘Ujra met me and said: “Shall I give you a present? Once the Prophet (SAWS) came to us and we said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)! We know how to greet you; but how to send Salah (Durud) upon you (let us know)? He (SAWS) said: Say: Allahumma Salli Alaa Muhammadin, Wa Alaa Aali Muhammadin Kama Sallaita Alaa Aali Ibrahima, Innaka Hameedum Majeed. Allahumma Barik Alaa Muhammadin, Wa Alaa Aali Muhammadin, Kama Bdrakta Alaa Aale Ibrahima, Innaka Hameedum Majeed.’ (Bukhari: 6357)
Virtues of Sending Durood:
A few Hadiths are quoted regarding the virtues of sending Durood here. Various glade tidings and good news have come in different Hadiths for those who send Durood. In the following Hadith, it is stated that whoever sends Durood once, Allah will shower ten blessings upon him. It is narrated from Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas (RA) that he heard the Prophet (SAWS) saying: “When you hear the Mu’adhdhin (calling Adhaan), say what he says, then send Salaah upon me, for whoever sends Salaah upon me once, Allah will send Salaah upon him tenfold. Then ask Allah to grant me Al-Waseelah, for it is a station in Paradise which only one of the slaves of Allah will attain, and I hope that I will be the one. Whoever asks for Al-Waseelah for me, (my) intercession will be permissible for him.” (Sahih Muslim: 384)
The one who sends the most Salaah upon the Prophet (SAWS), he will be closest to him on the Day of Judgment. Abdullah bin Mas’ud (RA) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: “The person closest to me on the Day of Judgement is the one who sent the most Salaah upon me.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 484)
Friday is the chief of the remaining six days of a week. Friday is said to be the best day of the week in Islam. In the Hadith, there is an instruction to read Durood upon the Prophet (SAWS) on Friday abundantly. Aws bin Aws (RA) said: The Prophet (SAWS) said: “Friday is of the best of your days, so increase your Salaah upon me on it, for indeed, your Salaah is presented to me.” (Sunan Abu Dawood: 1531)
If a person sends Durood once; so there are four kinds of rewards for him from the Almighty Allah. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: “Whoever from among my Ummah sends Durood upon me once with sincerity from his heart, so Allah sends down ten blessings upon him for it, Allah raises him ten ranks, He writes ten good deeds for him and he forgives his ten (minor) sins”. (Al-Sunan al-Kubra LilNasai: 9809)
Abu Hurairah (RA) narrates that Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: “Do not make your houses into graves, and do not make my grave an ‘Eid (a regular place of visitation), and send your Salaah upon me, for your Salaah will reach me wherever you might be.” (Sunan Abu Dawood: 2042)
Wrath upon those not Sending Durood:
According to a Hadith, if the people sit in a gathering and they don’t remember Allah the Almighty and they don’t send Durood upon the beloved Prophet (SAWS), that gathering remains without the mercy of Allah. Such gathering is harmful and it will be source of regret for those who sat there in that gathering. Abu Hurairah (RA) narrates that the Prophet (SAWS) said: “No group gathers in a sitting in which they do not remember Allah, nor send Salaah upon their Prophet (SAWS), except it will be a source of remorse for them. If He wills, He will punish them, and if He wills, He will forgive them.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3380)
A person who doesn’t like to spend his money where required, lives very poorly in order to store up wealth, such person is called “a miser or stingy”. In the following Hadith, our beloved Nabi (SAWS) regarded a person as a stingy when he doesn’t send Durood upon him, whereas he is mentioned before him. In brief, it is enough for a person to be miser that the beloved Nabi (SAWS) is mentioned before him and he does not send Durood upon him (SAWS). Ali bin Abi Talib (RA) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “The stingy person is the one before whom I am mentioned and he does not send Salaah upon me.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3546)
Abu Hurairah (RA) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “May the man before whom I am mentioned, and he does not send Salaah upon me, be humiliated. (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3545)
This following Hadith makes it clear that when a person sit for ‘Tashah-hud’ in Salaah, firstly he should express his gratitude to Allah the Almighty and praise Him. Then he should send Salaah upon the Prophet (SAWS). When he has expressed his gratitude and sent Durood, then he should supplicate whatever he wishes. Amr bin Malik Al-Janbi (RA) narrated that he heard Fadalah bin Ubaid saying: “The Prophet (SAWS) heard a man supplicating in his Salaah, but he did not send Salaah upon the Prophet (SAWS) so the Prophet (SAWS) said: ‘This one has rushed.’ Then he called him and said to him, or to someone other than him: ‘When one of you performs Salaah, then let him begin by expressing gratitude to Allah and praising Him. Then, let him send Salaah upon the Prophet (SAWS), then let him supplicate after that, whatever he wishes.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3477)
A Few Issues Related to Durood:
It is obligatory upon a Muslim to send Durood upon the beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) once in his lifetime. If the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) is mentioned several times in a gathering; so it is obligatory to recite Durood at least once and it is better and virtuous to send Durood every time. (Raddul Muhtaar: 1/ 516) It is Sunnah Muwakkidah to send Durood in Salaah. If you are writing something and the Holy Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!) is mentioned; so, instead of a short form, one should write “Durood”, in full form like: “Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam”. ●●●●
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi
An Unpleasant Incident and Example of Honesty:
When we were in Darul Uloom Deoband, an unpleasant incident took place in July 2002. A student was beaten badly by some natives of Deoband town. He had to be admitted in a hospital. Some students reach the then coordinator of the hostels of Darul Uloom Deoband, Maulana Habibur Rahman Azami Qasmi (1941-2021) to complain. He didn’t pay attention to them. It made them so furious that they planned and attacked on some shops of the town and the things available in the shops were damaged. The town people reacted and the stones pelting started. We found Maulana Sayyid Arshad Madani (then director of Education Faculty)and Maulana Habibur Rahman Qasmi at Babe Qasim (Main Gate) trying to control the students; but they were too furious to be controlled. Then the students gave a call to boycott and refused to have any dealing with shopkeepers of the town. Next day, all students were called and gathered in Masjid Rasheed and Maulana Marghubur Rahman, the then Muhtamim (VC) of Darul Uloom asked them to call off the boycott and the tears started rolling down from his eyes. It was the first time, I saw him addressing the students. What happened next that shows a unique example of Maulana Marghubur Rahman’s honesty.
The shopkeepers complained about the damages they faced and demanded the compensation. Maulana Marghubur Rahman asked them to present their damages in writing. They did so; but with an exaggeration. After receiving the written complaint, damage details and compensation demand, he informed the shopkeepers that the donation which is received at Darul Uloom Deoband is to be spent for the necessary programmes. The donation is entrusted amount of the people to my care. I can’t commit embezzlement by paying for the damages you underwent. You give me some months. I will sell my certain property and I will pay the compensation. When the shopkeepers heard his statement, they felt that something wrong had been done. They realized that they had troubled him and asked for forgiveness from him. They further said that they didn’t want any compensation, as Darul Uloom is his, it is theirs as well.
His Early Life and Education:
That was an example of the honesty of Maulana Marghubur Rahman Bijnori who was 8th Muhtamim (VC) of prominent Islamic institution: Darul Uloom, Deoband and the 3rd Ameerul Hind. He was born in a learned and landlord family in Mohallah Qazi Para of Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh in India in 1914. His father was Maulana Hakeem Mashiyyatullah who was a graduate of Darul Uloom Deoband, a student of Sheikhul Hind Maulana Mahmood Hasan Deobandi (1851-1920) and colleague of Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri (1875-1933).
He acquired his primary level education at Madrasah Rahimiah Madinatul Uloom at his hometown, Bijnor, which was running under his learned father’s patronage. He started learning from the Holy Qur’an and completed the books like Sharah Jami, Sharul Wiqayah etc. in this Madrasah. Then he came to the largest Islamic seminary of the Indian subcontinent: Darul Uloom, Deoband in 1929 for higher education. He lived three years in Darul Uloom, completed the syllabus and graduated in 1932 (1351 AH). He studied from a galaxy of scholars like Sheikhul Islam Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani (1879-1957), Maulana Sayyid Asghar Husain Deobandi (1877-1944), Sheikhul Adab Walfiqh Maulana Izaz Ali Amrohavi (1882-1954), Allamah Muhammad Ibrahim Balyavi (1886-1967), Maulana Abdus Sami Deobandi (1878-1947), Maulana Nabih Hasan Deobandi (1879-1933) and Maulana Rasul Khan Hazarvi (1871-1971).
Following the graduation, he had planned to go for further studies of Iftaa Course; but due sickness he discontinued his educational activities. When he recovered, once again he took admission in Darul Uloom for Iftaa course. He completed Iftaa course and art of issuing fatwa under the guidance and teaching of the distinguished Muftis like Mufti Sahul Bhagalpuri (1870-1948) and Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (1896-1982). He obtained Iftaa degree in 1934 (1353 AH).
His Career as Teacher:
Following the completion of his studies, on the behest of his father, he started his career as a teacher at Madrasah Rahimia Madinatul Uloom, Bijnor which was the first seat of his learning too. He was from a landlord family, so he had to manage and look after his property, lands, farms etc. It caused him to stop teaching in Madrasah for long.
His Services at Darul Uloom Deoband:
Maulana Marghubur Rahman’s father Maulana Hakim Mashiyyatullah had thick relation with the elders of Darul Uloom, as he was its graduate, and served as a Member of its Executive Body for 27 years from 1925 to 1952. Following 10 years of his father’s demise, he was elected as a member of the executive body of Darul Uloom, Deoband in 1962. From the beginning of his membership, he used to participate in each meeting of the body with punctuality. As long as he was in Deoband for the meeting, he used to stay and eat at the home of a certain friend in Deoband. This dedication, commitment and selflessness made him a respected member and his opinion was valued in the meeting. After almost 18 years of his membership, when the then VC of Darul Uloom, Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi requested the executive body to appoint an assistant for him, Maulana Muhammad Manzoor Nomani (1905-1997) proposed his name and all the members unanimously seconded it. Then he was assigned the post of Assistant VC on 30th May 1981. (Bani Al-Furqan Number, P.: 118) In 1982, when Darul Uloom Deoband was facing a huge crisis and was at very critical moment, at that pointing time, first he was appointed as the working VC in January 1982 and following some months, he was nominated as the full-fledged VC in August 1982 by the executive body; while there were many distinguished personalities in the Executive body. He was the third longest serving VC of Darul Uloom following Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi and Maulana Hafiz Muhammad Ahmad. He served as the VC from January 1982 till 8th December 2010, when he breathed his last.
His each action expressed his selflessness, sincerity and piety. His humbleness, simplicity and dedication for Darul Uloom Deoband were beyond doubt. While being present in Darul Uloom, he lived in a small room of Darul Uloom close to Masjid Qadeem. He paid the rent and electricity bill of the room from his pocket. He deserved to demand a well-furnished family quarter for his living from Darul Uloom; but he avoided to do so. Allah the Almighty had blessed him with too much wealth, so he was very much capable to build a luxurious bungalow in Deoband to live; but he was a simple man, therefore, he preferred living in a small room. He never got a single penny from Darul Uloom for his services spread at the span of 28-year as the VC. He was always thoughtful about the progress and development of Darul Uloom and he loved to work for it quietly and sincerely. His hard work paid off and Darul Uloom Deoband got development from every angle. He proved that had been the man of the need of the hour. His services rendered at Darul Uloom Deoband would be remembered for long.
Darul Uloom Success during His Tuner:
He never gave anyone a chance to point finger at his administrative ability and opinions as long as he held the VC office. Darul Uloom made a considerable progress and huge success under his administration. Its fame and value increased at the national and international level. His tenure will be recorded in the history as the golden period of Darul Uloom. It witnessed huge success during his tenure in the educational system, introduction of new departments, increasing the number of the students and construction of several new buildings. Numerous new departments such as “Takhassus Fil Hadeeth”, “Takmeelul Uloom”, “Tahaffuze Sunnat”, “Tahaffuze Khatme Nabuwwat”, “Radde Isaiyat”, “Sheikhul Hind Academy” for publishing elders’ books and Diploma in Journalism, “Diploma in English Language and Literature”, “Diploma in Computer Application” etc. were introduced.
The number of the students in Darul Uloom increased more than two times which reached about 4000. The area of Darul Uloom increased to three folds. A two stories Hajjatul Islam Manzil in memory of Hujjatul Islam Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi for Madrasah Thanwiyyah, a three stories Sheikhul Hind Manzal in memory of Sheikhul Hind Maulana Mahmood Hasan Deobandi, a three stories Sheikhul Islam Manzil in memory of Sheikhul Islam Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani, a three stories Hakeemul Ummat Manzil in memory of Hakimul Ummat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi which is the hostel and the classrooms for the pupils of Hifz Classes, Dare Jadeed, the big hostel, which was in miserable and poor condition, was demolished and new hostel was constructed at its place with the same name, two hostels of the both sides of Ruwaqe Khalid, a seven stories new library in the western side of Babuz Zahir, two stories Darul Mudarrisin etc. were constructed. A very beautiful marbled mosque namely “Masjid Rahseed”, in memory of Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi, which is considered a masterpiece of Islamic art, was constructed in his period. As long as he was able to walk, he used to reach each construction site to inspect construction physically. Following the inspection, wherever he felt need to instruct the workers, he did. He justified his nomination as the VC due to his devotion, farsightedness and commitment in the affairs of Darul Uloom.
Formation of Rabtah Madaaris Islamia Arabia:
To bring all Indian Islamic Madaaris under one umbrella, to protect and safeguard its interests, Darul Uloom convened all India conference of Madrasas under his leadership. Following the conference, “Kul Hind Rabta Madarise Islamia Arabia” was formed under Darul Uloom in December 1994. He was nominated as its president. More than three thousand of Indian Madaaris are its members at the moment. Its branches were formed in several provinces. It played a key role in uniting Madaaris and creating uniformity of the syllabus, system, examinations etc.
His Election as Third Ameerul Hind:
Under the banner of Jamiat Ulamae Hind, one of the largest Muslims organizations in India, Imarate Shariah Hind was formed on 2nd November 1986. Under Imarat, the chief of the Indian Muslims is elected, who is entitled as “Ameerul Hind”. Following the demise of the second Ameerul Hind, Maulana Sayyid Asad Madani, Maulana Marghubur Rahman was elected as the third Ameerul Hind on 28th February 2006. He held this prestigious post till his last breath. The first Ameerul Hind was Maulana Habibur Rahman Azami who was known as Muhaddithe Kabeer. In April 2008, when Jamiat Ulamae Hind got divided between two groups, as Ameerul Hind, he kept the balance and tried his level best to mediate between them; but his efforts could not bear fruits and these two groups remained working separately and still they are in the same condition. At that critical moment, he got a resolution passed in the working committee of Darul Uloom that those who hold any post in both the groups of Jamiat should not hold a key office in Darul Uloom. Thereafter, Maulana Qari Sayyid Muhammad Usman Mansoorpuri (1944-2021) had to resign from the post of deputy VC and Maulana Sayyid Arshad had to leave the office of the director of the Education Faculty.
His Sad Demise:
Due to his old age, as he was 96, he suffered from various diseases and remained bedridden for several months. Therefore, the people were worried that anytime the news of his sad demise would come. The same happened and he passed away on 8th December, 2010 at his ancestral place in Bijnor. His death was considered a huge loss to Deobandi school of thought all over the world. His body was brought to Deoband. The funeral prayer was led by his son, Maulana Anwarur Rahman Qasmi in the premises of Darul Uloom Deoband. He was buried in Mazaare Qasmi (Qasmi Graveyard) of Deoband. Following his death, rich tributes were paid to him and his services rendered at Darul Uloom Deoband by the academics, activists, politicians and the graduates of Darul Uloom Deoband spread all over the world. What an exemplary, down-to-earth and farsighted man he was! May Allah grant him the best place in Jannah!
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi
Mufti Muhammad Zafeeruddin Saheb Miftahi, ex-Mufti of Darul Uloom Deoband, was a sincere servant of Islamic jurisprudence, noted author and a famous orator. He was born on 7th March 1926 in his ancestral village: Pura Nadiha of Darbhanga district in Bihar, British India. This village is at the distance of almost five Kilometers from Darbhanga town situated at the bank of Kamla River. His father’s name was Munshi Shamsuddin, who served in the Indian Railways as a line inspector.
Educational Journey of Mufti Saheb:
Mufti Saheb started his educational journey from a Maktab of his village. Then he was taken to Madrasah Mahmoodiya, Rajpur, Nepal, where his cousin brother and brother-in-Law, Maulana Abdur Rahman was a head teacher — who was nominated as the fifth Amire Shariat of Imarate Shariah, Bihar & Orissa following the death of the fourth Amir, Maulana Sayyid Minnatullah Rahmani (RA) —. Mufti Saheb learned Juz Amm, Naazirah Qura’an and Urdu class in this Madrasah. He studied almost two and a half years in Madrasah Mahmoodiayah, Nepal.
In January 1932, Maulanan Abdur Rahman Saheb resigned from Madrasah Mahmoodiyah of Nepal and joined Madrasah Warithul Uloom, Karim Chuck, Chhapra in Bihar as the head-teacher. Therefore, Mufti Muhammad Zafeeruddin Saheb enrolled at Madrasah Warithul Uloom under the supervision of his cousin brother. In this Madrasah, Mufti Saheb started acquiring the education from the basic of Persian language. This Madrasah was affiliated with Madrasah Shamsul Huda of Patna. He sat for the examinations of Fauqaniah in April 1938 and wrote his examinations. At that time, the books such as Mufkhtasarul Quduri, Maqaamaat Badiuzzaman Hamdani, Mathematics, Geometry, Baang Dara etc. were part of the syllabus in Fauqaniah class.
Fauqaniah and Maulvi Exams:
Mufti Saheb passed the exams of Fauqaniah which were held in April 1938. Then again he reached Warithul Uloom to continue his studies. Now, he was appointed as the fifth teacher in Madrasah Warithul Uloom as well. Therefore, while on the one he was a student, he was a teacher on the other. In this period, he learned the book like Sharahul Wiqaayah etc. He sat in the exams of Maulavi in Madrasah Shamsul Huda, Patna in April-May 1940 as a private student as Warithul Uloom hadn’t approval for the Maulavi Class. He passed the Maulavi exams as well.
In Miftahul Uloom, Mau, UP:
Following the completion of Maulavi class from Shamsul Huda Board, it was decided that now Mufti Saheb should be sent to Miftahul Uloom of Mau, UP. So, in November, 1940 he moved to Miftahul Uloom and was admitted in the Hidaayah Class. He learned the books such as Hidayah, Noorul Anwar, Qutbi, Mir Qutbi, Maqaamaat Hariri etc. in the first year of his learning in Miftahul Uloom. Next year, in 1941, he learned the books such Jalalain, Hamasah (from Maulana Habibur Rahman Azami (1901-1982) who was a famous scholar of Hadith and was well-known as Muhaddithe Kabeer), Sullam, Mebazi, Mukhtasarul Ma’ani, Mutanabbi etc.
Leadership in Quit India Movement 1942:
In August 1942, “Quit India Movement” was launched. Almost all senior leaders of the Indian freedom struggle were arrested. The movement was under the leadership of the students. The students of Madraaris, schools and colleges participated. Mufti Saheb also became the leader and he acted violently as it was the need of the time. As a leader, he ordered the students of Ramjiwan High School to cut off the wires of the telephones of all the four lines. As a result, he had to face the arrest warrant. In this situation, he was forced by the people of the locality to resign from the post of Imamat of a Masjid in Chhatarpurah Mohalla of Mau, where he was residing along with being the student of Miftahul Uloom. Then after the struggle of 11 days, he reached home.
Mufti Saheb was recommended by Hazrat Maulana Habibur Rahman Azmi not to come to Mau as the situation was not in his favour, because of the arrest warrant from the British Government against him. So, he remained one year in Bihar. In this period, he reached Madrasah Hamidiyah, Godna, Chhapra, where his brother-in-law, Maulana Abdur Rahman was teaching. He didn’t disclose his issue to him that he had been wanted by the British government and he is under arrest warrant. He prepared here for the examinations of Alim and sat for the Alim Examinations under the Madrasah Shamsul Huda Board, Patna.
Completion of the Final Year:
Next year in 1943, the arrest warrant was annulled. Then he was suggested by Maulana Habibur Rahman Azami to reach Miftahul Uloom, Mau for the completion of the final year. He reached Mau and started learning the Final year. It was an honour for him that he learned Sahihul Bukhari and Sunan Tirmidhi from the famous scholar of Hadith, Maulana Habibur Rahman Azami. He completed the course in August 1944 from the famed seminary: Miftahul Uloom and obtained his degree in Islamic theology.
As a Teacher in Miftahul Uloom:
Next year, he had planned to move to Darul Uloom Nadwatu Ulma, Lucknow to benefit from the elders of Nadwah, but he fell sick. So, he couldn’t reach. Now, again in the month of Muharram 1364 AH, he was called by Muhaddith Azami. He followed the call and reached Miftahul Uloom. Now he served as a teacher and was given the chance to assist in issuing the Fatwaas. He remained almost one academic year in Miftahul Uloom.
In Darul Uloom Nadvatul Ulama:
In September 1945, he enrolled for studies at Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow. The environment didn’t favour him. He had to leave Nadwah just following almost 2 months at the end of October 1945. Then he joined Madrasah Ma’adanul Uloom in Nagram of District Lucknow as a head teacher following the advice of Maulana Muhammad Owais Nadvi, teacher of Darul Uloom Nadvatul Ulama. He remained as a head teacher in this Madrasah from November 1945 to December 1947.
Spiritual journey of Mufti Saheb started under the instructions of Allamah Sayyid Sulaiman Nadvi (1884-1953). Latter on, he took the oath of allegiance at the hand of Sheikhul Islam Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani (1879-1957). Following the death of Sheikhul Islam, Mufti Saheb renewed it at the hand of the then Muhtamim of Darul Uloom, Deoband, Qari Muhammad Tayyib Saheb (1897-1983). He was granted Khilafah by Maulana Fazlullah, the grandson of Maulana Muhammad Ali Mungeri and by his Sheikh Qari Muhammad Tayyib Saheb in 1396 AH.
From Madrasah Mu’ieeniayah to Darul Uloom Deoband:
As the situation was not good to travel far following the freedom of India, the family members of Mufti Saheb decided for him to remain in Bihar. So, he joined Madrasah Mu’ieeniayah, Sanihah in Munger district as a head-teacher in January 1948. Then he joined Madrasah Talimudding, Dabhel, Gujarat in Muharram 1368 AH. He was assigned to teach the books such as Ibn Majah, Mishkaat, Jalalain, Hidayah etc. He remained almost 25 days in Dabhel; but the environment was not in his favour. He fell sick and had to leave Dabhel, Gujarat. Then again he reached Madrasah Mu’ieeniayha where he was before. He remained in this Madrasah about 8 years. Then he received a letter to join the famous Islamic seminary Darul Uloom Deoband in September 1956 as the coordinator of the Department of Dawah and Tableegh. From 1956 till 2008, he worked in Darul Uloom, Deoband. He served in Darul Uloom Deoband in different capacities for 52-year. In 2008, he resigned on health ground. Owing to his towering personality, he was respected by one and all in the campus of Darul Uloom Deoband.
Compiling of Fatawaa Darul Uloom:
The famous and popular work of Mufti Miftahi is compiling of “Fatawa Darul Uloom” in 12-Volume. These “Fatawaa” were issued by Mufti Azizur Rahman Usmani (1275-1347 AH), the first grand Mufti of Darul Uloom Deoband. Mufti Saheb was ordered to start this work in 1376 AH (1956). He completed this huge work in 12 volumes in the period of 10 years. It is worth mentioning that he wrote a forward on this Fataawa in 64 pages. He discussed in the forward about the history of Islamic Jurisprudence, Fataawa, importance and history of Iftaa, qualities and descriptions of a Mufti etc. It was appreciated by the great scholars.
His Service in Reference to the Library:
It was common complaint by the academic persons to the authority of Darul Uloom Deoband about its library that it was not organized and the books were not easily found as they were jumbled. This complaint was felt by the Muhtamim of Darul Uloom Deoband. This issue reached the governing body. Then Mufti Saheb was assigned the programme to organize and arrange the library in 1382 AH. He was instructed to inspect the library of Aligarh Muslim University, the Rampur Library and the Khuda Bakhsh Library, Patna. Following the inspection of those libraries, Mufti Sahib started his programme of organizing the library. He used the classification system to organize the books. He completed this programme of the century old library brilliantly. His service in reference to the library of Darul Uloom Deoband was appreciated by one and all. After organizing the library, he wrote the introduction of the manuscripts available in the library of Darul Uloom in two volumes namely: “Ta’aruf Makhtutaat Darul Uloom Deoband”, which was published from Darul Uloom Deoband. 1n 1975, when Darul Uloom Nadvatul Ulama, Lucknow decided to hold its 85-year celebration, Mufakkire Islam Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi (1913-1999) called him in Nadvatul Ulama for the same programme. He remained three months there in Nadvah, arranged the library and wrote the introduction of the manuscripts available in the library. Maulana Nadvi was very pleased with the way Mufti Saheb performed this job beautifully.
Writing Editorial of Monthly Darul Uloom:
Maulana Sayyid Azhar Shah Qaisar (1920-1985) was a great writer. He was the editor of the monthly: Darul Uloom, an Urdu organ of Darul Uloom Deoband. But the organ was getting published without an editorial. The governing body of Darul Uloom Deoband noticed it and appointed Mufti Saheb to write the editorial for the organ. He started writing the editorial from August 1965. He continued writing the editorial till February 1982. He used to write the editorial with the consultation of the editor, Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Azhar Shah Qaisar. His editorial was very popular. The editorial was mostly on the current affairs. Luckily, all these editorials have been compiled by Maulana Ahmad Sajjad Qasmi, a retired teacher and the elder son of Mufti Miftahi.
Mufti Saheb’s Published Works:
Mufti Saheb was a famous writer. He wrote hundreds of articles and essays on the religious, social, historical and other issues in different remarkable magazines like Sidq Jadeed Lucknow, Burhan Delhi, Darul Uloom Deoband, Al-Furqan Lucknow, Tibyan Pakistan etc. publishing from India and abroad. He authored about 35 books. Among his authored and published books fall Hayaate Gilani, Tazkirah Hazrat Maulana Abdur Rashid Ranisagri, Islam Ka Nizame Hayaat, Islami Hukumat Ke Naqsho Nigar, Uswaye Hasanah, Islami Nizame Ma’shat, Islam Ka Nizaame Iffato Ismat, Islam Ka Nizame Amn, Taarikhe Masajid, Jurm Wa Saza Qura’ano Hadith Ki Raushani Men, Jange Azadi Ka Ek Yadgar Safar, Mashaahire Ulamae Deoband, Darul Uloom Deoband, Qiyaam Aur Pas Manzar, Darul Uloom: Ek Azeem Maktabe Fikr, Mashaahire Ulamae Hind Ke Ilmi Murasle, Taarikhi Haqaaiq etc. His several books have been translated into English language and published.
He was not only a Mufti issuing Fatwas and a teacher limited in the class, but a dynamic personality and a freedom fighter who struggled for the freedom of India. He took part in the freedom struggle, while he was a student. He was a member of advisory board of Imarate Sharaiyyah, Bihar, Orissa and Jharkhand, founding member of All India Muslim Personal Law Board, founding member and latter president of Islamic Fiqh Academy, India. It should be noted here that wherever Mufti Saheb resided, he kept continuously in touch of great scholars like Muhaddith Azami, Allamah Sayyid Salaiman Nadvi, Allamah Manazir Ahsan Gilani, Maulana Minnatullah Rahmani etc. that shaped his skill on the higher level.
In brief, Mufti Miftahi was a well-known scholar, great orator, prolific writer, popular author, freedom fighter, renowned Mufti who issued Fatwaas for decades, a kind teacher and many more. Despite all these peculiarities, he was a symbol of simplicity and humility. His simplicity was seen everywhere. Mufti Saheb left for heavenly abode on 31st March, 2011, at his ancestral village: Pura Nodiha in Darbhanga district of Bihar. He was 85 years old. His funeral prayer was led by a well-known Islamic Scholar, Dr. Maulana Saud Alam Qasmi, Professor and Chairman: Department of Sunni Theology at Aligarh Muslim University. May Allah accept his services! May He shower His blessings and mercy on his grave! Aameen!
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia
Just a few days ago, we got the news from the social media that celebrated orator and honourable teacher Maulana Muhammad Matloobur Rahman Mazahiri (Rector: Madrasah Misbahul Uloom, Makia, Madhubani, Bihar) has fallen sick and he has been admitted in a hospital in the capital city of Bihar, Patna. He was about 74 years old. In the past, it was not heard that he was sick. The Almighty Allah had blessed him with the safe and sound health. He was healthy and energetic. Although, he fell sick some months back; but he seemed physically fit. Till some days back, he was seen at the stage of the religious programmes in his unique style. Only 11 days before his death, there was a programme in Shamsi, Nepal. He was present in the programme and addressed the public for almost 2 hours. But the fact is that “What is lotted cannot be blotted”. So just few days back, his condition became a bit critical. He was admitted in the IHMS Hospital in Patna. Then on Thursday, 3rd August, 2023 at about 3:30 pm, this shocking news was broke at the social media that Maulana Muhammad Matloobur Rahman Mazahiri has breathed his last and left for heavenly abode. Innaa Lillahi Wa Innaa Ileihir Rajoon!
The village of Maulana Muhammad Matloobur Rahman Mazahiri is very close to our village. A river is the barrier between these two villages. Maulana’s village: Makia is in the Southern side of the river; while our village is situated in the Northern side. From my childhood, I listened to Maulana’s public talk. He was known as a respected scholar and a celebrated orator in our region. It was difficult that the people discuss about the speech and his name isn’t mentioned. There was a time that he had received an invitation letter to address a public gathering from a remote area and he reached there by a bicycle without expressing any tiredness and exhaustion. When the people were informed of his attending a public gathering, they flocked there to listen to his talk. When he was addressing the gathering, the audience would listen to him attentively. The fact is that he was not only a well-known speaker of the vicinity; rather he was a celebrated orator in Bihar. Nowadays, not only in Bihar, but he was also invited to attend the programmes from the several provinces of India. He visited those places to address the public gatherings. His presence in a programme was considered as the guarantee of its success. The Almighty Allah had placed sweetness in his tongue. His voice was very loud and clear. He was an eloquent and loved speaker. He was a public speaker, therefore, during the speech; he talked in local tone about the religious issues and reformations which were necessary for the public and in their interest. Generally he spoke in the regional accent without any hesitation. When the moderator of the programme would hand over him the mic, the audience was overjoyed. The people started awaking the dozing audience (when the programme was in the night) saying, “Wake up, now Maulana Matloob has started his talk. He used to enthrall the large crowd within minutes easily, with his unique speaking methodology. It was easy for him to dominate the crowd. Allah Ta’ala had given him such a nature that he could nicely interact with the people and could simply mix in any assembly of the people. He used to get familiarized with the people and make them familiars easily. With his natural humor and ready-witted, commonly he become over-powerful of an assembly.
Always the starting point of the speech of Maulana Mazahiri was the Qura’nic verse and the Hadith of Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him!). He would use the language and expression in accordance with the understanding of the common people and explain the Qura’nic verse and Hadith beautifully. No matter what program he was addressing, his speech was full of humor. He would also mention stories and events in his speech. But those stories were not just to make the audience laugh; rather, there would have been lessons for the audience. During the speech, according to the occasions and the conditions, he was habitual of reciting certain poetry in the praise of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) too. The Almighty Allah had blessed him with the excellent voice. His memory was sharp. He had memorized many Naats and poems. The way he was reciting the Hadith on every topic during his speech, it can be easily understood that he had memorized a lot of Ahaadith by heart. One of his students said that Maulana Mazahiri had memorized whole “Mishkaatu Aathaar”, a book of Hadith written by Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Miyan Deobandi (1903-1975).
The region we belong to, there are the people of different school of thoughts. But we didn’t hear Maulana Mazahiri speaking against people of any other school of thought in any programme. He was not interested in that the scholars should stand on a stage and try to find fault in the people of other school of thoughts in front of the common people. Mostly his speeches were on the topic related to the innovations, rituals and customs found in the society. He used to speak well in this regard. The shortcomings found in the women in regard to religion were being pointed out and give the space in his address as well. At that time, his address would have been in women’s accent. Its advantage was that the messages of the Glorious Qura’n and Hadith would easily reach even those many uneducated village women.
Maulana Mazahiri belonged to a middle class family. His father, Mr. Sadiq Hussain (died: 1991) was a farmer. Allah had placed the love of knowledge and religion in his heart, so he guided his children towards the Islamic knowledge. Allah blessed some of his children with the memorization of the Holy Qura’n by heart and made some others eminent and well-known scholars and orators. One of his children was Maulana Muhammad Matloobur Rahman Mazahiri, who was born on 5th March 1950, in Makia in the district: Madhubani of Bihar.
Maulana Mazahiri was fair in complexion, medium stature, slightly high nose, thick hair slightly curvy at the end that reached his neck (which is called as Limmah in Arabic language), broad forehead, thick and long beard, wide eyes and a large frame glasses on it, a white very high side cap, which later changed into the round one, long Kurta reaching the half of the leg, a beautiful long court over the Kurta slightly above the ankles in the winter season and an Arabic scarf on the shoulder. This was his physical features.
To acquire the basic education of Islamic theology, Maulana Mazahiri got admission in the famous seminary of the North Bihar: Jamia Ashraful Uloom, Kanhwan, Sitamarhi in 1964. In Ashraf Uloom, he had the privilege of learning from the Persian language upto the forth standard of Aalimiyyah course from the great scholars like Maulana Qari Muhammad Tayyib, Maulana Muhammad Tayyib Khan Kummawi, Maulana Nawazish Kareem, Maulana Sabir Husain Qasmi, Faqihe Millat Maulana Zubair Ahmad Qasmi etc. (May Allah grant them Jannah!) Then he got admission in a seminary: Jamia Arabia, Hathaura, Banda, UP, run by Maulana Qari Sayyid Siddiq Ahmad Bandvi (1923-1997). He learnt the books like Mukhtasarul Ma’ani, Jalalain etc. in this seminary.
In 1971, Maulana Mazahiri moved to India’s well-known religious seminary: Jamia Mazahir Uloom, Saharanpur, UP. He studied for two years in Mazahir. He learnt the Hadith books from the expert scholars in the science of Hadith such as Sheikhul Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya Muhajir Madani (1898-1982), Maulana Mufti Muzaffar Hussain (1929-2003), Maulana Muhammad Yunus (1937-2017) — May Allah grant them Jannah!—, Maulana Muhammad Aaqil Mazahiri —May Allah protect him!— (Rector and Sheikhul Hadith of Mazahir Uloom presently) and got the honor of being their student. In 1973, he graduated with a degree in Islamic theology.
Maulana Mazahiri, in order to practice Tazkiyah and Ihsan (purification of soul), first took the oath of allegiance to his revered teacher, Arif Billah Maulana Qari Sayyid Siddiq Ahmad Bandvi. He loved Maulana Bandvi very much and Bandvi also liked him. Once he said about Maulana Bandvi that he was very pleased with his speech in a programme in Allahabad and said, may Allah grant you 90 years age. Then he said that Maulana Bandvi had been a pious person, he had made Duaa for 90 years; but his Duaa was not a “Wahi-Revelation”. Then he requested the audience to make Duaa for his health as he was sick. However, following the demise of Maulana Bandvi, he turned to Muhiyyus Sunnah Maulana Abrarul Haq Haqqi Hardoi (1920-2005) and renewed the oath of allegiance to him.
Maulana Mazahiri started his career as a teacher at “Madrasa Islamia”, Fatehpur court, UP. It was a branch of Darul Uloom Nadvatul Ulama, Lucknow. In this Madrasah, he taught the book like “Mukhtasarul Quduri” etc. As long as he was in Fatehpur, he visited the vicinity for the pubic talk as he was invited to attend the programmes to address the public gathering. From the beginning, he was a popular public speaker. His talk was liked by the people. He remained in this Madrasah for about 14 years. Then, on the wish of Maulana Abdul Hannan Balasathvi (1934-2009) —May Allah grant him Jannah!—, he joined the institution running under his supervision: Jamia Islamia Qasmia, Balasath, Sitamarhi, Bihar as its head-teacher. He rendered his services in this institution as a teacher and administrator for almost 8 years. During this period, he also traveled to the “Middle East” for a year. When the Gulf War broke out and a coalition of several countries led by America attacked “Iraq” on February 24, 1991, on that occasion, he came back his homeland and rejoined Qasmia Jamia. In Jamia, he taught the books like “Hudaya Thaani”, “Noorul Anwar”, “Sharh Jami”, “Mirqaat” etc. When he was in Jamia, he used to attend the religious and public programmes as an orator. While on the one hand, it gave him recognition in Bihar province as an orator, there was an introduction of the newly founded Jamia among the public on the other.
In 1994, Maulana Mazahiri resigned from Jamia. Then he took the charge of Madrasah Misbahul Uloom in his own village: Makia. This Madrasah was established in 1989. Following its establishment, he held the esteemed position of its president. When he came to Misbahul Uloom, some students of several standards of Aalimiyyah course took admission in Masbahul Uloom. He taught them the books like “Kafiyyah of Ibn Hajib”, “Usulush Shashi”, “Sharhul Wiqayah”, “Sharh Jami” etc. Since 1994, he had been the rector of Misbahul Uloom. May Allah accept his services and reward him the best!
Maulana Mazahiri was married to the daughter of Mr. Muhammad Siddiq of “Hasanpur Barharwa” in district: Sitamarhi in 1975. He is survived by his wife, three daughters and five sons. Among his sons, Muhammad Anwar is settled in Mumbai and runs his business. Hafiz Muhammad Anzar is a teacher at Madrasa Misbahul Uloom. Maulana Muhammad Salman is in Saudi Arabia. Maulana Muhammad Imran Nadvi manages the administrative affairs along with teaching in Misbahul Uloom. The youngest son is Hafiz Muhammad Bilal. His sons are Ulama and Huffaaz. May Allah Ta’ala make his sons for him an example of “a righteous son” as in a Hadith!
In the funeral prayer of Maulana Mazahiri, a large group of the scholars and elders like Maulana Abdul Mannan Qasmi (Rector: Madrasah Ashrafiyah Imdadiyah, Rajopatti, Sitamarhi and Khalifah of Maulana Abrarul Haq Hardoi), Maulana Izharul Haq Mazahiri (Nazim: Jamia Ashraful Uloom, Kanhwan, Sitamrahi, Bihar), Maulana Ishtiaq Azmi, Maulana Muhammad Shibli Qasmi (Working Rector of Imarate Sharaiyah, Bihar, Orissa, Jharkhand) —May Allah protect them— etc., the people of nearby villages and his loved ones participated. About 10,000 people attended the funeral prayer. The gathering of about ten thousand people in a village for a funeral prayer is a proof of people’s love for him. The funeral prayer was led by his son, Maulana Muhammad Imran Nadvi on 4th August after the Friday prayer. Then this great scholar and celebrated orator was laid to rest in the graveyard of his village. May Allah Almighty forgive his shortcomings, accept his good deeds and grant him Jannatul Firdous!
By *M. Burhanuddin Qasmi
In the backdrop of the recent idea-hauling for Uniform Civil Code (UCC), the Indian governments – both in the Centre and in some states, including Assam, and the TRP starving news channels are, once again, sensationalizing the issue of polygamy in ways that it looks as if polygamy is a widespread practice among Indian Muslims only and Muslims have a monopoly over it, whereas, the facts suggest otherwise. Hereunder we would examine the statistics released by various government and private bodies to bring home the facts and bust the propagated myths surrounding the issue.
Polygamy as per Indian Law
The ‘Hindu Marriage Act (HMA) 1955’ abolished polygamy by a “Hindu” and made it a crime. The Section 11 of the HMA states that ‘polygamous marriages are void’, and the HMA mandates only monogamous marriage relationship among Hindus. When a Hindu solemnizes a polygamous marriage, he is ought to be punished under Section 17 of the very HMA, as well as Sections 494 and 495 of the ‘Indian Penal Code, 1860 (45)’. Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs are all considered Hindus under HMA 1955 and they do not have their own personal laws, thus the provisions in the Hindu Marriage Act 1955 apply to these three religious denominations as well.
Under Sections 494 and 495 of the Indian Penal Code (1860), polygamy for Indian Christians is completely prohibited and criminalized. In India Christian marriages are governed by an Act of the British period - the ‘Christian Marriage Act 1872’. It applies to all sorts of marriages among the Christians of India and requires them to be solemnized under its provisions not only when both parties are Christian but also when one of them is a Christian and the other a non-Christian. This Act too prohibits bigamy (polygamy) and invokes criminal sections for the offenders, as in the HMA 1955, from the Indian Panel Code of 1860.
The ‘Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act 1936’, had already outlawed bigamy (polygamy). ‘Any Parsi, who has been married during his or her life, is subject to the penalties provided for by the India Penal Code for an offence to return to marriage during the lifetime of a Parsi or not, without being legally divorced by a wife or husband or having his or her previous marriage declared invalid or dissolved.’
The clauses under the ‘Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act 1937’, apply to all Muslims in India. Polygamy is not prohibited in Muslim personal laws because it is directly mentioned in the Qur’an as an “option”, hence they tend to keep it as “Fundamental Rights”, guaranteed in the Constitution of India under Article 25.
Here it is unequivocally clear that except Muslims, all other religious communities are legally barred from polygamy and it is rather a crime for them to be a bigamous. Even the ‘Special Marriage Act 1954’ which permits marriages beyond religious faiths and customs or intra-religious marriages, does not allow polygamy. Yet, statistics prove that more non-Muslims are polygamous in India than Muslims.
It is also noteworthy that when there is an incompatibility between the Indian Penal Code and the established Personal Law of a religious community, then the personal laws are implemented because it is a legal principle that a specific law (fundamental right) supersedes the general law. Thus polygamy of Muslims, either they practice it or not, cannot be abolished as per standard principles of Indian Constitution.
Polygamy as per Census Data 1961
It is imperative to note that those who are not constitutionally allowed to practice polygamy are more polygamous than Muslims – who are allowed to do so. This is what, actually, is the fact, revealed by all statistics from the past and the present. Let’s examine how many Indians are really polygamous?
The census data from 1961 is very important on this subject matter, primarily because, the 1961 census was the last one to look at marriages by religion and community. That survey, in fact, found that the incidences of polygamy were the least among Muslims, with just 5.7 percent of the community members were likely to practice it. Hindus actually had a higher incidence rate of polygamy – at 5.8 percent, although other communities, including Buddhists and Jains, were proportionally even more likely to practice polygamy. 7.9 percent of Buddhists and 6.7 of Jains were polygamous. At the top were Adivasi (tribals), 15.25 percent of whom were polygamous.
It is notable here that until the enforcement of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, polygamy was legal and allowed in all constitutionally defined Hindus. Moreover, changes in the social and religious demography doesn’t occur overnight thus data in the census 1961 is a right indicator where pre-HMA 1955 polygamous marriages among Hindus had also been recorded in the census.
As stated above that the Hindu Marriage Act 1955 includes three other religions – Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism – within its jurisdiction besides Hinduism. Similarly, Article 25 of the Constitution of India describes Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism as parts of the Hindu religion. Explanation II of sub clause (b) in clause 2 of the article 25 says: “the reference to Hindus will be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina and Buddhist religions …” Thus if we club together the constitutionally defined Hindus, then the rate of polygamy climbs among them to as high as 20.4 percent [Buddhists 7.9%, Jains 6.7%, Hindus 5.8%] excluding Sikhs, as we do not have data available for it from census 1961.
The takeaway from the 1961 census data thus stands for 5.7 percent Muslims, 15.25 percent Adivasi and 20.4 percent Hindus are polygamous. Muslims had been the least polygamous since decades in India yet this vital fact has been kept away from public by media as well as academia for vested interests and communal polarization in the country. This also is an indicator that 20.4 percent constitutionally defined Hindus were found to be committing a crime as per HMA 1955, in 1961 census.
[Some inputs incorporated in this part from scroll.in (digital newspaper) article ‘Muslim women and the surprising facts about polygamy in India’, dated July 08, 2014, by Rohan Venkataramakrishnan]
Polygamy as per National Family Health Survey (NFHS)
National Family Health Survey (NFHS), is a ‘compendium of fact sheets’ conducted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. This survey reveals various data including religion wise marriages, divorces and other indicators related to health and family wellbeing in India. This survey is, sometimes, fully or partly, funded by foreign charities or NGOs. The latest survey NFHS – 5 (2019-2021) is funded by the USAID, an American Government funded charity. We have data on polygamy from NFHS – 3 (2005-06), NFHS – 4 (2015-16) and NFHS – 5 (2019 -21); and all surveys indicate polygamy is drastically decreasing in India.
An illustrated reportage ‘Multiple wives most common among tribals: NFHS data’ by Rema Nagarajan in the Times of India, dated July 28, 2022 begins:
“Polygyny or the practice of having more than one wife is legal in India only for Muslims, but National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data shows it is almost as prevalent in other communities, though on the decline in all.”
The latest NFHS – 5 data from 2019-2021 which was carried and thoroughly analyzed by all major print and digital media platforms shows that the prevalence of polygyny was 2.1% among Christians, 1.9% among Muslims, 1.3% among Hindus, 1.3% among Buddhists, 0.5 among Sikhs and 2.5% among other religious groups. Here again if we put together these handy figures of polygamy of the constitutionally defined Hindus (1.3 + 1.3 + .0.5 =) it stands to be 3.1%, the highest among all, even as per the latest NFHS 2019-2021. Legally this 3.1 and 2.1 (total 5.2) percent people are committing a crime, for they all come under the HMA 1955 and under Sections 494 and 495 of the Indian Penal Code (1860) which criminalized polygamy, but 1.9 percent Muslims are not, instead, they are legal under the Muslims Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act 1937!
ThePrint.in (digital newspaper) also carried a detailed reportage entitled with ‘It’s not just Muslims who have multiple wives in India. But practice has declined across faiths’, by Nikhil Rampal, dated 18 May, 2023 which reads:
“Polygamy has entered the political discourse in the past few months owing to speculation over a Uniform Civil Code (UCC), but data shows the practice is rare in India — so much so that only 1.4 percent of married Indian women surveyed in 2019-2021 said their husbands had another wife or wives.
It further goes on, “India has also seen a decline in instances of polygamy across religions and demographies, according to a research brief published by the Mumbai-based International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) in June 2022. It makes these assertions on the basis of responses gathered across multiple rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), up to the latest, NFHS-5 (2019-21).”
The Print quotes researchers and writes: “The brief goes on to highlight that the practice of marriage to more than one spouse at a time is more prevalent among tribal-dominated districts, besides the ‘poorest’ and ‘uneducated’ households. The authors — Harihar Sahoo, R. Nagarajan and Chaitali Mandal — use NFHS-5 data to establish that incidents of polygamy are highest among members of the Scheduled Tribes (ST) in India.
“Compared to the national average of 1.4 percent (NFHS-5), the rate of polygamy was 2.4 among STs, 1.5 among SCs, 1.3 among OBCs and 1.2 among others. Even among STs, the number has come down from 3.1 percent in NFHS-3 (2005-06) to 2.8 percent in NFHS-4 (2015-16) and further to 2.4 percent in NFHS-5 (2019-21),” the Print reportage elaborated.
“Although polygamous marriage is not legal in India for any community other than Muslims, its practice still continues in some sections of the society in India,” reads the brief by IIPS researchers. It adds that the “prevalence of polygamous marriages in India was quite low, at 1.4 per cent in 2019-21, and will further decline over time”. The research findings evidently indicate that socio-economic factors played a major role in this form of marriage in addition to region and religion and that the prevalence of polygamy in India was very low and fading away.
States of India where Muslims population is tiniest like Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Odhisha etc. top the list of polygamy in India. The East Jainta Hills district of Meghalaya tops the all India list of polygamous men with a massive 20% and the North District of Sikkim comes among top 15 places with 5.7% polygamous among all Indians.
Assam where Muslims are 34.22% of total population, 1.8% Hindus, 3.6% Muslims and 1.8% others, are polygamous, as per the NFHS-5 (2019-21) findings. This is, however, a radical declined, especially among the Muslims of Assam, compared to NFHS – 3 (2005-06) when 2.1% Hindus, 6.9% Muslims and 1.3% others, were polygamous in the state. This statistic indicates how appalling and how hollow Dr. Himanta Biswa Sarma, the present chief minister of Assam, has been while ‘hunting Muslims’ for political polarization of his fan-club vis-à-vis UCC and so called Muslim women empowerment!
Polygamy as per the Qur’an
In Islam polygamy is allowed with strict conditions which are generally difficult to fulfill. That is why polygamy is not widespread in Muslim society in the whole of Indian subcontinent, even though it is legally as well as religiously permitted everywhere, including India. Very few Muslims get married to more than one wife. Sometimes it is even done as per the wish of the first wife or at least with mutual desire. Some of them do so because of the need, such as first wife is suffering from chronic disease or because of the wish of having either a child or a male child while a very few of them may misuse the ‘option’ and practice polygamy with wrong intention. It is not a fault of law but it is their personal crime if they oppress their first wives after getting married to other women and that can be brought to justice through domestic violence laws. However, it is by all means more humane than having extra marital relationship and committing adultery by cheating on the first wives, when at least the 2nd woman would have a legal and respectable social status which ensures her legal as well as religious rights as a wife with the polygamous man.
Contrary to the clear teachings of Islam and the Qur’anic verses, a few ‘ultra-feminists’ who are poorly educated, argue that polygamy is “unIslamic” and the Qur’an does not permit it. The glorious Qur’an says:
"And if you fear that you will not deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry those that please you of [other] women, two or three or four. But if you fear that you will not be just, then [marry only] one ...” [Surah An-Nisa, Ayat 3]
Precisely, polygamy is a conditional option but allowed in Islam. However a survey was conducted by a team of journalists from ummid.com at Malegaon, Maharashtra in India under the supervision of Mr. Aleem Faize, the seasoned journalist, to fact-check the hotly debated so-called prevalence of polygamous cases among Muslims on the ground zero level in 2016. Malegaon is a Muslim majority township with 7 lakh population and 78.95 percent Muslims. The report reads:
“The quick survey conducted by ummid.com amidst the ongoing debate on the subject following pleas in the Supreme Court by the Modi Government and some women activists seeking a ban on polygamy also showed that there are just 02 men in this hugely Muslim populated city who have three wives.” It further goes on “…just 151 men in Malegaon - a city of more than 05 lakh Muslims, have two wives…, and none with four wives” the latest survey showed. [http://ummid.com/news/2016/October/17.10.2016/ummid-dot-com-survey-on-polugamy-malegaon.html]
Incisively, Malegaon has 5 lakh Muslim populations, consider 50 percent of them are females, thus 2.5 lakh are males. Further make a deduction of 40 percent as they are either not married or children, thus total number of married men stands to roughly 1.5 lakh. Now the total number of men having more than one wife is 153 out of 1.5 lakh that is an astonishing 0.10 percent only.
This physical survey of Malegaon and the census data from 1961, NFHS – 3 (2005-06), NFHS – 4 (2015-16) and NFHS – 5 (2019 -21) together with follow up analysis and research from the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) are clear indications that banning polygamy will not make any difference and will not stop polygamy or “oppression upon women”. For, most of the polygamous males in the country are those who are not permitted by law to practice polygamy. However, polygamy from India is fading away and will continue to be so due to people’s own choices, without politicking in the country – with or for polygamy.
*M. Burhanuddin Qasmi is an author of various books, Editor of Eastern Crescent and Director of Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Centre, Mumbai, India
Law Commission of India seeks suggestion from civil society on UCC till 15 July, 2023
By: M. Burhanuddin Qasmi*
The public notice from LCI
The Law Commission of India (LCI) issued a fresh Public Notice dated 14 June, 2023 under subject line ‘Uniform Civil Code – Reg.’ and sought suggestions from common public, civil society members and all the stakeholders till the 15th of July, 2023. The Public Notice is published in the LCI website at https://lawcommissionofindia.nic.in/notice/uniform-civil-code-public-notice/ which reads as under:
“With regard to reference dated 17th June, 2016, sent by the Ministry of Law & Justice, the 22nd Law Commission of India is examining the subject matter of Uniform Civil Code. Initially the 21st Law Commission of India had examined the subject on Uniform Civil Code and solicited the views of all the stakeholders through its appeal along with a questionnaire dated 07.10.2016 and further public appeals/notices dated 19.03.2018, 27.03.2018 and 10.4.2018. Pursuant to the same, overwhelming responses have been received by the Commission. The 21st Law Commission has issued the consultation paper on “Reforms of Family Law” on 31.08.2018. Since more than three years have been lapsed from the date of issuance of the said Consultation Paper, bearing in mind the relevance and importance of the subject and also the various Court orders on the subject, the 22nd Law Commission of India considered it expedient to deliberate afresh over the subject. Accordingly, the 22nd Law Commission of India decided again to solicit views and ideas of the public at large and recognized religious organizations about the Uniform Civil Code. Those who are interested and willing may present their views within a period of 30 days from the date of Notice through “click here” button or by Email at firstname.lastname@example.org to the Law Commission of India. The concerned stakeholders are also at liberty to make their submissions in the form of consultation/ discussion/ working papers on any of the issues pertaining to the Uniform Civil Code to the ‘Member Secretary, Law Commission of India, 4th Floor, Lok Nayak Bhawan, Khan Market, New Delhi – 110 003.’ If need be, Commission may call upon any individual or organization for a personal hearing or discussion.”
Constitution of IndiaThe aforementioned Public Notice is viral in all major social media platforms, especially among Muslims, and the men of pens are replying, suggesting and writing to the LCI with zeal – in length and in short letters. The Non-Residential Indians (NRIs) are also seen to be writing to the LCI and actively participating in this ‘process of law making’, which is good for Indian democracy. But who will read all these piles of texts and what will be the outcome, will anybody even pay the least heave towards these sincere suggestions from the common men, only the LCI knows it. However, the Govt. of India has successfully brought this polarizing issue at the center stage once again after nearly five years as an easy political weapon to use in the upcoming 2024 general election.
Fundamental Right vs. Directive Principle
Articles 12-35 of Indian Constitution deal with Fundamental Rights. These basic human rights are conferred upon all the citizens of India. The Constitution tells that these rights are inviolable and irrevocable. There are six fundamental rights of Indian citizens, guaranteed by the Constitution which are:
On the contrary, the article 44 of the same Constitution is a Directive Principle which reads: “The State shall endeavour to secure for citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.”
A directive principle is a suggestion, it is an optional act and it cannot outdo any fundamental right of an Indian citizen. “The Directive Principles” denotes that it only created a ‘power’ and not a ‘duty’ for the future law makers of India. The Constituent Assembly of India after extensive discussion and debate was pleased to keep the Uniform Civil Code (UCC) merely an ‘endeavour’. It also indicates towards the fact that the UCC was then impractical in India’s multi religious and multi-cultural society and the same diverse demographic condition exists till date even with clearer identity lines.
As stated above, in addition to the article 25 of Indian Constitution, the article 26 and 29 are also among the ‘Rights of Citizens’. The article 26 is about “Freedom to manage religious affairs: … every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right (a) to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes; (b) to manage its own affairs in matters of religion;…” The article 29 is about “Protection of interests of minorities: (1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.”
The enactment of UCC will be in the teeth of various other articles of the Indian Constitution including the Fundamental Rights, strongly enshrined in articles 25, 26 and 29. An effort to make changes in the Muslim Personal Laws has always been considered an interference in the religion and religious practices by the Muslim Indians, thus it is totally against the constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights. A Directive Principle cannot and must not abrogate any of the Fundamental Rights which will go against the basic principle of the Indian Constitution – decorated in its Preamble and it will also go against the illustrated democratic values of India’s ‘unity in diversity’ culture.
Why UCC is not possible in India?
Diversity is the beauty of India. The Indian constitution ensures “justice, social, economic and political” to all citizens. It has adopted measures for the protection of the rights of all religious and ethnic minorities and of all socially and economically disadvantaged classes such as the scheduled castes (SC) and scheduled tribes (ST) etc. As, different kinds of flowers add to the beauty of a garden, in the same way people with different cultures and colours are the beauty of this awesome country. This is the sole idea of India.
One country one law is not possible here. Adivasis have their own customs and cultural mores. A man can have many wives and a woman can have many husbands too. They have different ways of marriage and also different rituals for burying the dead. A large section of Hindus practices different religious customs in different places.
A comparative study of the personal laws of Hindus, Muslims and other minorities will reveal that the sheer diversity of these laws, coupled with the dogmatic zeal with which they are adhered to, cannot permit uniformity of any sort in personal laws. In fact, the heterogeneity of Hindu law itself is such that even the possibility of a uniform Hindu code is ruled out.
Talking of marriage alone, under the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, marriages may be solemnized in accordance with the rites and ceremonies of a variety of people who come under the definition of a Hindu. For instance, according to the ‘saptapadhi’ ‘(seven steps) form of marriage that is followed mostly in northern India, the marriage is deemed to be complete and binding when the couple take seven steps of rounds with the sacred fire – known as ‘saath phere’.
On the other hand, in the south of India ‘suyamariyathai’ (self-respect) and ‘seerthiruththa’ (reformed) forms of marriage are followed. Under these, the marriage is valid if the parties to the marriage declare in the presence of relatives that they are marrying each other, or if they garland each other, or put a ring on each other’s fingers or if the groom ties a ‘Thali’ or ‘Mangalyam’ (necklace) around the neck of the bride.
Likewise, in southern India, a Hindu man can get married to his cousin and even to his niece but in other parts of India, Hindu men cannot get married to their cousins and nieces.
Furthermore, for a marriage to be valid under the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA) 1955, it has to be solemnized in accordance with the customary rites and ceremonies of at least one of the parties. Thus, if a Jain marries a Buddhist by performing the rites of a Sikh, the marriage is invalid. [Sakuntala v Nilakantha 1972, Mah LR 31, cited in Family Law by Paras Divan]. Whereas, the Section 2(1) (b) of the HMA lays down that “any person who is a Buddhist, Jain or Sikh is also considered to be a Hindu…” Here within a single article of the Indian Constitution – HMA 1955, marriage rites of identical religious groups who are considered one within the Act, are not considered as homogenous rites.
These are just a few examples to bring home the idea that there are enormous cultural, religious, and ethnic diversities within India from state to state and region to region; and these all are within Indian Civil Laws. It, therefore, needs to be asked, if it is possible or practicable to reconcile these divergent laws and formulate a uniform or common civil code that will be acceptable to all communities.
India already has an optional civil code in the form of the Special Marriages Act 1954. This, read with similar acts such as the Indian Succession Act of 1925, provides a good legal framework for all matters of marriage, divorce, maintenance and succession for those who may wish to avoid the religion-based laws.
The Uniform Civil Code in India is an illusion, and a political claptrap. It is illogical as well as impossible to bring all jumping chickens in one narrow basket. So why this government is creating a hysteria among common men through Law Commission of India, is better known to Mr. Modi and people sitting in the realm of RSS headquarters in Nagpur. To me, such an exercise will invite disunity, chaos and cause disturbance among minorities within India and tarnish India’s image as a secular democratic country in the world.
The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937
The Muslim personal law in India is not unconstitutional. Muslims here are governed by a set of uncodified laws which, like many other laws, has been borrowed from the British Laws. The Shariat Application Act which was enacted in the 7th of October, 1937 and enforced since then, that consists of six sections and regulates the application of Muslim Personal Laws in India. The Section 2 of the Act lists those matters which among Indian Muslims shall be invariably governed by the Muslim Personal Law. The Shariat Application Act, 1937 which extends to whole of India, which reads:
“Application of Personal Law to Muslims.—Notwithstanding any custom or usage to the contrary, in all questions (save questions relating to agricultural land) regarding intestate succession, special property of females, including personal properly inherited or obtained under contract or gift or any other provision of Personal Law. marriage, dissolution of marriage, including talaq, ila, zihar, lian, khula and mubaraat, maintenance, dower, guardianship, gifts, trusts and trust properties, and wakfs (other than charities and charitable institutions and charitable and religious endowments) the rule of decision in cases where the parties are Muslims shall be the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat).”
It is a common perception that the UCC will displace personal laws which govern marriage, divorce, inheritance and other family and social practices of all communities – including Muslims whose personal laws are part of their religion and worship. It is also noteworthy that personal laws are integral parts of all major religions and communities. Any tempering with personal laws would be equal to interfering with the whole way of life of people who had been following them from generation to generation with traditional pride and customary care. India is a secular state and it must not do anything that would jeopardize the people’s religious and cultural ethos.
Many communities particularly minority communities – Muslims, Christian and Sikhs et al, contemplate the UCC as an encroachment on their right to religious freedom and different identities. They fear that a common code will neglect their traditions and impose rules which will be mainly dictated and influenced by the majority religious communities or Brahmin laws. Constitution of India provides with the Right to freedom of religion of one’s choice. With codification of uniform rules and its compulsion, the scope of the freedom of religion will be reduced and heavily neglected.
An attempt to formulate and implement the Uniform Civil Code, mentioned in the Directive Principles of the Constitution under the Article 44, is bound to affect the Rights to Freedom of Religion and Minority Rights, duly assured in the Fundamental Rights in articles 12-35, which hold supremacy over all other provisions of the Constitution. As stated above, it may give rise to the communal disturbances across India and deface India’s image abroad. Thus, it is just and prudent to set aside the issue of UCC in the national interest – once and for all.
*Burhanuddin Qasmi is the Director of Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Centre and Editor of Easter Crescent, Mumbai
(Press Release: Mumbai/ June – 5)
On Saturday, the 3rd of June, 2023 Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Center (MMERC), Mumbai organized an international meeting on Google Meet. Around 50 Islamic scholars and intellectuals from India and abroad participated in it. The meeting participants were members of the International MMERC Alumni Network (IMAN) who gathered to discuss and finalize Markaz Online (English Medium) Madrasa (MOM) project, which was conceptualized by MMERC, Mumbai.
At the outset Maulana Muhammad Burhanuddin Qasmi, Director of MMERC and Editor of Eastern Crescent, put forwarded the MOM concept through a presentation and said that the preparation for this project has been going on for the past several years. “The aim of this academic endeavor is to provide with necessary as well as advanced level Islamic theological education to the non-madrasa attending youths and professionals, both males and females, from across the world, in an online mode like that of IGNOU and NIOS in India,” he said. The complete course will consist of 3+2 year duration, upto graduation in Islamic Studies (Alimiyat). That is the course will have total four stages – (1) Certificate Course in Islamic Studies, 1st Year, (2) Diploma in Islamic Studies, 2nd Year, (3) Advanced Diploma in Islamic Studies, 3rd Year and (4) Graduation in Islamic Theology, 4th and 5th year, for above 15 year age group.
Maulana MB Qasmi further detailed that in these courses, students from colleges and universities of India and abroad, and professional men and women who want to gain systematic Islamic education and in-depth Shariah studies through academic means, may enroll. The criteria will be that the candidate should have adequate knowledge of English language because the medium and contents of these courses will be in English. The courses will gradually cover subjects such as Arabic language (reading, writing, speaking), Translation and Tafseer of the Qur’an, Fiqh, Hadith, Aqaid (Beliefs), Seerat (Biography of the Prophet (saws), Islamic History, Islamic Sociology and Comparative Studies of Religions etc.
In the meeting, a 12-member committee of experts, associated with various educational institutions and are experienced in curriculum design, was formed to prepare the MOM syllabus. This committee will present the detailed draft by the end of this June and the course will start in the end of this year 2023 – In-Sha’Allah. Those 50 Islamic scholars and intellectuals who were present in the Digital Meet on 3rd June, 2023 are designated and recorded as the founding members of MOM under MMERC, Mumbai.
All the Islamic scholars and intellectuals who participated in this meeting are former students of the post-madrasa two-year Diploma in English Language & Literature (DELL), course under Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Center (MMERC) and who are currently working as professionals in India and abroad or are rendering valuable educational services in madrasas, schools, colleges and universities. It is noteworthy that this post-madrasa educational institution – MMERC, was established by Mohsin-e Millat – Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Al-Qasimi, Lok Sabha MP and CEO Ajmal CSR, in 1994.
Some of the scholars who shared their expert opinions in the digital meet on Markaz Online Madrasa (MOM) were – Dr. Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi (Prof. Dr. Zakir Hussain College of Delhi University), Maulana Mohammad Afzal Qasmi (Lecturer, Blackburn College, UK), Mufti Abdur Rasheed Qasmi (Chairman, HERF, Kanpur), Maulana Abdul Aleem Chaudhary (Add. GS, Markazul Ma’arif, Hojai, Assam), Dr. Manzar Imam Qasmi (Delhi), Dr. Razi Ahmad Qasmi (HoD Markaz Academy Group of Schools, Assam), Maulana Muddassir Ahmad Qasmi (Director, GIS, Arria, Bihar), Maulana Tauqeer Ahmad Naqshbandi (HoD. Dept. of English, Darul Uloom, Deoband), Maulana Syed Muhammad Saad Qasmi (Naib-e Mohtamim, Islamia Madrasa, Ittawa, UP), Dr. Hifzur Rahman Qasmi (Director, Eagle Academy, Delhi) Mufti Jaseemuddin Qasmi (Lecturer, MMERC, Mumbai), Maulana Javed Ahmad Qasmi (Lecturer, HERF, Kanpur), Maulana Abdullah Yusuf (Director, Suffah Academy, Malegaon, Maharashtra), Mufti Izharul Haque Qasmi (Basti, UP). Maulana Nazir Anwar Qasmi (HoD DELL, Al-Mahad, Hyderabad), Mufti Abdul Rauf Qasmi (Haridwar) etc.
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Supplication means asking, begging, calling, prayer, request and plea. In Islamic terminology, supplication means invoking Allah for whatever one desires and asking Him for what one needs and requires. In Arabic language, it is called: “Duaa”. The Muslims supplicate for many reasons and at various times and occasions, such as after Salah, before eating a meal, before sleeping etc.
The Almighty Allah has blessed this Ummah with distinctive features. One of it is Allah’s order to “supplicate” and He has promised to respond to the supplication. The people can present their needs, necessities and lawful desire before Allah and can ask Him for their fulfillment. So, the supplication is very benefiting and has much significance. The one who doesn’t supplicate, Allah is unhappy with him. The Holy Qura’an speaks: “Your Lord has said, “Call Me, I will respond to you. Definitely those who show arrogance against worshipping Me shall enter Jahannam (Hell) with disgrace.” (Mumin: 60)
Mufti Muhammad Shafi (1897-1976) writes: “…This verse confers a special honour on the large community of the followers of the Holy Prophet (SAWS) when they were ordered to make Dua with the assurance that it would be answered. And whoever does not make a prayer has been warned of punishment.
Qatadah reports from Ka'b Ahbar that earlier this used to be peculiar to prophets (PBUT) as they were the ones who were ordered by Allah Ta'ala that they should make Dua and He would answer. Now, it is the distinction of the followers of the Holy Prophet (SAWS) (popularly identified as Ummah Muhammadiyyah) that this order was universalized for his entire Ummah.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 7/611)
At another place, the Glorious Qura’an speaks: “I respond to the call of one when he prays to Me; so they should respond to Me, and have faith in Me, so that they may be on the right path.” (Al-Baqarah: 186)
In supplication, Allah the Almighty likes the helplessness and sincere attention of His slaves. The Glorious Qura’an speaks: “Or the One who responds to a helpless person when he prays to Him and removes distress, and who makes you vicegerents of the earth? Is there any god along with Allah? No, but little you heed to advice.” (Al-Naml: 62)
“Imam Qurtubi has said that Allah Ta’ala has taken upon Himself to accept the supplication of a Mudtar (helpless and restless under some necessity). He has made declaration to this effect in this verse. The main reason for it is that by divorcing all mundane supports and connections, beseeching from Allah, while regarding Him as the sole redresser is the sincerity at its best. Sincerity has a special position before Allah Ta'ala. Whoever evinces sincerity, no matter if he is a believer or an infidel, a pious or a sinner, because of the auspiciousness of sincerity the divine favour gets attentive towards him. Allah Ta'ala Himself elaborates this point while describing the traits of the infidels. He has said that when they are in water and the boat is caught in storm, and they are sure of their death, they call out to Allah with all sincerity, saying that they would be thankful to Him forever if He would save their lives. But when Allah Ta'ala rescues them and brings them to land by accepting their supplication, they again indulge in associating Him with gods.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 6/606-607)
Supplication Strengthens the Relation
There are numerous narrations of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) which emphasizes on the supplication. They show its importance and benefits. The blessed tongue of the Prophet (SAWS) used to be busy in the supplication. Sometimes, he was supplicating for goodness of the world and the hereafter for himself and his Ummah. Occasionally, he asked protection from the evils of the world and the hereafter. We should also involve ourselves in supplication to strengthen our relations with our Creator Allah.
Either we are in prosper conditions and our lives are passing with easiness and comfort, we should not be neglectful from the supplication; rather we should keep ourselves in it as much as possible. It is also one type of worship. Then a faithful slave mustn’t be neglectful from worshiping his Master. If one is careless in supplication, it is disobeying Allah. Supplication strengthens the relation and link with Allah. It shows our helplessness and weakness and acknowledgment of our obedience to Allah. There is one narration that means: When a person offering Salah recites: “You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything)”, Allah says: 'This is between Me and My slave, and he will have what he asked for.” (Sahih Muslim: 395)
Supplication is Worship
As Salah, fasting, Zakah, Hajj etc. are worships and virtuous acts, in the same way, the supplication is also worship and righteous deed. Rather it is worship’s gist. It should not be doubted that a person asks his needs and desires in the Duaa, so it is his needs, not worship. It is true that he calls for his needs in the Duaa; but as it is in accordance with the commandment of Allah, so absolutely it is worship in itself. There is a Hadith narrated by Noman bin Bashir (RA) that the Prophet (SAWS) said: "The supplication is worship in itself or worship is supplication in itself." (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3372)
“…The meaning is that Dua (prayer, supplication) and 'Ibadah (worship, devotion) are, though separate from each other in terms of the literal sense, yet in terms of substantiation, they are unified, as every Dua is 'Ibadah and every 'Ibadah is Dua. The reason is that 'Ibadah is the name of the attitude of showing one's utter modesty and abasement before someone, and it is all too obvious that showing one's utter helplessness before someone and extending one's hand before him with the beggar's bowl is a matter of great disgrace –which is the very sense of 'Ibadah. Similarly, the outcome of every 'Ibadah is also to ask Allah Ta'ala for forgiveness and Jannah and that He blesses us with a perfect state of well being in this world and in the world to come. Therefore, it appears in a Hadith Qudsi (a Hadith in which the Holy Prophet (SAWS) conveys a saying from Allah that is not included in the Qur'an) that Allah Ta'ala said: "One who is so engrossed in remembering Me that he does not have even the time to ask for what he needs, I shall give him more than those who ask (by fulfilling his needs without the asking)" (reported by al-Jazri in An-Nihayah) and in a narration appearing in Tirmidhi (Hadith: 2926) and Muslim, the words are: …’One who is so engrossed in the recitation of the Qur'an that he does not have even the time to ask for what he needs, I shall give him even more than what those who ask ever get’. This tells us that every 'Ibadah brings the same benefit as is the benefit of Dua'.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 7/611-612)
Supplication is Honoured Deed
The supplication is honoured deed in the sight of the Almighty Allah; because His slaves are supplicating before Him with humility and total submission. They express their helplessness before their Allah, All-Independent and Ever-Praised in the supplication. Showing the helplessness, humility and submission before Allah are actually the highest status for the slaves. A narration speaks: "There is nothing more honorable with Allah (the Exalted) than supplication." (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3370)
Allah Gets Angry
Allah has commanded His slaves to beg from Him. So, the supplication and begging is the precious deed in the sight of Allah. If a slave doesn’t beg and supplicate, it means that he is disobeying Him. That is why Allah gets angry with the one who doesn’t ask and supplicate. There is a narration which says: "Indeed, he who does not ask Allah, He gets angry with him.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3373)
Allah doesn’t Return One Empty-Handed
Following affliction with a problem or a crisis, an individual runs to a known person to get assistance to fulfill his needs and come out of the crisis. Sometime, the person assists him happily and sometimes returns him scolding empty-handed. It is hardly heard that a needy man meets a rich person for his needs and the rich never returned him empty-handed, since he feels shy to do so. But according to the Hadith, whenever a needy slave asks Allah the Exalted, He responds in positive and never returns him empty-handed as He feels shy to do so. Two narrations are quoted here: “Truly Allah feels shy that His slave stretches his hands before Him asking Him for something good and He rejects them unsuccessfully.” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Saheibah: 29555) Another narration goes like this: "Indeed, Allah, is Hayy, Generous, when a man raises his hands to Him, He feels shy to return them to him empty and rejected.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3556)
Prayer is Beneficial at Every time
Any kind of trouble, sickness, calamity etc. has happened or it is expected that it is going to happen in the future; the people should turn towards the Almighty Allah and start supplicating. While making prayer, they should have full confidence that Allah is going to remove the affliction and calamity from them. The prophet (SAWS) says: "The supplication benefits against that which strikes and that which does not strike. O worshipper of Allah, so hold fast to supplication." (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3548)
Supplicate Plentifully in Prosperity
It is known to all that Allah is only the One who is All-Independent and Besought of all, needing none and all the creatures are needy, poor and helpless always. So, the people should not wait for that they would ask Allah during the time of grief and hardship; but despite being in happiness and prosperity, they should raise their hands with humility and humbleness supplicating before Him. In this case, the link between Allah and His slaves remains strong. Thereafter, when they are afflicted with a calamity and supplicate, their supplications are answered. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) says: "Whoever wishes that Allah would respond to him during hardship and grief, then let him supplicate plentifully when at ease." (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3382)
Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlavi (1703-1762) writes after quoting the mentioned Hadith: “I say and that (supplication plentifully in prosperity) because that the supplication is not answered, except for the one whose desire and concentration is strong, whose determination is firm and he was habitual of supplication before the calamity which has befallen upon him.” (Hujjatulllah Al-Balighah: 2/241, Dar Ibn Kathir, Damascus - Beirut)
Maulana Muhammad Manzoor Nomani (1905-1997) writes under the commentary of the above Hadith: “It is confirmed through experiences that those people who have very weak link with Allah who turn to Him only in the time of difficulty and anxiety and raise their hands in supplications only in such a situation. Such people lack that confidence in the Mercy of Allah which produces soul and life in their supplication. In contrast those slaves of Allah who accustomed to request Him for their needs at all times have a strong link with Him and they have much confidence in the Mercy of Allah on which they continue to rely. Thus their supplication is very strong. The Messenger of Allah has given us advice in this Hadith that we must make plenty of supplication to Allah in days of happiness and prosperity. The result will be that we will establish connection whereby our supplications in the days of difficulty will be granted to us.” (Ma’ariful Hadith: 5/115-116)
Begin Supplication with himself
It was practice of Rasulullah (SAWS) to begin supplicating with himself, whenever he wanted to supplicate for someone else. It shows that the person is also in the need of the mercy and blessing of Allah. This habit will please Allah the Almighty. Therefore, one should begin supplication with himself. It is proven by a narration which speaks: “Whenever the Messenger of Allah would mention someone and supplicate for him, he would begin with himself.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3385)
Supplication of Heedless Person
It is correct that Allah the Exalted doesn’t return empty-handed anyone asking Him for his needs. It is also fact that during the supplication, the concentration of the supplicating person should be focused on Allah. He should have full trust in Allah and Duaa should be made wholeheartedly. Then such supplication is responded. The one who is heedless and doubtful about his Duaa being accepted and concentration is somewhere else, the supplication of such person is not responded. The prophet (SAWS) says: "Call upon Allah while being certain of being answered and Allah does not respond to a supplication from the heart of one heedless and occupied by play." (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3479)
Supplication with Determination
During supplication, one should call upon Allah with determination, complete trust, confidence and hope. He should be sure that it is only Allah, the All-Merciful and all hearing who will hear the Duaa. While making Duaa one should be hopeful that it is Allah, the Great Giver of all things who gives what one needs and fulfills the desires, then the supplication will be answered, In Shaa Allah. Allah’s messenger (SAWS) says: “When anyone of you appeals to Allah for something, he should ask with determination and should not say, 'O Allah, if You wish, give me', for nobody can force Allah to do something against His Will." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 6338)
Supplication Answered in Particular
It is mentioned in the narrations that there are some people whose supplications are answered in particular. The reason behind is that these people supplicate from the bottom of their hearts with perfect humility and a sincere admission of their helplessness. It is the supplication of the oppressed, the supplication of the traveler and the supplication of (a broken hearted) father against his son. (Tirmidhi: 1905) It is also the supplication of a person on his Hajj trip as long as he is not back, the one who is on Jihad trip as long as he has not returned, the sick person as long as he is sick and the supplication of a brother for another one in his absence. (Al-Dawat Al-Kabeer Lil-Beihaqi: 671)
Meaning of Supplication Acceptance
It is a fact the supplication of a believer is not rejected. Allah answers his all supplications. But the acceptance is in different forms. One form is that what one has begged will be granted at the same time. Another one is that Allah will store up one’s supplication and will reward him in the hereafter. It is also one form that Allah will turn away from the seeker of supplication an equivalent amount of a calamity which was to befall upon him. It should be noted here that the Duaa made for a sinful act and breaking the ties of kinship are not answered. The Prophet (SAWS) said: “Any Muslim who makes a supplication, containing nothing which is sinful or which involves breaking the ties of kinship will be given by Allah one of the three things: (1) Allah will give him what he had asked at the same time, (2) He will store it up for him in the hereafter or (3) He will turn away from him an equivalent amount of evil (calamity).” (Musnad Imam Ahmad: 11133)
Special Times and Occasions for Acceptance of Supplication
When a person supplicates with humbleness, trust, concentration and great link with Allah, his supplication is answered at all times and occasions. In spite of this fact, there are some occasions and times when one’s supplication is responded specially. Maulana Muhammad Manzoor Nomani has recorded them. They are being noted here in brief:
“After the Fard prayers, after the whole Qrua’an is recited (Khatam Al-Qura’a), between Azan and Iqamah, on the battle field of Jihad, during fighting, when beautiful rain falls down, when the Ka’bah is before the eyes, after offering prayer in desolate desert where there is no one besides Allah, on the field of Jihad when the companions have deserted and the last part of the night. …. Lailatul Qader, on the plain of Arafat on the day of Arafah, at the particular moment on Friday, all the times of breaking the fast, during the journey for Hajj, during the journey for Jihad, during illness and during travel.” (Ma’ariful Hadith: 5/127)
The Causes of Supplication Not Being Answered
Sometimes, it happens that when the supplication of a person is not answered, he questions himself that why was not his supplication answered? It has been noted that that there are different forms of the supplication acceptance. If those forms are present in one’s mind, then the question will not arise. However, there are some causes due that a supplication is not answered. They are:
If Duaa is made for sin and breaking the ties of kinship, such Duaa is not answered. Making Duaa and asking for to be given promptly, such Duaa is not responded as asking immediately and making hast in Duaa makes it not worthy of approval. Allah does not respond to a supplication which is from the heart which is heedless and occupied by play. Some people make Duaa; but the fact is that their food is unlawful, drink is unlawful, clothing is unlawful and they are nourished with unlawful acquired food, then the Duaa of such people is not answered. (For details see Ma’ariful Hadith, 5/116-118)
Ada’iyah Mathurah (The Prophet’s Prayers)
Ada’iyah Mathurah (The Prophet’s Prayers) are the supplications which are mentioned in the narrations of the prophet (SAWS). There are some supplications for a particular time and occasion. The prophet (SAWS) and the companions (RA) used to recite them with punctuality. The people should also read them at those times and occasions with punctuality. It has a lot of benefits. By reading them the people seek the goodness of the world and the hereafter. They seek protection from the evils. They also fill their hearts and minds with Allah’s greatness and majesty. These supplications cause humbleness and humility in the people’s souls as well. Mufti Saeed Ahmad Palanpuri (1940-2020), ex-Sheikhul Hadeeth: Darul Uloom Deoband states:
“…The Duaa Mathurah is of two kinds. The first one is those supplications by which the people seek the goodness of the world and the hereafter as well as seek protection from the evil of several things. The second one is those supplications which are read to fill the hearts and the minds with the majesty and greatness of Allah or they are meant for creating humbleness and humility in the soul; because expressing the inner feeling by the tongue, informs the soul well with the inner situation, e.g. a son makes a mistake and regretting on it says to his father: “Beloved father! Really I have mistaken. I am wrongdoer. I regret on my mistake. Forgive me please!” By this confession, the mistake is expressed well and the carelessness comes before the sight.” (Tohfatul Alma’ee: 8/43)
If a person asks a man for something, it is not guaranteed that always the man would either fulfill his needs or if he fails, will talk to him tenderly. Mostly it happens that the man gets angry with the one who asks. The man thinks, why does he come always at his door? Doesn’t he find the door of someone else? The one who asks is even humiliated and insulted occasionally. It is the kindness and sympathy of our Lord, Master and Giver that He wants His slaves to ask Him for whatever they need. If they ask Him, He is not upset and angry, rather He provides from His hidden treasures pleasantly. For a dignified life, one should make firm determination that he would raise his hands for the needs and necessities only before Almighty Allah; so that he is not being humiliated and insulted by a person like him.
How nicely an Arab poet has said: (Translation) “Don’t ask the children of Adam for anything - And ask the One whose doors are always open - If you stop asking, Allah gets angry with you - And the children of Adam gets angry when you ask.” Akbar Husain Akbar Allahabadi (1846-1921) also said something like that: “O Akbar! Ask Allah for whatever you want to ask - This is only the door where none is humiliated.” ⦁⦁⦁⦁
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa,
خورشید عالم داؤد قاسمی
Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi
Mobile No. : +260978238541
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi
Zakaah in the Holy Qura’an:
Zakaah (The Obligatory alms) is also a pillar of Islam like Salaah, Fasting, Hajj etc. As Salaah has been mentioned at numerous places in the Glorious Qura’an, in the same way, Zakaah has been mentioned in the Holy Qura’an at several places where the Almighty Allah has commanded His rich servants to pay Zakaah of their wealth. Allah the Almighty says:
﴿وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَقْرِضُوا اللهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا وَمَا تُقَدِّمُوا لِأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللهِ هُوَ خَيْرًا وَأَعْظَمَ أَجْرًا﴾. (المزّمّل: 20)
(Translation) “And establish Salah, and pay Zakaah, and advance to Allah a goodly loan. And whatever good you will send ahead for your own-selves, you will find it with Allah much better in condition, and much greater in reward.” (Al-Muzzammil: 20)
As mentioned in the above verse, Salaah and Zakaah have been mentioned together in this way at numerous places in the Holy Qura’an. If a person pays Zakaah of his wealth, he will earn its benefits and rewards. Those who don’t pay Zakaah of their wealth, they will have to face the punishment and the wraths as they are described in the Holy Qura’an and the Sunnan.
Benefits of Paying Zakaah:
The wealth which a person owns is given by the Almighty Allah to that person. Then the command of paying Zakaah is also from the Almighty Allah; therefore, one should pay cheerfully and happily Zakaah of his wealth. The amount of Zakaah which is obligatory on a person’s wealth, he should pay it happily considering it the rights of the poor and needy people. It shouldn’t happen that the love of wealth instills in the mind of a person so much so that he feels pain in paying Zakaah. One of the purposes of paying Zakaah is also to remove the love of wealth from one’s heart. He should understand that Allah who has made him the owner of this wealth, very Allah the Almighty has ordered him to pay Zakaah of the wealth to the deserving people. Furthermore, there are many religious and worldly benefits of paying Zakaah.
Some of the benefits of paying Zakaah are mentioned here. When a person pays Zakaah, Allah is pleased with him. By giving Zakaah, the owner remains safe from the calamity. The more a person spends in Zakaah, the more he will be rewarded. By paying Zakaah, one’s wealth grows and it has blessings from Allah. The wealth of which Zakaah is paid is protected from celestial calamities and other losses. A person who pays Zakaah of his wealth, his wealth will be like a shelter for him on the Day of Judgment. Those who are poor and needy in the society, their economic problems and challenges are easily solved through Zakaah. By paying Zakaah, hatred and distance amongst the rich and the poor ends and love, kindness and compassion grow amongst them. By bringing the poor and the rich close, we can establish a beautiful society where one will assist other at the time of need.
Wraths and Punishments on Not Paying Zakaah:
If a “Sahib Nisab” doesn’t pay Zakaah of his wealth, there have been many wraths and chastisements mentioned in the Holy Qura’an and Ahaadeeth against such a person. Allah the Exalted says in the Holy Quran:
﴿وَالَّذِينَ يَكْنِزُونَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلاَ يُنفِقُونَهَا فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ فَبَشِّرْهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ. يَوْمَ يُحْمَى عَلَيْهَا فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ فَتُكْوَى بِهَا جِبَاهُهُمْ وَجُنوبُهُمْ وَظُهُورُهُمْ هَذَا مَا كَنَزْتُمْ لأَنفُسِكُمْ فَذُوقُواْ مَا كُنتُمْ تَكْنِزُونَ﴾. (التوبة: 34-35)
(Translation) “As for those who accumulate gold and silver and don’t spend it in the way of Allah, give them the good news of a painful punishment, on the day it (the wealth) will be heated up in the fire of Jahannam, then their foreheads and their sides and their backs shall be branded with it. This is what you had accumulated for yourselves. So, taste what you have been accumulating.” (Al-Tauah: 34-35)
Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani Rahimahullah (1897-1976) has written under the commentary of the above verse: “It means that this ‘painful punishment’ will be for those who do not pay Zakah. It will come on a day when the gold and silver accumulated by them will be heated up in the Fire of Jahannam. Then, their foreheads, sides and backs shall be branded with it, and they shall be told, as a sort of verbal punishment, that it was what they had accumulated for themselves, and in consequence, they better have a taste of what they had accumulated. The return of a deed is the deed itself. That which was accumulated illegally or that which was accumulated legally but without having paid its Zakah ultimately became, by itself, the punishment of these people. (Ma’arif Al-Qura’an: 4/371-372)
There is a long Hadeeth in Sahih Muslim about those who don’t pay Zakaah of their wealth. It states that whoever doesn’t pay Zakaah of his treasure, his treasure will be heated in the fire of Hell and the wide plates will be made of it. Then both of his sides, his back and his forehead will be branded with it. This punishment will continue until the decision of Heaven or Hell is passed among the people. Hadeeth is mentioned here:
«مَا مِنْ صَاحِبِ كَنْزٍ لَا يُؤَدِّي زَكَاتَهُ، إِلَّا أُحْمِيَ عَلَيْهِ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ، فَيُجْعَلُ صَفَائِحَ فَيُكْوَى بِهَا جَنْبَاهُ، وَجَبِينُهُ حَتَّى يَحْكُمَ اللهُ بَيْنَ عِبَادِهِ، فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ، ثُمَّ يَرَى سَبِيلَهُ، إِمَّا إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِمَّا إِلَى النَّارِ». (صحیح مسلم: 987)
(Translation) “There is no owner of gold or silver who doesn’t pay what is due on them, but when the Day of Resurrection comes, there will be beaten out for him plates of fire which will be heated in the Fire of Hell, and his sides, forehead and back will be branded with them. Every time they cool down they will be reheated for him, on a day the length of which is as fifty thousand years, until judgement is passed among the people. Then he will be shown his path, either to Paradise or to Hell.” (Sahih Muslim: 987)
There is a Hadith that a person who doesn’t pay Zakaah of his wealth, on the Day of Resurrection, his wealth will be brought before him in the form of a bald-headed snake and it will be encircled in his neck. Then that snake will bite the owner of the wealth and would say that it is his wealth and his treasure. The Hadith is quoted here:
«مَنْ آتَاهُ اللَّهُ مَالًا، فَلَمْ يُؤَدِّ زَكَاتَهُ مُثِّلَ لَهُ مَالُهُ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ شُجَاعًا أَقْرَعَ لَهُ زَبِيبَتَانِ يُطَوَّقُهُ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ، ثُمَّ يَأْخُذُ بِلِهْزِمَتَيْهِ – يَعْنِي بِشِدْقَيْهِ – ثُمَّ يَقُولُ أَنَا مَالُكَ أَنَا كَنْزُكَ، ثُمَّ تَلاَ: (لَا يَحْسِبَنَّ الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ)» الآيَةَ (صحیح البخاري: 1403)
(Translation) “Whoever is made wealthy by Allah and doesn’t pay the Zakaah of his wealth, then on the Day of Resurrection his wealth will be made like a bald-headed poisonous male snake with two black spots over the eyes (or two poisonous glands in its mouth). The snake will encircle his neck and bite his cheeks and say, ‘I am your wealth, I am your treasure.'” Then the Prophet (SAWS) recited the Verses: “Let not those who covetously withhold…..(to the end of the Verse). (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1403)
There is one another Hadeeth where is mentioned that Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) gave a talk addressing the women where he (SAWS) commanded the ladies to give Zakaah reasoning that the most of the ladies will enter hellfire. The Hadith goes like this:
Hazrat Zainab, the wife of Abdullah (Ibn Masud), said: “The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) delivered a sermon to us and said:
“يَا مَعْشَرَ النِّسَاءِ، تَصَدَّقْنَ وَلَوْ مِنْ حُلِيِّكُنَّ، فَإِنَّكُنَّ أَكْثَرُ أَهْلِ جَهَنَّمَ يَوْمَ القِيَامَةِ.” (سنن الترمذي: 635)
(Translation) “O you women, give charity, even if it is from your jewellery, for indeed you will make up most of the people of Hell on the Day of Judgement.” (Sunan Al-Tirmidhi: 635)
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) after being elected as the first caliph, some people refused to pay Zakaah. On that occasion, emphasizing his statement with an oath, Abu Bakr (RA) said as a principle that if someone had given even a “rope” in Zakaah during the time of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS), so he will have to pay that rope even today; because Zakaah is the right of one’s wealth. If a person refuses to pay even a single “rope”, Jihad will be initiated against him due to his refusal of Zakaah. These are the words of his saying:
«وَاللهِ لَأُقَاتِلَنَّ مَنْ فَرَّقَ بَيْنَ الصَّلاَةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ، فَإِنَّ الزَّكَاةَ حَقُّ المَالِ، وَاللهِ لَوْ مَنَعُونِي عِقَالًا كَانُوا يُؤَدُّونَهُ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَقَاتَلْتُهُمْ عَلَى مَنْعِهِ». (صحیح البخاري: 7284)
(Translation) “By Allah, I will fight him who discriminates between Zakaah and Salaah (prayers), for Zakaah is the compulsory right to be taken from the wealth. By Allah, if they refuse to give me even a tying rope which they used to give to Allah’s Messenger (SAWS), I would fight them for withholding it.” (Sahih Bukhari: 7284)
The wealth which a man owns is a great boon given by Allah Ta’ala. This boon should be spent according to Islamic guideline and instruction. While on the one hand, the Shariah has prohibited extravagant, it has also instructed to avoid stinginess on the other. In short, just as the owner of wealth has his own right in his wealth to spend, so the poor and the needy people also have a right in that wealth to a certain extent. When a man needs, he should spend from his wealth in a moderate way. He should try to pay the right (that is obligatory alms and charity) of the poor and the needy people from his wealth without any sorrow and delay on the time. It is an important point to believe that the wealth doesn’t decrease due Zakaah and charity, rather it increases.
The Prophet of Allah Muhammad (SAWS) said:
«مَا نَقَصَ مَالُ عَبْدٍ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ، وَلَا ظُلِمَ عَبْدٌ مَظْلِمَةً فَصَبَرَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا زَادَهُ اللَّهُ عِزًّا، وَلَا فَتَحَ عَبْدٌ بَابَ مَسْأَلَةٍ إِلَّا فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ بَابَ فَقْرٍ» أَوْ كَلِمَةً نَحْوَهَا. (سنن الترمذي: 2325)
(Translation) “The slave (of Allah)’s wealth shall not be decreased by charity, no slave (of Allah) suffers injustice and is patient with it except that Allah adds to his honour; no slave (of Allah) opens up a door to begging except that Allah opens a door for him to poverty” – or a statement similar to it –. (Sunan Tirmidhi: 2325)
It is written in the commentary of the above Hadeeth: “Giving away one’s wealth in charity – be it compulsory or optional – doesn’t decrease the giver’s wealth since Allah declares in the Qur’an: Whatever you spend of anything (in Allah’s cause), He will replace it (34:39). Thus, whatever we spend in the path of Allah, He will replace it either with worldly goods or through other unseen forms such as investing what we have with His blessing (Barakah). If a man patiently bears the wrongs and injustices done to him, Allah will increase him in the esteem of the people. Once a person unnecessarily starts begging from others, his desire or greed is never quenched, and mentally he will always remain a needy fellow and a beggar.” (English Translation of Jami Al-Tirmidhi: 4/359-360)
May the Almighty Allah grant us understanding to know Islamic teachings, to abide by it and to spread it! ●●●●
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
The human being is naturally sociable. He likes social life. He is habitual of living together in a society. The people of different manners and natures live in a society. It is not necessary that one and all will like what one says and does. In such situations, ultimately there must be dissent and difference of opinion. If dissent and difference remains the same, it is not bad. But sometimes, it happens that when a person hears someone expressing a different opinion which he doesn’t endorses, he feels restlessness. Then the chain of arguments and answers to that opinion follows one after another from both the sides. One tries his level best to defeat another one. Then the difference of opinions turns into enmity and hostility. It causes dispute and quarrel among them. This situation is disliked and condemnable. When such situation arises, one should control himself, conquer his anger, let other express himself and respect one’s opinion. Following the Islamic teachings, one should keep silent, show tolerance and observe patience at such occasion. This attitude will have its rewards and fruits. It will assist stopping the dispute and quarrel in the society. The patience and tolerance are admirable qualities. They have been praised at several places in the Glorious Qura’an and the prophetic narrations. The patience, which is called “Sabr” in Arabic language, is presented here in details.
Definition of Patience:
Defining the word: patience, Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (1897-1976) writes: “The real meaning of Sabr (Patience) is to tie, check, stop or hold back. In the terminology of the Qura’an and Sunnah, to hold the desiring human self back from going for the impermissible is Sabr. Therefore, the sense of Sabr (patience) includes abstention from all sins and doings counter to the dictates of the Shari’ah.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an 4/608)
Importance of Patience:
The patience has been mentioned at numerous places in the Holy Qura’an. Almighty Allah has mentioned some prophets praising them for having patience. The holy Qura’an speaks: “And (remember) Ismail and Idris and Dhul-Kifl. Each one of them was of those who observed patience. (Al-Anbiya: 85) The reward for patience has been mentioned in the Glorious Qura’an as well: “Certainly those who observe patience will be given their reward in full without measure.” (Al-Zumr: 10) Due to such verses of the Glorious Qura’an, the importance and the benefits of the patience is recognized among Muslims. When the Muslims observe the quality of patience, they will be granted its reward abundantly.
Patience on Hardships:
The Almighty Allah has ordered his beloved messenger Muhammad (SAWS) to have patience on the hardships. The Glorious Qura’an speaks: “Follow what is being revealed to you, and be patient until Allah gives His judgment, and He is the best of all judges.” (Yunus: 109)
Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (1887-1949) writes under the commentary the above verse: “The prophet (SAWS) has been comforted in this verse that if these people don’t accept truth, you don’t dissolve yourself in grief due to them. Following the dictates of Allah the Exalted, keep yourself busy in preaching activity. Have patience on the hardships coming in this path and tolerate the cause of harms from the enemies; until the Almighty Allah gives the best judgment between you and them. It means according to Allah’s promise, you are victorious and assisted or ruling about Jihad is revealed”. (Tafseer Usmani)
Treatment of Love for Position:
The learned people of the Book were much involved in the love for position, status and wealth. They didn’t believe in the messengerhood of Muhammad (SAWS); while the truth had become naked in this regard. The Exalted Allah stated the treatment of love for position and wealth that the patience will remove the great interest in the wealth and the Salah will cause the removal of the love for position and status from their hearts. Allah the Almighty has stated in the Holy Qrua’an: “Seek help through patience and prayer. It is indeed exacting, but not for those who are humble in their hearts.” (Al-Baqarah: 45)
Allamah Usmani writes: “The scholarly people of the Book, who didn’t believe in the Prophet (SAWS), even after becoming the truth clear, its actual reason was the love for position and the wealth. The Exalted Allah has mentioned the treatment for both of them. The patience would cause the removal of wealth and the Salah would cause the servant-hood and humbleness along with reducing the love for the position.” (Tafseer Usmani)
The Special Mention of those who have Patience:
Allah the Almighty has mentioned in His last and final revelation: the Holy Qura’an many righteous people. They are those who distribute their wealth among the relatives, orphans, helpless, travelers, beggars, those who spend their wealth for freeing slaves and those who fulfill their promises and agreements. Then He mentioned those people who have patience as worthy of special praise. The glorious Qura’an speaks: “Those who are patient in hardship and suffering and when in battle! Those are the ones who are truthful, and those are the God-fearing.” (Al-Baqarah: 177) Commentator states under this verse: “This means that among the righteous, the Sabirireen (the patient) are worthy of special praise since Sabr gives one special power to perform righteous deeds. In short, this verse holds in its fold important principles of all departments of Faith and its eloquent hints tell us the degree of importance of each one of them.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an 1/445)
Luqman’s Advice for Patience:
The Almighty Allah blessed Luqman (AS) with wisdom, insight and understanding. He had talent to differentiate between good and bad things. He gave his son some pieces of advice. He advised him to thank Allah on His favours, avoid polytheism, establish Salah and observe patience on the hardship and difficulty afflicting you due to instructing the people to do good and forbidding them from evil deeds. His pieces of advice are recorded in the holy Qura’an: “My dear son! Establish Salah and bid the Fair and forbid the Unfair, and observe patience on what befalls you. Surely, this is among the matters of determination.” (Luqman: 17) It has been written under the commentary of this verse: “Whatever hardships befall, which are very provable due to enjoining good deeds and forbidding evil deed, bear it with determination. Due to hardships, a brave and bold person should not feel nervous and lose courage.” (Tafseer Usmani)
Status of Patience:
If a preacher faces hardship and trouble in the path of preaching, he should observe patience; because the status of patience is much better than retaliation. The Holy Qura’an speaks: “And if you were to harm (them) in retaliation, harm them to the measure you were harmed. And if you opt for patience, it is definitely much better for those who are patient.” (Al-Nahl: 126) Let’s read the commentary of this verse! “If someone causes you trouble and hardship in the path of preaching; you have the power, so you can retaliate and take revenge in the same measure as you faced the trouble; as it is allowed. But the status of patience is better than revenge. If you observe patience, its outcome is better for yourself, for the spectators and even for those who have caused trouble and wronged you.” (Tafseer Usmani)
Rewards for Patience and Good Deeds:
The patience and good deed are two such qualities that whoever is equipped with them are perfect human being. He will receive its reward. Allah the Almighty says mentioning its reward: “Except those who are patient and do good deeds. Such people will have Allah’s forgiveness and a great reward.” (Hud: 11)
This is common human weakness that when the people face hardship after receiving bounty, they become hopeless and start thanklessness. They forget that the Supreme Lord who blessed them first time with the bounty, can give them again. Similarly, when someone is blessed with bounty and comfort following the hardship and suffering, he becomes arrogant and starts behaving boastfully. He starts thinking that the bounty was his right, it was to reach him necessarily and it will remain with him forever. “It means that people exempted from this common human frailty have two qualities: Sabr (patience) and al-‘Amal as-Salih (good deeds).” Those who are attributed with these two qualities are from perfect human beings. “At the end of this very verse, also identified there is the recompense of these perfect human beings. Those are the people for whom there is forgiveness and a great reward” (Gist from Ma’ariful Qura’an: 4/608-609)
Importance of Patience and Forgiveness:
The patience and forgiveness are very important qualities. The Almighty Allah has counted them from the courageous conducts. The Glorious Qura’an speaks: “And if one observes patience and forgives, it is, of course, one of the courageous conducts.” (Al-Shura: 43)
The commentator writes under this verse: “To conquer the anger, tolerate the harms and forgive the oppressor are very important and courageous works. It is in a Hadith that the person who is oppressed and forgives just for the sake of Allah; surely Allah will grant him high dignity and will assist him.” (Taseer Usmani)
Numerous verses of the glorious Qura’an with their commentary have been presented here. These verses are providing the great lesson on the patience and tolerance. We should think and ponder over it. Finally, when someone is suffering form; he should control himself and have patience. It will guarantee the success, In Shaa Allah.
Patience in Ahaadeeth:
It is well-known that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was sent to this world as the teacher for humanity. As long as he (SAWS) was in the world, he played a pivotal role in the reformation and success of his Ummah. He (SAWS) instructed and brought up his companions in the way that none of the teacher of any institution can do it for his students as long as this world exists. Whatever instructions he (SAWS) gave to his companions, he (SAWS) showed them doing practically in his day-to-day affairs. His life was great ideal in regard to patience and tolerance. He never followed his desire for the satisfaction of his sentiments. Following his departure, his instructions are elixir and remedy for the training and guidance of his Ummah. There are a number of lessons in those instructions on the patience and tolerance. We can learn a lot form them. So, some Ahaadeeth related to the topic are presented here.
Patience is Pleasing Deed:
The patience, in one Hadith, has been described as the light. Allah’s messenger (SAWS) says: “The patience is illumination.” (Sahih Muslim: 223) It means that the patience is beloved, pleasing, desirable and praiseworthy deed. The one who has patience is always guided towards right path and is illuminated.
Showing Patience in Trouble:
There is good in all cases for a believer. It depends on a believer that how he handles his affairs. If he is in a case of happiness, he should thank Allah and if he is facing a trouble, he should have patience. Then he will earn rewards in both the cases. The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) says: “Strange are the ways of a believer for there is good in his every affair and this is not the case with anyone else, except in the case of a believer for if he has an occasion to feel delight, he thanks (Allah), thus there is a good for him in it. And if he gets into trouble and shows resignation (and endures it patiently), there is a good for him in it. (Sahih Muslim: 2999)
Guiding for Patience on the Death of a Child:
When the son of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS)’s daughter: Zainab (RA) was on the point of death; she sent someone to call for him (SAWS). At the point, he (SAWS) sent a message to her which was for observing patience. The message was: “Whatever Allah takes is for Him and whatever He gives, is for Him, and everything with Him has a limited fixed term (in this world) and so she should be patient and hope for Allah’s reward.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1284)
Observing Patience on Baby’s Death:
If three children die and the parents don’t show impatience, crying and bewailing, rather they seek reward with Allah, they will enter Jannah. On one occasion, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said to some of the Ansari women: “None of you has three children who die, and she seeks reward with Allah; but she will enter Paradise.” One of them said: “And two, O Messenger of Allah?” He said: “And two.” (Sahih Muslim: 2632)
Patience at the First Stroke of Calamity:
It is difficult to observe patience at the first point of the affliction with a calamity. It is easier to do so with the passage of time; but with the passage of time, the patience is observed itself. That is why, when a person is afflicted with a calamity, he should observe patience at the first time. This is real patience and the observer is rewarded for. It is narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) passed by a woman who was weeping beside a grave. He (SAWS) told her to fear Allah and be patient. She said to him, “Go away, for you haven’t been afflicted with a calamity like mine.” And she didn’t recognize him (SAWS). Then she was informed that he was the Prophet (SAWS). So, she went to the house of the Prophet (SAWS) and there she didn’t find any guard. Then she said to him, “I did not recognize you.” He (SAWS) said: “Verily, the patience is at the first stroke of a calamity.” (Sahih Bukhari: 1283)
Patience at the Time of Breaking out Epidemic:
If a fatal disease, like cholera, plague, corona etc. breaks out in a city or a country, the citizens should stay at the same place patiently hoping for Allah’s reward. The citizens shouldn’t run away from a place to the other one fearing the epidemic; rather they should observe patience and believe that what the Almighty Allah has decided for them, will take place. In this situation, they will receive the reward similar to a martyr. Our beloved mother, Aisha (RA), the wife of the Prophet (SAWS) says: “I asked messenger of Allah (SAWS) about the plague. He told me that it was a punishment sent by Allah on whom he wished, and Allah made it a source of mercy for the believers, for if one at the time of the spread of a plague epidemic stays in his country patiently hoping for Allah’s reward, and believing that nothing will befall him, except what Allah has written for him, he will get a reward similar to that of a martyr. (Sahih Bukhari: 3474)
Observing Patience at the Deprivation of Eyesight:
Allah has blessed the people with two eyes. They are great bounty from Him. They are very essential to perform the day-to-day activities. The value, importance and necessity of eyes cannot be denied at all. How nicely this proverb has been said: “One eye-witness is better than hearsay.” However, if a person is deprived of the eyesight and he has patience on it, he will be granted Jannah for those two eyes according to one Hadith. The prophet (SAWS) says: “Allah said, ‘If I deprive my slave of his two beloved things (i.e. his eyes) and he remains patient, I will let him enter Paradise in compensation for them’.” (Sahih Bukhari: 5653)
Having Patience on the Annoy:
There are some people who don’t like to mix with the people. They prefer to live the lives of loneliness. But there are also such people who mix with the people and like to spend their lives socially mixing with the people. Occasionally, such people have to face annoying behavior of the people of his society. But they don’t get fed up and don’t want to get rid of them; rather they bear it with patience. Such people will be rewarded for their patience. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: “The believer who mixes with people and bears their annoy ante with patience will have a greater reward than the believer who doesn’t mix with people and doesn’t put up with their annoyance.” (Sunan Ibn Majah: 4032)
It has been noted in the first paragraph that the human being is naturally sociable. They live in a society. While living together, not only with those who are short temper, but even also with those who are soft-spoken and kind-hearted, they have some arguments and differences sometimes. But let me jot here clearly, sometimes a person faces unpleasantness even in his own home with his own uncle, aunty, wife, children, brother, sister and parents and they face strained relations unfortunately. That is the main point of time, the people need to stop from taking any quick decision in irritation; but need to think, conquer the anger, observe patience, show tolerance and forgive each other. If they practice it, their lives are normal and will go ahead happily. The family is safe and the mind is in peace. If they don’t do so, the family is broken, life is miserable and the future is in tension, stress and duress. Moreover, they will be rewarded by Allah for observing patience and showing tolerance. Remember, sooner of later, “Patience has its reward.” The final message is that if one wants peaceful life, he should learn to forgive, tolerate, have patience and evade a quick decision adhering to the instructions of the holy Qura’an and Sunnah. Allah the Almighty instructs his beloved messenger Muhammad (SAWS) to have patience and avoid haste: “So, (O prophet,) observe patience, as the resolute messengers observed patience, and be not in haste about them.” (Ahqaaf: 35) ⦁⦁⦁⦁
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa Email: email@example.com
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Hind, son of Abi Haalah, (RA) used to describe a lot about the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Aleihi Wa Sallam)’s blessed physical features, looks and the characteristics many a times. Once describing the way the Prophet (SAWS) used to remain in grief and busy thinking, he said: “The Prophet (SAWS) would constantly remain in grief (about hereafter) and would always remain busy thinking. There was no respite for him.” (Shamaail-e-Tirmidhi: 226) Mufakkire Millat Mualana Abdullah Kapodravi left for heavenly abode on 10th July 2018 in the afternoon. He was almost 85 years old. He was blessed with the ample portion of the quality of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) “remaining always busy thinking” about the attributes of Allah and the betterment of the Ummah. He, therefore, used to remain busy thinking for the progress of the Ummah in general and for the betterment of the academic quality of the Ulama and the students in particular. Those who have been in his company, be it for few days or few hours, will bear witness that he was always busy thinking how would this Ummah progress and how the Ulama and the students would improve their academic qualities as they are the real guides, leaders and mentors of this Ummah. It was either his special gathering or a general programme, wherever he had a chance to address, he used to talk about the lack of attention of Ulama in the education and the deteriorating educational system of Madaaris. Observing his thoughts and views, this can be said that “he was the patron of the Ulama and the students” who was always concerned about them.
It is very true that if the Ulama are equipped with ability and skill, they are sincere, honest and qualified; they can lead this Ummah in proper way. If the Ulama and the students are weak, they are lacking in sincerity and quality, who is going to guide the Ummah? The main reason behind this thought is that the Almighty Allah has put the responsibility of leading this Ummah on the shoulders of the Ulama as they are true inheritors of the Prophets (SAWS).
Maulana Kapodravi was a perfect and competent scholar of the holy Qrua’an and Sunnah. He had deep knowledge. He was Allah-fearing scholar. He was very strict in following the Qura’an and the Sunnah in his daily life. His life was an ideal and role model. While talking, he used to present the Qura’anic verses, Ahaadeet commonly and the beautiful proverbs and idioms of the Arabic language occasionally. He liked academic conversation and dialogue. In whichever gathering he was, mostly he used to be its eloquent speaker and the president. In spite of that, he was very simple, humble and down-to-earth. Elder or younger, whoever came to meet him, with no excuse of being busy, he used to meet him at the same time without any protocol. Whenever a learned man came to meet him, he felt delighted. When he knew about any knowledgeable and qualified person visiting the vicinities of Bharuch or Surat, he would invite, host, made him stay at his home and had fruitful academic discussion with him.
This humble writer spent almost five years in Markaze Islami, Ankleshwar in Bharuch district as a learner and later as a teacher. During this period, I had opportunity to listen to his talks in the several programmes and functions. His each talk gave me impression that he is the patron of the Ulama and the students and he thinks sincerely about them. Due to his humbleness, knowledge and sincerity, he was loved by the masses and the learned people alike. None was heard complaining about him.
When I was perusing my “Diploma in English Language & Literature (DELL)” at Markaze Islami Education and Research Center, Ankleshwar, I wrote an article on the significance of English language and its learning. The rector of Markaze Islami, Maulana Moosa Mankrod (May Allah protect him!) informed him about the article and requested him to review and correct wherever necessary. Sheikh Kapodravi responded in positive happily and asked him to meet in Kapodra. Maulana Mankrod told me to get ready. Then we went with the article. When we reached, he welcomed us warmly and hosted us happily. The first and foremost, he wanted my introduction as I was a new person for him. I introduced myself. Then he asked me to read the article. I read the article which was consisting of 5000 words almost. He listened to the complete article carefully. Wherever he felt necessary for correction, he told me and I did it at the same time. When I completed the article, he appreciated, encouraged me and advised me to continue writing. It was my first meeting with him. May Allah give him the best reward and grant him Jannah!
Maulana Kapodravi used to stay few months in India and few months in Canada. When he was in India, we used to go to Kapodra to meet him. Once, Maulana Ismail Mankrod (May Allah protect him!), Director: Markaze Islami Education and Research Center and I went to Kapodra in the month of Ramadhan, in the night just after Taraweeh Salah to attend his gathering in Masjid Aisha. The gathering started with forty Durood upon the beloved prophet Muhammad (SAWS). Then he gave his talk. We listened to him attentively. We came back at the end of the gathering.
Once, Sheikh Kapodravi organized a programme in Masjid Aisha, near by his home in Kapodra on Thursday 27th November 2008. He sent invitation letter to each Madrsa of Gujarat and requested to send the representative. The representatives of almost 45 institutions attended the programme. Maulana Yusuf Bhadkodravi, Maulana Ibrahim Falahi and I attended the programme from Darul Uloom Markaze Islami according to the suggestion of Markaz’s rector. What was the objective and aim of the programme? Please read the following paragraphs to know his sincerity, concern, worry and love for the Ulama, students and Madaaris. It will also make clear the purpose behind organizing the programme.
The theme of the programme was “Educational Decline and the Educational Progress of the Students in the Modern World”. Avoiding teachers from mutual discussion among themselves on some academic topics was also discussed. The participants presented their views and had discussion.
As the president of the programme, the suggestion and message given by Sheikh Kapodravi were very important. He suggested that in each Madrasa, there should be a teachers’ association. Under the association, there should be a library for the teachers where the books on all subjects must be available. The important magazines and newspapers of Urdu and Arabic languages publishing from India and abroad should be also arranged. The teachers should fix a time for opening the library and they should come and read the books, magazines and newspapers available. If a teacher finds an important point during his reading and he thinks that it is important for the students, he should make a photocopy of that portion and handover the students to read it. Under the association, every week, a topic should be decided for teachers’ discussion and dialogue. The teacher should prepare on that decided topic and come for open discussion. Sheikh gave dozens of books to the representative of each institution as gift and suggested to start the library with those books.
Please ponder over the aim of the programme! To spend a good amount of money, to invite the Ulama, to arrange food for them, to give them priceless suggestion, to give them dozens of books as gift and at the end to see them off with respect! SunhanAllah! What sincerity! It is a sample of the worry, concern and sincere efforts of Sheikh for the betterment and educational progress of the Ulama and the students. I don’t see anyone currently who can think so much and can go so far for the progress of the Ulama. May Allah give him the best reward!
After coming back from the programme, I gave the report of the programme to Maulana Moosa Mankrod, the rector of Markaze Islami. I also mentioned the suggestion of Sheikh Kapodravi. The rector was very pleased with the suggestion and gave approval to start the association. Then the teachers’ association was launched in Markaze Islami.
After few days, Maulana Ismail Mankrod and I reached Kapodra to meet Sheikh. He presented the tea etc. and started talking to us. During the talk, as I mentioned about the association, he became happy. Then he talked about studies and mentioned many important points about it. During the talk, he also mentioned the famous scholar of Hadith of the last century, Sheikh Abu Abdur Rahman Muhammad Nasiruddin Albany (1914-1999) and his work on Mishkatul Masabih. He also said that apart from the difference opinion, we should acknowledge one’s academic work and appreciate it.
What Sheikh Kapodravi said that is a golden point. When Allah has blessed the people with the wisdom, they may have different opinions. When they will have different opinions, the difference will arise certainly. The difference of opinion should remain as the one, but it should not change into enmity and hostility. Due to differences of opinion or due to some deficiencies, ignoring the day-night efforts and struggles of a personality is unjustified. It is a fact that Sheikh Kapodravi’s heart was neat and clean from any type of prejudice and malice. He used to appreciate the work of any scholar. It was his habit to admire the services of the elders and encouraged the efforts of the youngers.
Sheikh Kapodravi continued sending the books for the library of the Teachers’ Association latter. The books like: “Jang: Seerate Rasool Ki Raushani Men”, “Asaatidah Keliye Tarbiyati Waqiaat”, “Tafseer Azizi”, “Nasihatul Muslimeen” etc. were received in the library on his behalf.
I had chance to meet him in December 2009 in Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia. In those days, he was on a journey in Zambia. I participated in his one gathering after Isha Salaah. I met him after the gathering. He started saying that these African countries need struggles. Those who are working here will have to struggle and then it will bear fruits. During his talk, he mentioned about an Islamic school which is founded in a village: Anosa, near Petauke of the Eastern Province. He said that he had a chance to visit the school in the company of the celebrated orator, Maulana Abdul Majeed Nadeem some years back. He happily described about the discipline and education of the indigenous pupils. He praised the way they read Na’at and Nazam in Urdu language in front of him. He appreciated the efforts of Hafiz Ismail Munshi (1950-2015), who was the founder of the said school. Hafiz Ismail had completed his education of Hifz and Tjaweed from Darul Uloom Falahe Darain under the supervision of Sheikh Kapodravi. May Allah grant him Jannah!
Sheikh Kapodravi was a widely travelled and experienced person. He used to travel Asian, Arab, African and European countries. Wherever he went, he used to meet academic persons. He used to visit the libraries of those places. He used to get information about the newly published books and used to buy his loved books. Whichever places he visited, these were his preferable activities. His personal library in Kapodra is full with the books of several subjects and topics.
Along with buying books, he was also very habitual and interested in reading books. He used to motivate the Ulama and the students for reading the books. When he came to know about the publication of any valuable new book, he mentioned it among the Ulama and the students and recommended to read. His love for the books and recommendation for reading was not limited just in his meeting and gathering, but he used to do it suitably in his articles and the letters as well. He writes in his travelogue of Reunion: “Aatash Fishan Ke Mulk Reunion Men”: “I present the names of the following books with the intention of informing our students as these books are very informative on the topic of Masjid”. After recording eight books’ names with its authors, he writes: “God willing, any book loving student may buy these new books and go through them; because the knowledge increases with reading the books. (Afkare Pareshan, P.: 259)
Mentioning the residence of Maulana Dr. Muhammad Taqiuddin Nadvi Mazahiri in “Alain” city of Abu Dhabi, he writes in his travelogue: “Muttahidah Arab Imarat Men Chand Din”: “I saw some new books in Maulana’s library. Some of those books are very useful for our Madaris.” Then he mentions eight Arabic books’ names, authors and publishers on Hadith and biography published from Arab countries. (Afkare Pareshan, P.: 209)
Sheikh Kapodravi was very much aware of the magazines published from different institutions and places. He used to read the magazines regularly. He also used to suggest the Ulama and the students to read it. Allah the Almighty had blessed him with the writing skill. Occasionally, he used to write in the Arabic and Urdu languages to express his views. His writings used to get published.
Once Sheikh was talking in reference to the magazines, during his talk, he gave the detailed introduction of the “Urdu Book Review” published from Delhi. He talked about the reviews getting published in the magazine and the standard language which is used. He recommended that library of each Madrasah should get this magazine. The librarian should read the magazine and try to get the beneficial and necessary books for the library. It will add a value to the library.
It is an important point to be noted that reading the articles on social, political and religious topics published in the magazines is very significant. It gives ample material and knowledge to the readers on different topics in arranged manner in a few hours. The readers are able to understand the views and opinions of the number of writers on the current affairs.
In spite of being busy in teaching and administrative duties and being occupied in the journey of different countries, Sheikh authored several books such as (1) Azwaun ‘Ala Taarikh Al-Harakah Al-Ilmiyyah Wa Al-Ma’ahid Al-Islamiyyah Wa Al-Arabiyyah Fee Gujarat, Al-Hind, (2) Allamah Badruddin Aeini Awr Ilme Hadith Men Un Ka Naqshe Dawaam, (3) Allamah Qutbuddin Awr Un Ki Ilmi Khidmat, (4) Allamah Yusuf Banuri Awr Khidmat Hadith, (5) Rushdo Hidayat Ke Minar…, (6) Haji Imdadullah Awr Un Ke Namwar Khulafa, (7) Deewane Imam Shafaee (Translation and Explanation), (8) Afkare Pareshan (2 Volumes) (9) Sadaye Dil (4 Volumes) etc.
Sheikh Kapodravi passed away on Tuesday 10th July 2018. His funeral prayer was led by Mufti Ahmad Khanpur (May Allah protect him!), Sheikhul Hadeeth: Jamia Talimuddin, Dabhel and Member of Governing Body of Darul Uloom Deoband. Thousands of Ulama and students participated in the funeral prayer. He was buried in Kapodra. Now, he is no more among us, but his good manner, humbleness, concern, worry and sacrifice for the Ulama and the students will be remembered for long. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah!
Sheikh Kapodravi’s Biographical Sketch
Sheikh Kapodravi was born in 1933 in Heho, Myanmar where his father was working and staying with his family. The family came back to India in 1935 and resided in Kapodra, Surat, Gujarat. He acquired the basic education of the Holy Qura’an and Urdu language in Madrasa Islamia, Kapodra. He got admission in Jamia Talimuddin, Dabhel in 1944 and studied from Farsi Class to the Mukhtasarul Quduri (3rd year of Fazilah Course). Then he got admission in Darul Uloom Deoband in 1948. He started from Kanzud Daqaiq (4th year of Fazilah Course). In next year, he learnt the books like, Noorul Anwar, Al-Maqaamat Al-Haririyah (5th year of Fazilah Course). Then he fell sick and had to come back home. When he recovered, he started his education again in “Talimuddin, Dabhel”. He completed his education from Talimuddin in 1953.
Sheikh Kapodravi learned from the following Ulama: Hafiz Ibrahim Umadwadvi, Maulana Dawood Kafletavi, Maualan Abdul Hay, Qari Bandah Ilahi, Qari Hasan from Meerut, Maulana Ibrahim Sufi, Maulana Nasir Ahmad Khan (ex-Sheikhul Hadeeth of Darul Uloom, Deoband), Maulana Fakhrul Hasan, Maulana Muhammad Naeem Deobandi, Maulana Merajul Haq Deobandi, Maulana Mahmood, Maulana Abdur Rawuf, Maulana Abdul Jabbar, Maulana Fazlur Rahman Deobandi, Maulana Fakhruddin, Mufti Mahdi Hasan and Sheikh Mahmood Tantavi from Egypt (May Allah grant them Jannah!).
His Services in the field of Teaching and Management: Following the completion of his graduation, he joined “Majlis Khuddamuddin, Simlak” and “Jamia Talimuddin, Dabhel” as a teacher. Following the resignation from those institutions, he worked as the Sub-Editor of “Tabligh”. Again he left for Darul Uloom Deoband, stayed two years and learnt from the senior scholars. Coming back from Deoband, again he joined Jamia Talimuddin, Dabhel and served as a teacher from 1961 to 1965. He got offer from “Darul Uloom Falahe Darain” in Tarkeshwar, Surat in January 1966 to teach. Latter, in March 1966, he was appointed as the rector. As the rector, he appointed numerous qualified teachers, created the suitable environments of teaching and learning and established the best system of cleanliness etc. He made “Falahe Darain” a model institution. From 1966, he served as a teacher and the rector of Falahe Darain continuously for 27 years beautifully. When the institute reached at the peak of success, he resigned willingly; but his love remained the same for “Falahe Darain” as he had as the rector. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah! ●●●●
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Jamia Husainia Rander, Surat in 1952. He completed his Fazilat course 1959 from Jamia. He learnt Sahihul Bukhari from Maulana Ahmad who was a student of Sheikhul Islam Mualana Husain Ahmad Madani. May Allah grant them Jannah! Following graduation from Jamia, Maulana Makrod left for Darul Uloom, Deoband to benefit from the elder scholars of Darul Uloom. He remained almost two years in Deoband. He used to participate particularly in the lectures of Allahmah Ibrahim Baliawi, Allamah Fakhruddin Muradabadi, Qari Muhammad Tayyib (May Allah grant them Jannah!) etc. While being in Deoband, he used to take part in the special gathering of elder scholars of Darul Uloom to benefit from them.
Oath of Allegiance and Khilafah
The first and foremost, Maulana Makrod took the oath of allegiance to Maulana Maseehullah Khan of Jalalabad, UP. Following his death, Maulana Makrod again took the oath of allegiance to Maulana Moinuddin Gondavi (Ex-Sheikhul Hadeeth: Madrasah Imdadia, Muradabad, UP). After his death, Maulana Makrod joined Maulana Qamruz Zaman Allahabadi (Hafizahullah!). He was blessed with Khilafah from Maulana Allahabadi and Maulana Muneer (Hafizahullah!).
Allah the Almighty has blessed Maulana Makrod with three sons and four daughters. His son Maulana Ismail Makrod, deputy rector of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami and director of MIERC, Ankleshwar passed away on 17th November 2018 in a car accident. He was very much hopeful about Maulana Ismail that he would shoulder the responsibility to take Markaz ahead. But Allah Ta’ala had decided something else. As long as Maulana Ismail was alive, he assisted him in most of the activities. Maulana Moosa Makrod was much grieved after his death. Whenever I talked to him after the death of Maulana Ismail Makrod, he used to talk about him.
Following the death of Maulana Ismail Makrod, he was survived by his wife, two sons and four daughters. One of his sons is Mr. Iqbal Moosa Makrod who was resident in Leister, UK. But after his younger brother’s death, he came back to his hometown and started serving in Darul Uloom Markaze Islami to assist his elderly father and he is still serving. May Allah accept his services and grant him the best reward!
Maulana Makrod’s another son is Mr. Zubair Moosa Makrod who is settled in New York, USA with his family. One of his daughters is Bilqis Yusuf Topia, a house wife and a resident of Gloucester, England with her family members. The second daughter is Nafisah Saeed Hejazi who is a resident in New York, USA with her family members. The third daughter is Hajirah Javed Jogiat who is resident in UK with her family members. His last born daughter is Khadiajah Saeed Patel. She is resident in New York, USA. May Allah keep them happy and well!
Maulana Moosa Makrod’s Services in Educational Field
Career and Practical Life
After coming back from Deoband, Maulana Makrod taught seven years in the Maktab of Diva. Then he established a Maktab namely: Maktab Noorul Islam in 1975, in Ankleshwar Musafir Khana. Then he established Darul Uloom Markaze Islami in Ankleshwar in 1984. Then he also established a school in Goya Bazar of Ankleshwar namely Markaz Islami School. Then he established Markaze Islami Education and Research Center in the campus of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami in 2003 to equip newly graduate Ulama from different Madaaris with English language and computer science.
Establishment of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami:
Maulana Moosa Makrod offered his services in several fields. I am trying to present his services in the field of education briefly. His great and memorable service is establishment of Darul Uloom Makraze Islami. He ran this institution beautifully from the first day it was founded as its rector until he breathed his last. Briefly, I am going to shed light that when, how and why this institution was established? Then the services of this institution will be also presented to let the readers know the background of establishment of this institution.
Darul Uloom Markaze Islami, Ankleshwar is a well-known institution in Gujarat. Maulana Moosa Makrod used to tell about the foundation of this Darul Uloom that he left his village’s Maktab and started a stationary shop in Ankleshwar. Then he was suggested by his teacher, Maulana Saeed Ahmad, Rector: Jamia Husainia, Rander to start a Maktab in Ankleshwar and teach the children basic of Islamiyyat along with running his shop. Following the suggestion, he started a Maktab: Noorul Islam in Ankleshwar Musafir Khana in 1975 and started teaching along with running his shop.
After few years, due to the growing number of the pupils, Musafir Khana was not enough to accommodate all the pupils. Then with suggestion of some his friends, he decided to arrange a piece of land and found an institution. With the help of Allah, he was successful in arranging the land for Madrasah nearby the GGCL (Gujarat Gas Company Limited) in Ankleshwar. In 1405=1984, the foundation stone was laid by two great personalities of the time, Maulana Ahmad Raza Ajmeri, (Ex-Sheikhul Hadith: Darul Uloom Ashrafiyyah, Rander, Surat) and Maulana Moinuddin Gondavi (Ex-Sheikhul Hadith: Madrasah Imdadia, Muradabad) and the institution was named: Darul Uloom Markaze Islami.
After the foundation, Sheikh Ahmad Raza Ajmeri took care of Markaz as its patron. Following his death, Maulana Moinuddin was made the patron. After his death, Sheikhe Tariqat Maulana Qamruzzaman Allahabadi was made the patron of Markaz. From the foundation day, the institution is progressing by leaps and bounds. May Allah arrange the better substitute for Markaz and may it continue progressing.
Markaze Islami provides the education from the basic classes of Urdu to the final year of Alimiyyah Course. With a bit changing in the known syllabus of Darse Nizami, the English language and the computer science have been included up to the 4th standard as this is the crying need of the time. Up to now, almost 500 students have completed their Aalimiyyah course form this institution and they are serving within and outside the country. May Allah accept their services!
The memorization of the holy Qura’an is called Hifz. If a person has memorized the whole Qura’an from cover to cover, he is called Hifzul Qura’an. There is a Hifz Department in Markaz as well. There are 11 Hifz classes running under 11 expert teachers of Hifz. There are about 260 pupils in Hifz Classes currently. Almost 536 pupils have completed Hifz course up to now from Markaz.
It is essential to recite the holy Qura’an with correct pronunciation of the Arabic alphabets caring the rules of Tajweed. If a person fails to recite the Holy Qrua’an with Tajweed, he is sinner. Maulana Moosa Makrod was very careful about it, so he established a department for Tajweed and Qira’at. The department has produced 120 students who completed Hafs, 94 students who completed Sab’ah and 42 students who completed Thalathah and 9 students who completed Ashrah Kabeer and received the certificates of Qaari. These students are serving within the country and abroad as the teachers, Imams etc.
Realizing the interest of the graduating students in Islamic Jurisprudence, “Department of Specialization in Islamic Jurisprudence” (Iftaa) was introduced in 2010. Following the admission in the department, the students get expertise and proficiency in Fiqh. Up to now, 29 students have completed the course and were granted the certificates of Mufti. The statistics mentioned here are according to the annual report of 1440 AH.
For the perfection of the writing and speaking skills of the enrolled students, there are three Anjumans (Students’ unions) working under the supervision of the teachers. Under those unions, weekly programmes are held regularly. Under “Anjuman Tarbiyatut Talbah”, the pupils practice to develop their oratory and writing skills in Urdu language. For practice to develop their Arabic speaking and writing skills, they participate in the weekly progrmme held under “Al-Nadi Al-Adabi”. Under “Anjuman Tahseen Al-Qura’an Al-Kareem” the pupils practice how to recite the holy Qura’an beautifully applying the rules of Tajweed, they get trained for Khutbah of Jumah and to lead Salah etc.
Maulana Moosa Makrod established this institution with few pupils and the teachers in 1984. The Almighty Allah accepted this institution and currently about 550 pupils are getting free education and they are trained for good moral and character. After graduation, they play a constructive role in guiding the public to follow the straight path as the responsible citizens. To educate and train the students, there are 44 teachers who are working day and night. There are also 15 other auxiliary staff providing additional duties as cook, launderer, cleaner etc. All these are happening with Allah assistance, the good arrangement by the rector and the generous public donations. May Allah accept their services and grant them abundant reward! May Allah protect this institution from all types of evils!
Establishment of Markaze Islami School:
None can deny the need of Islamic school in this current age; rather the thinkers, writers and scholars are writing and speaking on the need of the establishment of Islamic schools. They ask the Muslim community, the organizations and the trusts to found Islamic school if they have resources to bear the expenses. Al-Hamdulillah, Maulana Moosa Makrod realized this need of the community decades ago and established an Islamic school namely: Markaze Islami Gujarati School, under the management of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami in Goya Bazar of Ankleshwar. The pupils are receiving modern education in Islamic environment. The school is recognized up to the 10th standard from the Gujarat government. Almost 432 pupils are learning under 15 qualified teachers. Following completion of the school, the pupils go to the different colleges and universities for higher modern education, Al-Hamdulillah.
Establishment of Markaze Islami Education & Research Center (MIERC)
The significance and need of English language in the modern age to understand the newly invented things or for preaching the true messages of Islam are not hidden for any sensible person. That was the reason that Maulana Moosa Makrod sent his son Maulana Ismail Makrod Delhi to learn English language in Markazul Ma’arif Education & Research Center. When he came back after learning English language, he tried to expand the chain of Markazul Ma’arif and requested his father to found an institution like that to educate newly graduated Ulama.
Maulana Moosa Makrod also realized the fact that thousands of Ulama are graduating each year from different Madaaris. One Markazul Ma’arif is not enough to meet the need; but establishing more institutions like that is crying need of the hour so that more Ulama after equipping with English language, can address the need of the people and can preach Islamic messages simply as English is easily understood. So, he got ready to establish an English Department. But before establishing, he thought proper to seek the opinions of the scholars, then finally to go ahead following their opinions. The scholars responded in affirmative and acknowledged the need of the English language. Then Maulana Moosa Makrod finalized to materialize this programme under the campus of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami.
Foundation of the Center
After getting positive replies, he started planning to found a center for the said purpose. According to the plan, he founded the institution namely: Markaze Islamic Education and Research Center, in 2003, under the management of Darul Uloom Markaze Islami within its campus. It was first time in the history that a two-year Diploma in English Language & Literature course was introduced in the campus of a Madrasa. Maulana Ismail Makrod was given the charge as director to run it. After the entrance exams, the newly graduated Ulama from different Madaris, who had interest in preaching the true messages of Islam as well as learning English language, were selected as the students of the first batch. Then the center started functioning practically.
The Services of the Graduates of the Center A good number of Ulama graduated from different Madaaris try to get admission in this department being keen to learn the English language. The department is equipping the Ulama with English language and literature as well as computer science for last 17 years. In this period, the number of the students who have graduated from this institution is 270. Most of those Ulama are busy in teaching. Dozens of those Ulama are serving in other countries like: England, America, Canada, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Australia etc. May Allah accept their services and make it continuous charity for the both Maulana Moosa and Maulana Ismail Makrod! May Allah grant them Jannatul Firdaus!
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
"World Children's Day" is celebrated on 20th November worldwide. It is because the United Nations General Assembly, through a resolution, has approved 20th November as "World Children's Day". The motive behind it is to promote international togetherness, awareness among the children worldwide and to improve children’s welfare. Furthermore, World Children’s Day offers each of us an inspirational entry-point to advocate, promote and celebrate children’s rights, translating into dialogues and actions that will build a better world for children as it has been mentioned at www.un.org. Now, let us see how the rights of the Palestinian children are violated. This year, just one day before World Children's Day, on Saturday, 19th November, 2022, Palestinian Prisoners Society (PPS), presented the data regarding the Palestinian children’s detention that this year (November 2022), the usurping Israeli’s occupying army have arrested 750 Palestinian children so far. This data does not cover the full current year of 2022; as there is still a period of more than a month left to complete it. The PPS report also has highlighted that some of these children were injured; while some others were sick at the time of the detention. The report has also mentioned that “Most of the children were subjected to all sorts of physical and psychological torture during their detention in violation of international agreements and conventions on the rights of children.” Even in such situation, the tyrant prison authorities do not provide proper treatment facilities to the children. This report, on the occasion of World Children's Day, highlights a key aspect of the usurping Israeli government's tyranny, oppression and cruelty against the Palestinian children and the violation of their fundamental rights.
According to another report, this year (2022), 40 Palestinian children have been martyred by the inhumaneness of the Israeli occupying army so far. This large number of children being injured and martyred by the army of the Zionist Israel state, on the Palestinian land, in front of their near and dear ones, is alarming for any civilized nation and human-loving people. This is the current year's report; while to complete this year, still one month and ten days are left. If we look at the previous year's report in this regard, we find that in the year 2021, 78 children were martyred by the armed forces of the Zionist state. Those martyrs belonged to the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. According to the data of a local Palestinian organization, "Palestinian Child Organization", 17 of these martyred children were directly targeted and killed by the Israeli army.
Following the report of almost 11 months on the innocent Palestinian children being arrested by the army of the Zionist state of Israel, the readers can understand the number of the Palestinians as a whole being arrested by the Zionist army. To know the number of the Palestinians who have been arrested just in the last one month, i.e. October, let’s see a report of “Palestine Center for Prisoners Studies” below. This report makes clear the number of the Palestinians who have been arrested by the Zionist soldiers in just one last month.
In the beginning of November 2022, the Palestine Center for Prisoners Studies has mentioned in its report that 595 Palestinians were arrested by the Israeli army in the last month, October 2022 alone. Amongst those arrested, 76 minors, 22 women and girls are included. Riyad Al-Ashqar, the director of the center, said that more than 290 arrests were made in Jerusalem, including 41 children, 18 women and girls, 110 arrests were made from Al-Aqsa Mosque, its surroundings and nearby streets. Then Palestinians were also arrested from the town of Shufat, Al-Aissawiya and Silwan.
This is the shocking story of the Zionist state’s armed forces regarding the arrest and killing of the innocent Palestinian children, elders and women. The brutality of the Zionist army is not only limited to arresting and killing of the Palestinians; but they are also not behind in destroying the property of Palestinians. Whenever the Zionist army and the Zionist settlers find a chance, they do not hesitate to demolish the houses of the Palestinians, burn the crops in their fields and uproot their gardens. It was reported this month on 8th November that occupying Israeli army and terrorist Jewish settlers demolished the properties of the Palestinians in the West Bank and occupied Jerusalem. In the presence of the Israeli occupying army, Ahmed Isa's bakery was demolished in the Shufat camp of the northeast of occupied Jerusalem. The bakery is located on an area of one hundred and ten square meters. Ahmed Isa had built this bakery by spending one hundred thousand Shekels (about 24 lakh rupees). In another report, the Israeli army arrived in a big number with a bulldozer in the village "Qibya" located in the west of Ramallah city and demolished a two-story house belonging to a Palestinian citizen. The owner of the house fulfilled all the legal requirements and the documents; but these documents were ignored and the house was demolished.
It has been reported this month (November 2022) that the Israeli occupying army unearthed the valuable agricultural land of the Palestinians in "Salfit", the northern city of West Bank. In this place, there was an olive garden of the Palestinians, which was uprooted by the army. It is said that there were two thousand fruit bearing olive trees in the garden, which were destroyed by the army. Nowadays, due to global warming, the people avoid cutting the trees and the plantation is encouraged in the world. Those who plant trees are awarded by a government. In contrary to that the Israeli Zionist army uproots two thousand olive trees at a time. If a person tries to find out its reason, he doesn’t find any reason except that the owner of these trees is a Palestinian Muslim. It very crucial point which must be noted here that the settlers’ violence against the Palestinians – the real native of Palestine including today’s so-called Israel – and their properties is a routine. Despite that rarely they are prosecuted by the biased and unfair authorities of usurping Israel. We thank Allah that He created us as the followers of a religion in which planting tree is encouraged.
Some organizations say that the action of the Israeli police in terms of arresting and detaining the Palestinian children is in violation of the international agreements and conventions on the rights of children and their protection. The Zionist Israeli police sometimes would pick up the children from their homes at night, sometimes a child goes out to buy some goods and he would not return home. Latter, it is learned that the child has been arrested by the Israeli police. After arresting these children, the police beat them up. Then the police take these arrested children to the investigation center. They are investigated about a certain incident which they never committed. Israeli police allegedly treat these children with violence during investigation and they use brutal and nasty method against these children. The police have also been accused of blindfolding and handcuffing the arrested children during the investigation. Then the police send these children to the jail after their so-called investigation – for crimes which they never committed – is done.
The Israeli army always claims that the Palestinian children who are imprisoned and detained in the Israeli jails are a threat to their national security. The children's rights group says that Israel is allegedly committing the crimes against these children which are internationally prohibited. Following the arrest, these children are kept in the detention in an inappropriate and inhumane environment. They are deprived of their basic rights. The fact is that the Israeli army uses such deadly weapons and forces against the Palestinian civilians, children and women that is a clear violation of international human rights law. The Israeli jails in which the Palestinians are kept are itself a kind of punishment. The fact is that there is an attempt to instill terror and fear in the minds of the Palestinian prisoners and to control an entire community through oppression and brutality so that after their release, they would not raise their voices for Palestine.
Definitely the Palestinians are undergoing a great loss of their lives and properties at the hands of the occupying army of the Zionist government since the illegal establishment of Israel. Any Palestinian who raises his voice for his sovereignty and the freedom of Al-Aqsa Mosque has to face the hardship of imprisonment. It is duty of the United Nations and other international organizations to investigate the arrest of Palestinian children and the atrocities against them. It is also their duty to include the Zionist Israeli government in the list of governments that violate the children's rights; rather on the top of the list. The member countries of the United Nations General Assembly would pass a resolution that would compel the usurping Israeli government to compensate for the losses of the lives and the properties. But currently, there is no such hope; because the oppressive Israeli government has the backing of the United States of America and some Western countries. The second important point is that no country has any materialistic interest in Palestine. However, we hope that the terrorist Israeli government, its armed forces and the oppressive Zionist police will have to pay for the crimes they commit regularly against the Palestinians a day and the Palestinians will be successful, In Shaa Allah. ●●●●
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Wealth in the Qura’an:
The wealth is the great bounty of Allah. There are several verses in the glorious Qrua’an wherein the wealth has been mentioned in the positive meaning. Allah says: “Then We gave you your turn to overpower them, and increased your strength with wealth and sons, and made you greater in number.” (Isra: 06) While mentioning the story of Nooh (AS)’s activity of calling his nation towards Allah, the several bounties of Allah All-Merciful are noted. One among them is increasing wealth. The Qura’an speaks: “He will send (much-needed) rain to you in torrents. Increase your wealth, your sons and make orchards and rivers for you.” (Nooh: 11-12) At another place the Glorious Qura’an speaks: “When the Salaah has been completed then (you are free to) disperse in the land, seek from Allah's bounty and remember Allah abundantly (engage in Dhikr wherever you may be) so that you may be successful.” (Jumuah: 10) Ibn Kathir writes under the commentary of this verse: “After Allah forbade Muslims from working after hearing the Adhan and ordered them to gather for the Friday prayer, He allowed them to spread throughout the earth and seek bounty after the prayer is finished.” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
How Did He Earn and Where Did He Spend?
If one is blessed with the wealth, he should not forget the rights of the poor and needy people. There are some people who assist the poor in the way that what his right hand does, his left hand is not aware of that. Such person will get great reward for it. As it is said in a Hadith, “A person who gives charity so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given (nobody knows how much he has given in charity, then such person will be shaded by Allah under His Shade on the Day of Resurrection when there will be no shade except His shade.)” (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1423) There are some rich people who don’t want to spend his wealth on the poor. They think that whatever they possess, that is the earning of his hard-work, then why should they give it to the poor. Such people must know that they will have to face the question of his wealth on the Day of Resurrection, “How did he earn it and where did he spend it?” (Tirmidhi: 2417) There are also third type of rich people in our society. They spend their wealth on the poor people, but their intentions are not good. After giving something, they take the recipients as their servants and slaves. They want the recipients should remain at their command every time as the obedient servants. Sometimes, they cause hurt, insult, humiliation and boast favours on the recipients.
Avoid Causing Hurt:
Whatever the rich people give to the poor, it means that they thank Allah, because whatever they possess that is from Allah. Allah has decided the rights of the poor people in their wealth. So they are fulfilling their responsibilities. Moreover, the givers will be rewarded for that in the hereafter. Some people want to boast of favours following the charity to the poor. This action is very condemnable and totally rejected. The givers will be questioned for it on the Doomsday. If we have wealth, it is our responsibility to spend it in the way of Allah avoiding to cause any hurt and boasting favours. It is unfortunate that the people have forgotten the Qura’anic instructions and the prophetic lessons not only about the wealth and its proper use; but in the most of the aspects of the life. Let’s see some verses of the Holy Qrua’an about the one who boasts favour and causes hurt someone after giving him charity.
Allah the Exalted says: “A graceful word and forgiving is better than charity followed by causing hurt. Allah is All-Independent, Forbearing. (Al-Baqarah: 263) Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (1897-1976) writes under the commentary of this verse: “…One who spends does so for his own good. That being so, an intelligent human being should keep this in mind while spending in the way of Allah, that he is not favouring anybody, and that he is spending for his own good. And should one sense ingratitude on the part of people treated well, he should subject himself to the divine attribute of 'forbearing', show obedience and forgive and forget”. (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 1/652-653)
Nullifying the Act of Charity:
The next verse of the same chapter says: “O you who believe, do not nullify your acts of charity by boasting about (doing people a) favour and by causing (them) hurt, like the one who spends his wealth to show off before people and does not believe in Allah and in the Last Day. So, his example is like a rock on which there is dust, then a heavy rain came over it and left it barren. They have no ability to gain anything out of what they have done, and Allah does not give guidance to the people who disbelieve.” (Al-Baqarah: 264)
What has been conveyed in the previous verse, this one also gives the same message with more emphasis on the same topic. Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani writes: “This makes it clear that any form of favour-flashing or needy-bashing, after an act of charity renders such charity null and void. There is no reward for it.
In this verse, one more condition governing the acceptance of Sadaqah has been added by saying that one who spends for public exposure, for name and fame, and does not believe in Allah Almighty and the Day of Resurrection, can be likened to be acting in a situation where he sows a grain on a clean rock which has collected a layer of soil, then comes the rain and washes the whole thing clean. Such people will never reap what they have sown and Allah Almighty will not let the disbelievers see the way. From this we know the condition that governs the acceptance of Sadaqah and Khayrat -- spend only to seek the good pleasure of Allah Almighty and with the intention of getting Thawab (reward) in the Akhirah (Hereafter). Never do it with the intention of having public exposure, name and fame. Spending with the intention of earning name and fame is wasting what you spend. And should a true Muslim, who does believe in the Hereafter, expend something simply for name, fame, and under hypocritical motivation, he too, would not get any Thawab (reward) for it. Moreover, there is a hint here in the use of the additional sentence "لایؤمن باللہ" (And does not believe in Allah); perhaps, it aims to suggest that hypocrisy and name-seeking is not just the sort of thing a person who believes in Allah Almighty and the Day of Resurrection would ever do since hypocrisy is a sign of something being wrong with his faith.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 1/653)
Spend to Seek Allah’s Pleasure:
The aforesaid verses make it clear that if a person gives something in charity with the intention to achieve the fame, boasting favours, causing hurt or for showing off; such charity doesn’t have any value in the sight of Allah, but the giver will be sinful and punished for it. Contrary to it, the one who gives his wealth to the beggar and weak people with the intention of seeking Allah’s pleasure; such person will be rewarded by Allah. His rewards will be noted in the record of his deeds as multiplied by seven times, but sometimes even multiplied by seven hundred times. Allah the Exalted says: “The example of those who spend in the way of Allah is just like a grain that produced seven ears, each ear having a hundred grains, and Allah multiplies (the reward) for whom He wills. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.” (Al-Baqarah: 261)
This verse gives the glad tidings to those who spend their wealth amongst the weak people, orphans and the widows in the way of Allah just for seeking His pleasure. The glad tiding is that his reward will be multiplied by seven times. It has been made clear in the Holy Qura’an by citing a sensational example, e.g. a person sows a grain of wheat in the fertile land. From that grain one such plant grows which has seven ears and each ear comprises of 100 grains. It brief, if a person spends one rupee, he will be rewarded 700 rupees for that. But it should be noted that the intention of the giver must be to seek Allah’s pleasure. So, the next verse confirms it clearly. The Glorious Qura’an speaks: “Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah, then do not make their spending followed by boasting about favour, or with causing hurt, - they have their reward with their Lord and there is no fear for them nor shall they grieve.” (Al-Baqarah: 262)
If a person spends something in the way of Allah, he must understand that Allah will keep it for him in the hereafter; but He will reward more than what one has spent. Allah the Almighty says: “And whatever thing you spend, He replaces it, and He is the best of the sustainers.” (Saba: 39) At another place the Exalted Allah says: “Whatever good you spend is for your own selves, and you shall not spend but to seek the pleasure of Allah, and whatever good thing you spend shall be repaid to you in full, and you shall not be wronged.” (Al-Baqarah: 272)
Significance of Charity in Ahaadeeth:
The Ahaadeeth of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) are full with the significance of charity. Some narrations are mentioned here. According to a Hadith, the things which remain for the human being after the death is the charity and good deeds; otherwise what one gathers in the world will not be present in the hereafter for him. Once upon a time, a sheep was slaughter at the home of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). The whole meats were distributed, except the shoulder which was kept for the home. Then very good conversation took place on the sheep’s meat between the Prophet (SAWS) and mother Aisha (RA). Aisha (RA) narrates that they had slaughtered a sheep. So the Prophet (SAWS) said: "What remains of it?" She said: "Nothing remains of it except its shoulder." He (SAWS) said: "All of it remains except its shoulder." (Sunan Tirmidhi: 2470) According to the Islamic teaching, the part of the food which is consumed by a person is finished and he will be not rewarded for it. But the part which is given as charity to a needy or a poor person remains for the giver and he will be rewarded for it in the Hereafter. That is why the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) described the part of mutton given in charity as remaining part.
As said in one Hadith, if a person spends his wealth in the way of Allah generously, the angel supplicates for growth in his wealth. If a person doesn’t spend his wealth in the way of Allah due to his misery, the angel calls Allah for the destruction of his wealth. The Hadith goes like this: The Prophet (SAWS) said: "Every day two angels come down (from the heaven) and one of them says, 'O Allah! Compensate every person who spends in Your Cause,' and the other (angel) says, 'O Allah! Destroy every miser.'" (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1442)
If a Muslim fulfills the needs of his Muslim brother, the Almighty Allah fulfills his requirements. The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) says: "A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, so he should not oppress him, nor should he hand him over to an oppressor. Whoever fulfilled the needs of his brother, Allah will fulfill his needs.” (Sahih Bukhari: 2442)
One who spends his wealth and money in the cause of Allah, the Almighty Allah grants blessing in his wealth. If someone doesn’t spend in the cause of Allah, then He also doesn’t bless in his wealth. Hazrat Asma, daughter of Abu Bakr (RA) narrates that she came to the Prophet (SAWS) (for some problem) and he (SAWS) said: "Do not shut your money bag; otherwise Allah too will withhold His Blessings from you. Spend (in Allah's Cause) as much as you can afford." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1434)
It is Allah’s practice that He keeps changing the conditions of the people of the universe. It is possible that the one who is rich today, he can be poor tomorrow and the vice-versa. Imam Abu Yusuf (RA) has truly said: “The wealth comes in the morning and goes in the evening.” It is Allah the All-Powerful Who makes someone rich whenever He wishes. He also has power over making a person poor whenever He wishes. After making someone rich, He fixes the rights of His poor slaves in the wealth of the rich one. In this way, Allah the Almighty examines His both types of slaves either the rich is thanking Him and looking after the poor and the poor is having patience on not having wealth. Because it is Islamic teaching that if someone is blessed with something, he should thank Allah and when some is deprived of something, he should have patience.
Today, a good number of people are suffering due to the lack of wealth and resources; while Allah has enriched some people. Some of the rich people do understand the Islamic teaching and look after the poor people. But there are also some rich people of such type that firstly they don’t want to spend their wealth on the poor. Secondly, if they spend, it goes in vain and they don’t get any reward due to their wrong intention. Therefore, those who are blessed with the riches, they should spend in the way of Allah, according to the Islamic guidelines. Their intention should not be showing off, causing hurt and boasting favours after assisting the poor. This write-up is concluded with a Hadith. Allah's Messenger (SAWS) said: "The example of an alms-giver and a miser is like the example of two persons wearing two iron cloaks from their breasts to their collar bones; and when the alms-giver gives in charity, the cloak becomes capacious till it covers his whole body to such an extent that it hides his fingertips and covers his footprints (obliterates his tracks). And when the miser wants to spend, it (the iron cloak) sticks and (its) every ring gets stuck to its place, he tries to widen it, but it doesn’t become wide." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1443) ***
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
A kind teacher and an exemplary educator, Maulana Jameel Ahmad Sikraudhavi, a senior lecturer at Darul Uloom Deoband, left for heavenly abode. He had fallen sick and was suffering from tormentor disease since several months. Treatment continued; but he could not recover. At the end, he was admitted at GTB Hospital of Delhi, capital city of India. The fixed time has arrived so he breathed his last in the hospital on 31st March 2019. How true and accurate saying of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) is! He (SAWS) conveying his message to his daughter: Zainab (RA), when her son was dying, said: “Whatever Allah takes is for Him and whatever He gives, is for Him, and everything with Him has a limited fixed term (in this world) and so she should be patient and hope for Allah's reward." (Sahih Al-Bukhari: 1284) May the Almighty Allah accept Maulana Sikraudhavi’s services, forgive his shortcomings, grant him the best place in Paradise and give patience to his family members! Aameen!
He was born on 10th April 1950 in a village called: Sikraudha in Bhagwanpur block of the famous district: Haridwar of Urttarakhand in India. Following the completion of his basic educational stages, he moved to the world renowned seminary of Islamic thoughts Darul Uloom Deoband in 1966 and got admission. During his learning period, he had been one of the prominent students. He graduated 1970.
Following the graduation, he was appointed as a teacher in Jamia Rahmania of Hapur. Then he joined Jamia Kashiful Uloom, Chhatmalpur and served there for a period of time. Then he taught at Madrasa Qasimul Uloom of Saharanpur district in UP. In this way, he presented his great services in these different Madaaris. After seven years of his graduation, he was appointed as a teacher at the seat of his learning Darul Uloom Deoband in 1977. Then he joined Darul Uloom Waqf Deoband and taught up to 1999. In 2000, again he came back in Darul Uloom Deoband. He continued teaching here as a kind teacher and an exemplary instructor until he breathed his last.
The Supreme Lord provided him the chance of serving at the great and celebrated institution of the Indian sub-continent and he made the most of it without wasting a moment. The Almighty Allah gave him great opportunity of spreading and preaching the Islamic knowledge for a long period of time among the thousands of students. He continued the chain of teaching and benefiting beautifully. He spent most of his career period teaching in Darul Uloom Deoband. His favourite hobby was teaching and writing the guide books. The learners never complained about his teaching capability, rather they appreciated and showed satisfaction from his teaching methodology. Let me say that the Almighty Allah had blessed him with such talent and capability of teaching that a bright student and a dull learner, the both benefited from him alike. He studied deeply whichever subject he was assigned to teach. Before coming to the classroom, he used to go through the lesson deeply. In the classroom, his heart was satisfied with his studies and the mind was bumping; but at the time of delivering the lesson, he was very careful that of which standard learners he is teaching. So according to their understanding, he used to present his lecture. Due to his teaching methodology, he was not only appreciated by the learners, even the colleague teachers also confessed his capability. That was the reason that very soon he got name and fame as an exemplary educator.
His teaching period is consisting of around five decades. In this long period, he taught many books of the syllabus of the Darse Nizami beautifully. Either it was teaching of the difficult book like “Tafseer Al-Beidawi” or the well-known book of Hadith: “Sunan Tirmidhi” or it was “Hidayah” of Islamic Jurisprudence or the book like “Qawaidul Fiqh”, his teaching methodology was unique, easy, tenable and understandable for each and every learner. Whichever book he taught, he taught it beautifully. In regard to the learners, he was very kind, affectionate, loving and caring teacher. In brief, it can be said that he was “a kind teacher and an exemplary instructor”.
This writer had been lucky to learn from him the famous book of Islamic Jurisprudence “Hidayah” written by Sheikhul Islam Burhanuddin Abul Hasan Ali bin Abi Bakr bin Abdil Jalil Al-Farghani Al-Marghinani (511-593 AH). It was his habit to reach nearby the classroom a few minutes before the period starts. Then he was standing leaning to a pillar outside the classroom. As soon as a teacher leaves the classroom, he used to enter the classroom immediately. When some desks were empty in the middle of the classroom, he used to advise the other students to fill the gap. Then he used to take the students’ attendance register and start roll-call. Following the attendance, a learner used to read a portion of the text supposed to be taught. Then he used to explain the read text in his easy and simple methodology. It was his habit to complete the lesson about five minutes before ending the period and leave the classroom. It was never heard by a learner that he taught so-and-so topic today and it was not understood. It doesn’t matter, either it was any topic like: “Sarf”, “Kifalah”, “Iqalah”, “Hawalah”, “Mudharbah” or “Munabazah”, he explained and dealt them with expertise according to the level of the learners and they understood the topic satisfactorily.
In brief, whichever book of Darse Nizami was assigned to him for teaching, he used to teach it easily caring the level of the learners and the students had no any complication in understanding the lesson. That was why the administrator assigned him higher level classes to teach relying on his capability. He worked according to the expectation. When he was in Darul Uloom Waqf Deoband, he taught the books like, “Anwar Al-Tanzil Wa Asrar Al-Tawil” which is famously known as “Tafseer Al-Beidhawi” (By: Allamah Nasiruddin Abu Saeed Abdullah bin Umar bin Muhammad Al-Shirazi Al-Beidhawi), “Sunan Tirmidhi” (By: Abu I’sa Muhamad bin Isa bin Saurah bin Musa Al-Tirmidhi (824-892)), “Muwatta Imam Malik”, “Hidayah” etc. successfully for almost two decades. Again in Darul Uloom Deoband, he taught Muwatta Imam Malik, Hidayah, Qawaidul Fiqh etc. excellently.
As his teaching skill was recognized, his writing skill was also praised by one and all. He wrote the guide books of the several syllabus books of the Darse Nizami in thousands of pages. The method and language used in those books are very easy and very close to understanding. As Allah the Exalted blessed him with teaching skill, He also granted acceptance to his books. The guide books were highly appreciated and valued by the learners. It is said that he used the new method in writing those guide books. He explained in the simple way the complicated texts of those books. Most of the students used to benefit from the guide books written by him. Ashraful Hidayah, the guide book of famous book of Islamic Jurisprudence: Hidaya, got very much name and fame among the students and the scholars. It was not only the learners and the teachers of the Madaaris who benefited from it; but even some intellectuals, who have interest in the Islamic Jurisprudence, studied it and were seen using it as reference in the debate.
He prepared the guide books for the following books. He wrote the guide of “Usool Al-Shashi” namely “Ajmal Al-Hawashi”. He wrote the guide book of some initial volumes of Hidayah namely Ashraful Hidayah; while the other volumes were written namely “Tafheemul Hidayah”. The guide book of “Mukhtasarul Ma’ani” (By: Sa’aduddin Masood bin Umar Taftazani – 722-792 AH) was prepared namely “Takmeelul Amani”. He wrote the commentary of “Noorul Anwar” namely “Qootul Akhyaar”. The guide book the famous and complicated book “Husami” was written by the name of “Faiz Suhani”. He compiled and edited “Al-Taqrir Al-Hawi” along with his colleague Mufti Shakil Ahmad Sitapuri, ex-teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband. Actually, it is the compilation of the lectures of Maulana Sayyid Fakhrul Hasan, Ex-Head teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband on Tafseer Al-Beidhawi. It is in four volumes which consist up to the verse No.: 82 of Surah Al-Baqarah. May Allah accept it and grant them the best reward!
On the 1st April 2019, his funeral prayer was led by Maulana Qari Sayyid Muhammad Usman (May Allah protect him!), teacher of Hadith: Darul Uloom Deoband in the campus of Darul Uloom Deoband at around 09 hours in the morning. A big number of Ulama and the students attended his funeral prayer. The great scholar of Fiqh and Hadith, Maulana Sikraudhavi was buried in the “Qasmi Graveyard” of Deoband. May Allah grant him the best place in Jannah!
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
The human being do commits sins. If a man has committed a major sin, the door of repentance is open for him from the Almighty Allah. In the Glorious Qura’an and the Holy Hadith, the human being has been encouraged to repent following the sin. By this, it is known that the repentance is important after a sin to wipe it off. Whenever a person commits a major sin, he must make a true and faithful repentance immediately. Then the Almighty Allah forgives his sin and he becomes sinless. The points like definition of repentance, the importance of repentance, its benefits, the conditions for its acceptance and faithful repentance are being discussed here in this article in the light of the Glorious Qrua’an and Sunnah.
Definition of Repentance
Repentance literally means to feel or express sincere regret or remorse about. When this word is attributed towards a person, at that time it means to give up one’s sin and feel regret about what he has done. About the technical meaning of repentance, Allamah Aalusi (1802-1854) writes: “A person should give up his sins and express remorse about what he has done. And the expression of remorse should be with the intention that it is sin, not because it is physically or wealthily harmful. And he should intend that he would not commit it again according to his level best. (Ruhul Ma’ani: 28/158)
Conditions for Repentance
There are some conditions for repentance. The one who repents adhering to those conditions, it is hoped that repentance would be useful for him. If those conditions are not met; there is a fear that the repentance would not be fruitful. There are several conditions found in the books for repentance. The forth caliph of Islam, Ali (RA) has described six comprehensive conditions which are recognized by all the scholars either concisely or in details. They are here:
(I) To regret one’s past evil deeds; (2) to carry out Divine duties that were missed; (3) to restore the rights that were usurped; (4) to ask forgiveness of a person who has been wronged by him physically or verbally; (5) to make a firm resolve of avoiding the sin in future and (6) to consume one’s self in obedience of Allah as one thus far consumed one’s self in His disobedience. (Mazhari) (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 8/526)
Commonly it is understood that after feeling regret and expressing remorse, the sin is pardoned. But here is a point to note. If a person has embezzled one’s right, only expressing remorse is not enough for acceptance of his repentance; but he will have to restore that right as well. Then he should hope for acceptance of the repentance. It is in Al-Mawsuah: “Repentance is expressing of regret about what one has done in the past making a firm intention of avoiding it in future; but it is not enough to drop and eliminate the right of someone if he has taken. So, if he has stolen the wealth of someone, he has usurped or he has misbehaved with someone; so in these cases, only expressing regret, avoiding sin and making firm intention of not repeating, he cannot be absolved of responsibility; but it is necessary for him to repay the right. It is recognized by all the scholars.” (Al-Mawsuah Al-Fiqhiyyah: 14/157)
Shariah Ruling about Repentance
It is obligatory to repent when someone has committed a major sin. It is necessary to repent for one and all sins. If a person repents for only a certain sin and ignores other ones, then the repentance is correct for that one and it is still necessary for him to repent for another ones. Shariah ruling about repentance is that repentance is an obligation. It is proven from the Glorious Qura’an, traditions and consensus. The scholars have proven the repentance of being obligation from the following verse of the Qura’an. (Translation): “And repent to Allah O believers, all of you, so that you may achieve success.” (Al-Noor/31)* A Hadith speaks: “O people! Repent to Allah before you die.” (Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 1018)
Timing for Repentance
When a slave of Allah repents, the Almighty Allah accepts his repentance. Allah Almighty says: “And He is the One who accepts repentance from His servants and forgives evil deeds and knows whatever you do.” (Shura/25) As far as the timing of repentance is concerned, so Allah will accept the repentance as long as, one of the major signs of Doomsday, the sun rising doesn’t start from the west. It is in a Hadith: “Whoever repents before the sun rises from its place of setting, Allah will accept his repentance.” (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2703) It has also come in a Hadith: "Indeed Allah accepts the repentance of a slave as long as his soul does not reach his throat." (Sunan Trimidhi, Hadith: 3537)
Committing a sin is a common for a human being. As soon as a sin is committed, the person must try to compensate it that is repenting. Following the sin, a person should behave like a believer thinking as if he is under a burden of mountain, not like an evil-doer who takes the sin lightly. Abdullah bin Masood (RA) says: “A believer sees his sins as if he were sitting under a mountain which, he is afraid, may fall on him; whereas a Fajir (wicked evil-doer) considers his sins as flies passing over his nose and he just drives them away like this. (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 6308)
It is not known to us at what time we are going to leave this world; that is why we should not delay; but repent immediately after a sin. Following the repentance, we should hope that Allah would accept our repentance. Being Most-Forgiving and Very-Merciful, Allah is always waiting for our repentance. After repentance, not only the Muslims, but the non-Muslims are also forgiven. Describing disbelieve of Christians, Allah Almighty says in the Qura’an: “Why then do they not turn to Allah in repentance and seek His forgiveness, while Allah is most forgiving, very merciful?” (Al-Maaidah/74)
Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (1887-1949) writes under the commentary of the mentioned verse: “This is the power and dignity of Allah that when such a rebel, traitor and rude criminal comes before Him regretting and making a firm resolve of reformation; He forgives the crimes (sins) committed in the whole life. (Tafseer Usmani)
A Faithful Repentance
Following the major sin, we should turn to Allah with a faithful repentance. The holy Qura’an commands us for a true or faithful repentance. What is a faithful repentance? In a tradition, the faithful repentance has been described as follows: “The slave should express regret about the sin he has committed. Then he should apologize before Allah. Then he should not return to the sin as the milk does return to the udder. (Al-Dur Al-Manthur: 8/227) According to Ibn Abbas (RA), the faithful repentance has been explained as: “Feeling regret for the sin in his heart, begging pardon of Allah from tongue, avoiding the sin at all and making a firm resolve of not committing it.” (Al-Qamoos Al-Fiqhi Lughatan Wa Istilahan, P.: 50)
The reward for a person who makes a faithful repentance is also mentioned in the same verse wherein the commandment for the faithful repentance has come. Let us read it. “O you who believe, turn to Allah with a faithful repentance. It is hoped from your Lord that He will write off your faults, and will admit you to the gardens beneath which rivers flow, on the Day when Allah will not disgrace the Prophet and those who believed with Him. Their light will run before them and to their right hands. They will say, “Our Lord, perfect for us our light, and forgive us. Indeed You are powerful over everything.” (Al-Tahreem/8) (The Meaning of the Noble Qura’an by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani. I commonly quote the translation of Mufti Usmani Hafizahullah in my articles.)
Instruction to Ask for Forgiveness and Repent
Allah the Almighty is so Merciful and Kind that He doesn’t want His servants remain a sinful after committing a sin; that is why He instructs them to repent and seek His forgiveness. The glorious Qura’an speaks: “And you must seek forgiveness from your Lord, then, turn to Him in repentance,” (Hud/3) Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (1897-1976) writes under the commentary of the above verse:
“In these verses of firm and established meaning, Allah Ta'ala has also instructed His servants to ask for forgiveness and pardon from their Lord, and make their Taubah before Him. Forgiveness (Maghfirah) relates to past sins and Taubah (repentance) relates to the resolve of not going near these anymore. And, in reality, a correct and true Taubah is no more than being ashamed of past sins, praying to Allah that they be forgiven and resolving firmly that they would not be repeated in future.” (Ma’ariful Qura’an: 4/596)
Repentance Protects Heart
When a person commits a sin, a black dot appears on his heart. When he repents and seeks for forgiveness, his heart becomes clean from that dot. If he doesn’t repent and continue committing sin, the dot increases, until the heart becomes rusty. At this point, the person loses the ability to accept the truth. By this, it is understood that whenever a person commits a sin, he must repent immediately to protect his heart from becoming rusty. Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) says: "Verily, when the slave (of Allah) commits a sin, a black spot appears on his heart. When he refrains from it, seeks forgiveness and repents, his heart is polished clean. But if he returns, it increases until it covers his entire heart. And that is the 'Ran' which Allah mentioned: Nay, but on their hearts is the Ran which they used to earn.” (Sunan Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3334)
Under the commentary of the above Hadith is written: “When mankind does not use its natural talents properly and the faculty of the intellect and the heart, and he becomes a habitual perpetrator of sins by obeying his desires, then the dirt of all of his deeds gradually begins to cover the heart and after sometime it encompasses his entire heart; there remains no place for anything good in the heart. The person becomes a slave of sins.” (English Translation of Jimi' At-Tirmidhi: 6/68)
Repent in Abundance
Beloved Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) has instructed his Ummah to repent in abundance. A narration relates the practice of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) of repenting hundred times a day. He (SAWS) was innocent, forgiven and sinless, in spite of that he (SAWS) used to repent in abundance. Reason behind his practice was that his Ummah should learn that when he (SAWS) repents so abundantly being innocent, the Ummah should also seek forgiveness and repent abundantly; because we commit several major and minor sins day and night. The Prophet (SAWS) says: “O people! Repent to Allah, for I repent to Allah one hundred times a day.” (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2702) There is one another narration which says: "By Allah! I seek Allah's forgiveness and turn to Him in repentance for more than seventy times a day." (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 6307)
In accordance with one Hadith, the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) used to repent hundred times. In another Hadith it is said seventy times a day. Apparently they seem to be contradicting each other. The fact is that they are not to show the exact number of repentance; but they are to express that he (SAWS) used to repent day and night abundantly. Therefore, there is a lesson for the Ummah to repent in abundance.
Waiting For His Servants’ Repentance
Allah the Almighty is so kind and generous that he waits for His servants to repent. He is so Merciful and Forgiving that He waits every time, be day or night, for His servants repentance. When a salve repents, Allah feels happy and He is pleased with him. He forgives his slaves’ sins. One Hadith goes like this: "Allah holds out His Hand at night to accept the repentance of those who have sinned during the day, and He holds out His Hand by day to accept the repentance of those who have sinned at night, until the sun rises from its place of setting." (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2759) It means He will continue doing so near by the Doomsday. In this Hadith, holding out the hand means that He is very happy with the repentance of His slaves. He is so generous and kind that He feels happy after forgiving the sins of His servants.
Repentance is a Pleasing Deed
The repentance is a pleasing deed in the sight of the Almighty Allah. Whoever makes repentance following the sin, fulfilling its conditions, Allah the Exalted forgives him. One Hadith goes like this: “If you don’t commit sin, Allah would create people who would commit sin and He would forgive them." (Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2748) In one another Hadith the repenting person has been made equal to a person who is sinless. The beloved Messenger of Allah (SAWS) says: “The one who repents from his sin is like one who doesn’t commit sin.” (Sunan Ibne Majah, Hadith: 4250)
According to the statement of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His slaves. Allah’s messenger (SAWS) says: "Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His slave than anyone of you is pleased with finding his camel which he had lost in a desert." (Sahih Bukhari, Hadith: 6309)
The piece of writing is being concluded with a verse of the Holy Qrua’an where Allah the Almighty says that if a servant avoids form major sins, Allah will forgive his minor sins and grant him a noble entrance. Please see the translation of the verse: “If you abstain from the major (sins) out of what you have been forbidden from, We shall write off your minor sins, and shall admit you to a noble entrance.” (Al-Nisa/31) May Allah enable us for repentance and grant us Jannah! ***
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Among the human parts of the body, the best one is the heart. If it is fine, the whole body will remain good enough. If it is not well, the other parts of the body will get affected as well. When the heart is spiritually fallen sick, it causes the hidden and spiritual diseases, such as malice, jealousy, pride, arrogance, hypocrisy, egotism, love for rank, position and wealth etc. These diseases don’t cause the destruction only in the world, but also they are the cause of failure and disappointment in the hereafter. One among these spiritual diseases is “Jealousy” spread in our society. It is heart’s disease. The jealousy is being explained in this write-up so that one can understand its harms.
Definition of Jealousy:
Literal meaning of jealous is envious of someone else’s possessions, achievements or advantages. In term, wishing of a man for the declining of someone’s bounty and boon given by Allah is called “Jealousy”. Either he wishes that bounty for himself or not. The one who wishes so is called “Jealous” and whose bounty is being wished to be declined is called “Looked upon with jealously”. In brief, the jealous person wishes declining the bounty of the person looked upon with jealous. (1)
There another close word to jealousy which is called “Envy”. The envy means that a person expresses a desire for being blessed with a bounty someone is already blessed with; without a wish of declining from him. (2)
Causes of Jealousy
After knowing that the jealousy is a disease and causes spiritual damage for the people who commit it; it is better to know its causes so that one can understand and try to avoid it to safeguard himself from it. Its several causes had been written in details by the famous thinker and Islamic philosopher Imam Muhammad bin Muhammad Al-Ghazali (450-505 AH) in his well-known book: “Ihyaau Uloomi Al-Deen”. Those causes are being summarised and mentioned here in brief:
1. Malice and Enmity: The person who is hurt or whose goals and objectives are interfered; becomes the enemy of the one who hurt or one who interfered. He dislikes that person. Now the malice and anger pushes him to avenge. If he fails to avenge, he wishes that someone should take revenge from him.
2. Ambition: Sometimes the cause of the jealous is that a person doesn’t like to see another person of his status being respected or superior. It means that the jealous person doesn’t want that a person of his status is being blessed with a bounty and showing his superiority above him.
3. Pride and Arrogance: Sometimes, the cause of jealous is that a person feels another one humiliated and disgraced due to his arrogance and pride. He wishes that other should be under his pressure and every time be at his command to follow his order. If by chance that person is blessed with some bounties, now that arrogant person fears that may be that person will change his attitude now and he won’t follow his order. Yet, he was arrogant, now another one will be arrogant. This forces him to be jealous of the bounty he is blessed with.
4. Astonishment: Sometimes a person feels astonished that another person is at high rank and in better position than him. Now, he feels surprised that is also cause of jealous.
5. Fear of Failure in Achieving a Goal: This cause of jealous is specially among those two people who try to achieve the same thing. Now, each one is jealous of a bounty which is helpful for another one to achieve that goal.
6. Desire for Power and Prestige: Sometimes, having desire for power and position is cause of jealous, e.g. a person is a matchless and has authority on a skill. He doesn’t want that someone else should gain that one so that he makes himself great by putting others down. The purpose of this person is not to achieve a materialistic gain, rather to gain praise and acceptability. So, if someone tries to learn the skill, he feels jealous of him and wishes decline of that one, e.g. bravery, knowledge, art, beauty etc.
7. Evil Nature and Soul: Sometimes, due to the evil nature and being one’s heart miser regarding goodness is a big cause of jealous. You can find easily some people of such nature. When they know about someone being blessed with some of Allah’s bounties, they will feel heavy heart and when they know that someone is suffering from or failed in achieving his goal, those evil nature people will feel happy. They don’t like to see others successful and happy, but to see them with miseries and difficulties. When they see someone with Allah’s bounty, they become restless and anxious as the bounty has been given from their treasures. (3)
Condemnation of Jealous in the Holy Qura’an:
The Almighty Allah has condemned the jealous at several places in the Holy Qura’an. Sometimes, under some another topics the jealous has been described and occasionally directly and clearly it has been condemned. Two verses of the Glorious Qura’an are being quoted here as follows. The Holy Qrua’an speaks:
“Or, is it that they are jealous of people over what Allah has given them of His bounty, while We have given to the House of Ibrahim the Book and the wisdom, and We have given to them a great kingdom?” (4)
Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (1887-1949) writes under the commentary of the above verse: “Is it that the Jews are dying of jealous of seeing the bounty and reward that Allah gave to Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and his companions (RA)? So, it is completely their stupidity and foolishness; because we (Allah) had granted the Book, knowledge and great kingdom to the family members of Ibrahim (AS). Then how are the Jews jealous of the prophet-hood and dignity of Muhammad (SAWS) and how can they deny; even now it is in the house of Ibrahim (AS).” (5)
This verse makes it clear that being Jews jealous are wrong on great bounties like prophet-hood, messenger-hood, dignity, respect, kingdom conferred upon the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and the bounty and rewards given to his companions (May be pleased with them!) by Allah. This verse also makes it clear that if Allah has blessed one of his servants with his boon and bounty, being jealous of it is prohibited.
The glorious Qura’an speaks at another place: “(O Muslims,) many among the people of the Book desire to turn you, after your accepting the faith, back into disbelievers – all out of envy on their part, even after the truth has become clear to them. So, forgive and overlook till Allah brings out His command. Certainly, Allah is powerful over everything.” (6)
Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani (1896-1976) writes in the commentary of the above verse: “Some of the Jews, pretending to be the well-wishers of the Muslims, were always inventing new stratagems to make them turn away from Islam, and, in spite of repeated failure in this effort, did not refrain from it. The verse warns the Muslims against their intentions, which are motivated, not by sincerity and friendship, but by envy – which in its turn arises not from anything the Muslims do, but spontaneously from within themselves even after they have come to understand clearly what the truth is. The verse also asks the Muslims not to give way to their justifiable anger at such misconduct, but to forgive the Jews, and wait till Allah sends a new commandment with regard to such matters.” (7)
The gist of the above commentary is that the Muslims who were blessed with the great bounty of Iman, the Jews struggled and played different tricks, so that the Muslims would forsake Iman and turn away from Islam. The reason was that the Jews were jealous of Muslims’ great bounty of Iman. So, the struggle of Jews was not based on being well-wishers of Muslims, but it was due to the jealousy.
Prohibition of Jealous in the Hadith:
There are several sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) which emphasise and guide this Ummah to avoid and refrain from committing jealousy. Some of those sayings are being presented here so that we can understand through them the harms and evils of jealousy.
There is a Hadith which clearly tells that the jealous is like fire and it consumes good deeds as the fire consumes the wood. The Hadith is narrated by Abu Hurairah (RA). The translation is presented here:
The Prophet (SAWS) said: "Beware of envy, because the envy consumes good deeds as fire consumes wood" or he said, "grass." (8)
There is another Hadith which guides to avoid the hate, jealous etc. and teaches to live like brothers with each other. Anas bin Malik (RA) says that the messenger of Allah (SAWS) said:
"Don’t hate one another, and don’t be jealous of one another; and don’t desert each other, and O Allah's worshippers, be brothers! Lo! It is not permissible for any Muslim to desert (not talk to) his (Muslim) brother for more than three days." (9)
Shariah Ruling Over Jealous:
It is Shariah ruling that jealous is prohibited and forbidden and avoiding form it is compulsory. A Muslim, therefore, always must avoid from jealousy. Allah the Almighty says: (Translation) “And from the evil of an envier when he envies”. (10) Imam Ghazali (RA) writes: The jealous is forbidden in all cases. Albeit, if a disbeliever and sinful person is blessed with a bounty and he creates disturbance and mischief and creates dissention among the people, hurts the creations through that bounty, in such cases, it is allowed to hate and wish declining of that bounty. Because, now your dislike and wish of decline is not with the intention that he is blessed with a bounty, rather it is because he creates dissention among the people through that bounty. If there was not fear of disturbance and dissention through that bounty, neither would you have felt pain, nor would you have wished the decline of that bounty. (11)
How to Avoid Jealousy?
If someone is suffering from the disease of jealousy; the way to overcome jealousy and avoid it is that he must remember and recall in his mind that it is harmful for him not only in the world, but in the hereafter as well. It must be kept in mind that a jealous person is a sick person and he must try to get rid of this sickness. Whenever one feels jealous of a person on a bounty, he must return to Allah asking the same thing for himself and doesn’t wish declining of that thing from that person. If it isn’t possible, one should try to control his mind from that thing. He should make himself understand that that person is his brother, so why should he feel jealousy of him. If Allah has blessed him, he should feel happy. He should make Duaa for growth in his bounty. If one feels jealousy of a person, he should make Duaa for him, give something as gift to him and do good to him. A jealous person should also think about someone who is less in bounty than him. One should also interpret and make himself understand that this thing has no value in his eye. If one fails to control himself from jealousy, the fire of jealousy will continue consuming him as the fire consumes wood. The Islamic scholars have written that one who is used to feel jealousy of a person, should read: “Astaghfirullah Rabbi Min Kulli Zanbin Wa Atubu Aleihi” and “Al-Hamdulillah” repeatedly.
We must try our level best to avoid jealousy and make Duaa that may the Almighty Allah protect us from jealousy and other diseases like jealousy. The jealousy is such dangerous fire which burns the jealous person from inside into ashes. This disease is related to heart, so the heart also gets affected from it. When the heart is affected, it means the all parts of body are affected. One of the companions of the Prophet (SAWS), Numaan bin Bashir (RA) says that he heard the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) saying: “Beware! There is a piece of flesh in the body, if it becomes good (reformed), the whole body becomes good, but if it gets spoilt, the whole body gets spoilt, and that is the heart.” *** (12)
1. Al-Mausu’ah Al-Fiqhiyyah: 17/269
2. Al-Mausu’ah Al-Fiqhiyyah: 17/271
3. Ihyaul Uloom: 3/293-295
4. Al-Nisa: 54
5. Tafseers Usmani, Al-Nisa: 54
6. Al-Baqarah: 109
7. Ma’ariful Qura’an: 1/289
8. Sunan Abi Dawood, Book of Etiquette, Chapter of Envy, Hadith No.: 4903
9. Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of Etiquette, Chapter: Jealousy and mutual estrangement are forbidden, Hadith No.: 6065
10. Al-Falaq: 05
11. Ihyaul Uloom: 3/288
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Muhammad (SAWS) After Being Blessed with Prophethood:
Allah the Almighty blessed his last and final Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) with the prophet-hood when he was 40 years old. Following being blessed with the prophethood, he (SAWS) remained in Makkah for 13 years. This period is called the Makkan Life. In the Makkan Life, the Prophet (SAWS) called secretly only his close relatives towards Islam for three years. Then he (SAWS) proclaimed the Message of Deen openly for ten years. After ten years of Open Call, he migrated to Madinah which was called then Yathrib. The disbelievers of Makkah became his nasty enemies due to preaching Islam. As the people continued embracing Islam and the light of Islam continued spreading, the anger of the disbelievers also continued increasing. They couldn’t express their anger and oppression against the Muslims who had any tribal status or any supporter in Makkah. The Makkan pagans started an endless series of oppression against the Muslims who were poor, underprivileged, had no supporter and weren’t related to a high status tribe. The disbelievers harassed and persecuted them in various ways; but it couldn’t weaken their faith, instead it made their faith even stronger day by day. The Prophet’s grandfather, then uncle Abu Talib, were considered the men of great honour and dignity in the eyes of the Quraish. The family affiliation of the Prophet (SAWS) was important in the eyes of the one and all; therefore, to attack him (SAWS) was to wage war. But despite this fact, a few unfortunate people used to trouble and persecute him in various ways. He (SAWS) had to suffer various persecutions, hardships and pains. In this article, the light is being shed on some of the persecutions, troubles and hardships of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) in the Makkan life.
Enmity of Abu Lahab Abdul Uzza:
The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) started calling first his family members towards Islam. Those people who were at the forefront in opposing and hating his mission and tried their level best to stop the preaching of Islam, amongst them were also his family members such as Abu Lahab. He was one of the uncles of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). His name was Abdul Uzza bin Abdul Muttalib. His surname was Abu Utaibah and he was called Abu Lahab; because of the brightness of his face. He used to often cause harm to the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). He hated and scorned him and his religion. (Tafseer Ibn Kathir: 8/514) This enemy of Islam always used to think to finish Islam.
Abu Lahab’s Pelting Stone at the Prophet (SAWS) in Zul-Majaz Bazaar:
Tariq bin Abdullah Muharibi (RA) said: I saw the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) in the bazaar of Zul-Majaz; while I was busy in trading. He (SAWS) had worn a red Jubba and used to say it loudly: “O people! Say there is none worthy of worship, besides Allah, you will be successful”. A man was following and throwing stones at him from behind, which caused his shins and heels to bleed. The man used to say at the same time: “O people! Do not listen to him. He is a liar. Muharibi says that he asked who this person (Muhammad SAWS) was. The people replied that the boy (Muhammad SAWS) is from the Banu Abdul Muttalib. (Then) I asked: Who is the person who follows him and pelts stone at him? The people replied: He is his uncle Abdul Uzza, i.e. Abu Lahab.” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, Hadith: 36565)
Placing Thorny Branches in the Path of the Prophet (SAWS):
Wife of Abu Lahab was among the leading women of the Quraish. Her surname was Umm Jamil. Her name was Arwah bint Harb bin Umayyah. She was supportive of her husband in his disbelief, rejection and obstinacy. Therefore, she will be helping to administer his punishment in the fire of Hell on the Day of Judgement. This unfortunate lady used to collect thorny branches from the jungle and place them in the path of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) in order to harm him. She also used to taunt him (SAWS) for poverty. (Tafseer Ibn Kathir: 8/515)
Divorcing Daughters of the Prophet (SAWS):
Two daughters of Prophet Muhammad (SAWS): Ruqiya (RA) and Umm Kulthum (RA) were married to the enemy of Islam Abu Lahab’s two sons: Utaiba and Utbah. It was just Nikaah and the matrimonial relation had not taken place as they were not sent then to their husbands’ home. Following the revelation of Surah Lahab, with the intention of defaming and disgracing the Prophet (SAWS), Abu Lahab and his wife ordered their sons to divorce the daughters of the Prophet (SAWS).
Imam Tabarani narrates on the authority of Qatadah (RA) that the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS): Umm Kulthum (RA) was married to Utaiba bin Abi Lahab. Raqiyah (RA) was married to Utaibah’s brother Utbah bin Abi Lahab. When Allah Almighty revealed Surah Lahab, Abu Lahab said to his two sons: Utaibah and Utbah, “If you don’t divorce the daughters of Muhammad (SAWS), my head will be Haraam for the head of you both.” Their mother, daughter of Harb ibn Umayyah and she is the carrier of the firewood, said: “You both divorce them; because they have become apostate of their religion.” So, they both divorced them. (Tafsir Durre Manthoor: 8/667)
As the practice of divorce is considered a disgrace in some of the noble families of today, in the same way, it was regarded as a disgrace in the noble families of Arab society at that time. Then for a father who has the high example of nobility and his two daughters get divorced at the same time and that too at the time when that father is facing all kinds of troubles and hardships; so how much pain it can cause is difficult to describe.
Spatting at the Blessed Face of the Prophet (SAWS):
Not to speak of Abu Lahab and Umm Jamil ordering their sons to divorce the daughters of the Prophet (SAWS); even Umme Jamil forced her sons to use foul language to him (SAWS) along with divorcing his two daughters. So, the wretched Utbah spat at the face of the Prophet (SAWS) and divorced (his daughter) using the inappropriate words. (Tafseer Haqqani: 8/ 247)
Soothsayer and Magician:
As long as the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) had not proclaimed his prophet-hood, he (SAWS) was known as a good human being, intellectual and wise man in Makkah. The Makkan people gave him the titles: Al-Sadiq (the Truthful) and Al-Amin (the Trustworthy). When he (SAWS) proclaimed his prophet-hood; they tried their level best to paint him with bad titles like soothsayer, magician etc.; so that the people shouldn’t come near to him and shouldn’t listen to his talk. But for those whose hearts Allah had decided to be enlightened with the light of faith, it had no effect on them. On the contrary, despite of facing the troubles and hardships, they used to come to the Prophet (SAWS) and enlightened their hearts with the light of the Islamic messages.
Whenever the disbelievers witnessed a miracle of the Prophet (SAWS), they would say that it is a magic that will end soon. Allah the Almighty says: “When these people see a sign, they turn away and say, “(This is) a transient magic.” (Al-Qamar: 2) “Thus the verse means that the Quraish alleged that the sign of moon-splitting they saw was an illusion and false; its effect will soon diminish and fade away.” (Ma’arif Al-Qura’an: 8/242)
At another place, the Almighty Allah says: “They (the pagans) wonder that a warner has come to them from among themselves. And the disbelievers say, “This is a magician, a sheer liar.” (Saad: 04)
Abu Dharr Ghifari (RA) quoting the story of his brother Unais, who visited Makkah and met Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), says that he asked him what he did in Makkah: He said: ‘I met a man in Makkah who follows your religion. He says that Allah has sent him.’ I said: ‘What do the people say?’ He said: ‘They say that he is a poet, or a soothsayer, or a magician.’ And Unais was one of the poets. Unais said: ‘I have heard the words of the soothsayers, and he is not a soothsayer. I compared his words to the words of poetry, and no one after me can say that he is a poet. By Allah, he (Muhammad SAWS) is telling the truth and they are lying.’ (Sahih Muslim: 2473)
Crazy and Insane:
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was a great human being. He never committed any inappropriate action. He never talked nonsense. He never misbehaved with any old or young person. But just after the proclamation of Prophet-hood, the infidels of Makkah started calling him crazy and insane. The Glorious Quran speaks: “How will they take lesson, while there has already come to them a messenger making things clear? Then they turned away from him, and said, “(He is) tutored, crazy.” (Al-Dukhan: 13-14)
The glorious Qura’an speaks at another place: “They (the disbelievers of Makah) say (to Allah’s Messenger SAWS), ‘O you to whom the Dhikr (the Qur’an) has been revealed, you are surely insane (falsely claim about the Prophet-hood).” (Al-Hijr: 06) The fact is that those who called crazy and insane to this great teacher of humanity and the leader of guidance were themselves crazy, senseless, insane, stubborn, obstinate, disobedient and rebellious.
There is a narration which speaks that Dimaad (RA) came to Makkah. He was from the tribe of Azd Shanu’ah. He used to treat people with Ruqyâ’ (in the case of Jinn possession). He heard the fools among the people of Makkah saying that Muhammad (SAWS) was possessed. He said: “If I see this man, perhaps Allah will heal him at my hands.” He says that he met him and said: “O Muhammad (SAWS), I treat people with Ruqyâ’ in the case of Jinn possession, and Allah heals at my hands whomsoever He wills. Do you want that (you be treated with Ruqya)?” Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: “Praise be to Allah, We praise Him and seek His help. Whomsoever Allah guides, none can lead astray, and whomsoever He sends astray, none can guide. I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah alone with no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.” Dimaad said: “Say these words of yours to me again.” The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) repeated them three times and (Dimaad) said: “I have heard the words of the soothsayers, the words of the magicians and the words of the poets; but I have never heard anything like these words of yours. You have scaled the heights of eloquence.” He said: “Give me your hand so that I may pledge allegiance to Islam.” So he gave him his pledge of allegiance. Then the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “And on behalf of your people (too).” He said: “(Yes) And on behalf of my people (too).” (Sahih Muslim: 868)
Abu Jahl’s Throwing Soil at the Prophet (SAWS):
A man of the Banu Malik ibn Kanana says that he saw the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) in the bazaar of Dhul-Majaz saying: “O people! Say there is none worthy of worship, except Allah, you will be successful”. The narrator says that Abu Jahl used to throw soil at him and say: ‘O people! Be careful! This person may deceive you about your religion; because he wants you to give up Laat and Uzzaa (two idols); while the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) didn’t pay any attention to him. (Musnad Ahmad: 16603)
Abu Jahl Cracks the Head of the Prophet (SAWS):
Abu Jahl was an aggressive person. He was always behind our Prophet (SAWS). He used to insult and trouble him a lot. One day, first he insulted the Prophet (SAWS) and then he injured his head. When the uncle of the Prophet (SAWS), Hamzah (RA) came to know it, he couldn’t control himself and attacked Abu Jahl with his bow and announced embracing Islam.
“It is recorded that the Prophet (SAWS) was one day seated on the hillock of Safa when Abu Jahl happened to pass by and accused the religion preached by him. Muhammad (SAWS), however, kept silent and didn’t utter a single word. Abu Jahl went on unchecked, took a stone and cracked the Prophet’s head which began to bleed. The aggressor then went to join the Quraishites in their assembly place. It so happened that shortly after that, Hamzah (RA) while returning from a hunting expedition, passed by the same way, his bow hanging by his shoulder. A slave-girl belonging to Abdullah bin Jada’an, who had noted the impertinence of Abu Jahl, told him the whole story of the attack on the Prophet (SAWS). On hearing that, Hamzah (RA) was deeply offended and hurried to Ka’abah and there, in the courtyard of the Holy sanctuary, found Abu Jahl sitting with a company of Quraishites. Hamzah (RA) rushed upon him and struck his bow upon his head violently and said: “Ah! You have been abusing Muhammad (SAWS); I too follow his religion and profess what he preaches.” (Sealed Nectar, P.: 108)
Abu Jahl’s Intention to Assassinate the Prophet (SAWS):
One day, Abu Jahl said addressing the Quraish that Muhammad (SAWS) finds fault in our religion. He (SAWS) insults our ancestors and gods, therefore, I promise Allah that tomorrow I will sit down with a heavy stone and when he prostrates, I will crush his head with the same stone….. When it was next morning, he took a stone as he had described and sat down to wait (for the Prophet SAWS). The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) came as he used to come….. Then the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) was engaged in Salaah….. As soon as he (SAWS) prostrated, Abu Jahl picked up a stone and walked towards him. When Abu Jahl came close to him (SAWS), he returned back in a shocking state. His face complexion was pale and he was so terrified and in the awe that both of his hands were stuck to the same stone in his hands and he could hardly managed to throw the stone from his hand.
Some people of the Quraish tribe came to him and asked: “O Abu Jahl! What happened to you?” Abu Jahl replied: “I stood up to do what I had promised to do the last night.” When I reached him, a camel came across between him and me. I swear by God! I never saw a camel whose skull, neck and teeth are like that camel. He wanted to eat me.” (Seerate Ibn Hisham: 1/298-299)
Camel’s Intestines on the Back of Prophet (SAWS):
Once upon a time, the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was offering Salaah near the Ka’bah. Abu Jahl was sitting with some of his friends. Some of them said to others, “Who amongst you will bring the abdominal contents (intestines etc.) of a camel of Bani so-and-so and put it on the back of Muhammad (SAWS), when he prostrates?” The most wretched of them (Uqba bin Abi Mu’aeet) got up and brought it. He waited till the Prophet (SAWS) prostrated and then placed it on his back between his shoulders. He (SAWS) was unable to stand due its burden. Abdullah bin Masood (RA) was watching it, but due to his weakness and the tyranny of the oppressors couldn’t assist the Prophet (SAWS). He wished he had some people with him to hold out against them. They started laughing and falling on one another. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) was in prostration and he couldn’t lift his head up till (the daughter of the Prophet SAWS) Fatima (RA) came and threw that camel’s abdominal contents away from his back. (Sahih Bukhari: 240/3185/3854)
Offer of Man for Man:
To kill the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS), the disbelievers of the Quraish made an offer of “man for man”. They wanted to give Umarah bin Walid to Abu Talib and get the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) for his exchange so that they would kill him (SAWS). So, the disbelievers of Quraish talked to Abu Talib:
“O Abu Talib! We have brought you a smart boy still in the bloom of his youth, to make use of his mind and strength and take him as your son in exchange for your nephew, who has run counter to your religion, brought about social discord, found fault with your way of life, so that we kill him and rid you of his endless troubles; just man for man.” Abu Talib’s reply was, “It is really an unfair bargain. You give me your son to bring him up and I give you my son to kill him! By Allah, it is something incredible!” Al-Mut’im bin Adi, a member of the delegation, interrupted saying that the Quraish had been fair in that bargain “They meant only to rid you of that source of hateful trouble, but as I see you are determined to refuse their favours.” Abu Talib, of course, turned down all their offers and challenged them to do whatever they pleased. (The Sealed Nectar: 105)
Putting the Garment around the Neck and Throttling:
The disbelievers of Makkah didn’t let the Prophet (SAWS) even to offer Salaah peacefully. When the Prophet (SAWS) used to be in Salaah, sometimes they would place the intestines of the camel on his blessed back and sometime they would put the garment around the blessed neck and would start throttling. There is a tradition in Sahih Bukhari which speaks about it.
Urwa bin Zubair asked (Abdullah) Ibn Amr bin Aas (RA): “Tell me of the worst thing which the pagans did to the Prophet (SAWS).” He said: “While the Prophet (SAWS) was offering Salaah in the Hateem of the Ka’bah, suddenly Uqba bin Abi Mu’aeet came and put his garment around the neck of the Prophet (SAWS). Then he throttled him violently. Abu Bakr (RA) came and caught him by his shoulder and pushed him away from the Prophet (SAWS) and said: “Would you kill a man just because he says, ‘My Lord is Allah?’” [al-Ghafir: 28] (Sahih Bukhari: 3856)
Stretching the Hair of the Head and Beard:
Sometimes the polytheists would grab the hair of head and beard of the Prophet (SAWS) and would pull it so hard that his hair would fall out. (Sirat-e-Halabiyah Urdu, vol. 1, P. 276)
Three-Year Social Boycott:
The disbelievers of Quraish together decided to kill the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) saying that “He has turned our children and even our women away from us.” Then they said to the family of the Prophet (SAWS): “Take double blood money from us and allow a Quraish man to kill him, so that we can have peace and you can get benefit.” When this proposal was not granted, then getting anger by this, they decided to socially boycott the Banu Hashim and the Banu Abdul Muttalib, who were the helpers of the Prophet (SAWS). The Quraish decided to expel them from Makkah and besiege and confine them in the valley called Sha’b Abu Talib.
According to a narration, it was also decided: “Do not marry with the daughters of the Bani Hashim and don’t get your daughters married to them, don’t sell and buy anything from them and don’t accept any reconciliation from them.” So, whenever a caravan of traders came to Makkah from outside and these helpless people would come to them immediately to buy some food stuffs from them; Abu Lahab used to follow them immediately and say, “Increase the price so much that they cannot afford to buy something.” The traders used to do the same. Then they would come back without buying anything in despair to their children. The children who were suffering from starvation, would sob and cry when they saw them returning back empty-handed.
The Muslims faced tough time in that valley. Due to the social boycott from the Quraish, they didn’t get anything to eat and drink. The Muslims were in the worst situation due to hunger. They used to live and pass their time by eating grass, the leaves of the tree and the skins. This difficult and hard time continued for three consecutive years. (Extracted from: Sirat-e-Halabiyah Urdu, vol. 1, last-half, p. 393-394)
Oppression from the People of Taif:
Following the death of Abu Talib, the Prophet (SAWS) travelled to Taif walking in Shawwal, 10th year of the Prophethood, accompanied by his freed slave: Zaid bin Haritha to seek help from the Thaqif. It was hoped that the people of Taif would accept the message of Allah with which he (SAWS) had gone to them. After reaching Taif, he (SAWS) wanted to meet the three chieftains of the Thaqif: Abd Yaleel, Masood and Habib. They were brothers. He (SAWS) sat with them and talked about helping Islam and helping himself against any of his people who oppose him.
After hearing the talk of the Prophet (SAWS), the chieftains of Thaqif responded very frivolously. One said: “He is tearing the cloths of Ka’bah, is it true that Allah has sent you as a Messenger?” Actually he meant by his statement that if Muhammad (SAWS) is a Prophet, then may Allah destroy him. Another one said: “Has not Allah found someone else to entrust him with His Message?” The third brother said: “I swear by Allah that I will never have any contact with you. If you are really the Messenger of Allah, then you are too serious to report back, and if you are belying Allah then I feel it is imperative not to speak to.” The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) was disappointed with their behaviours and answers. Then he (SAWS) stood up and left asking them to keep as secret whatever happened there.
When the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) intended to come back from there, those chieftains incited their slaves and thugs to attack him. They insulted him, clapped and shouted at him, until a crowd of the people gathered. There was a line of people on both sides of the road. At the time of passing by there, as soon as the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) took a step, they would throw stones at his shins so much so that his shins were injured and his shoes were filled with blood. When he (SAWS) was hurt with the stone, he would sit on the ground. Those unfortunate people used to hold his arms and when he (SAWS) would start walking, they would throw stones at him (SAWS) again and laugh. Zayd ibn Harithah used to protect him as a shield, until his head also was injured. (Uyoon al-Athar: 1/155-156)
The Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) somehow managed to reach the garden of the sons of Rabiah. After a while, he (SAWS) left that garden. Then what happened next, let’s read the exact words which came out of the blessed mouth: “So, I departed, overwhelmed with excessive sorrow, and proceeded on and couldn’t relax till I found myself at Qarn Tha’alib, where I lifted my head towards the sky to see a cloud shading me unexpectedly. I looked up and saw Jibril (AS) in it. He called me saying, ‘Allah has heard your people’s saying to you and what they replied back to you. Allah has sent the angel of the mountains to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people.’ The angel of the mountains called upon me and greeted me, and then said, ‘O Muhammad (SAWS)! Order what you wish. If you like, I will let A1-Akhshabain (two mountains) fall on them.” The Prophet (SAWS) said, “No, but I hope that Allah will let them beget children who will worship Allah Alone and will worship none besides Him.” (Sahih Bukhari: 3231)
Assassination Plot in Dar al-Nadwa and Migration Order:
Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) found his companions being tortured harshly in Makkah. They were stoned and dragged across stony ground. They were made to lie on burning sand and the rocks were placed on their chests. He (SAWS), therefore, advised them to migrate to Madinah, except for Abu Bakr (RA). This is the time that the supporters like Abu Talib had passed away. Then the Quraish were very furious and they didn’t want to tolerate the Prophet (SAWS) for any more; because according to them, he (SAWS) was insulting their ancestors and gods. So they wanted to imprison or send him in exile or kill him; so that they can get rid of him. Then the chiefs of the Quraish secretly gathered at their meeting place called Dar al-Nadwa to take a decision against the Prophet (SAWS). Some members suggested to tie him in an iron chain, put in a room and close the door. Someone said send him in exile.
A person appearing in the form of an old man and pretending to be from Najd, sitting in Dar al-Nadwa, pointed out the flaw of these opinions. This old man was actually Iblis. Abu Jahl bin Hisham was of the opinion: “Let us choose a strong young man from each tribe. We should give each one of them a sharp sword. They should attack him at the same time and kill him. When they kill him like this, his blood will be divided into different tribes. Then I don’t think that the Banu Hashim will dare to fight all of them. When the people of the Banu Hashim observe this situation, they will agree to take blood money. Then we will pay it to them.” Iblis, sitting in the gathering and pretending to be a person from Najd, said that what this man (Abu Jahl) opined carries a weight and there is no opinion after this opinion, therefore, all the members became ready for it.
The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) and any Muslim didn’t come to know this heinous assassination plot. Jibreel (AS) came to him (SAWS) and said: “Do not sleep tonight on the bed on which you sleep in the night. When the night darkened, everyone (with killing plot) was waiting for him to sleep, so that they would attack him at a time to kill. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) advised Ali (RA) to sleep on his bed and don the green Hadhrami sheet, which he (SAWS) used to don while sleeping. You will not face an undesirable action from them. Then he (SAWS) came out facing them with a fistful of dust taking in his hand. Then he (SAWS) threw that dust at their heads, while he (SAWS) was reciting the 1-5 verses of Surah Yasin. Then Allah the Almighty took away their eye-sight and they couldn’t see him (SAWS). When the Prophet (SAWS) had completed reciting those verses, none of them was left who had not found that dust on his head. Then he (SAWS) left that place for a place where he (SAWS) was ordered to migrate. (Seerate Ibn Hisham: 1/482-483)
In short, during the thirteen-year of Makkan period, Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) had to suffer from various persecutions, tortures, troubles and hardships. Several times the people of the Quraish plotted to kill him. They threw stones at him (SAWS). They threw dust at him (SAWS). They spread thorns in his way. They made attempt to spit at his blessed face. He (SAWS) endured every hardship and didn’t run away from his mission. He (SAWS) remained fully engaged in conveying the message of Deen as it was his mission. He (SAWS) provided the best example of noble character and good model for his Ummah. Allah the Almighty says: “There is indeed a good model for you in the Messenger of Allah -for the one who has hope in Allah and the Last Day, and remembers Allah profusely.” (Al-Ahzab: 21)
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia – Email: email@example.com
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
It is well-known to the friends and the foes that Allah’s last and final Messenger Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam) was on the highest degree of truthfulness and trustworthiness. He (SAWS) was like a spring from where the truthfulness and trustworthiness were flowing. The people of Makkah used to address him as Al-Sadiq (Truthful) and Al-Ameen (Trustworthy). They honoured him with the title of Truthful; because he was true to his word. There wasn’t even a shadow of lie in what he spoke. When he (SAWS) started dealing with the people, they realized his trustworthiness and honoured him with the title of Al-Amin (Trustworthy). In spite of being the nasty enemies, the disbelievers of Makkah regarded him as truthful, trustworthy and honest and used to refer to him (SAWS) with these titles. Then in such worst environment of Makkah, the trustworthiness, truthfulness, honesty and chastity of the Prophet (SAWS) was always the talk of the town.
At Mount Safa of Makkah:
Almost three years, Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) invited the people to Islam secretly. During this period, by the grace of Allah, some fortunate people embraced Islam. Then Allah the Almighty instructed him (SAWS) to proclaim the invitation openly as the following verses were revealed: “Now, proclaim what you are commanded to, and turn away from those who ascribe partners to Allah.” (Al-Hijr: 94) “And warn the nearest people of your clan, and be kind with humbleness to the believers who followed you.” (Al-Shu’araa: 214-215)
Following the revelation of such verses, one day, Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) ascended the famous Mount Safa of Makkah and called each tribe by the name. When the people of those tribes assembled around him, he (SAWS) asked them: “If I caution you about a marauding party on the other side of this mountain that is about to attack you, would you believe me?” On that occasion, the people from each tribe bore witness of the truthfulness and honesty of the Prophet (SAWS) in one voice. They replied: “Surely, why not! We have only known you to be honest and truthful.” Following that, inviting them to Islam, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: “I am warning you about a severe punishment that may befall you (if you don’t accept my message from Allah the Exalted).” Then unfortunately Abu Lahab replying in negative said: “Woe unto you. May you perish! Did you assemble us here for this reason only?” Then all assembled people scattered.
Abu Dharr (RA)’s Brother Unais’ Witness:
Unais, brother of Abu Dharr (RA) visited Makkah and met Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). Abu Dharr (RA) is narrating the same story wherein one can find that Unais in spite of being a strange and a wise man, bears witness that the Prophet (SAWS) was a truthful person. Abu Dharr (RA) mentions: "I said (to Unais): 'What did you do?' He said: 'I met a man (Muhammad SAWS) in Makkah who follows your religion. He says that Allah has sent him.' I said: 'What do the people say?' He said: 'They say that he is a poet, or a soothsayer, or a magician.' And Unais was one of the poets. "Unais said: 'I have heard the words of the soothsayers and he is not a soothsayer. I compared his words to the words of poetry and no one after me can say that he is a poet. By Allah, he is telling the truth and they are lying.' (Sahih Muslim: 2473)
Confession of Abu Jahl:
Abu Jahl was one of the nastiest enemies of Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS). He used to speak foul language against the Prophet (SAWS). He tried his level best to torture him (SAWS) mentally and physically. But he also confessed the truthfulness of the Prophet (SAWS) in his personal gathering. Once, Akhnas asked Abu Jahl: O Abul Hakm! Since here is none besides you and me from the Qureish who can hear us, so let me know about Muhammad (SAWS), is he a truthful or a liar? Answering to the secretive question of Akhnas, Abu Jahl replied: “Woe unto you, by Allah, Muhammad (SAWS) is a truthful person and he never spoke a lie.” (Tafseer Al-Tibri: 9/222)
Second Confession of Abu Jahl:
It is not once that Abu Jahl confessed the truth of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) among his friends; but on several occasions, he admitted it. Once upon a time, Abu Jahl was making Tawaf of the Holy Ka’bah in the night; while Waleed, son of Mughirah was with him. They started talking about the Prophet (SAWS). During the talk, Abu Jahl said: “By Allah, I’m very well aware of being Muhammad (SAWS) truthful. Waleed retorted him, keep quiet. What led you to that extend (that he (SAWS) is a truthful)? Abu Jahl replied: “O Abu Abd Shams (Patronymic of Waleed)! We used to address him as Al-Sadiq and Al-Amin in his childhood. When he became wise and mature, we named him a liar and dishonest! By Allah, I know him very well that he is a truthful person. Then Abu Abd Shams said: Then what is stopping to believe in him? Abu Jahl said: The Quriesh girls would say about me that I followed the path of Abu Talib’s orphan (who was brought up by Abu Talib), due to the fear of the defeat and downfall. I swear by Laat and Uzza! I will never follow this orphan. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubi: 16/170) Such an opponent like Abu Jahl couldn’t stop himself from confessing the truthfulness of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS).
The Prophet (SAWS)’s Business with Saib (RA):
When two people do a business together in partnership, at that time, their honesty, reliability and truthfulness are known to each other. When the Prophet (SAWS) started his business, the people observed closely his truthfulness and trustworthiness. He (SAWS) was the partner of Saib (RA) in a business. On the day of the Conquest of Makkah, Saib (RA) came to him (SAWS). Then what happened, read his words. He says: "I came to the Prophet (SAWS) and they started praising me, and saying good things about me. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: 'I know best (about him),' I said: 'You are right, may my father and mother be sacrificed for you. You were my partner and what a good partner, you didn’t argue or quarrel."
The Prophet (SAWS)’s Arbitration about the Placing the Black Stone:
Due to the truthfulness, honesty, wisdom and good understanding of any issue, the people of Makkah used to like the Prophet (SAWS) and make him an arbitrator when they had a controversial issue. They believed that he (SAWS) would do justice in mediating the issue. When he (SAWS) gave a judgment about an issue, the people never hesitated to endorse it due to his truthfulness, trustworthiness and honesty. When the Prophet (SAWS) was 35 years old, the Qureish decided to reconstruct the holy Ka’abah. The reconstruction was divided over the various clans; so that none remains deprives of this noble service. Each clan started to rebuild their allocated portion of the Ka’bah under the supervision of a Roman builder called “Baqum”. When the building reached completion and the crucial moment of placing the Black Stone (Hajare Aswad) surfaced, several clans started arguing that who should be given the opportunity to place the Black Stone at its place. So, the violent disputes broke out among them. The people started fearing that it might lead to a fight and killing each other at the sacred and holy place of Ka’bah.
When the people didn’t find the solution of this issue, Abu Umayyah bin Mughirah Makhzumi, the father of Umme Salamah (RA), a wise and eldest person of the Qureish, submitted his opinion that the decision to raise the stone should be conferred upon the first person who enters the door of the Haram the next morning. We will accept him as our arbitrator and whatever decision he gives, we will agree upon it. The people approved this proposal. To protect those people from the big fight, Allah the Almighty enabled the Prophet (SAWS) next morning to reach the Haram firstly. When the people reached the Haram, next day in the morning, they saw the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) as the first entrant of the Haram. With one voice, they spontaneously proclaimed: “This is Muhammad, the trustworthy. We are pleased with him (as arbiter). This is after all Muhammad.” (Noor al-Yaqin Fi Seerah Sayyid al-Mursalin, P.: 17)
On such critical occasion, the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) gave very beautiful, wise and convincing decision. He (SAWS) asked for a sheet to place the Black Stone onto it. Then he (SAWS) asked: “The chief of each tribe should grasp the ends of the sheet so that none of the tribes are deprived of this grand opportunity. They grasped a side of the sheet and hoisted it to the vicinity where the black stone was to be placed. He (SAWS) then went forward and with his blessed hands raised the stone and placed it in its proper place. This was such arbitration that the people remain protected from a big fight. Allah’s peace and blessing be upon such great arbitrator! (Al-Seerah Al-Nabawiyyah Ala’ Zaw Al-Qura’an Wa Al-Sunnah: 1/228)
The Prophet (SAWS)’s Truthfulness and Honesty in the Court of Negus:
When a big group of the Muslims (83 Males and 18 Females) reached Abyssinia making the second migration, the disbelievers of the Quriesh sent two very shrewd and clever men: Abdullah bin Abi Rabiah and Amr bin Al-Aas bin Waail as its ambassadors to Abyssinia to talk to the King Negus. Requesting the king they said: O King, our few unwise youths are in your kingdom. Please send them back! The king refused to send them back without investigating their worry and concern. The king sent his messenger to call those migrants. They came in the court of the Negus. Representing the migrants, answering the questions of Negus, Jafar (RA) gave his inspirational sermon. In his sermon, describing about the pre-Islamic era and introducing Islam, he mentioned the truthfulness and honesty of Allah’s messenger (SAWS) as well. He said:
“O Emperor! All of us were ignorant. We would worship idols and devour carrion. We were caught up in a host of vices. We would sever family relationships and ill-treat our neighbours. The powerful amongst us would gobble up the weak. Whilst we were wallowing within such an abyss of spiritual decadence, Allah the Exalted favoured us with one of His messengers whose noble lineage, truthfulness, honesty and chastity we are fully aware of. (Musnad Ahmad: 1740) After listening to the clarification from Jafar (RA), the King refused to send the migrants back to Makkah.
Jibreel (AS) and the Truthfulness of the Prophet (SAWS):
The people of Makkah for whom the light of Iman was not destined, not only used to call the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) a magician, crazy etc.; but even they used to belie him (SAWS), whenever he used to present them the divine message and Wahi (Revelation) which was revealed upon him directly from Allah. So, once the Prophet (SAWS) was sitting sad and Jibril (AS) came to him. He asked Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) the reason behind saddening. He (SAWS) replied that the disbelievers of Makkah belied him. On that Jibril (AS) said: Truly they don’t belie you; they truly know that you are a truthful person; but the transgressors actually deny the signs of Allah. (Al-Ana’am: 33) (Tafseer Al-Tibri: 9/221)
Reason of Leaving Ali (RA) in Makkah in the Night of Hijrah:
When the people had some valuable items and they feared that it might be taken or stolen, at that time it was only the Prophet (SAWS) in whole Makkah that the people trusted him and they entrusted their items to his care; because they were well-aware of his truthfulness and trustworthiness. So, when the Prophet (SAWS) was instructed to migrate from Makkah to Madinah, at that time he (SAWS) had several entrusted items of the people with him. He (SAWS) handed over Ali (RA) those items and instructed him to return them to their rightful owners. He (SAWS) advised him to migrate only after he has retuned those items to the owners. This was the reason Ali was left behind in Makkah. (Seerah Ibn Hisham 1/485)
Despite of being the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) a truthful and a trustworthy; when he (SAWS) was blessed with the Prophethood and was given the responsibility to spread the true messages of Islam, the disbelievers of Makkah rejected his messages and they refused to come from the darkness to the light due to their pride, arrogance and egotism. They started spreading about the Prophet (SAWS) that he was a magician, fortune teller, crazy, a liar etc. They tortured and troubled him (SAWS); but he (SAWS) continued preaching Islam and having patience following Allah’s commandment as he (SAWS) was instructed. The Qura’an speaks: “So, be steadfast patiently in (obeying) your Lord’s command, and do not obey any one of them who is sinner or ungrateful.” (Al-Dahr: 24) ****
* The author is Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa and can be accessed at firstname.lastname@example.org
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Allah, the Almighty sent the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) as a mercy for all the worlds. His mercy, compassion and kindness were shown to each and every one. There can’t be a greater mercy than that after his arrival, the people wandering in darkness, accustomed to oppression, devoid of good morals and unaware of the culture and civilization, being blessed with light of Islam, enlightened the whole world and presented a high example of the humanity. All the creations of Allah Almighty: humans, Jinns, animals, plants etc. benefited from his mercy. Every sensible person witnessed the truth of words of Allah: “And We have not sent you but as mercy for all the worlds.” (Al-Ambiya: 107) If a question is raised, how is the Prophet (SAWS) mercy for the person who didn’t respond to his Call and didn’t accept his messenger-hood? The answer to this question has been given by Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) in the commentary of the above verse. He says: “Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, the mercy has been written for them in this world and in the Hereafter. Those who don’t believe in Allah and His Messenger (i. e. remain disbelievers, for them he (SAWS) is a mercy in this world by the way that) they were saved from the punishment of being sunk into the ground and being pelted with stones from the sky, from which the previous nations suffered. (Tafseer Ibn Kathir: 5/387) Here in this article, some examples of the mercy, compassion, forgiveness and clemency of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) for Non-Muslims are being presented.
Hardship in Taif and Mountains’ Angel:
The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) went to Taif to convey the message of Allah in the month of Shawwal of the 10th year of the prophethood. He (SAWS) stayed in Taif for 10 days. He (SAWS) invited the chiefs of Taif: Abd Yalil, Habib and Masood towards Islam. They didn’t respond to the message, they troubled him (SAWS) and behaved harshly. He (SAWS) departed overwhelmed with excessive sorrow. They set the street urchins of Taif after him to pelt stones at him (SAWS). They did so in the way that his whole body was cover with blood. Bearing this hardship, he (SAWS) proceeded on and couldn’t relax till he (SAWS) reached Qarn Tha’alib. When he (SAWS) lifted his head towards the sky, he saw a cloud shading him. There was Jibril (AS) in it. He called him saying: Allah has heard what the people said and replied back to you. Allah has sent the mountains’ angel to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people. The mountains’ angel called upon him and greeted him and said: “O Muhammad (SAWS)! You may order whatever you wish! If you wish, I will let Al-Akhshabain (the two mountains on the both sides of Makkah known as Abu Qubais and Qu’aeiqia’an, Fathul Bari: 6/316) fall on them.” The Prophet (SAWS) replied: “I hope that Allah will let them beget children who will worship Allah Alone, will worship none besides him.” (Sahih Bukhari: 3231)
The reply of the Prophet (SAWS) to the mountains’ angel shows the high level of character, mercy, kindness, compassion, affection and patience regarding the disobedient and heartless people of Taif. It happened because the Almighty Allah had sent him as the mercy for the entire universe. If the Prophet (SAWS) had given permission to the angel to go ahead with his plan of letting the mountains fall on them, those unfortunate people would have been crushed and the earth would have been cleaned from them.
Plan to Murder Allah’s Messenger (SAWS):
The incident which took place with a Bedouin; while the Prophet (SAWS) was coming back on the occasion of the battle of Zaat Al-Riqa’, is very important in regard to trust in Allah, forgiveness, mercy and bravery of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). He (SAWS) went to fight a battle towards Najd along with his companions. While returning, they passed through a valley full of thorny trees. The time of the afternoon nap overtook them. They had a halt there for a nap. The companions dispersed amongst the thorny trees seeking the shade of the trees to rest and have a nap. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) took shelter under an acacia tree to have a nap hanging his sword on it. The companions were slept. Suddenly they heard the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) calling them. They came to him (SAWS). To their utter surprise, they found a bedouin sitting with him.
Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) informed them that when he (SAWS) was sleeping, the bedouin took his sword, which was hanging on the tree, out of its sheath. When he (SAWS) woke up, the bedouin said to the prophet (SAWS) while the naked sword was in his hand: ‘Who can save you from me?’ The prophet (SAWS) replied: ‘Allah.’ The Prophet (SAWS) didn’t punish him for that rather let him go back. (Sahih Bukhari: 4135)
The name of that bedouin was Ghaurath son of al-Harith. Following such dangerous incident and the plan of murder, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) didn’t avenge; while having full power and strength over that Non-Muslim bedouin. He (SAWS) neither troubled him because of his crime, nor did he show his power over him to retaliate. He (SAWS) showed his mercy and forgave him. Apparently, it was the result of his mercy and kindness that the bedouin embraced Islam according to a narration. (Fathul Bari: 7/428)
Releasing a Non-Muslim Captive:
Thumama (RA) was the chief of the Banu Hafinah tribe of Yamamah. It is situated between Makkah and Yemen. Once Thumamah (RA) planned to murder the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS); but he failed in his planning. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) made Duaa: “O Allah give me power over him!” (Al-Sunan Al-Kubra Lil-Baihaqi: 18031) The Dua was answered and the same happened. He was captured by the army under the leadership of Muhammad bin Muslimah Ansari (RA). He was brought Madinah and was tied to one of the pillars of Masjid Nabavi. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) went to him and said: “O Thumamah! What thoughts do you entertain of me?” Thumamah replied: “I only harbour good thoughts of you. If you execute me, you will be executing a person who deserves it and if you extend your munificence towards me, you will be extending it to one who is grateful and if you desire wealth, ask whatever you wish.” This situation continued for three days; but he didn’t accept Islam. On the third day, the Prophet (SAWS) said: “Release Thumamah.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4372)
This point is remarkable that the Prophet (SAWS) ordered to release a non-Muslim captive who had planned to kill him in the near past, though he didn’t get success in his planning. Then after having full power over him to take revenge, he (SAWS) released him. Definitely, it was his mercy that he (SAWS) released him. It should be also noted that just after being released, Thumamah (RA) embraced Islam. Then he left for Makkah for Umrah. When Thumamah reached Makkah, a disbeliever said to him: “You have become an atheist by renouncing your Deen?” Thumamah (RA) replied: “No! I have become a Muslim with Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS).” Thumamah (RA) then added: “No, by Allah! Not a single grain of wheat will come to you form Yamamah, unless the Prophet (SAWS) approves it.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4372)
Letter of the Prophet (SAWS) to Thumamah (RA) For Grain Supply:
Thumamah (RA) came back to his hometown: Yamamah. He imposed a grain blockade on Makkah and cut off all food supplies to them. Now, the people of Makkah, the Quraish were in the trouble. They were forced to write to the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) pleading with him and referring him about their family ties. They wrote to the Prophet (SAWS): “You command maintenance of favourable family ties. After all, we are from the same family. We request you to write to Thumamah instructing him to resume supply of the food grains.”
It is recorded in the history that these are the people (Quraish and Kinanah) who boycotted the Banu Hashim and the Banu al-Muttalib, because of the Prophet (SAWS) and his companions for a period of three years. They were forced to stay in the valley of Abi Talib. The Quraish, Kinanah etc. had made a mutual agreement that they would sever all business dealings, marriage etc. with the Banu Hashim and the Banu al-Muttalib as long as they don’t hand over the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) to them. They were not letting the merchants to reach them to sell anything. They had imposed a kind of grain blockade on the Prophet (SAWS) and his companions staying in the valley. On this occasion, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) didn’t want to take revenge; rather he showed his kindness and human love wholeheartedly and wrote a letter to Thumamah (RA). He (SAWS) instructed him in the letter to let the food stuff go to Makkah.
Prayer of Guidance for the People of Daus:
Tufail Dausi (RA) had arrived Makkah and embraced Islam. Then he returned to his homeland. Following the migration of the Prophet (SAWS), he came to Madinah. Once he went to Daus, his homeland. He invited the people of his tribe towards Islam; but they refused to accept his invitation. After returning, he came to the Prophet (SAWS) and said: “O Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)! The people of the Daus tribe disobeyed and refused to follow you (to embrace Islam); so invoke Allah against them.” The people said, “The tribe of Daus is ruined (if the Prophet (SAWS) would invoke Allah against it.).” The Prophet (SAWS) said: “O Allah! Give guidance to the people of Daus, and let them embrace Islam”. (Sahih Bukhari: 2937)
Similar to the previous narration, we find one another narration about the Thaqif tribe. On the occasion of the battle of Taif, when the Muslims laid siege to this town; the Thaqif began raining down arrows on the Muslims. The companions requested the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) to invoke Allah against the people of Thaqif; but he (SAWS) didn’t want that the Thaqif should be destroyed. He (SAWS) wanted guidance for them. So, he expressed his kindness and prayed for them. The companions said: ‘O Messenger of Allah (SAWS)! Thaqif has razed us with their arrows. So, supplicate to Allah against them!’ The Prophet (SAWS) replied: ‘O Allah! Guide The Thaqif!’ (Then the whole tribe embraced Islam.) (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3942)
Death of a Hypocrite & Kindness of the Prophet (SAWS):
Famous hypocrite, but let me say the chief of the hypocrites, Abdullah, son of Ubayy died. His son, Abdullah (RA) was a sincere Muslim and the companion. He came to Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) and requested him to grant his Qamis (Shirt) so that he could shroud his father in it. He (SAWS) gave him. Then he asked the Prophet (SAWS) to perform the funeral prayer for him. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) got up to perform the funeral prayer for him. Umar (RA) stood up and got hold of the garment of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) and said: “O Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)! Will you offer the funeral prayer for him; while your Lord has forbidden you to offer the prayer for him?” The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “But Allah has given me the choice by saying: ‘Whether you (O Muhammad) ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites) or ask not forgiveness for them- (and even) if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness -‘ (Al-Taubah: 80) so I will ask more than seventy times.” Umar (RA) said: “But he is a hypocrite!” The narrator says: However, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) offered the funeral prayer for him. Then Allah revealed: “And never (O Muhammad) pray (funeral prayer) for anyone of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave. (Al-Taubah: 84) (Sahih Bukhari: 4670)
Here is an important point that the Prophet (SAWS) gave his Qamis for shrouding that chief of the hypocrites and perform his funeral prayer. It is him who cheated the Prophet (SAWS) on the day of the battle of Uhud. He deserted the Muslims together with his followers, reducing the strength of the Muslims by three hundred. Despite that fact, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) showed his kindness for such a hypocrite; until he (SAWS) was stopped by the Almighty Allah clearly not to offer the funeral prayer for a hypocrite. The history can’t cite an example of the character which may match the character of the Prophet (SAWS).
Revenge of the Battle of Uhud:
The battle of Uhud took place in Shawwal 3rd Hijrah. In this battle, 70 companions, sixty-four of Ansar and six of Muhajirin, were martyred. Hamzah (RA), the beloved uncle of the Prophet (SAWS) was one of them. The martyrs were mutilated by the non-Muslim enemies. It made the companions furious. They had planned that if they had such chance, they would take its revenge in the same manner. Then the day of the Conquest of Makkah came. Allah the Almighty revealed the verse: “And if you punish them, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. But if you have patience with them, then it is better for those who are patient.” With the intention of revenge, a companion said: “There shall be no Quraish after today.” He meant that the Quraish would be wiped out; because the Muslims were in the position to take revenge of the battle of Uhud on the day of the Conquest of Makkah. In such situation, the Messenger of mercy and kindness Muhammad (SAWS) said: “We will have patience and we will not punish.” (Musnad Ahmad: 21229) According to another narration, the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) said: “Leave the people, except for four.” (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3129) Briefly, the Prophet (SAWS) declared the general amnesty for the people of Makkah despite their well-known enmity, curtly and tyranny against the Muslims.
Conquest of Makkah and General Amnesty:
After the Conquest of Makkah, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) entered Al-Masjid Al-Haram. He (SAWS) made Tawaaf of Ka’bah. The door of Ka’bah was opened. He (SAWS) entered the Ka’bah. Then coming out the Ka’bah, he (SAWS) found a crowd of people gathered in Al-Masjid Al-Haram. The Chieftains of Quraish were waiting for him to see that what he (SAWS) was going to do against them. They had not embraced Islam then. The Messenger of Allah (SAWS) was standing at the door of Ka’bah. He (SAWS) addressing the people, said at a point in his speech: ‘O group of Quraish! What do you say and think (I am going to do to you)?’ They replied: ‘We say you are a brother and the son of a kind and forbearing uncle.’ He (SAWS) said: ‘I am saying to you the same thing which Yusuf (AS) said (to his brothers): “No reproach upon you today! May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most-Merciful of all the merciful.” (Yusuf: 92) Following this announcement of the general amnesty, “They went out of the Ka’bah as they have been raised from the graves. Then they embraced Islam.” (Sharhu Ma’ani Al-Athar: 5454)
Battle of Hunain and Returning the Captives:
There is a valley between Makkah and Taif is called Hunian. There were two tribes: Hawazin and Thaqif living in that valley. Following the Conquest of Makkah, they planned to attack the Muslims of Makkah. When the Prophet (SAWS) heard of their preparation for attack, he (SAWS) sent Abdullah (RA), a companion for an investigation. When the fact was established, the Prophet (SAWS) made preparation and advanced towards Hunain on 8th Shawwal of 8th Hijrah with an army of 12,000 men. There were 10,000 men who had come from Madinah to Makkah and 2000 men from Makkah who were new Muslims. The war started in the early morning of the 10th Shawwal. The Hawazin and Thaqif tribes were lying in ambush. They were very good archers. As the Muslim army reached the valley of Hunain, the enemies attacking the Muslims began raining down arrows on them from all sides. The Muslims were scattered and defeated in the beginning. Within a few moments, the tables turned and the enemies were defeated badly. Seventy enemies were killed. The battle ended in a decisive victory for the Muslims. The Muslims got the booty which comprised 6000 prisoners of war, 24000 camels, 40000 goats and 4000 ounces of silver.
The booty was gathered at a place called Ji’irranah. Showing his kindness and mercy, the Prophet (SAWS) didn’t distribute the booty and captives hoping that their relatives would come to request to free them. However, when none came to request, the Prophet (SAWS) began distributing the booty and the captives.
After the booty had been distributed among the recipients, a delegation of the Hawazin came to Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). They embraced Islam. They requested to return their wealth and captives to them. The Prophet (SAWS) was a mercy for the entire universe; so he became soft-hearted hearing their request and decided to return their captives. Then he (SAWS) got up among the Muslims and said: “Your brothers have come to you with repentance and I see (it logical) to return their captives. So, whoever of you likes to do that as a favour, then he can do it. And whoever of you likes to stick to his share till we give him from the very first booty which Allah will give us, then he can do so.” The Muslims said: “We do that willingly as a favour, O Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)!” (Sahih Bukhari: 4318) (It means that they agreed to return the captives willingly to the delegation of the Hawazin Tribe.)
It is noteworthy that the Hawazin tribe first decided to attack the Muslims. They prepared for war. They fought war against Muslims according to their plan. As the end, they were defeated. Their people were made captives. Then they came to the Messenger of Allah (SAWS) requesting to free their captives and return their wealth. In such situation, the Prophet (SAWS) didn’t behave like a ruthless ruler with those people; rather he showed his kindness and mercy for them. Not to speak of returning the captives of his own share; even he (SAWS) suggested his companions to return the captives to them. They obeyed his suggestion and returned the captives of their shares.
Prohibition of Killing Women and Children in War:
Nowadays, some countries consider themselves to be on the highest level of civilization. They think that whatever they practice in the name of culture and civilization should be adopted by the whole world. They are so much proud of their civilization and culture that they consider all other religions and civilizations, found in the world, revolving around the extremism or conservativeness. But the modern world has observed with its opened eyes that these so-called civilized and cultured nations decide in a few days that such and such a country and its ruler are a threat to the world, they have mass destructive weapons and whenever they want, they will destroy the region.
Under the cover of this fabricated story, the so-called civilized country starts bombarding a country, the whole world turns a blind eye and the conscience of none forces him to speak the truth and oppose such madness. Then in a few days, the country is destroyed. Its civilians, elderly citizens, housewives and even the children are not excluded from the attack. A good number of them are killed mercilessly. Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was also the Commander-in-Chief of thousands of brave army men. When the enemies forced him to fight wars; he fought against them. But he (SAWS) didn’t like the oppression and tyranny; rather, he proved himself to be wise, sensible and mercy for one and all at all the times. The people including the enemies benefited from His mercy and kindness on every occasion; even in the war. He didn’t command his army to attack the elderly, housewives, children, priests and saints; but he commanded to avoid attacking such people even in the war. It is in a narration that a woman was found slain during one of the campaigns of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS). Then he (SAWS) prohibited killing the women and the children. (Sahih Muslim: 1744)
Study of Biography of the Prophet (SAWS):
The aim and goal of this article is to present that the Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) was not only a mercy for his friends, not only he dealt with his companions with forgiveness and kindness; but he was a mercy also for the entire humanity. He didn’t show his kindness and mercy only to his companions; but also to his enemies. He (SAWS) proved to be a mercy for non-Muslims as well. Today, under the cover of the freedom of expression and speech, the teachings of the Prophet (SAWS) are targeted, his pious life is mocked and various questions are raised against him. The biography of the Prophet (SAWS) is the most preserved one with the authentic chains. Those who have any question or objection about his great personality and noble character, they should first study the biography of the Prophet (SAWS). When they study it; for sure, they will find that he (SAWS) was a humanitarian person. He worked for the betterment of the human being. He tried his level best to bring the misled people on the straight path. He also showed favour to his enemies and forgave them on several occasions. Then it is hoped that the questions and objections will be resolved automatically, In Shaa Allah.
* The author is Head: Islamic Department, Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa and can be accessed at email@example.com
By Manzar Imam
New Delhi: The ongoing furore over hijab is part of the process to put woman to troublous times when she was not treated even as being with a soul, leave aside giving her any rights. These views were expressed by Maulana Ateeq Ahmad Qasmi Bastawi, a senior teacher of hadīth and Islamic jurisprudence at Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow, during a special lecture on “Rights of Women: The Islamic Shariah and Western Perspectives”, organized by Islamic Fiqh Academy (IFA) India on 18 February, 2022.
Maulana, who is also secretary, academic affairs, IFA, said that the so-called movement for women’s liberation is in fact a deception whereby further injustice is done to women by burdening them with dual duties, while Islam brought her on an equal footing to man, gave her the right and dignity she was long denied. The first among those rights is the right to live. Elaborating on that, he said that a girl child was so abhorred in the pre-Islamic Arabia and other societies that she was buried alive at birth. The second right given to her is the right to education, then the right to own and inherit property, something which no other religion has so clearly defined.
The modern slogan of equality is devoid of the wisdom of Islam, Bastawi said. The clamour that there is no difference between man and woman is yet another injustice because “it takes away from her many safeguards and tasks her with duties that are men’s.”
A father’s legal responsibility ends when a son becomes an adult but it does not when it comes to a daughter. It remains a legal duty of the father towards his daughter until she is married off, which is not there in many European countries even today. And that is just a phase of “shifting of duty from one man to another” as the wife then becomes the responsibility of her husband. And, it does not end there too. If the husband dies or separation happens for some reason, the responsibility once again falls on the father or other male members of the family, something found only in Islam, the Maulana asserted. He, however, lamented that Muslims themselves were failing to practice Islam in its true sense and earning it a bad name. By failing to practice, “Muslims have made the essential look unessential.” He also drew attention to the un-Islamic practice of abortion and unnecessary formalities in the conduct of nikah of conscientious couples which is causing problems both among Hindus and Muslims. Muslims must live with their identity to secure as Sikhs do, it doesn’t count as a legal basis though, but it makes an important point.
Maulana Bastawi said that “Islam is not merely a set of few tenets. It covers all aspects of human life and its necessities for which there are clear references either in the Qur’an or the body of Prophetic traditions”, but unfortunately, people do not have the right knowledge and fail to understand many things which are an essential part of a Muslim’s life. Purdah, or hijab is one of them which is being forcibly denied by [mis]use of law. He also said that many misconceptions arise either due to ignorance or not following Islam by some Muslims. It is therefore advisable for Muslims to abide by Islamic guidelines in their every-day life. Dress and comportment are among those important things, he added.
The vagueness in the Constitution in matters of religion is often misrepresented in some court rulings whereas “it should be left to Muslim legal experts and especially ‘ulama to define what comes under Islam and what does not”, said Mufti Ahmad Nadir Al-Qasmi, a senior mufti at IFA.
In his presidential remarks, Maulana Dr Abdul Qadir Qasmi called the lecture timely and useful and maintained that Islam is often misunderstood due to non-practice of many of its core ideals. He therefore appealed Muslims to act upon its teachings.
The lecture was attended by a good number of ‘ulama, academics, intellectuals and media persons including office-bearers of IFA.
By Manzar Imam Qasmi
New Delhi: Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind (JuH), an old institution led by Indian ulama, launched a huge special issue of AlJamiat Weekly dedicated to the life, thoughts and works of late Maulana Qari Syed Muhammad Usman Mansoorpuri, working rector, Darul Uloom Deoband, the first national president of JuH (M) and Jamiat’s fourth Amir-ul-Hind on Friday, 17 December, 2021 at Jamiat headquarters in Delhi. The special issue in the form of a voluminous book was released by ulama, academics and intellectuals which, among others, included Mufti Abul Qasim Nomani, Shaikhul Hadith and Rector of Darul Uloom Deoband; Maulana Syed Arshad Madani, the fifth Amir; Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi, Member, Lok Sabha; Maulana Nematullah Azmi, a senior teacher of Hadith at Darul Uloom Deoband; Prof Akhtarul Wasey, Professor Emeritus, Jamia Millia Islamia; Dr. Syed Farooq, Chairman of Tasmia Educational and Welfare Society; Mohammad Salim Jamiyee, Dr Abdul Malik Rasoolpuri, compiler and assistant-compiler respectively of the 811-page book. Born on 12 August, 1944, Qari Usman Mansoorpuri passed away on 21 May, 2021 at the age of 76.
Chief guest and president, JuH, Maulana Arshad Madani remembered his predecessor shedding light specially on his family life stating that his relationship with Qari Usman was not one of a teacher and taught but “he was my brother-in-law” whose family life, as I have known and seen, was “very clean and unstained.” All that was said is correct, but what others completely missed to mention is about an old tradition of the famous seminary where just passing out was not considered enough unless one associated oneself to a guide for a training. He called it a hallmark of the Deoband tradition which is non-existent now. After completing formal studies, Qari Usman remained under the training of Hazrat Shaikhul Hadith (Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya). The goodness that you saw in Qari Usman and spoke about was, in fact, “the outcome of that training”, Madani said. It is so because of the repeated remembrance of Allah that His presence is felt in a man’s life which stops him from any misdeed and makes him aware of his responsibilities, he added.
Maulana Nematullah Azmi shared a story of Qari Usman’s uprightness stating that Qari Sahab had an unwavering commitment to work which needs to be followed. He was a true academic and did justice to his occupation. A ruler cannot pass an order on the basis of knowledge but of evidence and proof, but the academic community goes deeper to get to the bottom of the truth. As an administrator, Azmi said, Qari Usman would try to gather all the information to find the truth and once the truth was unraveled, he “would not delay in acting.”
In his brief presidential remark, Mufti Abul Qasim Nomani appreciated the publication of Al-Jamiat’s special issue on late Qari Usman Sahab and said that birth and death were continuous processes but “We should continue to discharge our duties.” Member of Parliament, Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi called Qari Sahab a “non-controversial person” whom he had seen for about 20 years in the meetings of Darul Uloom as well as in Assam as president of Jamiat. Qari Sahab loved children a lot but was a strict disciplinarian, said Mahmood Madani, the man behind the huge book.
Qari Sahab would be remembered as an “ideal teacher”, Maulana Khursheed Anwar Gayawi said, while Maulana Ashhad Rasheedi called him “a man of dignity, simplicity, sense of responsibility and a great sense of accountability” before God. Maulana Munir Naqshbandi said that Qari Sahab taught not only students but also the teachers.
Maulana Niyaz Ahmad Farooqui, secretary, JuH, highlighted some salient facets of the life of Qari Usman like training and preparing people for future, a teacher versed in the art of teaching, fighting against misguided sects and sticking to principles. Late Qari Usman’s son, Maulana Syed Muhammad Salman Mansoorpuri, other ulama and dignitaries also shared their views. Maulana Syed Muhammad Affan Mansoorpuri beautifully coordinated the programme.
While concluding the three-hour long programme with his vote of thanks, Mahmood Madani also announced about an essay-writing competition in memory of late Qari Usman Mansoorpuri.