By Manzar Imam
New Delhi: The ongoing furore over hijab is part of the process to put woman to troublous times when she was not treated even as being with a soul, leave aside giving her any rights. These views were expressed by Maulana Ateeq Ahmad Qasmi Bastawi, a senior teacher of hadīth and Islamic jurisprudence at Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow, during a special lecture on “Rights of Women: The Islamic Shariah and Western Perspectives”, organized by Islamic Fiqh Academy (IFA) India on 18 February, 2022.
Maulana, who is also secretary, academic affairs, IFA, said that the so-called movement for women’s liberation is in fact a deception whereby further injustice is done to women by burdening them with dual duties, while Islam brought her on an equal footing to man, gave her the right and dignity she was long denied. The first among those rights is the right to live. Elaborating on that, he said that a girl child was so abhorred in the pre-Islamic Arabia and other societies that she was buried alive at birth. The second right given to her is the right to education, then the right to own and inherit property, something which no other religion has so clearly defined.
The modern slogan of equality is devoid of the wisdom of Islam, Bastawi said. The clamour that there is no difference between man and woman is yet another injustice because “it takes away from her many safeguards and tasks her with duties that are men’s.”
A father’s legal responsibility ends when a son becomes an adult but it does not when it comes to a daughter. It remains a legal duty of the father towards his daughter until she is married off, which is not there in many European countries even today. And that is just a phase of “shifting of duty from one man to another” as the wife then becomes the responsibility of her husband. And, it does not end there too. If the husband dies or separation happens for some reason, the responsibility once again falls on the father or other male members of the family, something found only in Islam, the Maulana asserted. He, however, lamented that Muslims themselves were failing to practice Islam in its true sense and earning it a bad name. By failing to practice, “Muslims have made the essential look unessential.” He also drew attention to the un-Islamic practice of abortion and unnecessary formalities in the conduct of nikah of conscientious couples which is causing problems both among Hindus and Muslims. Muslims must live with their identity to secure as Sikhs do, it doesn’t count as a legal basis though, but it makes an important point.
Maulana Bastawi said that “Islam is not merely a set of few tenets. It covers all aspects of human life and its necessities for which there are clear references either in the Qur’an or the body of Prophetic traditions”, but unfortunately, people do not have the right knowledge and fail to understand many things which are an essential part of a Muslim’s life. Purdah, or hijab is one of them which is being forcibly denied by [mis]use of law. He also said that many misconceptions arise either due to ignorance or not following Islam by some Muslims. It is therefore advisable for Muslims to abide by Islamic guidelines in their every-day life. Dress and comportment are among those important things, he added.
The vagueness in the Constitution in matters of religion is often misrepresented in some court rulings whereas “it should be left to Muslim legal experts and especially ‘ulama to define what comes under Islam and what does not”, said Mufti Ahmad Nadir Al-Qasmi, a senior mufti at IFA.
In his presidential remarks, Maulana Dr Abdul Qadir Qasmi called the lecture timely and useful and maintained that Islam is often misunderstood due to non-practice of many of its core ideals. He therefore appealed Muslims to act upon its teachings.
The lecture was attended by a good number of ‘ulama, academics, intellectuals and media persons including office-bearers of IFA.
By Manzar Imam Qasmi
New Delhi: Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind (JuH), an old institution led by Indian ulama, launched a huge special issue of AlJamiat Weekly dedicated to the life, thoughts and works of late Maulana Qari Syed Muhammad Usman Mansoorpuri, working rector, Darul Uloom Deoband, the first national president of JuH (M) and Jamiat’s fourth Amir-ul-Hind on Friday, 17 December, 2021 at Jamiat headquarters in Delhi. The special issue in the form of a voluminous book was released by ulama, academics and intellectuals which, among others, included Mufti Abul Qasim Nomani, Shaikhul Hadith and Rector of Darul Uloom Deoband; Maulana Syed Arshad Madani, the fifth Amir; Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi, Member, Lok Sabha; Maulana Nematullah Azmi, a senior teacher of Hadith at Darul Uloom Deoband; Prof Akhtarul Wasey, Professor Emeritus, Jamia Millia Islamia; Dr. Syed Farooq, Chairman of Tasmia Educational and Welfare Society; Mohammad Salim Jamiyee, Dr Abdul Malik Rasoolpuri, compiler and assistant-compiler respectively of the 811-page book. Born on 12 August, 1944, Qari Usman Mansoorpuri passed away on 21 May, 2021 at the age of 76.
Chief guest and president, JuH, Maulana Arshad Madani remembered his predecessor shedding light specially on his family life stating that his relationship with Qari Usman was not one of a teacher and taught but “he was my brother-in-law” whose family life, as I have known and seen, was “very clean and unstained.” All that was said is correct, but what others completely missed to mention is about an old tradition of the famous seminary where just passing out was not considered enough unless one associated oneself to a guide for a training. He called it a hallmark of the Deoband tradition which is non-existent now. After completing formal studies, Qari Usman remained under the training of Hazrat Shaikhul Hadith (Maulana Muhammad Zakariyya). The goodness that you saw in Qari Usman and spoke about was, in fact, “the outcome of that training”, Madani said. It is so because of the repeated remembrance of Allah that His presence is felt in a man’s life which stops him from any misdeed and makes him aware of his responsibilities, he added.
Maulana Nematullah Azmi shared a story of Qari Usman’s uprightness stating that Qari Sahab had an unwavering commitment to work which needs to be followed. He was a true academic and did justice to his occupation. A ruler cannot pass an order on the basis of knowledge but of evidence and proof, but the academic community goes deeper to get to the bottom of the truth. As an administrator, Azmi said, Qari Usman would try to gather all the information to find the truth and once the truth was unraveled, he “would not delay in acting.”
In his brief presidential remark, Mufti Abul Qasim Nomani appreciated the publication of Al-Jamiat’s special issue on late Qari Usman Sahab and said that birth and death were continuous processes but “We should continue to discharge our duties.” Member of Parliament, Maulana Badruddin Ajmal Qasmi called Qari Sahab a “non-controversial person” whom he had seen for about 20 years in the meetings of Darul Uloom as well as in Assam as president of Jamiat. Qari Sahab loved children a lot but was a strict disciplinarian, said Mahmood Madani, the man behind the huge book.
Qari Sahab would be remembered as an “ideal teacher”, Maulana Khursheed Anwar Gayawi said, while Maulana Ashhad Rasheedi called him “a man of dignity, simplicity, sense of responsibility and a great sense of accountability” before God. Maulana Munir Naqshbandi said that Qari Sahab taught not only students but also the teachers.
Maulana Niyaz Ahmad Farooqui, secretary, JuH, highlighted some salient facets of the life of Qari Usman like training and preparing people for future, a teacher versed in the art of teaching, fighting against misguided sects and sticking to principles. Late Qari Usman’s son, Maulana Syed Muhammad Salman Mansoorpuri, other ulama and dignitaries also shared their views. Maulana Syed Muhammad Affan Mansoorpuri beautifully coordinated the programme.
While concluding the three-hour long programme with his vote of thanks, Mahmood Madani also announced about an essay-writing competition in memory of late Qari Usman Mansoorpuri.
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Definition of Miracle:
Mujizah is an Arabic word. Its plural is Mujizaat. Linguistically it means miracle and sign. In Islamic terminology, “A miracle is a supernatural act performed by a claimant to prophethood; while the entire world is unable to perform such an act. This is done so that it may become clear to the rejecters and the opponents that this person is a chosen one of Allah the Almighty. In order to incapacitate his enemies, Allah the Exalted enabled him to demonstrate this supernatural act. The people may realize that divine help is behind this person. This person is not a magician, astrologer or fortune teller with whom others can compete. Therefore, if anyone desires his own good and salvation, he can only achieve this by believing in and following this chosen person of Allah.” (Maulana Muhammad Idris Kandhalwi, Siratul-Mustafa 3/451)
Types of Miracle:
The miracles and signs which Allah bestowed a prophet with are of two types: intellectual and perceptual. The intellectual miracles refer to those which need to be understood through the intellect. Such miracles can only be understood by those who have been endowed with intelligence and deep understanding. As for the perceptual miracles and matters that are extraordinary, these have to be understood by the senses. Such miracles are normally demanded by those who are either unable to understand intellectual principles or are stubborn and obstinate. (Siratul-Mustafa 3/440-441)
Following these few introductory words, some of the miracles and signs of Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) are presented here. Among the miracles of the Prophet (SAWS), the greatest and distinguished one is the Holy Qura’an. The Arab, who are the most eloquent and excellent people regarding the Arabic language, were challenged to reproduce even one chapter of its kind; but they were left speechless and astounded to do so. The holy Qura’an says: “If you are in doubt about what We have revealed to Our servant, then bring a Surah similar to this, and do call your supporters other than Allah, if you are true.” (Al-Baqarah: 23) They failed to do so. They had no choice; but to accept that the Qura’an is the words of Allah and it was revealed upon Muhammad (SAWS) who is Allah’s true prophet and messenger.
Apart from the miracle in the form of the Qura’an, there are numerous external and perceptual miracles, like water gushed forth from his fingers. A small amount of food sufficed an entire army. The moon split into two parts. Pebbles read the Tasbih in the Prophet (SAWS)’s hand. Trees and rocks greeted him. Roasted meat, which was poisoned and presented, informed him that it is poisoned. Here are some perceptual miracles.
In a full moon night, Makkah’s disbelievers demanded Allah’s Messenger Muhammad (SAWS) to perform a certain miracle. On their demand, Allah Ta’ala assisted him and the moon split into two. One part was seen in the eastern side of the mountain; while another one was in the western side of the mountain. The Prophet (SAWS) told them, see it. But they didn’t accept it and they said it is a magic. (Surah al-Qamar: 01)
After the Miraaj (Ascension to Heaven), the disbelievers of Makkah tried to test the truth of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS)’s account of the journey, by asking him to describe in detail, the construction and surroundings of Bayt al-Maqdis. Allah the Exalted placed the entire scenario in full view of him (SAWS). Then he (SAWS) was able to give the details to the doubting disbelievers. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3886)
In the early days of Islam, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) made Duaa: “O Allah! Honour Islam through Abu Jahl bin Hisham or through Umar bin Al- Khattab!" So, it happened that Umar (RA) came the next day to Allah’s Messenger and accepted Islam. (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3683)
Abu Jahal always used to be on the look out; so that he could catch the Prophet (SAWS) off guard. Once, he saw that he (SAWS) was in Sajdah. He took this as an opportunity and picked the largest stone, so that he could throw it on Him (SAWS). Allah the Almighty made the stone stick to his hand and he failed to throw it at him (SAWS). (Seerate Ibn Hisham, 1/298-299)
Once Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) cursed Utaibah bin Abi Lahab saying, may Allah unleash a beast upon him! He was mauled to death by a lion at a place called Zurqa, in Syria. (Dalail al-Nabuwwah of Bayhaqi: 2/339)
When the various clans of the Qureish made plans for the assassination of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS), the assassins to be, fell into a deep slumber as He (SAWS) emerged from His home. He (SAWS) walked up to them casting a fistful of sand at them; whilst reciting the verse: (Translation) “And We have placed a barrier in front of them and a barrier behind them, and (thus) they are encircled by Us; so they do not see.” Then he (SAWS) came away totally unharmed. (Seerah Ibn Hisham 1/483)
The Quraysh announced publicly that any person who would capture Muhammad (SAWS) or Abu Bakr (RA) would be rewarded with a hundred camels. Suraqah bin Malik mounted his horse and began his search. He had not gone far when suddenly his gaze fell on Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). He proceeded, when all of a sudden his horse stumbled making him fall to the ground. He got to his feet, made his horse stand up and carried on. Upon being informed that the enemy was closing in on them, he (SAWS) simply lifted his hands and said, “Oh my Lord! Protect us from his mischief.” Then Suraqah’s horse began sinking in the ground causing him to drop down as well. Suraqah understood at once that it was futile to challenge divine protection and humbly begged for clemency. The Messenger (SAWS) pardoned him. Suraqah came forward and declared, “Now, I will prevent every attacker from coming after you.” (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3906)
Once, while Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) was delivering a sermon from the pulpit, someone complained about the prevailing drought and requested for Dua. As he (SAWS) raised his hands in Dua, the clouds gathered in the sky and the rain began to pour forth. The rain carried on pouring ceaselessly until the following Friday. Then somebody complained to him (SAWS) that the rainfall had blocked all the roads. He (SAWS) made Dua again, causing the sky to clear up immediately. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 1029)
The Prophet (SAWS) used to stand by a tree or a date-palm (trunk) on Friday. An Ansari woman or man said, "O Allah's Messenger (SAWS)! Shall we make a pulpit for you?" He (SAWS) replied, "If you wish." So they made a pulpit for him and when it was Friday, he proceeded towards the pulpit (for delivering the Sermon). The date-palm cried like a child! The Prophet (SAWS) descended (from the pulpit) and embraced it while it continued moaning like a child being quietened. The Prophet (SAWS) said, "It was crying for (missing) what it used to hear of religious knowledge given near it." (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3584)
On the day of Badr, the Prophet (SAWS) pointed out the places where various Mushrikeen would fall after being slain, taking their names. Each one of them fell on exactly the same place that he (SAWS) had predicted. (Sahih Muslim: 1779)
In the battle of Trench, while digging the trench, the companions (RA) came across a massive rock. They informed the Prophet (SAWS), "Here is a rock appearing across the trench." The Prophet (SAWS) came down, took the spade and struck the rock and it became like sand. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 4101)
At the time of digging the Trench, Jabir (RA) realized the hunger of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). When he invited him (SAWS) for food, he (SAWS) called one thousand companions digging the trench. For food, there were few barley breads and a kid. One thousand companions ate to his fill from it and the food was left over as well. Then the Prophet (SAWS) said: “Eat and present to others as the people are struck with hunger.” (Sahih al-Bukhari: 4101)
There were 1,400 people on the day of Al-Hudaibiyya (Treaty). There was a well at Al-Hudaibiyya. Its water was drawn out not leaving even a single drop. The Prophet (SAWS) sat at the edge of the well and asked for some water with which he rinsed his mouth and then he threw it out into the well. Following a short while, the companions drew water from the well and quenched their thirst, and even their riding animals drank water to their satisfaction. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3577)
"Once, the time of the Salah became due. The people whose houses were close to the mosque went to their houses to perform ablution; while the others remained (sitting there). A stone pot containing water was brought to the Prophet (SAWS), who wanted to put his hand in it; but it was too small for him to spread his hand in it and so he had to bring his fingers together before putting his hand in the pot. Then all the people performed the ablution (with that water)." There were eighty men. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3575)
After the conquest of Makkah, when the Prophet (SAWS) merely pointed at the idols in the vicinity of the Holy Ka’bah without even touching them and they all toppled over face down. At that time, the following verse was on his lips: (Translation) “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished. Falsehood is surely bound to vanish.” (Sahih al-Bukhari: 4287)
In the battle of Hunain, Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) flung a fistful of sand at the enemy forces, through which Allah the Exalted caused their downfall. By their own account, some of the disbelievers were quoted as saying: “The sand filled each one of our eyes.” Allah the Almighty revealed the following verse regarding this incident: (Translation) “So, it is not you who killed them, but in fact Allah killed them. And you did not throw when you threw, but Allah did throw.” (Al-Anfal: 17)
In Kheibar, a Jewish woman gave the Prophet (SAWS) a roasted sheep that she had poisoned. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) ate from it, as did the people. He (SAWS) said: 'Lift up your hands (stop eating), for it has told me that it is poisoned.' (Sunan Abu Dawood: 4512)
Once Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) climbed on Mount Uhud with Abu Bakr (RA), Umar (RA) and Uthman (RA) and the mountain began to shake. He (SAWS) addressed the mountain saying: “Be calm, today there is a prophet, a Siddiq and two Shaheeds (Martyrs) on you.” (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3675)
Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) had said regarding Hasan (RA), “This son of mine is a Sayyid (leader). I’m hopeful that Allah will bring peace between two big factions of the Muslims through him. It came true in 6 months after the death of Ali (RA) as the supporters of Ali (RA) and Mua’awiyah (RA) made peace through him (RA). (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3629)
On the day of the battle of Khaibar, Ali (RA) was suffering from eye trouble. Allah's Messenger (SAWS) spat in his eye and invoked good upon him. Ali (RA) was cured as if he never had any trouble. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 4210)
Qatadah bin Nu’maan (RA)’s eye fell out of its socket. Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) placed it back into its socket and it became even better than the other eye. (Seerah Ibn Ishaq: 1/328)
Father of Jabir (RA) had died leaving unpaid debts. And he had nothing except the yield of his date-palms; and their yield for many years wouldn’t have covered his debts. On the request, the Prophet (SAWS) reached the farm, went round one of the heaps of dates, invoked (Allah), and then did the same with another heap and sat on it and said, "Measure (for them)." He paid them their rights and what remained was as much as had been paid to them. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3580)
A non-Muslim embraced Islam and he forsook it latter on. Then he used to say: “Muhammad (SAWS) knows nothing; but what I have written for him.” Then he died. His people buried him several times; but the earth had rejected his body and it was lying on the ground. (Sahih al-Bukhari: 3617)
A man was eating with his left hand in the presence of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). He (SAWS) said: "Eat with your right hand." He replied: "I cannot." He (SAWS) said: "May you never be able to." For nothing was preventing him from doing so; but arrogance. Then he could never raise it to his mouth again. (Sahih Muslim: 2021)
A Bedouin came to Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) and said: 'How shall I know that you are a Prophet?' He (SAWS) said: 'If I were to call this date cluster from this palm tree, would you bear witness that I am the Messenger of Allah?' So Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) called it and they started to fall from the tree, until they fell towards him (SAWS) then he said: 'Go back' and it went back. So, the Bedouin accepted Islam. (Sunan Tirmidhi: 3628)
The Number of Miracles:
Following the aforesaid miracles and signs of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS), it seems appropriate to mention here about its number as the conclusion. Some scholars have tried their level best to count it. Allamah Ibn Hajar Asqalani (1372-1448) writes: “Imam Nawawi mentioned in the Muqaddamah of Sharh Muslim that the miracles of the Prophet (SAWS) are more than 1200. Imam Bayhaqi says in Al-Madkhal, it reaches 1000. Imam al-Zahidi said that it is about 1000. Some Ulama say that it is about 3000.” (Fath al-Bari, 6/582-583) The fact is that there are many miracles and signs of Allah’s Messenger (SAWS). They are beyond counting; because his each and every word, deed, condition etc. is like a miracle as it is supernatural. The human power alone can never perform such an act without the will of Allah. ****
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By M. Burhanuddin Qasmi
One of our student groups from Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Centre (MMERC), Mumbai is on a 40-day trip at Shrivardhan, a township in Raigad district of Konkan region in Maharashtra state of India. We went to meet them on 3rd day of Eidul Adha (15 Sept. 2016). Shrivardhan is 200 kms. from Mumbai, the capital city of Maharashtra and the financial capital of India.
Our students, who are all graduates and in the 22 - 25 age group, enthusiastically informed me saying, "Sir, there is a masjid named Sharie Masjid, local elders say it was built during the caliphate of Hazrat Umar (ra) in 15 Hijri i.e. around 636 CE and they also say there are graves of Sahaba - companions of Prophet Mohammad (saws) in this township – Shrivardhan!”.
I replied “Yes, they are right, Islam reached here in 15 Hijri and there might be graves of Sahaba (ra) in this locality”. I also informed them that I had done a study in the year 2004 following my visit to one of the oldest and India's first masjid, the Cheraman Jama Masjid, in Kodungalloor, Kerala. I visited the area following the historic tsunami in 2004 with relief goods from Markazul Ma'arif (NGO) and Jamiat Ulama-e Hind.
It was inscribed on the masjid's stone marker, that it was built in the life time of Prophet Mohammad (saws) in 9 Hijra or 629 CE. That curved year on the stone marker inside the masjid and its architectural design made me do a deeper study about the origin of Islam in India, where I found that Arabs used to frequently visit India through Malabar, Konkan, present Daman and Diu and Gujarat on the shores of the Arabian sea in the pre-Islam and post-Islam era, as traders.
They stayed and even did married with the locals. Some never returned back to Arabia. Some have their progeny till date in these coastal areas of India.
When the Arabs embraced Islam, they took their new faith with them to all the places where they visited for business. Therefore, it is right that Islam reached India with Malik bin Dinar (ra) in 9 Hijri (628/29 CE) itself via Malabar Coast. And later gradually Muslim Arabs visited other Indian coastal areas in succeeding years. Thus Islam reached here by 15 Hijri year when Hazrat Umar (ra) was the Caliph in Madinah.
Kodungalloor was the capital of the ancient kings of Kerala and from 622-628 CE (Hijra 2 to 9) the ruler of the realm was a great savant called Cheraman Perumal Bhaskara Ravi Varma. It is recorded that he accepted Islam and visited Madinah. On his way back through Yemen his ship sank and he died. This is one of the major incidents in the early history of Indian Islam.
Following my study in 2004 I have compiled an article "Origin of Muslims in India" which was published by some newspapers and magazines in India and abroad. The same can be Googled till date for reference by interested readers.
So I informed my young scholars that the local scholars and elders are right. Islam reached the shore of Konkan in the very early days of this new religion and history records it that there are graves of Sahaba (ra) in Konkan, say present Shrivardhan, but unfortunately no historian could say with certainty which grave is of a Sahabi of Prophet Mohammad (saws) and what's its exact location in Konkan.
I also expressed my interest and said to them, 'So let's go and visit the Masjid-e Sharie where locals say there are graves of Sahaba of Prophet of Islam (saws)”. We walked through the narrow streets from Shrivardhan Jama Masjid and visited the graveyard in the vicinity of the small but very prominent Masjid-e Sharie. The masjid is built just on the bank of a small track on the Arabian Sea. The look and the surrounding scene is of course magnificent and very cooling for the eyes.
M. Burhanuddin Qasmi is Editor of Eastern Crescent and Director of Markazul Ma’arif Education and Research Centre, Mumbai, India.
Source: Al-Jazeerah, CCUN, September 26, 2016
By Mufti Noman Daji, UK
I pray Allah Ta’ala engulf and enshroud my respected and mushfique teacher Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Sahib Palanpuri (RA) with divine mercies. Aameen Ya Rabb!
Hazrat Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Sahib Palanpuri (RA) is the former Sheikh-ul-Hadeeth & Sadr-ul-Mudarriseen of Ummul Madaris (أم المدارس) and Azhar-ul-Hind (ازهر الهند) Darul Uloom Deoband.
The life of Hazrat-ul-Ustaz had many dimensions and I have discussed some of those in my eulogy on my respected and mushfique Ustaz. One of those dimensions (not mentioned there explicitly) is that Hazrat Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Sahib (RA) was a
an ‘Aashiq of the Holy Quran (عاشقِ قرآن)’. The deep attachment, connection and intellectual and practical engrossment with the Holy Quran was evident on those who knew Hazrat closely. It so happened during my studying years at Darul Uloom Deoband that I had to go to Delhi from Deoband. I was already on the train at Deoband station when my respected and mushfique Ustaz also embarked on the same carriage. Hazrat sat down and immediately took out his copy of the Holy Quran and started to recite in an inaudible manner. Four hours passed by (entire journey) but Hazrat did not look up whilst reciting and contemplating on the recitation. I kept looking at Hazrat and admiring this scene of immense engrossment with the Holy Quran. When the train reached Delhi Hazrat stopped reciting and closed the Holy Quran. I witnessed incredible Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع) in the recitation and for this long in the journey. This is my Personal witnessed incident.
Below is the Urdu as I had shared primarily in Urdu which I have now loosely translated to English. Some friends had suggested it be in English so the wider audience can benefit too.
Note: I’d like to add a note here that the concepts of ‘Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع)’ - in a nutshell to be fully engrossed in a serene way in the devotion or act - are not limited and restricted to Salah. They apply to all aspects of worship (عبادة). In the Holy Quran the mention of Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع) is with Salah as Salah is the highest and most complete form of worship as it encompasses recitation and much more i.e. the highest case (جزء أعظم) of these concepts and rule - Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع) - is mentioned.
Another point I would like to mention (for completeness) is that Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع) are a key component of the State of Ihsan (صفت احسان) - Islamic goal in life. And it should be noted that the State of Ihsan (صفت احسان) applies to all spheres of one’s life whether direct acts of worship (Salah, Zakaat, Fast, Hajj, etc) or indirect acts of worship (like eating, drinking, earning, etc). State of Ihsan (صفت احسان) encompasses both and is not restricted or limited to direct acts of worship. Hence, by default Khushoo (خشوع) and Khudoo (خضوع) applies to both types too.
These are highly important points.
حضرت الاستاذ مفتی سعید احمد صاحب - اللہ تعالی انکو غریقِ رحمت کرے آمین!
حضرت کے بڑے پہلو تھے اور اس میں سے ایک کہ وہ عاشقِ قران تھے- میرے طالب علمی کے زمانہ کا واقعہ ہے- ایک مرتبہ اتفاق ہوا کہ میں دیوبند سے دہلی اپنے کام سے جارہا تھا اور حضرت اپنے کام سے- میں پہلے سے ٹڑین کے ڈبے میں موجود تھا- حضرت الاستاذ ڈبے میں چڑھے اور اپنا قرآن کریم نکالا اور آہستہ سے تلاوت کرنا شروع کردیا- پورے چار گھنٹے گذر گۓ مگر سر اٹھا کر نہی دیکھا - میں حضرت کو دیکھتا رہا- جب دہلی پہنج گۓ تو قرآن کریم بند کیا اور اپنا سر اٹھایا- تلاوت میں عجیب خشوع دیکھا - راقم کا چشم دید واقعہ ہے-
Muhammad Noman Daji
(Before Zuhr, Saturday 11 September 2021 – 4th Safar Al-Muzaffar 1443 A.H)
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi,
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa,
A polite teacher, Maulana Abdul Khaliq Sambhali (RahimahuAllah), popularly known among his students as “Maulana Sambhali Sahib”, who taught thousands of the students in his half century teaching career, had fallen sick for few months back. Following Ramadan this year, he became sick seriously. In June, he was admitted in a Hospital of Muzaffarnagar in Uttar Pradesh. When he didn’t recover, he was transferred to a hospital in the capital city, Delhi. Then he started recovering and was brought back Deoband. Few days latter, again he fell sick seriously and was admitted in a hospital in Muzaffarnagar for treatment. He couldn’t return to a normal state of health; but the condition continued deteriorating. In the evening of 30th July 2021, the news of his sad demise was received through the social media. He was about 72 years old as he was born on 4th January 1950. Following the arrival of the appointed times, whatever age or health condition the people may have, they will have to taste death. The Almighty Allah says: “For every people there is an appointed time. So, when their appointed time will come, they cannot be late for a moment, nor will they get ahead.” (Al-Aaraf: 34)
The body was brought to Deoband. A good number of people were already waiting for the funeral prayer to participate in. The funeral prayer was led at about 11 pm by the VC of Darul Uloom Deoband, Mufti Abul Qasim Nomani (HafizahuAllah). The burial took place in the Qasmi Graveyard of Deoband. May Allah gran him Jannatul Firdaus!
Allah had blessed Maulana Sambhali Sahib with many qualities. He was an able, qualified, soft-hearted, soft-spoken, sweet-voiced, polite and a compassionate teacher. He was embodiment of humbleness and modesty. He was a simple man with praiseworthy characters. His whole career was spent in imparting religious knowledge. He taught almost half a century. Thousands of the students quenched their educational thirst learning from him. According to a narration (Sahih Muslim: 1631) of the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam), his teaching services will be regarded as a continuous charity for him, In Allah wills, as he imparted beneficial knowledge of Deen among its seekers. Briefly, a candle which was burning for a half century spreading the light of knowledge has extinguished leaving thousands of learners mourning.
Whenever, Maulana Sambhali Sahib is mentioned, his smiling and cheerful face will come in the minds of his innumerable students spread in the world. At whatever time he is talked about; his pleasing taking style, interesting critical ability and rhymed words will be remembered. He was unique in describing the basic of nomenclature of Urdu words which was purely the creation of his sharp mind and thoughts which was pleasing for the students in the class. Always, he used to be happy. He was not seen getting irritated on a student’s mistake. Following the mistake of a student, he himself used to interpret it suitably. When a student apologizes following a mistake, he used to accept it saying “al-Udhru ‘Ind Kirami al-Naas Maqbul” (Excuse is acceptable to the gentlemen). It seems as he preached in his life practically “No hurt, no trouble and no harm”. In another way, he was the sample of the Messenger of Allah (SAWS)’s Hadith where he (SAWS) said: "There should be neither harming nor reciprocating harm." (Sunna Ibn Majah: 3241)
It is a beautiful Islamic teaching that one shouldn’t try to harm and cause hardship to someone. If one does so, he must get ready to face the sever outcome from Allah. It is narrated by Abu Sirmah (RA) that Allah’s Messenger (SAWS) said: "Whoever harms others, Allah will harm him; and whoever causes hardship to others Allah will cause hardship to him."' (Sunna Ibn Majah: 3242)
When this humble writer was learning in Darul Uloom Deoband, Maulana Sambhali Sahib was teaching Deewan Mutanabbi, Hidayah, Inshaa etc. I had opportunity to learn in “Takmile Adad” from him. He was dealing with the period of “Inshaa”, i.e. the translation from Arabic into Urdu and vice-versa. Occasionally, he used to bring the fresh Arabic newspaper to teach certain news from it. I still remember the news which he taught us from the Arabic newspaper: Al-Sharq Al-Awsat on the martyrdom of Sheikh Ahmad Yasin (1937-2004) of Palestine. The student whose exercise was not corrected in the class, he used to reach his home with the exercise-book. He used to correct happily. His teaching methodology was appreciable. The Almighty Allah had blessed him with the well ability of making the students understand. When he was questioned something related to the lesson in the class, he used to reply cheerfully. He was very punctual of the period. Had not he come to the class to teach, it means, he would have left for another town for a programme.
Maulana Sambhali Sahib started his educational journey from “Madrasah Waheedul Madaris” of his own locality, Mohallah Saraye Tarin of Sambhal which is also his birthplace. In those days, there was a teacher known as Mufti Muhammad Aftab Ali (May Allah grant him Jannah!) who was teaching in the Madrasah. Mufti Sahib was a qualified and popular teacher. Then he left the Madrasah and joined another one known as “Madrasah Shamsul Uloom”. Maulana Sambhali also followed the footstep of his teacher and got admission in the said Madrasah. First he memorized the whole holy Qura’an by heart under the care of Hafiz Fariduddin Sahib and became Hafiz. Then he began to learn from Mufti Muhammad Aftab Ali. He learnt up to the book: “Sharah Jami” (It means the fourth standard of Fazilah course) from Mufti Sahib. Then he headed to pursue further education at the prestigious Islamic seminary Darul Uloom Deoband in 1968. He was considered one of the prominent students of Darul Uloom. He graduated in 1972 with flying colour securing the third position in his class.
Due to his interest in Arabic language and literature, next year, he got admission in Shobah Takmile Adab Arabi (Department of Arabic Language & Literature). Being a student of Arabic language, he learnt and benefited from the matchless and great teacher of Arabic language and literature, Maulana Waheeduz Zaman Kairanavi (1930-1995). In regard to Arabic language, he had good taste. He had command over written and spoken Arabic. He used to address and even sometimes teach in Arabic language. He used love Maulana Kairanvi too much. Once he revealed that at the time of his interview for teaching post in Darul Uloom Deoband, he was asked about his interest in Arabic language. He replied, at the time learning in Darul Uloom Deoband, I was one among those who used to serve with devotion to Maulana Kairanavi.
As a student of Drul Uloom Deoband, Maulana Sambhali learnt from Sheikh Fakhruddin Muradabadi, Sheikh Fakhrul Hasan Muradabadi, Sheikh Shariful Hasan Deobandi, Hakimul Islam Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi, Mufti Mahmud Hasan Gangohi, Sheikh Nasir Ahmad Khan, Maulana Muhammad Salim Qasmi, Maulana Waheeduz Zaman Kairanavi, Maulana Sayyid Anzar Shah Kashmir etc. May Allah accept their services and grant them Jannah!
Following the graduation from Darul Uloom, Maulana Sambhali Sahib joined Madrasah Khadimul Islam, Hapur in Uttar Pradesh for teaching services. He taught in this Madrasah almost six years. He used to visit Jamiul Huda in Muradabad to meet his classmate Maulana Habibur Rahman Qasmi who used to teach there. The principal of Jamiul Huda, Maulana Alim Qasmi (RahmimahuAllah) liked him and offered him teaching job. He accepted the offer and joined this Madrasah in 1979 as a teacher. He taught here in this Madrasah about three years from the middle to the higher level classes. In 1982, he was appointed in Darul Uloom Deoband as a teacher. In 2008, he was selected as a Deputy Rector of Darul Uloom Deoband. He continued serving the seminary as one of its teachers and administrators until he breathed his last.
Works and Books:
He was expert in Urdu and Arabic both the languages. His speaking and writing skills both were outstanding. He used to present the weekly lectures on “Maududiyyat” on Thursday in the afternoon periods among Darul Uloom’s graduates enrolled in different departments following their graduation. They are published in five parts. The first part is in 39 pages, the second one is in 40 pages, the third one is in 35 pages, the fourth one is in 40 pages and the fifth one is in 42 pages. He translated the Kitabul Aaiman of Fatawa Hindiyyah (Fatawa Aalamgiri). He translated an Arabic book: “Kitab Al-Tauhid” that is in 500 pages. The book is originally written by an Arab author Abdul Hamid Zindani, a graduate of Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. He belongs to Yemen and is a famous politician.
Maulana Sambhali’s Survivors:
Maulaan Sambhali is survived by his wife, four girls and three sons: Maulana Muhammad Suhail Qasmi, Maulana Muhammad Uzair Qasmi and Mualana Muhammad Zubair Qasmi. All the sons are graduates of Darul Uloom Deoband, Al-Hamdulillah. His learned and dutiful sons will be ongoing charity for him, In Shaa Allah. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah! Aameen! ⦁⦁⦁⦁
Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi,
Moon Rays Trust School,
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
Qari Sayyid Muhammad Usman Mansoorpuri, popularly known as “Qari Sahib”, was from the famous Sadaat family of Mansoorpur. It is situated in Mazaffarnagar district of Uttar Pradesh in India. He was born on 12th August 1944 at his ancestral place. His father’s name was Nawab Sayyid Muhammad Isa.
Qari Sahib’s Father:
Qari Sahib’s father was a pious and God-fearing person. He practiced Islam in his day-to-day life as a true Muslim. He had much love and respect for the Ulama. He had taken the pledge of allegiance to Sheikhul Islam Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani (1879-1957). He wanted his children to learn Islamic knowledge. He made Dua for his sons to memorize the holy Qura’an by heart. Allah accepted his Duaa and his all sons (Sayyid Muhammad Musa, Sayyid Muhammad Dawood and Qari Sayyid Muhammad Usman) completed the memorization of the holy Qura’an by heart. For the education of his children, giving the sacrifice, he left his hometown and shifted in a rented house in Deoband. He passed away in Deoband in 1963 and was buried in “Qasmi Graveyard” of Deoband. May Allah grant him Jannah!
Qari Sahib started his basic education at his hometown. He completed the memorization of the glorious Qura’an by heart at Madrasah Husainia, Mansoorpur. Then he got admission at Darul Uloom Deoband and started learning the Persian language. He learnt the whole Fazilat course at Darul Uloom. He completed the course 1965 (1385 AH) and passed the exams with flying colours.
Tajweed and Qira’ah:
After the graduation in Islamic studies, Qari Sahib remained in Darul Uloom in 1966 to learn Tajweed and Qira’at. He completed the course of Saba’h A’sharah to get perfection in the recitation of the holy Qura’an. While being the student of Qira’ah department and thanks to his perfect recitation of the holy Qura’an, he was invited in several programmes in Darul Uloom for the opening recitation. He, therefore, got fame as a Qari and it became the inseparable part of his name. Then commonly he was known as Qari Muhammad Usman Sahib.
It is appropriate to mention here that a delegation of Qurraa came from Egypt in Ramadan. They visited Darul Uloom Deoband. The programme was held in “Masjid Qadeem” for recitation of the Holy Qura’an following Zuhr Salah. They recited the holy Qura’an. When they had done their recitation, Qari Sahib stated that he had been a student of Qira’at Department in Darul Uloom Deoband. Then he also recited the Qura’an. He didn’t recite in Tarteel as they did. He chose Hadar method. He would have read about one quarter of a Juz, I think. His recitation was so nice that not only the audience; but also those Qurraa liked and expressed their happiness. If I recall correctly, it was in Ramadan of 2002.
For spiritual guidance and soul rectification, Qari Sahib took the pledge of allegiance to Sheikhul Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariyyah (1898-1982) –May Allah grant him Jannah– But he was attached to Fidaye Millat Maulana Sayyid Asad Madani (1928-2006) with the suggestion of Sheikhul Hadith. He was granted Khilafah by Maulana Madani and was counted one among his great Khulafaa.
Following his graduation, Qari Sahib started his career as a teacher of Jamia Qasmia, Gaya, Bihar in 1967. The Madrasa was established by Maulana Qari Sayyid Fakhruddin (Rahimahullha), the Khalifah of Sheikhul Islam Maulana Sayyid Husand Ahmad Madani. He taught almost 5 years there. Then he resigned in 1972 to join Jamia Islamia Jama Masjid in Amroha, Uttar Pradesh. In Jama Masjid, he taught the books like Abu Dawood, Jalalein, Mukhtasar al-Ma’ani etc. He established al-Nadi al-Adabi in Jamia Islamia so that the students can learn how to write and speak Arabic language practically. He served in this Madrasah until he was appointed in his seat of learning Darul Uloom Deoband in 1982.
When we were in Darul Uoom, Qari Sahib was teaching Mishkat al-Masabih, Hidayah, Muwatta Imam Malik etc. In the final year of Fazilah Course, I had opportunity to learn Muwatta Imam Malik from him. The period used to be once in a week on each Friday in the morning. He used to come to the class at the stated time. While teaching, his lectures were brief and to the point. When there was a certain difficult topic, he used to explain deeply to make the students understand easily. Whenever he used to explain something, he used to mention the reference book. He had learnt Muwatta Imam Malik from Sheikh Muhammad Bashir Ahmad who had learnt it from Allamah Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri (1875-1933) (May Allah grant them Jannah!). Currently he was teaching Mishkat al-Masabih, Tahawi etc.
Interest in Arabic Language:
Qari Sahib had been one of the close students of Maulana Waheeduz Zaman Qasmi Kairanavi (1930-1995), a celebrated teacher of Arabic language and Literature in Darul Uloom Deoband. He had much interest in Arabic language. He had good command over spoken Arabic. At the time of learning, he was one of the prominent students of the Arabic language. He taught “Asalib al-Inshaa” in “Takmil-e-Adab” (the Department of Arabic language and Literature) several years as well. He was patron of al-Nadi al-Adabi. Mostly he used to preside over its annual function.
Administrative Duties in Darul Uloom:
Qari Sahib was a principled, cool-minded, soft-spoken and very taciturn person. He was very sincere and serious regarding his duty. He was considered just, fair and firm in taking a decision in the light of the rules and regulations. Along with teaching responsibility, he was assigned the several administrative duties in the course of different times. He was made administrator of “Kul Hind Majlis Tahaffuze Khatme Nabuwwat” in 1986, Chief Manager of Boarding from 1415 to 1418, Deputy VC (1997-2008) and lately he was selected as the Assistant VC of Darul Uloom Deoband (October 2020= Safar 1442). He used to perform his assigned duties with accountability.
Remarkable Work as the Administrator of Majlis:
Due to the spread of Qadianism, Darul Uloom Deoband held a three-day international conference on the topic: Tahaffuze Khatme Nabuwwat on 29-31 October 1986. Qari Sahib was the convener of the conference. Several scholars from India and abroad were invited to write the papers on the topic and participate in the conference. A good number of scholars partook in it from Saudi Arab, Bangladesh, UAE and another country. The conference was inaugurated with the comprehensive speech of Mufakkire Islam Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi (1914-1999), ex-President of All India Muslim Personal Law Board. The concluding talk was delivered by famous scholar, Dr. Abdullah Omar Nasseef, General Secretary of the Muslim World League.
On the same occasion of the international conference, “Kul Hind Majlise Tahaffuze Khatme Nabuwwat” was established in Darul Uloom Deoband. The conference’s convener, Qari Sahib was nominated as its administrator, Mufti Saeed Ahmad Palanpuri (1940-2020) was selected as its chief administrator and the then VC of Darul Uloom Deoband, Maualana Marghubur Rahman (1914-2010) was selected as its President. The services of the Majlis to remove the misconceptions and false views created by the Qadianis are noteworthy. Several workshops were held to train the scholars how to tackle the issues of Qadianism. In other parts of the country also the programmes were held to let the people know the true colour of Qadianism. The Majlis published dozens of books/booklets to remove baseless interpretation of Islamic thoughts by Qadianis. Several branches of Majlis were established in other Indian provinces. Qari Sahib used to participate himself without any excuse in such programmes and supervise all activities of the Majlis in the love of the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Aleihi Wa Sallam). He continued heading the Majlis until he breathed his last. Almost three decades back, he himself wrote about the achievement of the Majlis:
“(1) To prepare the working men, two training camps, in 1409 and 1410 AH, were held in Darul Uloom. (2) Apart from them, some big camps were held in Gauhati, Madras, Mel Palem (Tamil Nadu), Alwak (Kerala), Bhagalpur, Bengaluru etc. (3) Despite of challenge, the Qadiani scholars couldn’t muster courage to face the Islamic scholars in Khamini (Mathura) and Rohta (Agra). As the result, the debate was won by the Islamic scholars. (4) Our debaters have reached such places where the Qadiani group is busy secretly in its mischief-making. At some places, they had face-to-face talk where the Qadianis had to run away and Muslims were protected from their cheatings. (5) Almost 50 books have been published from the office. (6) Thousands of literatures have been spread in the whole country….” (Muhazrah Ilmiyyah Bar Mauzu’ Radde Qadianyyat 2/32-33)
Jamiat Ulamae Hind:
Qari Sahib was an active member of Jamiat Ulama from the very beginning. Latter he was made the member of working committee of Jamiat. As the senior member, on the occasion of “Mulk Wa Millat Bachaw Tahreek” in 1979, leading a group, he was arrested and imprisoned in Tihar Jail of Delhi. On 15th April 2008, he was selected as the President of Jamiat Ulama Hind. Following the demise of the third Amiru Hind, Maulana Marghubur Rahman Bijnori (1914-2010), he was selected as the 4th Amirul Hind in 2010 under the Imarat Shariah Hind. He served Jamiat as its President for more than 13 years until he breathed his last. As the president, he took several worth mentioning decisions like establishment of “Jamiat Youth Club”, “Jamiat Open School” etc.
Lectures on Qadianism:
Qari Sahib used to give weekly lectures on Qadianism among the students who were learning in several departments following their graduation in Darul Uloom, Deoband. Those lectures are published in 5 parts. In the first part, introduction of the topic, biography of Mirza Ghulam Qadiani, his character, his educational and religious background, introduction of his books and some other Qadiani leaders’ books and several Qadianis groups etc. have been presented. In the second part, the topics like: list of Ghulam Qadiani’s misleading beliefs, his political face, Qadianis’ interest in establishing Jew state and the historical services of the elders of Deoband against Qadianism etc. have been included. In the third part, the important topics like: the Prophethood, Messengerhood and its need, proofs of finality of prophethood in the Holy Qura’an and the holy narrations, meaning of finality of prophethood according to Qadiani group, doubts and fallacy of Qadianis regarding the verses and Hadiths related to the finality of prophethood and its replies, distortion of meaning of the Qura’anic verses and Hadiths by Mirza Ghulam Qadiani etc. have been discussed. In the fourth part, the beliefs of Jew, Christians, Muslims and Qadianis about Isa (AS) being alive, raised to the skies and coming before the Last Day as its major sign have been deliberated in detailed. In the fifth part, several claims of Mirza Ghulam Qadiani like being replica of Jesus (AS), Mahdi, the prophet and messenger, his misleading wrong prophecies, essential of Deen, categories of Kufr and the ruling regarding having relation with Qadianis have been presented in details. In brief, these lectures are very comprehensive and important to know the false views of Qadiani about Islam in the light of the authentic reference books.
Qari Sahib’s Sad Demise and Survivors:
Qari Sahib fell sick in the mid of Ramadan 1442 AH. Latter he was tested Covid-19 positive. Then oxygen level also went down. The oxygen was arranged and he was treated under the care of the doctors at the home. Following some days, when he was tested covid-19, the negative report came. Once again he fell sick and the health condition started deteriorating and the weakness grew. At that time, he was admitted in the Medanta Hospital Gurgaon in Haryana on 18th May 2021 = 5th Shawwal 1442. Then the health situation improved a bit; but again the condition started deteriorating and he left for heavenly abode on Friday 21st May 2021 = 8th Shawwal 1442 AH in Hospital. First his funeral prayer was performed in the central office of Jamiat Ulama Hind in Delhi and the second one in Darul Uloom Deoband which was led by Mualana Sayyid Arshad Madani, Head-Teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband. He was buried in the Qasmi Graveyard of Deoband. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah! Ameen!
Allah the almighty blessed him with one daughter and two sons. The first one is Mufti Sayyid Muhammad Salman. He is Mufti, teacher of Hadith and the editor of “Nidae Shahi”, Urdu monthly organ of Jamia Qasimia Madrasa Shahi Muradabad. He has compiled more than dozen books. He is a well-known and respected scholar within the country and abroad. The second one is Mufti Sayyid Muhammad Affan Mansoorpuri. He is head-teacher of Madrasa Islamia Jame Masjid, Amroha. He is also a qualified scholar and well-known for his oratory and writings. Qari Sahib was a distinguished person in upbringing the children. His two sons are the fruits of his upbringing as the elders say. Qari Sahib is survived by his wife, the daughter and two sons. May Allah give them long life with safe and sound health! Ameen! ••••
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi
Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
Just within a few years, renowned Islamic seminary Darul Uloom Deoband has lost several senior teachers of Hadith. One of them is Maulana Habibur Rahman Azmi Qasmi, who left for heavenly abode on 13th May, 2021 (30 Ramadan, 1442) at around 12:45 PM. News of his demise was shocking for thousands of his students spread all over the world as he was a popular teacher and an academic personality. He was born on 15th June, 1941, in Jagdishpur, a village of Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh, India. His father’s name was Anwarul Haq, who was a Hafiz of the Holy Qura’an. He was very punctual in his day to day life of studying and reading books. His interest was in the science of Hadith, the chain of transmitters and history. He was a very distinguished scholar, a popular teacher of Hadith and a prolific Urdu writer. Thanks to his expertise and being an academic personality, he was appointed as a teacher in Darul Uloom Deoband. He also authored a number of books on various subjects. They are published and available in the market to be read. In this piece, the humble soul is going to highlight his educational journey, his teaching services, his writings and books and his organizational activities.
Maulana Azmi started his basic education: reading the Holy Qura’an, learning Urdu and Persian languages and basics of mathematics in the Maktab of his village from Haji Muhammad Shibli (Rahimahullah!). Then he continued his education in Madrasah Rauzatul Uloom, Phulpur. It is worth mentioning that he learnt the book of Sheikh Sa’di Sheirazi, “Gulsitan”, from Maulana Abul Ghani, Phulpuri, the Khalifah of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi (May Allah grant them Jannah!) in Rauztul Uloom. Then he moved to the renowned Madrasa of the vicinity, Madrasah Baitul Uloom, situated in Saraimeer, Azamgarh, UP, India. Then, for the secondary education, he moved to Madrasah Matlaul Uloom, Banaras and Darul Uloom, Mau, Uttar Pradesh respectively.
For the final year of his Fazilah Course, Maulana Azmi left for Deoband. In Darul Uloom Deoband, he got admission in the final year in 1963. During his stay in Darul Uloom, he learnt the books of Hadith, such as Sahih al-Bukhari from Sheikh Fakhruddin Muradabadi, Sahih Muslim and Ibn Majah from Maulana Bashir Ahmad Khan, few lessons of Ibn Majah from Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi, then the VC of Darul Uloom Deoband, Sunan Tirmidhi (V.1) from Allamah Ibrahim Baliavi, Sunan Abi Dawood, Sunan Tirmidih (V. 2) and Shamail Tirmidhi from Maulana Fakhrul Hasan Muradabadi, Tahavi from Maulana Islamul Haq Azmi, Sunan Nasaiee from Maulana Shariful Hasan Deobandi, Muatta Imam Malik and Muwatta Imam Muhammad from Maulana Abdul Ahad Deobandi. After studying these abovementioned books of Hadith, he completed his Fazilat Course from Darul Uloom in 1964 (1384 AH).
Following the graduation from Darul Uloom Deoband, Maulana Azmi chose the path of teaching as his career. He, therefore, joined Madrasah Rauzatul Uloom, Phulpur as a preacher (Muballigh). Then he joined Madrasah Kheirul Madaris, Ghosi as head-teacher. Then he joined Madrasah Qura’aniyah, Jaunpur, UP. Later, he joined Jamia Islamia, Banaras and worked as a senior teacher and taught there till 1980. In 1982, he was appointed as a teacher at Darul Uloom, Deoband. In Darul Uloom, he was teaching “Sahih Muslim”, Abu Dawood, Mishkah Al-Masabih, Nukhbah al-Fikr and Muqaddamah Ibn Salah. He was a perfect teacher. He would study and read several books to prepare the lessons he was to teach the next day. He used to deliver the perfect academic material to the students.
This writer, being one of the students of Darul Uloom Deoband, got opportunity to learn from Maulana Azmi the second volume of Abu Dawood in the final year of the Fazilah course in 2003 and benefited a lot from his scholarly lectures. He used to explain each and every issue related to a Hadith. It was his habit to explain even a minor point being extracted from the Hadith. His explanation was very satisfactory. It is well-known among the scholars and the students of the Hadith the significance of the chain of transmitters (Sanad) in the science of Hadith. It was his favourite field, as it was his specialized subject, to discuss the chains of Hadith, the narrators and transmitters. Currently he was considered a leading authority on the chain of transmitters. His study in this science was considered deep and matchless. He had dedicated himself to studying and reading books. He was a popular teacher amongst the students. He was blessed with capability to deliver any difficult topic in the easiest way among the students. He used to read dozens of books for preparation of a lesson or before beginning to write on a topic. From his lectures, the students used to get the gist of hundreds of pages within the period.
Writings and Books:
Maulana Azmi was a prolific and successful writer and author too. Whenever he felt something necessary, he stood up with his pen and didn’t hesitate to write what was the truth in his opinion. Due to his writing skill and elegance of composition, in Safar 1405 AH (October 1984), he was selected as the editor of Darul Uloom’s Urdu monthly organ: Darul Uloom. He was one of the longest serving editors of the organ from October 1984 to November 2016. The incumbent editor of the monthly, Darul Uloom, and my respected teacher, Maulana Salman Bijnori Sb. (May Allah protect him!) writes about his editorship of the organ: “In the history of the editorship of the monthly, Darul Uloom, the period of Maulana Habibur Rahman Sahib is very long like the period of Maulana Sayyid Azhar Shah Qaisar. He was made editor in 1984 and the last month in November 2016, he resigned from this service due to his old age, additional teaching responsibility and academic works. In this long period, apart from editorial, he wrote numerous articles. His academic articles have been published namely “Maqalate Habib” (in three volumes). Besides it, he compiled about 30 books/booklets in Urdu and Arabic languages. During the period of his editorship, some special issues of the monthly Darul Uloom were published. “Khatme Nabuwwat Number” and “Al-Ihsan Number” are worth mentioning among them.” (Editorial Mahnamah Darul Uloom Deoband, December 2016)
He also worked as the editor of Urdu Monthly “Al-Qasim” in 1980. This Urdu monthly was the organ of the old boys association of Darul Uloom Deoband namely “Aalmi Motamar Fuzlaye Daurl Uloom Deoband” which was established in 1980.
Maulana Azmi complied and authored almost 30 books and booklets. They are considered to be the best research work on the topic. They are published and available in book depots and libraries. Here, I present an incomplete list of his published books: (1) Tazkirah Ulamae Azamgarh, (2) Shajrah Tayyibah, (3) Ajudhiya Ke Islami Aathaar, (4) Babri Masjid Haqaaidq Aur Afsane, (5) Islam Ka Nizam Ibadat, (6) Islam Men Tasawwure Imarat, (7) Maqalate Habib (3 Volumes), (8) Muttahidah Qaumiyyat Ulamae Islam Ki Nazar Men, (9) Khumainiyyat Asre Hazir Ka Azeem Fitnah, (10)Khalifah Mahdi Sahih Ahadith Ki Raushani Men, (11) Khawaatine Islam Ki Behtareen Masjid, (12) Imam Ke Piche Muqtadi Ki Qriat Ka Hukm, (13) Masa’il Namaz, (14) Imam Abu Hanifah Ka Ilm Hadith Men Maqam Wa Martabah, (15) Shrah Muqaddamah Sheikh Abdu Haq, (16) Nurul Qamar Fee Tauzih Nuzhatun Nazar Sharah Nukhbah, (17) Imama Abu Dawood Aur Un Ki Sunan, (18) Shuyukh Abi Dawood Fee Al-Sunan (Arabic), (19) Shiiat Qura’an Wa Hadith Ki Raushani Men, (20) Hadith Wa Sunnat Par Naqd Wa Nazar, (21) Babri Masjid Tarikh Ke Mukhtalif Maraahil Men, etc. Some books’ introduction is presented here:
Tazkirah Ulamae Azamgarh:
It is very famous book of Maulana Azmi. It is about the Islamic scholars of Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh. In the book, the author has mentioned the brief biographies of 245 Islamic scholars of the said district as it can be easily understood by its name. Initially, he started compiling this book following the suggestion of famous historian and well-known writer Maulana Qazi Athar Abdul Hafiz Mubarakpuri (1916-1996) to work on it. Firstly, it was published in 1976 comprising of the introduction of 197 scholars. Then, he included the biography of 48 scholars as its addendum and the book was republished in 2012 by Markaz Dawat Wa Tahqiq, Deoband. Moreover, 89 scholars’ introduction has been mentioned in the footnote according to the need. It is considered as a reference book on the topic. The scholars like Maulana Abul Ma’athir Habibur Rahman Al-Azmi (famously known as Muhaddithe Azmi – 1901-1992), Maulana Najmuddin Islami (1904-1994), Qazi Athar Mubarkpuri and Maulana Ajaz Ahmad Azmi have appreciated this work. The book is published from Markaze Dawat Wa Tahqiq, Deoband. It has 604 pages.
Ajodhya Ke Islami Aathaar:
It is a well-known book compiled by Maulana Azmi. It comprises of one preface and three chapters. In the preface, the author discussed about Ajodhya, its religious status, etc. In the first chapter, he has introduced 27 scholars and pious people, who played a key role in spreading Oneness of Allah and the true message of Islam in Ajodhya. In the second chapter, he has mentioned the mosques found in Ajodhya which have historic and Islamic values and status. In the third chapter, he has presented the graves which are found in Ajodhya like the grave of Sheeth (Alaihis Salam). Whatever has been mentioned in the book is in the light of the authentic references of books. The forward is written by Maulana Riyasat Ali Zafar Bijnori (1940-2017), ex-teacher of Hadith at Darul Uloom Deoband. It is published from Sheikhul Hind Academy of Darul Uloom Deoband. It has 200 pages.
Shuyukh Abi Dawood Fee Al-Sunan (Arabic):
This book is about the teachers of Imam Abu Dawood Suleiman Sajistani (817-889) from whom he narrated the prophetic narrations in Sunan Abi Dawood. The author has briefly written the biography of Imam Abu Dawood as well. He has introduced the Sunan Abi Dawood, number of chapters and the number of narrations. It was published from Sheikhul Hind Academy of Darul Uloom Deoband in 2006. The book contains 260 pages.
In 1980, an old boys association of Darul Uloom Deoband namely “Aalmi Motamar Fuzlaye Daurl Uloom Deoband” was established. He was given the charge of its administration. Maulana Azmi worked as its administrator. He also worked as the editor of the association’s monthly Urdu organ “Al-Qasmi”. He was an old member and the member of Working Committee of India’s largest social organization, Jamiat Ulamae Hind. In the meeting of Jamiat, his opinion was valued and given much significance. It is said that it was him who mostly used to write the “resolutions” of Jamiaat’s meetings and the programmes. In 1420 AH, he was appointed as the supervisor of “Radde Isaiyat Committee” in Darul Uloom Deoband. Later, he was nominated as its head and director. He served and headed the committee for 18 years and resigned in 1438 AH.
It was Maulana Azmi’s habit to spend the whole year in Deoband and visit his hometown, Jagdishpur, Azamgarh in Shaban to spend the long vacation of Ramadan at his home with his family members. So, as usual, this year in Shaban 1442, he left for his hometown. He reached home with safe and sound health. He was physically fit. When he left Deoband, none would have thought that it is his last journey and he is not going to come back. But Allah had written for him that he would not come back.
Anyway, in the mid of Ramadan, he fell sick. Following the check-up, the doctor diagnosed him as suffering from typhoid fever. He got timely treatment and following few days, the medicine responded and he started recovering. Again he suffered from the typhoid and the oxygen level started going down. Then the condition began to deteriorate, until he breathed his last on 13th May 2021 (30th Ramadan 1442) at around 12:45 PM. He is survived by his wife, two daughters and two sons: Maulana Obaidur Rahmadn Qasmi and Abdur Rahman. His funeral prayer was led by his grandson, Maulana Affan Qasmi. Despite the restriction of the lockdown in the area, a good number of Ulama, students and public from neighbouring villages participated in the funeral prayer. He was buried in the graveyard of his hometown. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah! Aameen! ••••
Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi,
Moon Rays Trust School,
Who Were the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند)
(By: Mufti Muhammad Noman Daji, Batley, UK - email@example.com)
(After Asar, Monday 13th June 2021 –
4th Zul-Qa’dah 1442 A.H)
I had shared my piece titled “Seven Key Names of the ‘Discipline of the Inner Characters’ (علم الأخلاق) & What These Names Signify” with the intended and targeted audience. I usually have a read after I have shared too for a number of reasons.
At this point of reading it created an inner desire (داعية) and inspiration to share only the section from the piece that discusses who the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were to highlight and zoom in on their great and extraordinary personalities. The afore-mentioned piece was a bit lengthy (relatively speaking) so I thought it is possible the point does not come across or is lost. Hence, it should be posted separately to pinpoint their personalities. I had liked how the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) had been described in the piece.
It seems the love for the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) had come to the forefront that galvanised me to pen this dedicated (اصالةً) piece rather than sharing it as a post which could get lost. The mention (ذكر) of these ‘Great Scholars’ (كبار علماء) and ‘Friends of Allah Ta’ala’ (أولياء الله) is a source of blessing, inspiration and a means of increasing ones Iman (إيمان). Hence, worth penning, sharing and reading.
As a side note (جملة معترضة) anyone who knows me well or who reads my reflections, pieces and articles (in general including the several eulogies that I have penned) knows that I measure my words and I try to be as accurate as I can. I do not over praise or exaggerate in my praising or use words without measuring them. Hence, whatever I write regarding these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) is no exaggeration. Not even a tiny bit. There is a tendency in most to go to either extreme when praising or dispraising (افراط و تفريط). I have tried to state the facts and be accurate as much as I could neither exaggerating, overlooking or reducing their real worth. I have tried to be balanced. The truth is these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were truly extraordinary and unique. It seems and feels they were sent collectively for a special and divine purpose.
My vessel of the spiritual heart has since my childhood been overflowing with the love and admiration of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) - and still is. I also harboured the desire from an early age to study at this great, unique and inspirational seat of advanced Islamic learning. I was able to accomplish this dream through the mercy and grace of Allah Ta’ala. فللّٰه الحمد اوّلاً و آخراً
In my previous piece my mention of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) was as part of the discussion (ضمناً) on the topic at hand as I like to bring their mention into the discussion wherever it is relevant. The inner desire at the time was to share that particular section separately as a post to create additional focus on the topic and inspire those who attribute themselves to follow their lead in their various dimensions and central characteristic.
However, I thought I will wait a week and share the relevant parts after a week or so. In the meantime I thought I will pen a reflection (as part of the ‘Reflections’ series) I had been intending to write for a couple of weeks. Allah Ta’ala had different plans. And the divine plans are always more beautiful, better and centred on wisdom. Allah Ta’ala put in my spiritual heart that I should pen it as a proper piece (and not just share the relevant parts from the previous piece as an ordinary post) and also pen the additional thoughts Allah Ta’ala had dropped into my spiritual heart. Hence, this has culminated and transpired in the form of this piece. اللهمَّ تقبّل و بارِك وانفعنا بها
Acknowledgements & Gratitude
I am the beneficiary of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) in more ways than one. I attribute and owe my Islam and my understanding of Islam to them directly and indirectly.
I also acknowledge and appreciate the immense, incredible and unique contributions of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) in all areas of the Deen; their incredible role in preserving the true teachings of the beautiful Deen of Islam and in reviving and preserving the Islam of hundreds of millions of Muslims.
I have since my childhood admired and been inspired by the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) after listening about them. Their love and admiration only keeps increasing.
Their love and inspiration was the driving force and the primary motivation that took me to study at this great and accepted (مقبول) seat of advanced Islamic learning known as ‘Darul Uloom Deoband’. I am forever indebted to them. I continue to love and be inspired by them. I hope it is my means of salvation in the Hereafter as I have nothing else.
It is a quarter century ago (25 years) when I first set foot at Darul Uloom Deoband as a student and my first ever visit. It was an amazing and blissful experience. I still feel the experience. I entered Darul Uloom through the main gate known as the Qasmi Gate (بابِ قاسم). I wandered around the area known as Mulsari (ملسری). I felt I was home. I could feel the spirituality of Darul Uloom Deoband in my spiritual heart. It felt the Darul Uloom was founded on the foundations of sincerity and piety (اُسِّس على التقوىٰ). It felt the spiritual foundations were very deep.
Naming of the Pieces
The afore-mentioned piece on Tasawwuf (تصوّف) can be easily named as “What is Tasawwuf (تصوّف)” as it describes the various angles of the discipline by shedding light and focus on some of its key names. “What is Tasawwuf (تصوّف)” which would translate into Urdu as تصوّف کیا ہے and would be in line with the naming convention of this piece which translates into Urdu as أكابر علماء ديوبند کیا تھے.
The piece on Tasawwuf (تصوّف) can also be potentially named as “An Overview and Cursory Introduction to Tasawwuf (تصوّف)”. “An Overview and Cursory Introduction to Tasawwuf (تصوّف)” which would translate into Urdu as تصوّف کا ایک اجمالی تعارُف and the name of this current piece can also be أكابر علماء ديوبند کا ایک اجمالی تعارُف to be in line with the naming convention of the above sister piece. That would translate to “An Overview and Cursory Introduction to the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند)”.
One key reason to discuss the similarities in the naming of the two sister pieces is to highlight the intra-connectivity and how the two pieces are intertwined. Also, to point out the two pieces should be read alongside each other to gain maximum insight and benefit.
Terminology (اصطلاح) of ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند)
This term ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) is a specific term (اصطلاح). It refers to a specific group of scholars from all the scholars and graduates from Darul Uloom Deoband. This term is more specific (خاص) than the term ‘Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (علماء ديوبند). The term ‘Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (علماء ديوبند) is more general (عام).
The term ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) refers to the initial generations of this seat of learning connected to it in one way or the other. I don’t want to draw the line where it ends as that is not the point of the piece (neither it is within my reach). The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) include:
~ Qasim-ul-Uloom wal Khairat, Hujjat Al-Islam, Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Muhammad Qasim Nanotwi (RA) - Founder of Darul Uloom Deoband (بانی دار العلوم ديوبند)
~ Imam Rabbani Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (RA) - First Patron (سرپرست اوّل)
~ Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) - Second Patron (سرپرست ثانی)
~ Jami Al-Maqool wal Manqool Hazrat Moulana Yaqoob Sahib Nanotwi (RA)
~ Mufti Aa’zam Hazrat Mufti Aziz-ur-Rahman Sahib Usmani (RA)
~ Hazrat Moulana Miya Asghar Ali Sahib Deobandi (RA)
~ Sheikh-Ul-Hind Hazrat Moulana Mahmood Hasan Deobandi (RA)
~ Muhaddith Al-Asr Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (RA)
~ Fakhrul Muhadditheen Hazrat Moulana Khalil Ahmad Sahib Saharanpuri (RA)
~ Sheikh Ul Islam Hazrat Moulana Husain Ahmed Madani (RA)
~ Mufassir Al-Quran Allamah Shabbir Ahmed Usmani (RA)
I have only listed eleven. However, there is a group (طائفة) of these great scholars (which I cannot comprehensively list and is not the point). I have named a select few (11 to be precise) to provide a glimpse of who these greats consists of. There are others too.
It is pertinent to mention Hazrat Haji Imdadullah Sahib Muhajir Makki (RA). Hazrat Haji Imdadullah Sahib Muhajir Makki (RA) is regarded as the Sayyid At-Taifah (سيّد الطائفة) as the chains of Tasawwuf and Tariqat lead to him. The first three great scholars (above) were the direct disciples (خلفاء) of this great Sheikh and Murshid. The other great scholars and the subsequent scholars are indirectly connected to Hazrat Haji Sahib (RA).
What is Darul Uloom Deoband
It seems pertinent and relevant to briefly mention what ‘Darul Uloom Deoband’ represents as these great scholars associated to this great seat of advanced Islamic learning are being discussed in this piece.
Darul Uloom Deoband is a seat of advanced Islamic learning founded in the era of British rule and occupation with the mission and intent to preserve the identity of the Muslims of India of the time; to preserve the correct, pure and unadulterated teachings of the beautiful Deen of Islam in every way; to produce highly qualified and skilled scholars and experts in all the Islamic sciences; etc.
At the time of its founding India was not partitioned. Hence, it was the undivided India (غير منقسم انڈیا). The undivided India consisted of current day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Darul Uloom Deoband has certainly accomplished its mission par excellence. Also, its light and radiance has reached every corner of the globe. It has been the beacon of Islam for the past 150 plus years.
If Darul Uloom Deoband just produced one towering and giant scholar like Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) it would still be worth of gold. The reality and beauty is Darul Uloom Deoband has produced a long list of towering and giant scholars coupled with piety and integrity. Such is the productivity and quality of this great seat of advanced Islamic learning.
Also, as a result of Darul Uloom Deoband there are thousands of Darul Ulooms all over the globe which are effectively branches (شاخیں) of this great seat of advanced Islamic learning. For this reason Darul Uloom Deoband is regarded as Ummul Madaris (أم المدارس) - Mother of All Darul Ulooms - and also known as Azhar-ul-Hind (ازهر الهند) - The Azhar of India - due to the class and quality of its teachings. It is truly unique. I say this with full insight, confidence and conviction.
‘Darul Uloom Deoband’ is affectionately just known as ‘Darul Uloom’ as it is the Ummul Madaris (أم المدارس) and all the other Darul Ulooms (wherever they are in the world and however big they are) are Madaris and it’s children.
The light of Darul Uloom Deoband and it’s great scholars is still emanating and shining in all four corners of the world. And we pray that long it may continue to shine and emanate the light of Truth. آمين يا ربّ العالمين
Those who are associated and follow the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) and their methodology are known as ‘Deobandi’ (ديوبندى) or from the ‘Deobandi School of Thought’ (ديوبندى مكتبِ فكر).
This term “Deobandi” or the “Deobandi School of Thought” is not a term that is to signify a new group (جماعت). Darul Uloom Deoband is not really a separate school of thought (مكتبِ فكر). If anyone does regard it as the Deobandi School of Thought then be it. However, it should be noted that the Deobandi School of Thought are part of and the greatest proponents of the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة). This naming (Deobandi School of Thought) is to differentiate it from other groups who attribute themselves to the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة) but are off the mark in their understanding of the beautiful Deen of Islam.
All the beliefs of the Deobandi School of Thought are in line with the beliefs of the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة). Their Maslak (مسلك) is the Maslak (مسلك) of the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة). They adhere to the Maslak (مسلك) in the most pure and unadulterated way.
The above is in regards to the beliefs (عقيدة). Hence, to append to this point on the Maslak (مسلك) of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) in regards to Fiqh (فقه) they were Muqallid (مُقلِّد) and only accepted the view to follow any one of the Four Mazhabs (مذاهبِ اربعه) of Fiqh i.e. Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’ee and Hanbali. The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were themselves followers of the Hanafi Fiqh.
It should be noted and pointed out that amongst these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) some had reached to such high level due to the vast and depths of knowledge in all the Islamic sciences that scholars have said they had reached the level of a Mujtahid (مجتهد). Despite reaching this level in Fiqh (فقه) they never moved away from being a follower of the Mazhab (مذهب) i.e. being a Muqallid (مُقلِّد). They strictly followed one Mazhab without any mixing and matching. One great scholar who has been written about who reached this lofty level is Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA). Similar can be said of Muhaddith Al-Asr Allamah Anwar Shah Kashmiri (RA).
And for completeness in regards to the following of the ‘Schools of Tasawwuf and Tariqat’ the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were adherents of the Chishtiyah School. They would follow the Chishtiyah methodology for spiritual purification and would attribute themselves to this School. However, they would take a pledge (Bai’ah / بيعة) on all the four popular Schools of Tasawwuf and Tariqat (i.e. Chishtiyah, Naqshbandiyah, Qadriyah and Sahawardiyah) to maintain their affiliation and respect with the other schools. Also, following any of the other three schools was accepted by them too.
The Path of Inner Purification is also called and referred to as a Maslak (مسلك) when it is mentioned alone. However, when this word - Maslak (مسلك) - is already in use alongside the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة) in the same discussion then the word used for the Schools of Tasawwuf and Tariqat is Mashrab (مشرب).
The truth is this great grouping of these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) is a unique grouping of the Scholars of Haqq (علماء حقّ) in this large quantity (كميت) and with this incredible quality (كيفيت) in recent times. Allah Ta’ala grant us all true appreciation of these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) and to follow in their noble footsteps.
The Sahaba (صحابة) Companions of the Holy Prophet (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) are ‘Gold Standard’ for any groups of followers as they are the direct beneficiaries of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him). The template and form of any group or grouping needs to fit the mould and cast of the Sahaba (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين). We can confidently say the mould and cast for the grouping of these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) fits perfectly with the ‘Gold Standard’ of Sahaba (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين).
Some Dimensions of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند)
I would like to mention the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) had numerous dimensions and arrows in their bow. Too many to list all so some of them are mentioned. They were teachers and instructors (معلّم و مدرّس), experts in Aqeedah and Kalam (متكلّم), experts in Tafseer (مفسّر), experts in Hadeeth (محدّث), experts in Fiqh (فقيه), experts in Mantiq and Falsafah (معقولى), writers (مصنّف), compilers (مولّف), freedom fighters and warriors (مجاهد), preachers (مبلّغ), callers towards the Deen (داعى), spiritual mentors and guides (مرشد), serving their communities (خادِم القوم), etc etc but at the heart and central to everything their spiritual heart was a Sufi (صوفى).
Their spiritual hearts (قلب) were purified (مُزَكّىٰ), pure and clean (مُصَفّىٰ), filled and brimming with sincere well wishing towards humanity (ناصِح), filled and brimming (معمور) with the love of Allah Ta’ala (حُبّ الله) and the love of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) (حُبّ الرّسول) and much more.
This powerful inner state (روحانيت) that fuelled their apparent academic and other outer dimensions was the underlying reason that led to their far reaching effects of the effort, revival and preservation of the correct and balanced teachings of the complete Deen of Islam. We all need to stick closely and tightly to their teachings in every manner and in every branch of the beautiful Deen of Islam. The preservation of our Deen of Islam and the Deen of our future generations lies in this. The contrary state is a slippery one towards disbelief. اللهم احفظنا
The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were great Muwahhid (موحِّد) in the complete sense (belief and practice). They observed Tauheed at the belief level i.e. Tauheed I’itiqaadi (توحيد اعتقادى) and also internalised Tauheed into their practices, physical and inner actions, interactions, mindset, etc in their daily life i.e. Tauheed Fa’ly (توحيد فعلى). They lived and breathed Tauheed (توحيد).
The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) strictly observed and adhered to all aspects of the Sunnah (مُتّبع السُّنَّة) and also revived the Sunnah (احياء السُّنَّة). Also, they kept far away from engaging in any form of Bidah (بِدعة). Instead they were active in getting rid of Bidah (بِدعة) i.e. (ماحى البِدعة) whether the Bidah (بِدعة) was related to beliefs (عقائد) or was related to actions (اعمال). The actions (اعمال) cover both the apparent (ظاهر) and inner (باطن).
Another way to look at who the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were is to say that they were Jami bayn Ash-Shariat wa At-Tariqat - جامع بين الشريعة و الطريقة. What that means is they had combined both the sciences of Ahkaam Zahirah (احكام ظاهرة) - i.e. Actions (اعمال) and the sciences of Ahkaam Batinah (احكام باطنة) - i.e. Inner Characters (أخلاق) - or in other words they were the scholars who had combined, internalised, instilled and also taught both the Shariat and Tariqat (i.e. Fiqh Zahir (فقه ظاهر) and Fiqh Batin (فقه باطن)).
Their approach to the Deen was in the complete sense. Hence, you can call them Kamileen (كاملين) - the truly greats of this Ummah. These greats who combined both dimensions (inner and outer) and every aspect of the Deen are also called Muhaqqiqeen (مُحَقِّقين). The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were of this noble and great category. الحمدالله
As a result of this pure and holistic approach to the Deen they had become Faqeeh An-Nafs (فقيه النفس) as their inner and outer were in total synch and in harmony with the spirit of the Deen. As a result of this they naturally concluded and gravitated towards the right decisions and right actions as their spiritual hearts had become clean and pure (قلب سليم) and so had their mind and intellect (عقل سليم).
Another way to understand and look at our ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) is that they practiced and acquired and/or were bestowed with all the Four Dimensions of the beautiful Deen. The Four Dimensions of the beautiful Deen as mentioned in the discipline and books on Tazkiyah are:
1. Shariah (شريعت)
2. Tariqat (طريقت)
3. Haqeeqat (حقيقت)
4. Marifat (معرفت)
Based on the first dimension - Shariah (شريعت) - which the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were practicing they were Mutasharri (متشرِّع); based on the second dimension - Tariqat (طريقت) - which they were practicing they were Sufi (صوفى); based on the third dimension - Haqeeqat (حقيقت) - which they had mastered they were Muhaqqiq (محقِّق) and based on the fourth dimension - Marifat (معرفت) - which they had acquired or were bestowed with they were Arif (عارِف).
One thing to note that the meaning of Muhaqqiq (محقِّق) - above - is not one who does research (تحقيق) i.e. a researcher as we know it. The meaning of Muhaqqiq (محقِّق) here is about gaining insights into the deep realities (حقايق) of the physical and spiritual world. Research (تحقيق) is like a children’s activity in comparison to these deep insights.
Another way to view the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) in terms of their practice of the Deen of Islam is that they practiced every branch of the Deen and also taught the believers the importance of each and every branch of the Deen. The beautiful Deen of Islam has been categorised into five branches (شعبہ جات) by Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA). The five branches of the beautiful Deen of Islam are:
1. Beliefs (I’itiqadaat / اعتقادات)
2. Worship (Ibadaat / عبادات)
3. Financial Transactions (Muamalaat / معاملات)
4. Social Interactions (Muasharat / معاشرة)
5. Purifying the Soul, Heart and Nafs
(Tasawwuf / تصوّف) & Tazkiyah / تزكية)
These ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) practiced all the five branches. Based on this complete practice they can be called Mutadayyin (مُتديِّن) i.e. دین دار as they covered the practice of the complete Deen and not just one or two branches. And they also emphasised this completeness and following the complete and total Deen to their followers too and highlighted this reality in their speeches and writings. This was part of their revival and preservation of the total and complete Deen they undertook.
And to add to all the above points our ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) exemplified I’itidal (اعتدال) - right balance - in all aspects of the Deen and in the different Deeni roles they had. The ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) exemplified I’itidal (اعتدال) in protecting the boundaries of the Shariah (Hifz Hudood Shariah / حفظ حدود شريعة). Also, the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) exemplified I’itidal (اعتدال) in balancing the correct level of rights of everyone (Hifz Huqooq / حفظ حقوق).
You can say this practice of I’itidal (اعتدال) - right balance - in all aspects and areas of the Deen and the roles they had is the Manhaj (منهج) i.e. طریقہ کار - methodology - of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند). This methodology of I’itidal (اعتدال) - right balance - in all aspects of the Deen and the roles we play needs to be learnt from them.
To top up the above characters and areas of greatness all this was infused effortlessly and sincerely with immense simplicity (بذاذة) and without any pomp and show or pretension. None of this. They were never interested in trying to impress anyone with their knowledge, depth of knowledge, mastery in all the Islamic sciences (علوم عقلية و علوم نقلية اور علوم آلية و علوم عالية) and neither in the piety and total practice of the Deen. At the same time they would not ignore or dismiss anyone. They would give attention where it was required. Otherwise, they would remain busy in their task and mission. Hence, when we study the lives of our notable and ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) we do not find any kind of Takalluf (تكلُّف) in them and their lifestyle despite the greatness in knowledge, piety, refinement, character, politics, etc. We only find immense simplicity. This is the true prophetic behaviour. Hence, when we go back to our primary role model - our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) - and his faithful and loyal Sahaba (صحابة) - Companions - (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) we also do not see this kind of Takalluf (تكلُّف) in their daily interactions with each other or others.
To conclude this section on the greatness of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) it seems appropriate to mention the famous couplet by the Poet Farazdaq to his arch rival Jareer. This couplet is usually mentioned at times like this.
أولَئِكَ آبائي فَجِئني بِمِثلِهِم
إِذا جَمَعَتْنا يا جَريرُ المَجامِعُ
These are my fore-fathers (after praising and extolling their virtues), so bring me anyone like them (from your clan).
If we ever gather in a gathering O Jareer!
I (and many others like me) are really proud (in a humble way) of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) due to their extraordinary accomplishments and contributions in terms of the Deen and more. However, I am under no illusion that I am not like them. Yes, I am trying to emulate them in every way and trying to follow in their footsteps to the best I can. But the truth is I lack far far behind in their knowledge and piety or their courage and determination. I am only banking on my sincere love for them to push me through the ‘line of success’ in the Hereafter and to be blessed with their auspicious company in Paradise as they will be with our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) and his great and loyal Sahaba (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين). The prophetic saying المرء مع من اَحَبّ resonates well with me.
Below is a couplet I had written in one of my ‘Islahi’ correspondence (اصلاحى خط) with my beloved and compassionate mentor and guide Hazrat Moulana Masihullah Khan Jalalabadi (RA). The point was I have nothing so I am banking on my love for the righteous like my beloved Sheikh. This correspondence was from over three decades ago whilst I was a teenager. The sentiment still exist. There is no change if not it has gone stronger and clearer due to the increase in the spiritual maturity and the increase in clarity it brings. The greater the spiritual maturity comes the increased clarity.
أُحِبُّ الصالِحينَ وَلَستُ مِنهُم
لَعَلَّ الله يَرْزُقُنِي صَلاَحاً
I (deeply) love the righteous, but I am (clear I am) not one of them.
I do hope from Allah Ta’ala that He will bestow me with righteousness (due to this sincere love and to be like them).
Sincere Counsel (نصيحة) to Students of Knowledge, Darul Uloom Graduates and Scholars
The Arabic and the word used in the Holy Quran and Sunnah for ‘Sincere Counsel’ is نصيحة (Naseehat). This word is used in multiple forms. For example, in this exact word, in a noun form and verb form in the Holy Quran and Sunnah. I have a detailed reflection on Sincere Counsel (نصيحة) so I don’t want to go into the detail of what it entails. The translation of this word is sufficient for this piece. The referred piece is titled “Ramadhan Mubarak Reflections (5) – Sincere Well-Wishing to ALL (An-Naseehah)”. This reflection is part of the ‘Series of Reflections on Ramadhan Mubarak’.
I want to point out that this duty to have sincere well-wishing and to offer and impart ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة) is for every believer (مسلم و مسلمة). It is not exclusive to a pious person or a senior scholar, etc. Anyone can and should offer this ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة) when it is needed even the one being given the ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة) is equal in stature or higher or equal or higher than you in terms of knowledge, etc. Hence, this section has my ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة) to fellow students of knowledge, graduates of Darul Ulooms and scholars.
The reason I have to mention this disclaimer is there are too many ‘nut cases’ and wrongheaded people with crooked and absurd understanding (کج فہم) of the Deen in every group. Hence, such disclaimers are helpful for various reasons. It should be noted that ‘Nut case’ is two words but the meaning and essence is one and whole (معنىٰ كُلّى).
There is a balance that needs to be struck in applying humility (تواضع) so it is only humility (تواضع) and not the Izzat-e-Nafs (عزّتِ نفس) that is being trampled. Our ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) were both humble and courageous at the same time. They were merciful and powerful at the same time. There is no contradiction in that. The nature would change depending on the context as it is described for the Sahaba (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) in the Holy Quran. The Sahaba (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) were merciful to the believers and courageous against the enemies. Hence, there is a time and place to be of a particular nature. The skill is to discern and understand the situation and then act accordingly.
I am defining the three categories mentioned in the sub-section title for purpose of clarity.
By ‘Students of Knowledge’ (طلبة العلم). I am referring to knowledge of the Deen (علوم الدّين). Whether they are formal students (رسمى طالِبِ علم) currently enrolled in any full time Darul Uloom (usually residential) or those who regard themselves as lifelong students of knowledge (طالِب العلم) like I do of myself (even though they may have formally graduated from a reputable Darul Uloom).
By ‘Darul Uloom Graduates’ I am referring to those who have studied full time the complete Dars-e-Nizami (درسِ نظامى) curriculum in a reputable Darul Uloom. They are referred to as Fuzala (فُضلاء).
By ‘Scholars’ I am referring to those ‘Darul Uloom Graduates’ who have continued studying post their graduation in their personal capacity and have acquired in depth knowledge of the sciences they studied as part of their Dars-e-Nizami curriculum. They are referred to as Ulama (عُلماء).
One thing to note is that being a ‘Darul Uloom Graduate’ (فاضِل) does not equate to being a Scholar (عالِم). A small subset of the ‘Darul Uloom Graduates’ (Fuzala / فُضلاء) fraternity will qualify to be from the category of ‘Scholars’ (Ulama / عُلماء). And then there are many levels within this category of ‘Scholars’ (Ulama / عُلماء). One thing for sure is the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) are amongst the great scholars of this Ummah as a whole. They are no less in knowledge in the Islamic sciences than the greats from the early or earlier centuries.
The ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة) to these three categories is to undertake the below actions:
- Study the lives (سوانح) of these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) with an open mind and open spiritual heart. Start the study with the first three great scholars in the above list and then move onto the rest.
- Explore the depths of knowledge in all the Islamic sciences these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) possessed by studying their books and commentaries on Tafseer, Hadeeth, Fiqh, Tasawwuf, etc.
- Try to uderstand their mindset and personality (مزاج و مذاق) in regards to the Deen and it’s practices.
- When engaging in any research work or any any enquiry refer to their academic works at the outset and before concluding your research and don’t deviate from their teachings. In between by all means look at and research the works of other reputable scholars. This applies to all areas of the Deen. Apply the rules of Fiqh in their teachings when extending to new scenarios.
- Get connected and remain closely connected to a Murshid (مرشد) associated with any of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) directly or indirectly. There is safety of your Deen and Dunya in this.
- Instil the love of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) into your students and also into your congregation and communities.
I have observed first hand at seeing the distance (دوری) and the gap that is occurring in the Darul Uloom graduates from the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند). This widening gap from the source is a worrying sign. There are a number of factors but primarily are a lack of study and knowledge of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند); self-inferiority complex and the ‘I know it all syndrome’. How can someone not be attracted and gravitated towards such towering and giants of knowledge and piety (جبال العلم و التُّقىٰ) if they truly want to grow and develop in their Deen?
- I sincerely suggest you create a habit of reading the books of Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) including the inspirational and full of knowledge and wisdom sayings (ملفوظات) and lectures (مواعظ). They are very powerful in creating and instilling change from within. The books of Hazrat Aqdas Thanwi (RA) are so many that they are sufficient for us for a lifetime of reading. If there is books of only one great scholar you need to read and study then they are the books and works of Hazrat Aqdas Thanwi (RA). Make a habit to read a page daily.
Sincere Counsel (نصيحة) to All Believers
By ‘All Believers’ I am including every one (besides the above three categories) - in this section - who associate themselves to the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة).
At the least it is directed to all those who attribute themselves to the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة) based on the understanding shared by the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند). As a group (جماعة) they are the best representation of the Ahl As-Sunnah Wal Jama’ah (اهل السنّة و الجماعة) as mentioned earlier.
- As a non-scholar accept the fact that your safety of the Deen lies in following a reputable scholar or a group of reputable scholars (to cover all areas of expertise) who are closely aligned to the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند).
- Study the lives of these ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند). Start the study with the first three great scholars in the above list and then move onto the rest. Translations are available in English too.
- Study books (or the translations) written by the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند).
- Consult a reputable ‘Scholar’ (عالِم) whose mindset is in alignment and synch with the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) and who also adheres to the teachings and lifestyle of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) in all areas of their life.
I want to emphasise that proficiency in knowledge is necessary as just “piety” without knowledge is not sufficient. Piety has to be backed by in-depth knowledge in the graduate or scholar you are consulting. Otherwise, piety devoid of in-depth knowledge leads to problems and eventually deviance (ضلالة و بدعة).
- Avoid all other “scholars”, “celebratory sheikhs”, Google, etc from whom you learn your Deen. This can only lead to confusion, creating doubts and deviance.
- Regularly sit in the company of scholars who are connected to the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) and who exemplify their knowledge, traits and characters.
- Get connected with a reputable mentor and guide (مرشد) who is in some way connected to the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند).
- Instil the love of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) into your children.
- I sincerely suggest you create a habit of reading the books of Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) including the inspirational and full of knowledge and wisdom sayings (ملفوظات) and lectures (مواعظ). They are very powerful in creating and instilling change from within. The books of Hazrat Aqdas Thanwi (RA) are so many that they are sufficient for us for a lifetime of reading. If there is books of only one great scholar you need to read and study then they are the books and works of Hazrat Aqdas Thanwi (RA). Make a habit to read a page daily. Translations of a good number of books are available in English and other languages too.
Sincere & Humble Invite
I sincerely and humbly invite all the above four categories of believers to make a firm intention right now to reconnect and strengthen their bond and connection with the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند). And then to make a plan and concerted effort to enact the relevant ‘Sincere Counsel’ (نصيحة).
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to always tread the Path of Truth and Guidance.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to always tread the Path of Your favoured servants.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to tread this Path of Sulook and Tazkiyah with sincerity, commitment and conviction till death.
O Allah Ta’ala! Protect us all from all the Path of those who have deviated or are cursed.
O Allah Ta’ala! Protect us all from the deceit and alluring of the Shaitan and Nafs and all evil influences whichever form they take.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the in-depth understanding of the teachings of the Best of all creation, Your Beloved and Final Prophet, Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) and the strength and ability to emulate those practices.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to tread the Path of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند).
O Allah Ta’ala! Protect Darul Uloom Deoband from all the evils of its enemies.
O Allah Ta’ala! Continue to spread the light of Darul Uloom Deoband and the light of the ‘Great Scholars of Darul Uloom Deoband’ (أكابر علماء ديوبند) to all four corners of the globe.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to sincerely and actively spread the complete Deen of Islam to humanity like our great scholars and righteous predecessors have done for us.
آمین یارب العلمین بجاہ سیدالمرسلین علیہ الصلوۃ والتسلیم
و صلى الله على النبى الحبيب الشفيع الرؤوف الرحيم
Muhammad Noman Daji
(After Fajar, Wednesday 16th June 2021 – 6th Zul-Qa’dah 1442 A.H)
P:S: I am a graduate of Darul Uloom Deoband. I certified as an Aalim and a Mufti at this prestigious seat of advanced Islamic learning. I thought it should be mentioned (and has been suggested) so it provides some credibility and comfort for those reading (and who don’t know me).
A Leading Authority on Arabic Language Passes Away
By: Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Sad Demise of Sheikh Amini:
A leading authority on Arabic language, a prolific writer of the Arabic and Urdu languages, an honest journalist, an outstanding Islamic scholar and my beloved teacher, Sheikh Noor Alam Khalil Amini, passed away on 3rd May 2021 early in the morning at around 03:15 AM, according to Indian time. His sad demise was mourned by several scholars and thousands of his students spread all over the world. His name was Noor Alam and was well-known as Noor Alam Khlil Amini as he used the same name as his pen name for almost five decades as a writer, journalist and author. His patronymic was Abu Usamah Noor. His father’s name was (Hafiz) Khalil Ahmad. He was born on 18th December 1952 at his maternal place: Harpur Beshi, Muzaffarpur, Bihar. He was from a known village: Raipur of district Sitamarhi in Bihar. His grandfather’s name was Rasheed Ahmad.
Orphan-hood and Upbringing:
Sheikh Amini’s father was Hafizul Qura’an and serving as a teacher in a certain Madrasa in district Dinajpur of West Bengal, an India province. When he received the message of being blessed with a baby boy, he came home to see his new born baby. At that time, a fatal disease called cholera had broken out in the vicinity. In the same epidemic, he passed away leaving his newly born baby an orphan. When his father died, Amini was merely three months old. He was brought up by his paternal grandmother firstly. Following her demise, he was brought up by his loving mother. He had much love for his grandma and mother as he expressed it while attributing his famous book, “Woh Koh Kan Ki Baat…” to these two unknown, but caring and affectionate ladies. The book is a biography of Sheikh Waheeduz-Zaman Kairanavi (1930-1995).
Beginning of Education:
He started his primary education from his maternal grand dad who had received his basic education from Madrasah Chashma-e-Rahmat, Ghazipur, UP. After his demise, he was educated in a Maktab of Raipur from Maulavi Ibrahim (May Allah grant him Jannah!). Here in this Maktab, he learnt reading the Holy Qura’an, Urdu, Hindi languages, handwriting and the basics of mathematics. In 1958, he moved to Madrasah Noorul Huda in Pokhraira, a village almost two KMs away from his native land, Raipur. He used to go to the Madrasah in the morning and come back in the evening.
Madrasah Imdadia, Darbhanga:
The famous Islamic scholar Maulana Owais Ahmad Qasmi (Deceased: 1998) of Sheikh Amini’s home town, was teaching in Madrasa Imdadia, Darbhanga (Est.: 1893). He was requested by Amini’s grandma to take him to Imdadia for his further studies. So, he got admission in Imdadia in 1961. Firstly, he started memorizing the Glorious Qura’an by heart and completed 7 parts of it. Next year, he got admission in the 6th grade of basic stage of learning and studied the books like Gulsitan and Bositan of Sheikh Sa’adi Shirazi (deceased: 1291) along with some basic Urdu and Arabic books. He benefited in this Madrasa from Shiekh Owais Ahmad Qasmi and Shiekh Muhammad Tasleem Qasmi Sidhulwi (1930-2003).
In Darul Uloom, Mau, UP:
He got admission in Darul Uloom, Mau in the first grade of Fazilah Course. He continued his learning up to the fourth grade in Mau, UP. He made the most of the scholars of the institution which he off and on used to mention whole heartedly. In this institution, he learned from reputed scholars of the time like Sheikh Abdul Haq Azami (later the teacher of Bukhari Shareef (Vol. 2) at Darul Uloom Deoband), Maulana Riyasat Ali, Maulana Ameen Adravi, Maulana Sheikh Muhammad Mauvi, Maulana Niyaz Ahmad Khairabadi, Maulana Sultan Ahmad, Maulana Riyazul Haq, Qari Muhammad Yaseen, Maulana Islamuddin and Maulana Naziruddin Mauvi (May Allah grant them Jannah!). He used to praise and remember profoundly the last mentioned one not only in his gathering; but in some of his articles too. He used to mention him as an obedient son does about his kind father.
In Darul Uloom Deoband:
Sheikh Amini got admission in Darul Uloom Deoband in December 1967. He was one among the prominent students. Being in Darul Uloom, he paid much attention towards learning Arabic language and literature, though he was also one of the top in another subjects. He had close and thick relation with the distinguished teacher of the Arabic language, Maulana Waheeduz Zaman Kairanvi. He was highly influenced with Kairanvi. In Darul Uloom, he learnt from Allamah Muhammad Husain Bihari, Maulana Naseer Ahmad Khan, Maulana Fakhrul Hasan Muradabadi, Maulana Shariful Hasan Deobandi, Sheikh Muhammad Naeem Deobandi, Maulana Sayyid Anzar Shah Kashmiri, Mufti Khursheed Alam Deoband, Maulana Hamid Miyan, Maulana Bahaul Hasan Muradabadi (May Allah grant them Jannah!) and Allamah Qamruddin Gorakhpuri (May Allah protect him!). In 1970, he got admission in Madrasa Aminia, Delhi. He graduated from this Madrasah learning the books of Hadeeth from Sheikh Sayyid Muhammad Miyan Deobandi (1903-1975) and Sheikh Sayyid Mashhudul Hasan Amrohvi (1927-2010) in Shaban 1391 AH.
Desire for Admission in Islamic University, Madinah:
Following the completion of his Fazilah course in 1391 AH, he stayed in Ramadhan in Madrasa Aminia. He had desire to get admission in Islamic University, Madinah Manawwarah. He discussed about his desire with his great teacher Maulana Miyan Deobandi. He told him about not having much knowledge about the admission in the University. But being a kind and caring teacher, he took him to Mufti Atiqur Rahman Usmani (1901-1984) and informed him about his desire. Mufti Usmani said that Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi (1914-1999) had been a member of the advisory body of the University. If he recommends, he will get admission easily. For this, he got ready to write a letter to Sheikh Nadvi asking him to do this favour. Maulana Deobandi also wanted to write a letter to Sheikh Nadvi in this regard. Coming back from Mufti Usmani, Maulana Deobandi advised him to write an application in Arabic language for the admission in his own handwriting in Naskh font. Then the letters and the application were sent to Mufakkir-e-Islam Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi to recommend for the sought admission.
In the Service of Mufakkire Islam:
Mufakkir-e-Islam was pleased with both the language and the handwriting of the application. He recommended for the admission and informed Maulana Deobandi through his letter. He also wanted to see the applicant. As Amini got information through the letter of Maulana Deobandi, he left for Lucknow in February 1972. He met Sheikh Nadvi in Takiyah Kalan, Raebareli. He remained for some moths in his service and assisted him in his academic works. In this period, Mufakkir-e-Islam dictated his Arabic book: “Al-Seerah Al-Nabawiyyah” to him.
Teaching Job at Nadvatul Ulama:
Replying to the application of the admission, Islamic University informed him at the end of April 1972 that admission was not possible in that current academic year; but it had assured the admission for the next year. Due to the financial grounds, he could not wait for the next year. Now, he thought of searching for employment. He informed his teacher Maulana Deobandi about his state of affairs. When Mufakkir-e-Islam learnt about his affairs, he informed Sheikh Amini about his decision to appoint him as a teacher at Draul Uloom Nadvatul Ulama, Lucknow after the summer vacation of May. Mufakkir-e-Islam also told him that he, therefore, didn’t need to run after a job. Thus he was appointed as a teacher on 11th July 1972 at Nadvatul Ulama, Lucknow. He continued serving as a teacher of Arabic language and literature up to the mid of 1982.
In DarulUloom Deoband as the Editor and Teacher:
Sheikh Amini was appointed as the Editor-in-Chief of fortnightly Arabic magazine: Al-Daie and the teacher of Arabic language and literature at Darul Uloom Deoband in Shawwal 1402 (August 1982). As the chief editor, he published the first issue of the magazine on 7th Muharram 1403 – 25th October 1982. He continued serving as the editor and the teacher until he breathed his last. He proved his mettle as the Editor and able teacher. Due to his works as the editor and teacher, he was considered authority on Arabic language and literature.
His last and final destination was Darul Uloom as the Editor and teacher. As he was an eminent writer of Arabic language, he was an adept teacher of Arabic literature. He was teaching “Dewan-e-Mutanabbi” in the 6th grade of Fazilah course and “Al-Mukhtarat Al-Arabiyyah” in Takmeel-e-Adab (Specialisation in Arabic Language). Moreover, he was also a guide for the students of “Takhassus Fe Al-Lughah Al-Arabiyyah” (Specialization in Arabic Literature) and teaching them some subjects. In this long period of five decades, thousands of students benefitted from him.
Before learning from him, this writer had the opportunity to learn from the scholars who had been his students. I had heard a lot from them about his authority on Arabic language and literature, his unique style and skill of teaching, his beautiful manner of living a good and model life strictly adhering to his day-to-day schedules with punctuality. That is why I was much impressed and had great love, respect and regard for him. Then in 2004, I had the chance to learn from him as a student of “Takmeel-e-Adab” in Darul Uloom Deoband. I learnt from him a book: “Al-Mukhtaarat Al-Arabiyyah” (a collection of several news and reports on different topics from Arabic newspapers).
He was very punctual of time. He used to reach the classroom on the time. Whenever he came for teaching, but let me say: whenever he left his residence, he used to wear Kurta, Pyjamas and beautiful Sherwani of a size fitting for his body above the Kurta. The Sherwani was always fastened with buttons and its collar was joined from one side to another one always. He wore a long cap of the same Sherwani’s material (at home, he used the round one). He kept pens in the front pocket of Sherwani. He wore the black polished shining leather shoes above the socks. Be it scorching summer or freezing winter seasons, it was his dress code. He used to keep a shoe spoon in his Sherwani’s pocket. When leaving the classroom, he used to wear the shoes with the same spoon and all the students saw him with a smile expression on their faces. Either he was coming to the class or going back, some students used to accompany him. He was very quiet and calm; while walking. When he found something for comment, he commented in few sentences.
Just after sitting in the classroom, he took students’ attendance register and started roll-call. He was very punctual of it. Then a student used to read the chosen text of the book which was to be taught. Then teaching would start. He used to remind the learners to read the text loudly and clearly. Sometimes, he used to tell them that the Arabic language requires loud voice so that each letter is pronounced correctly. It was his routine to start the lesson on the first day of academic year without any introductory speech. It was his rule that the students must reach the classroom before the teacher. They obeyed it with punctuality. He also used to advise them to come to the class with a notebook and a pen to note the points of his lectures. As he was engrossed in teaching, he hoped from them to be dedicated and attentive paying full heed towards the teacher or the book in the period.
When he was teaching Al-Mukhtaraat Al-Arabiyyah, he was in the habit of educating the learners the accounts of the meaning and sense of the words, phrases and sentences used in the news. He always pointed the word used in positive meaning and the word used in negative one. He also explained to them how the meaning of a verb keeps on changing with the change of a Silah (preposition). While teaching, he used to tell only the appropriate meaning of the word in the sentence and avoided the other ones, except when it was essential to tell those ones or he reminded if the same word was used in another meaning in a previous lesson. While translating a text, he cared much of the Urdu literature and its grammar. He used to educate them the suitable place of a subject, object and verb in an Urdu sentence. Translating a heading, he used to educate that a Fel-Mudha’ar’a (simple present tense) is used for the heading in Arabic language; but in Urdu it would be translated with an infinitive.
It was not possible only few students are playing a part keenly in his lesson and the most of them are just sitting to listen as audience participating in a gathering. He used to remind them to read the text and participate in the lesson attentively and sincerely. It was his habit to ask the questions from them during the period to keep them active and attentive. He would advise them to read Arabic text carefully avoiding grammatical mistakes. If a learner made such mistake, he was very quick to warn him. It was absolutely not liked in the period that a student pronounces “Seen” instead of “Sheen”, “Jeem” instead of “Zaa” or “Kaaf” instead of “Qaaf” (some Arabic alphabets) etc. Sometimes he used to advise them to correct the pronunciation of a letter and inform them the importance of Tajweed.
In the lesson, whenever he found a sentence with good structure, he told the learners to jot it down in their notebooks. He then advised them to ponder over the structure of the sentence and write several sentences following the same structure. For this exercise, he used to tell them to keep a separate notebook. For starting point, he used to suggest them first to understand that the sentence either starts with a noun or with a verb (according to Arabic grammar). If a sentence starts with a noun, first recognize Mubtada (Subject) and Khabar (Predicate). Then let the Mubtada remain at its place and change the Khabar with another one. Sometimes, change the Mubtada and let the Khabar remain at its place. Occasionally, let both of them remain at their places and add an adjective to the Khabar, then another one and make the sentence longer. If the sentence starts with a verb, recognize the Faail (Subject), leave all the words of the sentence at their places and replace the masculine Faail with another one. If the Faail is feminine, replace it with another feminine Faail. At times, replace the condition of the Faail and change the verb as the Faail requires. Sometimes, just change the Mafool (Object) with another one. The learners were suggested to make a lot of sentences using the said useful methods.
His Published Works:
He was one of the few distinguished men of letters of Arabic and Urdu languages in India. He was an experienced translator, journalist and author. He translated dozens of Urdu books of Islamic scholars. He penned hundreds of articles and books in both Urdu and Arabic languages. He made exceptional contributions to Islamic scholarship. Here we present an incomplete list of his works:
Work in Arabic Language:
(1) Al-Sahabatu-Wa-Makanatuhum Fil Islam, (2) Mujtamaa’atunaa Al-Mua’asirah Wa Al-TariquIaa Al-Islam, (3) Al-Muslimoon Fee Al-Hind…, (4) Al-Dawah Al-Islamiyyah… (5) Miftahul Arabiyyah (2 Volumes), (6) Al-Aalim Al-Hindi Al-Fareed Al-Sheikh Al-Muqri Muhammad Tayyib, (7) Filisteen Fee IntizaariSalahiDeen, (8) Ta’allamu Al-ArabiyyahFaInnahaa Min Deenikum, (9) MataaTakunu Al-KitaabaatMuath-thirah, (10) Min WahyilKhaatir (5 Volumes), (11) Fee Maukab Al-Khalideen.
Work in Urdu Language:
(1) Woh Koh Kan Ki Baat…, (2) Sahabah-e-Rasul Islam Ki Nazar Men, (3) Harf-e-Shireen, (4) Khatte Ruqah Kiyun Aur Kaise Sikhen?,(5) Maujudah Salibi Sahyuni Jang, (6) Kiya Islam Paspa Ho Raha Hai? (7) Filisteen Kisi Salahuddin KeIntezar Men, (8) Pase Marg Zindah, (9) Raftagane Na Raftah.
Sheikh Amini translated almost 35 worthy Urdu books of great Islamic scholars and thinkers of the Indian sub-continent like: Hakimul Ummah Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Sheikhul Islam Maulana Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani, Hakimul Islam Qari Muhammad Tayyib Qasmi, Mufakkire Islam Maulana Sayyid Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi, Maulana Muhammad Manzoor Nomani, Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani etc. All these books are published and available in the market.
Write-ups and Articles:
He wrote more than 500 write-ups and articles on various Islamic, literal, social, political etc. topics, published in several Arabic and Urdu magazines and newspapers like Al-Daie, Al-Bath Al-Islami, Al-Raid, Al-Dawah, Al-Faisal, Rabitah Al-Aalam Al-Islami, MajallahDarulUloom, Majallah Ta’amir-e-Hayat, Majallah Al-Furqan, Majallah Al-Haq etc. published from India, Pakistan and other Arab, non-Arab countries.
Awards and Honours:
As a selfless servant of Arabic and Urdu languages, Sheikh Amini served almost for five decades as a prolific writer, journalist, author and teacher of Arabic language and literature. A good number of readers benefited from his reliable works and thousands of students quenched their thirst of Arabic language from him. Therefore, recognizing and honouring his services in the field of Arabic language, the Indian government awarded him with the Presidential Certificate of Honour in 2017. Some universities also appreciated his services in the field of Arabic language. A university accepted the topic related to his personality and services for research. The scholar wrote his Ph. D. thesis and was granted the degree of Ph.D. His book “Filisteen Fee Intizaari Slahi Deen” was made the topic of research in Assam University and the researcher was granted the degree of Ph.D. His services in the field of Urdu language have also been appreciated. Currently Maulana Umar Farooque Qasmi from Damla, Madhubani, a research scholar in Urdu Department, LN Mithla University, Darbhanga, is writing thesis for his Ph.D. degree on “Noor Alam Khalil Amini- Ahwal-o-Aasar (in reference to Urdu language)” under the supervision of Professor Md. Aftab Ashraf. All these are awards, honours and appreciation of Sheikh Amini’s tireless and sincere works and services for five decades, in my view.
Sheikh Amini is survived by his wife, four daughters and three sons: Mufti Usamah Noor Qasmi, Umarah Noor and Maulana Sumamah Noor Qasmi. Maulana Sayyid Arshad Madani, the President of Jamiate Ulame Hind and Head-Teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband led the funeral prayer in the campus of Darul Uloom Deoband. Hundreds of scholars and students attended the funeral prayer. He was buried in the “Qasmi Graveyard” of Deoband on the same day 3rd May. May Allah accept his services and grant him Jannah!
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa,
To Allah we belong and to Him is our return Aameen
Profile of Shaykh Taha Karaan
Shaykh Taha Karaan is a Shafi’i scholar born in Cape Town, South Africa to a family renowned in both its maternal and paternal lineage for Islamic scholarship. His father, Shaykh Yusuf Karaan, was one of the oldest and most distinguished Islamic scholars in the Cape. Shaykh Yusuf – famous for his translation of many of Shaykh al-Hadith Mawlana Muhammad Zakariyya al-Kandhlawi’s seminal works – sat as the chief Magistrate for Islamic Civil Matters in the Muslim Judicial Council (MJC).
Shaykh Taha completed his Qur’anic memorization in one year at the Waterfall Islamic Institute( Mia’s Farm), the oldest Islamic seminary in South Africa. During his stay, he assisted in the editing of the Qur’anic prints that the Institute has become famous for the world over. After finishing four years of the ‘alim course in two years, he journeyed to the Indian sub-continent and Dar al-Ulum Deoband, graduating from there in 1991 with the highest of distinctions – as did his father – in a class of over 700 students. He then traveled to the Middle East and completed a two-year graduate diploma at the Higher Institute for Islamic Studies in Cairo, Egypt.
Shaykh Taha is the recipient of numerous chains of transmission (ijazaat) – from well-respected scholars in India, Pakistan, South Africa, Egypt and Saudi Arabia, among others – in numerous fields of Islamic study.
Currently, Shaykh Taha is a member of the Ifta’ Department of the MJC, and sat as an executive member of the Muslim Personal Law Board and on the Islamic Advisory Board of ABSA, one of South Africa’s national banks. He is a sought-after speaker at Islamic symposia and conferences but attends them sparingly, preferring to spend most of his time at the Islamic seminary, Dar al-Uloom al-Arabiyyah al-Islamiyyah, that he founded in 1996. The educational thrust of the seminary reflects Shaykh Taha’s own pioneering vision and commitment to squarely interface with the challenges of the modern age through the twin objectives of preservation and progress. In his own words:
“The study of Islam is not simply an area of academic investigation. It is the continuation of a legacy—a legacy that was initiated with the revelation of Iqra’, whose foundations were laid over the 23 years of Prophethood, and whose edifice was raised by successive generations of keenly devoted scholars for well over a thousand years. The type of individualism that places the investigator in the centre and ignores the legacy of the discipline is foreign to Islam. Knowledge is handed down through a legacy of scholarship. The student, as the recipient of knowledge, becomes heir to that legacy. By inheriting the legacy he becomes part of it, and it is then through him that the legacy is perpetuated.
The legacy itself transcends time. But every subsequent age brings with it unprecedented challenges. It is only when the challenges of an age have been met that the claim of preserving a tradition becomes tenable. The dynamism inherent within the legacy of knowledge in Islam makes it possible for it to meet all challenges. Every instance of interaction between challenges and the legacy adds to the wealth of the legacy itself. Thus does the legacy progress and develop. And in this way do preservation and progress go hand in hand.”
In his teaching, writing and legal verdicts (fatawa), Shaykh Taha regularly addressed contemporary issues such as the challenges of post-modernity, feminism, Islamic economics and finance, the old and new Orientalisms, and fiqh issues affecting diaspora Muslim communities.
His students (and authors of this biography) describe him as divinely-gifted with encyclopedic knowledge; possessed of a near photographic memory; an insatiable bibliophile within the Islamic sciences and without; a teacher that never ceases to inspire; endowed with an elegant calligraphic hand and a penchant for poetry; thoroughly unassuming, pleasant, brilliant and tender-hearted.
Khursheed Alam Dawood Qasmi*
Sheikh Waheeduz-Zaman Kairanavi (1930-1995) was one of the few exemplary teachers of Arabic language and literature whom the 20th century witnessed in India. During his long teaching services at Darul Uloom Deoband, not only he trained his students how to speak and write eloquent Arabic language; but he also trained them how to live an ideal life in the society as a good human being. He educated them in the way that wherever they went, they became the cause to enhance the glory and reputation for him and for their seat of learning, i.e. Darul Uloom Deoband. He always encouraged his students and wished to see them at the peak of success. Whenever an opportunity of exposure and publicity came to him, he always pushed his students forward to let them prove their mettles. In 1982, when there was a vacancy for Chief Editorship of Arabic Islamic fortnightly Magazine, Al-Daie, published from Darul Uloom Deoband, he preferred one of his capable and qualified students, Sheikh Noor Alam Khalil Amini (1952-2021), then the teacher of Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow to take this important responsibility. Later, the scholars of Arabic language and literature witnessed how ideal this choice was!
Sheikh Amini started his services as the chief editor of Al-Daie and the teacher of Arabic literature at Darul Uloom Deoband from 15th Shawwal 1402 AH (6th August 1982). As the chief editor, he published the first issue of the magazine on 7th Muharram 1403 – 25th October 1982. He worked tirelessly for 40 years (1403-1442 AH) as the chief editor of the magazine. His standard Islamic, academic, literal and thoughtful write-ups for Al-Daie, in a well-expressed and eloquent Arabic language, enhanced the beauty of the magazine. Moreover, collecting the standard and thoughtful articles by Arab writers and the excellent publication of Al-Daie in accordance with his amazing fervor, the magazine took no time to reach the peak of its success. Not only the Indian sub-continent scholars, but also the Arab scholars, poets and the men of letters welcomed the magazine with open arms. Thus, the magazine played a key role, as a mouthpiece of Darul Uloom Deoband, in introducing Deobandi thought (Which is strictly following the path of Ahlus-Sunnah Wa-Al-Jamah) and presenting the institution’s academic activities in the Arab world.
Sheikh Amini had fixed several columns in Al-Daie such as, Kalimatul-Muharrir, Kalimatul-Adad, Al-Fikr Al-Islami, Dirasaat-Islamiyyah, Ilaa-Rahmatillah, Mahalliyat, Anba’aul-Jamiah, Ishraqah etc. Despite these columns, there were also some other columns like Isdaratun-Hadithah, Al-Adabul-Islami, Al-Aalamul-Islami etc. in Al-Daie, if articles on such topics were included for publication.
Sheikh Amini used to write for the columns like Kalimatul-Muharrir, Kalimatu-lAdad, Al-Fikr Al-Islami, Ilaa-Rahmatillah, Isdaratun-Hadithah and Ishraqah in an eloquent Arabic language in the light of reliable references and accurate statistics. For the Kalimatul-Muharrir, it was his practice to write a brief article on current issues related to India or the Muslim world containing one or two pages sometimes. At the end of the article, there used to be written [Al-Tahreer] in the brackets. Next to it, the time and date were noted to let the readers know at what time and date the article was written. It was his practice to write the time and date at the end of his any write-up.
For the second column: Kalimatul-Adad, mostly he wrote a detailed article on a social, political or Islamic burning issue. The article sometimes was on virtues of the month of Ramadhan and fasting-Sawm, greatness of the migration of the prophet Muhammad (SAWS), need and importance of prayer etc. Article of this column sometimes revealed the cunningness of America and its illegitimate child, Israel. He also used to show up the positive and negative aspects of the steps taken by the leaders of the Muslim and Arab world. He never hesitated to express his opinion about the stand and the decisions of the Indian government on any grave issue. The article would consist of 5/6 pages and sometimes even more pages than that. The Urdu translation of some of the articles written for this column is now part of his Urdu book “Kiya Islam Paspa Ho Raha Hai?”
He had great love for the scholars of Deobandi school of thought as they were true flag bearers of Islam. It was his mission to introduce their academic works and prominent services for Islam in Arab world. For this purpose, he translated Urdu books of those prominent scholars and published on the pages of Al-Daie in parts under the column of Al-Fikrul-Islami. This series continued for many years. In this way, he translated dozens of books into Arabic language. The books are published from Darul Uloom Deoband and its Sheikhul Hind Academy. For few years, he had stopped writing for the aforesaid column. For this column, Abu Aaidh Al-Qasmi Al-Mubarakpuri (the patronymic of the famous Islamic scholar and teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband, Sheikh Muhammad Arif Jameel Qasmi Mubarakpuri, who is Assistant Editor of Al-Daie too) is translating “Tafseere Usmani” nowadays. This is a great and well-known Quranic commentary (Tafseer book) of Allamah Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (May Allah grant him Jannah!). As of Shaban 1442, the translation of the first 4 parts has been published under this column.
Sheikh Amini also wrote hundreds of articles for the column, “Ilaa-Rahmatillah”. Under this column, he wrote on famous scholars, thinkers, preachers, poets, men of letters and social and political personalities who had passed away in the near past from the Indian sub-continent as well as Arab world. In this article, he used to write the account of the deceased’s life, his services and the scholarly works etc. Like his other articles, the article of this column also had distinctive method as well as uniqueness and singularity of expression. The article would encompass all the features of the life of the diseased. The article used to be very lengthy. Sometimes, it was like a short biography of the diseased. He wrote on almost three hundred personalities as of March 2010.
Some articles written for the said columns were translated into Urdu language by the author and by some of his students and got them published in various Urdu magazines and newspapers. The readers liked them very much. They showed their desire that these Urdu articles should be compiled in the form of a book. Considering the sentiments of the readers, the author published the collection of 37 articles namely “Pase Marg Zindah” in 932 pages in May 2010. Of the same series, another collection of 24 articles namely “Raftagane Naa-Raftah” is soon to be published.
Under the column of “Isdaratun-Hadithah”, he used to write a review on newly published books. His review too was very inclusive, comprehensive and lengthy. In this column, he used to elaborate the value of the reviewing book, its publication, introduction of author and his works in detail. As an example, the review of “Tohfatul-Alma’aee Commentary of Sunan Al-Tirmidhi” of Mufti Sa’eed Ahmad Palanpuri (Rahimahullah) can be read. This review is published with Tohfatul-Alma’aee, at the end of the 8th volume of the book.
The column: “Ishraqah” was on the last page of the magazine. Its remainder part used to be published on the last pages just back to the last one. For this column, Sheikh Amini used to write a well-grounded and demonstrative article, be on academic, religious, social or political topic, in the light of his thought, knowledge, experiences and observations or some situations and incidents influencing him. It was decorated with applicable idioms, appropriate synonyms, and beautiful similes. This article used to be the sample and model of an eloquent Arabic literature. It was highly valued and appreciated not only by the Indian readers of Al-Daie, but also by Arab scholars. It is pleasing that the hundreds of articles written for this column have been compiled and published this year namely: “Min Wahyil-Khaatir” in five huge volumes. It consists of 2600 pages as a whole. It was published just few weeks before the sad demise of Sheikh Amini. It is a precious and valuable gift for those who have interest in Arabic language and literature to read.
It is appropriate to record here that before the publication of Al-Daie, Darul Uloom published a quarterly magazine namely “Dawatul-Haq” as its mouthpiece, under the editorship of Sheikh Waheeduz-Zaman Kairanavi. After abolishing its publication, “Al-Daie”, a fortnightly magazine, was launched. Its first issue was published on 11th Rajab 1396 (10th July 1976), under the editorship of Sheikh Mufti Badrul Hasan Qasmi (ex-teacher of Darul Uloom Deoband and currently resident in Kuwait). Following his resignation, Sheikh Amini was appointed as its Chief Editor and the teacher of Arabic literature at Darul Uloom Deoband as stated above. Previously Al-Daie was published as a fortnightly magazine; but the governing body of Darul Uloom decided to convert it into monthly. Then from Safar-Rabiul Awwal 1414 AH (August 1993), it is regularly published as a monthly magazine.
May Allah accept the efforts of Sheikh Amini and grant him His choicest place in Jannah! Aameen! ●●●
*Moon Rays Trust School, Zambia, Africa
By Manzar Imam Qasmi, Dr Mohd Quamruddin
Author, renowned Arabic litterateur, editor of esteemed Arabic monthly, Al-Daie, and teacher of famed Islamic seminary, Darul Uloom Deoband, Maulana Noor Alam Khalil Al-Amini passed away Monday, 3 May, 2021. Inna Lillahi wa Inna Ilaihi Raji'un. He was taken ill few weeks ago and was admitted to a hospital in Meerut where he breathed his last. He was 68 and belonged to Muzaffarpur, Bihar.
The Presidential Award winner (Presidential Certificate of Honour, 2017), Maulana Noor Alam, was among rare existing scholars of Arabic whose writings were widely read in India and the Arab and Islamic countries. Many of his columns were translated in Urdu, English and other languages. His Urdu books are a proof of his fine literary taste and profound knowledge. He had a rapturous love for Classic Arabic, had a great sense of quick and delicate wit but was a deeply sincere person who trained hundreds of madrasa graduates in Arabic language and literature.
Born on 18 December, 1952, Noor Alam graduated from one of Delhi’s old madrasas, Madrasa Aminia (established in 1897), from which he derived his title Al-Amini and Amini in Arabic and Urdu respectively. Maulana Noor Alam was a renowned Arabic scholar, academician, prolific writer and journalist. He studied at Madrasa Imdadiya, Darbhanga, Darul Uloom Mau, Madrasa Aminia, Delhi, Darul Uloom Deoband and King Saud University, and taught at Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow (1972-82) and at Darul Uloom Deoband for about four decades. His unique style of teaching and teacher-student friendly functional approach made students flock to his classroom. Thousands of his students, spread all over the country, many of them university teachers, are witness to it.
He authored a number of books which were well received and well read in India and abroad, especially in the Arab world. He wrote several syllabus books on Arabic teaching-learning. He also wrote biographies, books on the Palestinian and other issues related to the Arab world. He extensively wrote, as Editor-in-Chief of India's leading Arabic journal 'Al-Daie' for decades and, many of his write-ups came under pen name Abu Usama Noor.
Besides issues of the Arab world and Palestine, his writings covered the issues of the Indo-Arab relations. He introduced the Indian Muslims and their scholarship to the Arabs from an academic perspective. Another celebrated side of his contribution to the academia is his translation work. He translated several Urdu books of stalwart scholars into Arabic especially the books of Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautwi, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi. According to Maulana Qari Syed Muhammad Usman Mansurpuri and Maulana Mahmood Madani, president and general secretary, respectively of Jamiat Ulama-i-Hind, Maulana Noor Alam translated many research works and academic writings of Maulana Hussain Ahmad Madani into Arabic.
The editorials of 'Al-Daie' and his special column 'Ishraqa' were very famous among scholars. Besides having expertise in Arabic and the above said areas he was also a great man of Urdu literature, having his own unique style and track. His writings enjoy high level of accuracy in language, knowledge and facts. According to Asjad Uqaani, one of the speeches of Maulana Amini, published under the title Harf-e-Shirin is reported to undergo 40 editions.
Among his celebrated books are Falastin Fi Intizari Salahidin, Min Wahyi al-Khatir (Arabic: a collection of his columns Ishraqa, published in five volumes), Woh Koh Kan Ki Baat, Pas-e-Marg Zindah, ‘Aalam-e-Islam ke Khilaf Saleebi Saihuni Jung, Sahaba Rasool-e-Islam ki Nazar Mein (Urdu), Miftah al-Arabiyyah (Arabic-Urdu in two volumes), the last being a syllabus book in many madrasas and availed of in universities.
A condolence meeting was organized at Delhi University in which participants expressed deep sorrow over his demise. Prof Zubair Ahmad Farooqi said that Maulana Noor Alam was a fine writer and a successful teacher whose life was greatly shaped by his teacher Maulana Wahiduzzaman Kairanwi. Prof Abdul Majid Qazi, Head, Department of Arabic, Jamia Millia Islamia maintained that Maulana Noor Alam was a selfless teacher, desirous to benefit all. He had an unusual love for Arabic and a very refined taste for it.
In a condolence meeting at Khanqah Imdadia Ashrafia, Thana Bhawan, Maulana Najmul Hasan Thanwi said that during many of his meetings at Deoband he found that despite his being committed and focused on his work, Maulana Noor Alam was an amicable person. Dr Shahabuddin Saqib, general secretary of Khidmat-e-Khalq Trust said that Maulana Noor Alam was a strict disciplinarian and used his time judiciously. Whether in his village or in Lucknow or Deoband, he never compromised with his principles. He would say that life must not be lived unscrupulously.
In his demise Indian Muslims in general and Darul Uloom Deoband in particular have lost an academic stalwart, a robust intellectual and towering literary figure. May Allah forgive his shortcomings and get him Jannah!
*Manzar Imam is a senior journalist and Dr Quamruddin teaches Arabic at Zakir Husain Delhi College
By Mohammed Wajihuddin
After I was uprooted from then intellectually vibrant Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) and planted in Patna in the late 1980s where I lived till 1993, I tried to made up the loss through writing letters to the editors of newspapers. I became so prolific a letter writer, mostly to the editor—then Uttam Sengupta was the Resident Editor, of The Times of India in Patna—that many readers began inquiring about me. Then TOI Patna would carry at least three letters of mine in a week. To increase interactions with the readers, the editor had liberally given space for these letters under different slots—Readers’ Response, Sunday Forum, Letters…Since there was not much in my surroundings to fall back on, I made newspapers and books my friends. The ancient Ganga flowed a few feet away from my rented room at the crowded mohalla where boys my age played carrom and jobless elders spent the day gossiping. I became a member of the iconic Khuda Baksh Library and would drop letters to the Editor at newspapers’ offices on my way to the library on a bicycle.
Some of my letters caught the attention of a small group of Muslim intellectuals in the town. One of them was Mr Kamaluzzaffar, manager of now-defunct Urdu daily Quami Awaz. Kamal sahib was my neighbour in Kurji area of the city and liked me because of my passion for engaging with current topics. One Sunday morning Kamall sahib took me to a meeting of some leading Muslim intellectuals, comprising High Court advocates, doctors, journalists, other professionals, at Maulana Wali Rahmani’s official residence. He was an MLC then and the residence must have been in the most secured areas of the town. The meeting lasted for an hour or so. A college student, I was the youngest among these elders and I don’t know if my comments made any sense to them or not. That was the first time I saw and met Maulana Wali Rahmani, Ameer-e-Shariat (Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa), general secretary of All India Muslim Personal Law Board and founder of Rahmani 30, the coaching programme to tutor Muslim aspirants for IIT JEE. He died on Saturday at 77.
Years later, I bumped into him at Anjuman-I-Islam near CST in Mumbai. Accompanied by then Director General of Police, Bihar, Abhiyanand, Maulana Wali Rahmani addressed a press conference, announcing his wish to open a branch of Rahmani 30 in Maharashtra. He had hit the headlines earlier as the success rate of the first batch of Rahmani 30 was excellent, meaning every student who took the tough exams had cleared it. Most of these boys were poor and first-generation learners. One boy’s father was a vegetable vendor. Wali sahib had to find a philanthropist to help the boy pay the fees at one of the ITTs he had joined.
I got so enthused by the success stories of Rahmani 30 and the efforts of this maulvi that I suggested a feature on him to my bosses. The story of Maulana Wali Rahmani’s spectacular experience in empowering Muslim youths through entry in premier Engineering institutes appeared on the front page of TOI’s multiple editions. A friend joked: “After a long time, I have seen a bearded, skullcap-clad Muslim on the first page of a national daily for a good reason.”
The UPA was in power and the Indian agencies had discovered a minefield of Indian Mujahideen members who kept spreading terror with their nefarious activities. The needle of suspicion would invariably tun to some Muslim youths, mostly bearded, some cleanshaven too. So, it was not uncommon to see bearded Muslims making it to the pages of newspapers for wrong reasons. Thanks to the change in the guard at the Centre and in various states in 2014, those sleeper cells, terror modules have gone into sleep mode. One hardly hears of them these days. Did they really exist or were they manufactured as part of a diabolical policy? Well, I am not privy to what goes in the security establishment or inside the terrorists’ cells. So, no comments. And this essay is not about busting any terror cell.
So, at the press conference I asked Abhyanand a question that he liked. “You are a senior cop and cops generally have not very positive opinions about maulavis. So how did this chemistry happen? Abhyanand chuckled and answered:” Now I believe I am in Mumbai which is home to Bollywood because you asked this question about chemistry.” Everyone in the room laughed. Abhyanand explained that, after the repeated success of Super 30—a coaching programme for IIT aspirants in Patna of which Abhyanand was once part of—Maulana Wali Rahmani approached him with a request. “Will you help some Muslim students crack the IIT exams?” the Maulana asked him. Maulanas approaching senior police officers for help is not new. They approach them to file cases against blasphemous posts or videos, cartoons or comments and complain against harassment in the name of hazar many other things. They seek police officers' help when they have to file FIRs against the characters like Yati Narsinghnand Saraswati and Wasim Rizvi.
This was perhaps for the first time that a senior, very respected Maulana had asked Abhyanand to guide Muslim IIT-JEE exam aspirants. A nice man, Abhyanand agreed to be on board but with two conditions. Maulana sahib would not interfere in the selection of the candidates for coaching and Abhynand would not be responsible to bring funds. The Maulana agreed.
The Maulana’s style of functioning defied logic and the rules of Economy. He laid down the rules that no student who was selected for the Rahmani 30 programme would pay for it. It means board, lodging, food and tuition, everything was free. Those who wanted to pay could do so to the Rahmani Foundation which would subsidise the studies of poor students. At the Rahmani 30 all students were equal. In a couple of years, the scene had changed. Muslim candidates, courtesy Rahmani 30, began figuring in the list of successful IIT JEE candidates. Oops, am I giving a clue to some very enterprising and intelligent Television anchors to investigate further whether Muslims have begun IIT Jihad just as an anchor claimed last year that the community had started “infiltrating” IAS and IPS through “Civil Services Jihad”?
Some of us in Mumbai requested Maulana Wali Rahmani and his second son Fahad Rahmani who had left a handsome job in the US and looked after the Rahmani 30 programme with a request to start a branch in Mumbai. Mr Ateeq Agboatwala of Memon Chambers of Commerce was kind enough to believe in our dream and back the project initially at the Anjuman-I-Islam. The boys were put up at the Sobani Hostel at the Anjuman campus and they were coached at a classroom on the same premises. The programme took off and continued for two batches and the results were very good. Then, for some reasons for which this is not a proper platform to discuss, Fahad Rahmani took the programme to Aurangabad. Centres in Hyderabad and Bangalore also opened. At a time when Muslims excel only at one place—any guess? —in the jails, Rahmani 30 has revolutionized the lives of a section of Muslims in India. Its medical entrance coaching programme is also very successful and a number of girls and boys have joined medical colleges across the country.
One day I told Maulana Wali Rahmani about my relationship with his family. For the uninitiated, Maulana Wali Rahmani came from the family of revered Islamic scholars and spiritual leaders of India. His grandfather Maulana Mohammed Ali was a leading Islamic scholar of his time and among the founders of the famous Islamic seminary Nadwatul Ulema in Lucknow. His father Maulana Minatullah Rahmani was also the Ameer-e-Shariat and among the founders of the All-India Muslim Personal Law Board. He had visited my village a couple of times. Maulana Mohammed Ali had also established a khankah or a religious institution for teaching and spiritual guidance at Munger in Bihar.
Over a century ago, my grandfather must have been 13 or 14 when he ran away from his village in Darbhanga in Bihar and landed up at Maulana Mohammed Ali’s doorstep in Munger. “My father is a farmer. Nobody in my village has ever seen the face of a school or madrassa. If I stay there, they will keep me jahil and uneducated. I have come to you so that I can learn something,” my grandfather said. Impressed by the boy’s candid talk, Maulana Mohammed Ali admitted him at the Khankah. He became among his favourite students and disciples. In the night when the Maulana rested on his charpoy, his favourite student Tabarak Hussai, my late grandfather, would go near him and gently press his feet. We call it in paon dabana in our tradition. I remember doing this to my parents while they were alive. How sad I am today that they are gone and I have not done this duty in years!
Apart from teaching him Arabic, Urdu and Persian, Maulana Mohammed Ali also taught his favourite student a few verses from the Quran to use them for healing purposes. “You will be a maulvi in a village and teach at a school. Poor villagers will seek you for spiritual healing through verses of the Quran,” prophesied the Maulana. My grandfather didn’t understand it much then but realized it when he finally landed up a job of a teacher/maulvi at a government school in the pre-Independence era. His first monthly salary was Rs Five and retired with a monthly salary of Rs 900 in the mid-1970s. Maulana Wali Rahmani chuckled when he heard this story. Our bonds grew with the Maulana calling me often from Patna, Munger or Delhi to inquire about my wellbeing. I didn’t call him in weeks. I felt so blessed.
Whether it was Babri Masjid issue or the Triple Talaq matter in the Supreme Court, I differed with his and the Muslim Personal Law Board’s stand and would argue with him. Once we met aboard a flight to Patna. I was going to cover the 2015 Bihar Assembly elections. Fortunately, our seats were close to each other. I offered him a cup of coffee which he accepted. For two hours we kept chatting on various issues and when the flight landed, he was kind enough to give me a lift in his car and ask the driver to drop me to my friend’s house at the Azeembad Colony.
We would meet whenever he was in Mumbai. He had a huge circle of friends and disciples who would take care of him. He always travelled light and ate frugally. Once Mr Ateeq Agboatwala invited us to a lunch at a trendy Chinese restaurant in South Mumbai. I saw the Maulana eating so frugally that I felt the restaurant had overcharged because one person had eaten so little.
He was known for his calm and cool manner and hot temper too. When he was on the Centre’s education committee, he once had a hot talk with former HRD minister Kapil Sibal on an issue that they differed. He had a great sense of humour and would never bore you with his witty conversations. In old age he carried a walking stick which was curved and had rough edges. “Maulana Sahab, can I buy you a proper stick? “I asked him once. “No, I keep it like this with a purpose. I keep all those unruly elements within their limits,” he joked.
He had planned a big educational hub in rural Bihar. I don’t know what happened to it. How will history remember Maulana Wali Rahmani? As a cleric and spiritual leader who was educated in a madrassa but envisioned to see the community getting empowered through modern and scientific education.
Some weeks ago, we spoke on the phone. I promised to meet him again soon. That meeting has been postponed till the Day of Judgement.
By Mohammed Wajihuddin
(The Times Of India)
When a lower caste adopts the occupation of a higher caste, the king ought to deprive him of all his property and expel him from his kingdom. (Manusmriti, X: 96)
If a Shudra (lowest caste member) dares to give moral lessons to a Brahmin, the king is to get him punished by pouring hot oil in his ear and mouth. (Manusmriti, VII: 272)
Similarly, if a Shudra occupies the same seat as a Brahmin, he is to be punished by branding his waist (with hot rod) or getting his buttocks cut! (Manusmriti, VIII: 281)
Even if the husband is morally degraded, engaged in an affair with another woman and is devoid of knowledge and other qualities, the wife must treat him like a god. (Manusmriti, V: 154)
Women should never be allowed by their guardians to act independently. (Manusmriti, IX: 2)
If a person of lower varna (caste) has sexual intercourse with a woman of higher varna, with or without her consent, he is to be killed. (Manusmriti, VIII: 366)
If a Brahmin (highest caste) abuses a Shudra (lowest caste), he is to be fined mildly, but if a Shudra abuses a Brahmin, he is to be killed. (Manusmriti, VIII: 267/268)
If a Brahmin (highest caste) kills a Shudra (lowest caste), he is to perform penance by killing a cat, frog, owl or crow, etc. (Manusmriti, XI: 131)
Non-believers, including freethinkers, rationalists and Buddhists, are not to be entertained respectfully as guests; though, mercifully, they may be given food. (Manusmriti, MS IV: 30)
The families of non-believers are destroyed sooner than later. (Manusmriti, MS III: 65)
If a woman should not grant her man his desire, he should bribe her. If she still does not grant him his desire, he should hit her with a stick or with his hand, and overcome her, saying: 'With power, with glory I take away your glory!' Thus she becomes inglorious. (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 6.4.7)
It is the highest duty of the woman to burn herself after her husband. (Brahma Purana 80.75)
When a woman, proud of her relations [or abilities] deceives her husband (with another man), then the king should [ensure that] she be torn apart by dogs in place much frequented by people. And the evil man should be burnt in a bed of red-hot iron. (Manusmriti, MS VIII: 371/372)
Offering presents (to a woman), romping (with her), touching her ornaments and dress, sitting with her on a bed, all these acts are considered adulterous acts. (Manusmriti, MS VIII: 357)
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
In this media-controlled world, when violence is associated to the Quran and Muslims are labeled as terrorists, it may sound strange to many that it was Quran which first proclaimed the slogan of universal brotherhood, equality, justice and tolerance at a time when the humanity was fast asleep in the gruesome darkness of ignorance and injustice. The message of the Quran was very clear. That was the reason that it appealed millions of minds through ages and now also its adherents form one fifth of the entire population of the world.
Teaching of Equality
The first and foremost fundamental of the Quran about equality is that all human beings are descended from one father and mother, thus on the basis of humanity they are equal. The Quran says: “O mankind, we have created you from a male and a female, and made you into races and tribes, so that you may identify one another. Surely the noblest of you, in Allah‘s sight, is the one who is most pious of you. Surely Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware. (49:13)
The Quran very explicitly declared that the differences of races, tribes, colours and places are of no value and importance and they are only for identification. Only on the ground of race, colour and nationality one can not be considered higher and superior. By this, the Quran aimed at levelling the differences and discriminations of nations, races and tribes. The second thing which Quran proclaimed in the verse is that the cause of nobility is only ‘piety’. Thus Islam uprooted the racial pride and ego of the so-called higher classes.
This fundamental of equality was more elucidated in Hadith by the Prophet (peace be upon him): O people! Behold, your Lord is One, there is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab, nor for a non-Arab over an Arab, nor for a black on a red, nor for a red on a black, but due to piety and righteousness, in deed the best amongst you are those who are more pious and righteous. Behold, did I conveyed you the message? The people shouted: Yes, O the Messenger of Allah! Then the Prophet said: Those who are present should convey this message to those who are not present. (Baihaqi, Roohul Ma’ani 13:163-164)
Another Hadith says: O people! People are of two types; pious, righteous, estimable before Allah or nefarious, wretched, insignificant before Allah. All the people are descendants of Adam and Allah created Adam with soil. (Timizi, Baihaqi)
This was the first example of its kind in human history that the Quran eradicated racial prejudice so vehemently and emphatically, and asserted Muslims to consider the people of the world their brother and a human being like themselves. It uprooted racial hatred and asked to treat each other with good conduct. It is the fundamental principle of tolerance to consider the other communities human being like yourselves; since then only you can behave with them tolerantly and morally. If we consider them humiliated, abject and lowly then it is impossible to have a moral and tolerant conduct towards them.
Freedom of Expression
Second thing which the Quran taught about tolerance towards non-Muslims is granting freedom of expression. Islam regarded freedom of expression a birth right of human being and termed force and oppression as unfair and forbidden. The Quran strictly forbids forcing something on somebody which his conscience does not accept, it clearly and vividly declared: “There is no compulsion in Faith.” (2:256) Everyone is allowed whether to believe or to deny: “Now, whoever so wills may believe and whoever so wills may deny.” (18:29) At another place the Quran says: “We have shown him the way to be either grateful or ungrateful.” (76:3)
Islam utterly abhors conversion by force and called those who accept Islam due to any force, fear or greed as ‘munafiq’ (hypocrite). It regarded ‘nifaq’ (hypocrisy) such a great sin that the lowest part of Jahannam (Hell) has been allotted as abode of the hypocrites: “Surely, the hypocrites are in the lowest level of the Fire, and you shall never find for them a helper.” (The Quran 4:145)
Justice and Fairness with Others
The Quran asked Muslims to maintain justice and transparency with non-Muslims: “But if you judge, judge between them with justice. Surely, Allah loves those who do justice.” (5:42) At another place it says: “Allah does not forbid you as regards those who did not fight you on account of faith, and did not expel you from your homes, that you do good to them, and deal justly with them. Surely Allah loves those who maintain justice.” (60:8) Justice is to be maintained even if it goes against ones near and dear ones: “O you who believe, be upholders of justice - witnesses for Allah, even though against (the interest of) your selves or the parents, and the kinsmen. (4:135)
Muslims must hold on justice and fairness with people in every condition even if they have enmity with them to any extent, the Quran warns: “O you who believe, be steadfast for (obeying the commands of) Allah, (and) witnesses for justice. Malice against a people should not prompt you to avoid doing justice. Do justice. That is nearer to taqwa (piety).” (5:8)
The enmity against any people should not motivate you to do justice. If you have some malice and rivalry against anyone you should not find fault with him in every matter, but you must accept what is good in him. You should not violate the obligation of honesty in any matter only because the other party is your opponent, rather you must observe justice and fairness.
Tolerance through Fulfilling Promises
One of the most significant teachings of the Quran about tolerance towards others is to fulfil every promise made to them, lest government, prestige and power or racial pride make you to go against your promises. So, the Quran states: "And fulfil the covenant, surely the covenants shall be asked about (on the Day of Reckoning)." (17:34) It asserted: "So, fulfil the treaty with them up to their term, surely Allah loves the God-Fearing." (9:4)
Some Muslims enquired the Prophet (peace be upon him) about the pledges they made to non-Muslims in ‘the Days of Ignorance’ (before Islam). The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: “Fulfil the promises and pledges made in the Days of the Ignorance; since Islam emphasizes more to fulfil them.” (Mishkat p. 347, Tirmizi)
Good conduct with Others
The Quran commanded the believers to observe tolerance and good conduct with people: “Worship Allah, and do not associate with Him anything, and be good to parents and to kinsmen and orphans and the needy and the close neighbour and the distant neighbour and the companion at your side and the wayfarer and to those (slaves who are) owned by you. Surely, Allah does not like those who are arrogant, proud.” (4:36) In the abovementioned verse, those who were asked to be treated kindly have not been discriminated on the basis of their religion. Muslims were asked to have good conduct with them whether they are Muslims or non-Muslims.
The Holy Quran taught Muslims very clearly and openly to behave the non-Muslims with tolerance, good conduct and politeness: “Allah does not forbid you as regards those who did not fight you on account of faith, and did not expel you from your homes, that you do good to them, and deal justly with them. Surely Allah loves those who maintain justice.” (60:8)
While another verse says: “Allah enjoins to do justice and to adopt good behaviour and to give relatives (their due rights).” (16:90)
The Quran laid down a high scale law that no person (whether Muslim or non-Muslim) is hurt and offended. The Quran says: “Allah does not like the evil words to be said openly except from anyone wronged. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.” (4:148) Having established this law, Islam obstructed the passage of many evils that may occur due to offending and slandering others.
Treatment with Enemies
Leave alone the free people, Islam taught tolerance to such an extent that it asked Muslims to have good conduct with their enemies: The Quran requires Muslims to observe high grade tolerance with enemies in tough and trying situations as well, as it says: “Good and evil are not equal. Repel (evil) with what is best, and you will see that the one you had mutual enmity with him will turn as if he were a close friend.” (41:34)
When the oppressions and transgressions of enemies go beyond limits then punishing them is also in complete accordance with the law of nature. But, the moderate law about those oppressors deserves to be written with golden water as the Quran asserts to forgive and tend to reconcile. The Quran says: “The recompense of evil is evil like it. Then the one who forgives and opts for compromise has his reward undertaken by Allah. Surely, He does not like the unjust.” (42:40)
Tolerance towards Other Religions
The Quran presented a model of high grade tolerance that it regarded all the prophets and messengers of the Jews and the Christians as true prophets sent down by Allah. The Quran says: “Surely, We have revealed to you as We have revealed to Noah and to the prophets after him.” (4:163) And, it regarded the books believed by the Jews and the Christians as divine revelation from Allah: “Surely we have sent down the Torah, in which there was guidance and light.” (5:44) “We gave him the Injīl (Gospel) having guidance and light therein, and confirming the Torah that was (revealed) before it; guidance and a lesson for the God-fearing.” (5:46) Thus it extended the hand of friendship towards the Judaism and Christianity which were the well-known and prominent religions of the age. As far as other religions and nations are concerned, it declared that there were prophets from Allah to other nations and communities: “and there was no community without a Warner having passed among them.” (35:24)
One of the tolerances which the Quran showed to non-Muslims is that it prohibited them to disrespect the other religions and their leaders; Sometime, it admitted the greatness of the leaders and prophets of other communities saying: “We did raise a messenger among every people, with the message.” (16:36) While sometimes, it sowed the seed of love in idolaters stating: “Do not revile those whom they invoke other than Allah.” (6:108)
Concisely, it secured the honour of the sacred figures of other religions in the eyes of Muslims and stopped Muslims absolutely to abuse any religious leader of others. Thus, it established the foundation of universal sympathy and tolerance which was extinct before the advent of Islam.
How to Preach and Argue?
Islam is for all humanity and the Prophet (peace be upon him) was sent down for all those in the world: “We did not send you but as mercy for entire people.” (The Quran 34:28) So, it was necessary to deliver the message of truth to the whole world, but the Quran observed complete tolerance in this regard also and ordered Muslims: “Invite (people) to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good counsel. And argue with them in the best of manners. Surely, your Lord knows best the one who deviates from His way, and He knows best the ones who are on the right path.” (16:125) In short, at every step the Quran enjoined Muslims to be so tolerant that no harsh and tough discussions take place during debate too.
The Quran asked Muslims to remain calm and exercise maximum restraint with people of other faith in order to avoid clash. It advised Muslims to forgive and overlook, as it says about the Jews and Christians: “They change words from their places, and they have overlooked a good deal of the Advice they were given. Every now and then you come across a certain treachery from all of them, except a few. So, forgive them and forego. Indeed, Allah loves those who are good in deeds.” (5:13) At another place it says: “So, turn away from them (disbelievers) and wish them peace.” (43:89)
Even if the non-Muslims strive to deviate Muslims from their religion then also Muslims were asked not to be provoked: “(O Muslims,) many among the people of the Book desire to turn you, after your accepting the faith, back into disbelievers — all out of envy on their part, even after the truth has become clear to them. So, forgive and overlook till Allah brings out His command.” (2:109)
A reply In response to a letter by the Amir of the Jamaat Islami Hind, nearly 70 years ago (circa 1948), the Muhtamim of Deoband, Shaykh-ul-Islam Hazrat Husayn Ahmad Madani, elaborated at length on the satanism inherent in Maududism – a particularly virulent strain of modernism. Those who have not yet been desensitized by the evils described by Shaykhul Islam, will be able to appreciate the fact that the contents of this letter holds even greater relevance and weight in this day and age, in closer proximity to the Hour, in which such evils have become far more pronounced and widespread.
A Letter from the Amir of the Jamaat Islami to Shaykhul Islam, Hazrat Maulana Husain Ahmad Madani (rahmatullahi alayh):
It is hoped that you are well. Some time back an invitation was sent to you to participate in the Annual Convention of the Jamaat Islami. Till now it is not known if you have accepted it or not. We realise well your commitments due to the Annual Convention of the Jamiatul Ulama, but there is such a gap between the dates of the two conventions that we hope you will favour us with a little of your time. Insha-Allah our convention will begin on the 20th April. Since a long time I have been looking forward to meeting you. I had corresponded regarding this too, but unfortunately due to your heavy commitments a suitable time could not be found at that time. Thereafter I tried to fix a time through Hifzurrahman Maulana Saheb. This time too no suitable occasion could be found. In any case, I feel it is of utmost importance that I exchange views with you on a few questions and would also be pleased to seek your advice on many matters. If it is possible for you to attend this convention of ours it will be deemed an honour, and the above mentioned aims will also be fulfilled. Allah forbid, if this is not possible, then it will be appreciated if you can avail me of some suitable time after the Hyderabad convention. Insha-Allah I will present myself in your noble assembly. At present the most important question which I feel should be discussed is the Fatwa of the Darul Iftaa, Deoband, which has been published in Saharanpur under the following titles: ‘/Wipe out the Maududi mischief’/, ‘/The Maududi movement is a killer and poison/‘, ‘/Those who think like Maududi have gone astray’, ‘Do not perform salaat behind the Maududi’s’./ I do not know if these Fatwas have come before you or not? These Fatwas are naturally a cause for heart-ache for all those who believe that the Jamaat Islami is on the Haq (truth) and have joined it, or for those who feel it is on the Haq. For such a Fatwa to be published from Darul Uloom, Deoband, where there are cautious personalities like yourself, is a cause of surprise and anxiety to us, especially in such circumstances, and regarding the questions on which the Fatwa is based. Time and again clear explanations were published on our behalf on these matters regarding which the authorities of Darul Uloom have been directly contacted and which still is in progress. It is hoped that your excellency will favour us with a speedy reply.
Abul Lays Amir, Jamaat Islami. [Hind]
RESPONSE BY SHAYKH-UL-ISLAM, MAULANA HUSAYN AHMAD MADANI
Your letter was received. Before that, your invitation also reached me. You have correctly estimated my commitments due to the Annual Convention of the Jamiat. Besides this I have other similar commitments. At present there are even more important commitments, i.e. The Annual Examinations at Darul Uloom which will commence at the end of Rajab and end on the 23rd or 24th of Sha’baan. As it is the end of the educational year at Darul Uloom, the kitaabs of Bukhari Shareef and Tirmizi Shareef have still to be completed, and must be covered by the 27th or 28th of Sha’baan. These commitments are of such a nature that they remain for the whole year, despite having other important matters to attend to as well. The posters you have referred to have not come to my notice before you had mentioned this in your letter. Only a booklet titled ‘/Revealing the Truth’, i.e. ‘The Maududi movement in its true colours’/ published in Saharanpur was sent to me by some gentlemen. My first impression about your movement was that it was limited to improving the Ilmi and Amali, worldly and Deeni, shortcomings and their impact on the Muslims. Although there was a difference of opinion in the way matters were promoted, I did not feel it necessary to raise a voice or write against it. Although some members of the Jamaat Islami and its leaders at times wrote and made some indecent and improper statements, it was felt that it would be better to close the eyes regarding these matters. But now, many comments on the books of Maududi Saheb have been sent to me from all corners of India and Pakistan, and have piled up considerably. The water has already flowed over the head. After perusing and understanding these comments I find myself forced to come to the following conclusion:
Your Islamic movement is against the Salaf Saaliheen (Righteous elders of Islam), just like those old sects of the Mu’tåzilah, Rawaafid, Khawaarij, Jahmiyyah etc., and like the modern sects of Qadianis, Chakralwis, Mashriqis, Nechris, Mahdawis, Baha’is etc., who wish to establish a new Islam, and to which path they are trying to attract the people. It is based on such foundations, beliefs and practices that are contrary to the teachings of the Ahle Sunnat wal Jamaat and the Salaf Saaliheen. I list them hereunder: 1. It believes in Tafseer Bir Raay (Interpretation according to personal opinion). Every professor who possesses the sciences of the modern free-thinking Europeans, and has also acquainted himself with the knowledge of a smattering of Arabic, has the right to commentate and interpret the Qur’aan according to his whims and fancies so that it may be a light for the Muslims. This is what is happening in your circles. It does not matter if it refutes the sayings of the Sahaaba and the Salaf. Actually, this was the first Fitnah that crept into Islam. A Tafseer Bir Raay was made on the judgement of Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) on the words ‘/Inil Hukmu illa Lillah’./ As a result twelve thousand Muslims revolted and separated themselves. Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) says regarding this, “/Haqqun Uridu bihil Baatil/‘ (Truth through which is intended evil). Hazrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) sent Hazrat Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) to explain to the people that the Qur’aan is Zu Wujooh (of multiple meaning) hence he should explain them through the Sunnat. Hazrat Ibn Abbas (radhiyallahu anhu) explained this to the people, and as a result of which eight thousand people repented. Four thousand remained adamant on their views and began killing and labelling people as non-Muslims. This movement became popularly known as the Khawaarij. Thereafter this disease spread so widely that not only on the question of ‘Tahkeem’, but views were put forth on other matters too. Fierce squabbles were held on the questions regarding the one who commits a major sin, etc. This was not limited to the Khawaarij sect. The disease of Tafseer Bir Raay spread and the mischief of new sects like the Mu’tazilah, Jahmiyyah, Rawaafid, Karramiyyah, Mujassimah, Murjiyyah etc. arose. The Ahlus Sunnat wal Jamaat at all times made the Sahaabah Kiraam and the Salaf Saaliheen their leaders and guides, fashioned their views accordingly, and kept on obtaining the certificate of ‘/Maa Ana Alayhi Wa Ashaabee/‘ (The path that I (Rasulullah sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and my Sahaaba radhiyallahu anhum are adopting). These very same mischiefs (of new sects) took place in these latter times. The sects of the Nechris (materialists, atheists), Quraniyyah, Chakralwis, Qadiyaniyyah, Khaksaars, Baha’iyyah etc. also adopted the Tafseer Bir Raay by following their own whims and fancies. They began to stretch and manipulate the Nusus (Quranic Verses) as they desired. Rasulullah (sallallaaahu alayhi wasallam) in forecasting this calamity said: ‘/Man Fassaral Qur’aan Bira’yihi Faqad Kafar/‘ (The one who interprets the Qur’aan according to his own thoughts has become a non-Muslim). Is it not surprising that the interpretations of things according to those Sahaabah and their students whose mother tongue was Arabic; and of those who witnessed the Wahi (revelations) of Allah; and of those who had the honour of the company of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam); and had seen his deeds and Sunnats; and of the Taabi’een who were the students of those who witnessed the Wahi be shelved and labelled as incorrect. Instead the views of those non-Arab Ajami speaking people who were born thirteen hundred years later and who do not possess a command over the Arabic language, its related subjects and the Usul of the Deen, or even possess a smattering command of these, are accepted as positive and correct, just because they are graduates of Cambridge, Oxford or some other university where they acquired only the basis of the Arabic language. Those who spend their lives studying and teaching Arabic and the Deen are labelled as backward and their Tafseer is rejected as incorrect. In its place the views of the free-thinking, ungodly professors of Europe are claimed to be superior and the ones that lead to the path of Allah. Can any intelligent person or nation accept this, that a graduate of a military college or an engineering college, with whatever distinctions, will ever be permitted to work in a medical department or treat patients if he did not obtain a certificate from a medical school? Every person knows and understands that to do so is to cause chaos among humanity. Instead of benefit it will result in chaos. This is the case of those who adopt Tafseer Bir Raay. By rejecting the Tafseer of the Salaf Saaliheen and the fundamentals of the Deen, they are turning away from the straight path and going towards their ruin. 2. It throws away the Saheeh and Hasan Ahaadith of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) in the waste paper basket on the strength of the view of those who hold incorrect suppositions and theories of historical events whereas the Qur’aan and Hadith announce that every command and advice of the Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) is divine revelation. On the contrary, to resort to suppositions and guesses on the basis of worldly advice and expediencies is to openly refute the Nusus Qat’iyyah (irrefutable and categoric Divine Commands). It is an open invitation to innovation in the Deen. 3. It accuses the Sabaabah (radhiyallahu anhum) – as the Rawaafid had done – because of some weak Hadith or a Saheeh Hadith that apparently does not conform to reason [or conflicts with authentic and mass-transmitted narrations]. Whereas those after them solely rely on their trustworthiness for keeping Islam alive. Allah forbid, if these doyens of the Deen are labelled as untrustworthy, then the whole foundation of Islam will crumble. (The orientalists have done the same to undermine our Deen). The Qur’aan and Ahaadith have verified their truthfulness and trustworthiness in many places. Many old writings testify to this and also praise them in strong terms. They are regarded as the best and greatest among the human race. By opening this door every religious foundation will have no value. 4. It regards many Ahaadith of the Sahaabah, however Saheeh and correct they may be, as being based on sheer good-will (Husne Zann). This takes one away from the truth. If this door is opened all the Mu’jizaat, high and noble character etc. of the Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) will become meaningless. The free-thinking heretics will attain a strong weapon by this. 5. It accuses and claims that the narrators of the Saheeh Ahaadith are untrustworthy. It presents weak sayings as Saheeh, or accepts the sayings of the Ahlul Hawa (Followers of their own desires) and enemies of the Deen. The well-known A’immah are regarded as untrustworthy. By doing so the whole treasure of the Ahaadith will be wiped out. It becomes worthy of the saying of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam): ‘/The later ones of this Ummah will curse the forebearers of this Ummah’./ 6. It labels Taqleed Shakhsee (i.e. to follow one of the Four accepted Madh-habs) as going astray and towards ruin whereas this command is taken from the following Aayats of the Qur’aan: /“… and follow the path of him who repenteth unto Me…” (Surah Luqman: 15), “Ask the followers of the Remembrance if ye know not.” (Surah Nahl: 43), “And whoso seeketh as religion Other than the surrender (Islam) (to Allah) it will not be accepted from him, and he will be a loser in the Hereafter”. (Surah Aali Imraan: 85)/
In these times it Waajib (because there do not exist those who qualify for Ijtihaad, as events from the 4th century Hijri show) for all Muslims to observe Taqleed. Those who do not observe it are in great danger and will go astray. Those who refute it are opening the doors of free-thinking which will eventually make one wary of the Deen. The least effect it has on one is that it makes one indulge in Fisq and Fujur (impiety and wickedness).
Trustworthy paragons of Ilm and Taqwa have testified to the Ijma’ (consensus) enacted on the obligation of Rigid Taqleed (Taqleed Shaksi) during the early centuries when the “/illat/” (cause, raison d’etre) for this ruling i.e. the fitnah of following one’s desires, of issuance of erroneous Fatwas, of Haraam Talfeeq, and of other evils, was far less acute than what it is today. For example, Shaykh-ul-Islam Qadhi Iyadh (476-544H) provides his explicit testimony that, /“The consensus (Ijma’) of the Muslims in all places of earth has occurred on Taqleed in this fashion (i.e. Shakhsi).”/ Hujjatul Islam, Imam Ghazali (450 – 505H), states that /“None of the scholars”/ permitted one to leave his Madh-hab and that /“by Agreement (i.e. Ijma’) of the scholars”/ the one doing so is sinful. Other trustworthy Fuqaha, such as Imam Nawawi, have attributed this position to the early Usooliyyeen and Mujtahideen as a whole, corroborating the Ijma’ that was enacted in the early eras of the Ummah. The Saheeh Hadith, /“My Ummah will never unite upon error.”/ narrated in dozens of authentic compilations seals the stamp on the strength of this Ijma’, and assigns any contrary opinion to the same category as other anomalous rulings found in our tradition which invariably draw the attention of, and exposes the identity of the Ahlul Hawa (people of desires who desperately desire to escape the inflexibility of Rigid Taqleed in order to create sufficient flexibility to grant Deeni sanction to their desires) who instinctively recoil with abject horror at the very thought of submitting themselves to this clear-cut Ijma’ enacted by the early Mujtahideen. /End of note/] 7. It has given the verdict that the Taqleed of the A’immah Arba’ah (the four celebrated Imaams) Imaam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullahi alayh), Imaam Shafi’ee (rahmatullahi alayh, Imaam Maalik (rahmatullahi alayh, Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal (rahmatullahi alayh) — is Haraam and leads one astray whereas these personalities were guiding lights of their times. They were pinnacles of guidance, Taqwa, Fiqh, religious knowledge and shone like stars. 8. It gives every professor and layman the license and right to free-thinking, and to practise what they feel is correct. They advocate that all Muslims should follow this path, and it does not matter if one’s views contradict those of the Salaf Saaliheen. Even those groups that deny Taqleed are against this. They have realised this after experiencing its ill-effects. The late Maulana Muhammad Hussain Batalwi Saheb who was an ardent Imaam of the Ghayr Muqallids and an exponent and crusader of this group in India wrote in his book “Isha’atus Sunnah’ Vol. 2 Page 51, 52, 53: /“The experience Of 25 years has shown that those who, with rudimentary knowledge, act as a Mujtahid (one who interprets the Qur’an and Sunnah) and leaves Taqleed completely, in the end turn away from Islam. Some of them embrace Christianity, some become atheists. Impiety and wickedness are the simplest result of free-thinking. Among those Faasiqs, some openly disregard the Jumu’ah, Namaaz with Jamaat, Namaaz, Rozah etc. They do not keep away from interest and intoxicants. Some because of worldly benefits refrain from open sin, but heavily indulge in these in private. They illegally trick women into marrying them. Under false pretence they grab the wealth of the people, saying that it is the wealth of Allah. There are many other reasons in this world for people to turn apostate and commit sin, but for the pious to become irreligious, not having knowledge and discarding Taqleed is a major reason. “/ [NOTE: Since many scholars during that age still exhorted Taqlid Shakhsi, it was very easy for this Ghair Muqallid Imam, and even the simple layman, to observe this clear connection between apostasy and abandonment of Rigid Taqleed. In contrast, today, with virtually every group encouraging abandonment of Taqlid Shakhsi, implicitly or explicitly, the “scholars” of all such groups are stupidly looking askance and coming up with their own pet theories on the unprecedented rate of apostasy today, all designed to deflect attention from the true cause as observed by this Ghair Muqallid Imam after decades of first-hand experience during an era when the abundance of Ulama who still exhorted Taqleed Shakhsi made the correlation far more easily discernible and observable. In fact, many of these modernist “scholars” themselves are Kaafir at heart or harbour doubts regarding the truth of Islam, but maintain the façade of being a Muslim for worldly motives, some of whom are able to demand in excess of $100,000 dollars for just one speech. To cite just one example, the following statement (inadvertently leaked) from Yasir Qadhi, an extremely popular “scholar” whose beard and Sunnah appearance have been undergoing a typically Ghair-Muqallid burnout, rapid-reduction process, exposes the state of Imaan and Yaqeen of such “scholars”: /“Wallahi I’ll be honest with you, the shubahaat I was exposed to at Yale [the “madrasah” in which he enrolled to acquire his “Islam” from atheistic teachers], some of those I still don’t have answers to.”/ When Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) stated that even the “Subhat” (association and companionship) of camels and sheep have an effect on the shepherds herding them, then one can understand the unimaginably destructive spiritual damage being wrought by such faasiq “scholars” on the masses, especially since the form of Suhbat adopted by such masses is infinitely more potent than the mere herding of animals. Giving an attentive ear to the satanically embellished (zukhruf al-qawl) bleatings and mooings of such modernist “scholars” who harbour heresy in their hearts, which is the most powerful form of Suhbat, spells disaster to one’s Imaan, regardless of the superficial, pork-like “benefits” which deviates love to harp on about. Furthermore, the catastrophic result, chaos, and anarchy that stems from abandonment of Rigid Taqleed are far more evident today. Take the example of the famous ruling espoused by prominent Ghair Muqallid and modernist Imams such as Ibn Uthaymin and his teacher Hamoud ibn Uqla, Naasir ibn Hamad al-Fahd, Anwar Awlaki and many others exhorting the mass-slaughter of women, children, babies, etc. using such modernist “Daleel” as rationale, logic, and Tafseer bir Ray – exercise one’s own Ijtihaad on the verses of Qur’an pertaining to Qisaas (equal retaliation), and on the Ahaadith. Far worse than such abominable Fatwas is the satanic Usool (core principle) of ALL modernist, free-thinking Ghair Muqallids which exhorts abandoning Rigid Taqleed in favour of one’s own interpretation of the Qur’an and Sunnah. According to this satanic Usool, it is FARD (obligatory) for Ibn Uthaymin and Co. to follow what they sincerely believe to be the “stronger ruling” and what makes most logical sense to them i.e. it is FARD (obligatory) for them to exhort the mass-slaughter of women, children and babies. According to this satanic Usool, it is HARAAM (or discouraged at the least) for Ibn Uthaymin and Co. to abandon what they sincerely believe to be the “stronger ruling”, in favour of Rigid Taqleed to the ruling of the Four Madh-habs which unanimously prohibit the killing of male farmers, monks, and other non-combatants, leave aside the mass-slaughter of women, children and babies. Ijma’ (consensus) has no meaning for such free-thinking Ghair Muqallids, since for each and every Ijma’ anomalous and marjooh rulings are available to give sanction to their abominations. The Ijma’ on 3 talaqs being 3, Taraweeh consisting of 20 rak’ats etc. are just a few of countless examples the free-thinking, modernist Ghair Muqallids have overturned in this age. The term “Ghair Muqallids” also includes fake sufis and others who fraudulently claim to adhere to a Madh-hab, but who are similarly loose as the Salafis in their Taqleed of a Madh-hab – the salient feature (shi’ar) of all such deviate groups being the scavenging and adopting of anomalous and marjooh opinions found in our tradition. /End of Note/] The laxity in practicing religious deeds described by Maulana Muhammad Husain Batalwi Saheb Marhum is generally found among the educated elite, especially the professors and those who attain a Western education. This group is as unaware of Islamic teachings, Arabic Arts and literature, as the ordinary uneducated Muslim layman. If any of them claim to have a little knowledge, it is in reality nothing. Generally this group make use of Urdu, Persian and English translations. Those among them who obtain an MA, or Honours in the Arabic language from an Indian or European University are like primary school children to those who obtain an Honours degree from an Arabic Madrasah. They are not capable of even reading a sentence correctly according to the laws of Arabic Grammar nor write or speak this language. If by chance some are found with these qualifications, they are surely lacking in the other necessary sciences on which rely the science of ljtihaad in the Deen and Arabic Iiterature. It has been seen and experienced that in such cases these professors by observing ljtihaad and discarding Taqleed, and expounding this belief, destroy the roots of the Deen, spread falsehood and lead others astray. We have ourselves witnessed the outcome of the activities of such downright ‘Mujtahids’. 9. It has resolved that the orders of Tasawwuf and Suluk and its teachings are from the Jahiliyyah and is the worst form of Kufr. Tasawwuf is billed as Buddhism and Yoga whereas this path and its teachings complete one’s faith in Islam in our times. Without it, it is impossible to attain the desired lhsaan and complete devotion, just like, in our times, it is impossible to correctly recite the Qur’aan if it does not have diacritical symbols (Zabar, Zer, Pesh etc.), or if one does not know Tajweed. In the same manner it is not possible to understand the Qur’aan, Hadith, Arabic poetry etc. if one has not learnt Sarf, Nahw, Ma’aani, Baýaan and books on language etc. In the early centuries, for reciting the Qur’aan and understanding it, these sciences were not necessary, but in our so-called ‘Modern’ times there is no alternative, but to study them. The Arabs themselves (whose mother tongue and daily language is Arabic) are in need of these sciences just as we need them. It is a different matter that they need them less than we do. They have become like the Ajamis because of their association with them. In the early days and during the first century it was not necessary to follow the present-day path of Ihsaan and devotions because those were periods attached to the age of the Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). Today, without this, one cannot normally reach one’s goal. To bill it Buddhism and Yogaism is great injustice. 10. It stretches its tongue and literally uses abusive language rearding the Salaf Saaliheen and Awliyaa. It degrades these personalities among the common people. Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) has said: ‘/Those who insult and degrade my Awliyaa, I have declared war on them’./ He has also said: ‘/Remember your dead by their good deeds’/. In yet another place he has said: ‘/The modern ones from among this Ummah will curse its forebearers’./ By all the above Ahaadith it is meant that one should exercise caution and refrain from such acts. 11. It has declared that the following personalities are the ones who have led the Muslims astray and have injected them with opium: Mujaddid Alf Thaani, Shaikh Ahmed Sirhindi; Shah Waliyullah Dehlawi, his followers and offspring; Khwaja Mu’inuddin Chisti; Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jilani; Shaikh Shahabuddin Sùhrawardi, etc. etc. These are those great giants who have rejuvenated Islam and kept the Sunnat alive. Through their guidance countless people gained true Taqwa and knowledge of Allah. History books are filled with their noble deeds and Barakaat. 12. It claims that the above Mashaa’ikh are the ones who by their teachings spread Buddhism and Yogaism. The teachings of Tariqat, be it of the Naqshbandiyyah, Chishtiyyah, Qadariyyah or Suhrawardiyyah etc. orders are heavens apart from the teachings of Buddhism or Yogaism. The teachings of Tariqat are a collection from the teachings of the Qur’aan and Sunnah, where in it is strongly stressed that every footstep of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) be followed. The writings of the Mashaa’ikh bear testimony to this. The books, Awaarful Ma’aarif and Futuhul Ghayb, should be read in this regard. 13. It uses derogatory remarks on the Ulama Zaahir and the guardians of the Shar’ee Uloom. The layman is incited to hate them. It practically degrades and taunts them and regards them as unreliable. It wants to lead the Muslims towards a new religion and wants them to make Taqleed and be loyal to its leader. In these turbulent times when open sinning, free-thinking, Kufr, arrogance and carnal greed are widespread in every corner of the world, people are becoming remote from the teachings of Allah and His Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam), and are lax in practising the Deeni injunctions, the correct thing to do is to instil respect into the public for the teachings of the Shari’ah, its Muballigheen and guardians. Avenues and means of rebuilding the true Deen and bringing it back to life must be given priority. To do the opposite, by creating hatred and disregard for the Salaf, is like wiping out the Deen. This is the manner which the innovators have always resorted to, and was also adopted by the Nechris (materialists, atheists), Qadiyanis. Khaksaars, etc. Mashriqi’s book “The fault of the Molvi” is an example on this subject. Every innovator and heretic has used this method to conceal his own faults and spread ignorance among the masses. 14. It comments on the Saheeh Ahaadith according to its own tastes and thinking, and is turning away the general Muslims from it. On the contrary the Salaf Saaliheen, Sahaabah Kiraam, the great Taabi’een and those of the Khayrul Qurun accepted these. Whatever grade we confer to our intellect, it still remains defective. Experience and incidents have proven this. The most dull and stupid person thinks that he possesses a good understanding and sound intellect. 5. Like the Khawaarij, it uses the labels of ‘/Inil Hukmu illa Lillaah/’ and ‘/Wa mal lam Yahkum bimaa Anzalallaah/’ to proclaim Muslims as heretics. This is the result of faulty interpretations, out of context explanations, and /‘A truthful word through which is intended evil/’. It has rebelled against the accepted views of the Salaf Saaliheen. 16. It has proclaimed the Ahadith collection and literature as unacceptable just as the Chakralwis have done even though it does not contain Akhbaar Aahaad. From the beginning of Islam till this day it has been accepted as the foundation of the Deen and in relation to historical narrations it is accepted as more powerful. 17. Like the Qadiyanis it regards its Grand leader and Amir to possess such power, that if he wills, he shall reject any Hadith according to his taste or if he wishes may throw it in the waste paper basket. Such dictatorship was not experienced or accepted by anyone during the times of the Salaf Saaliheen or during the Khayrul Qurun nor can it be accepted in these turbulent times of Fitnah and Fasaad. Hazrat Ibn Mas’ud (radhiyallahu anhu) has said: ‘/If anyone among you wants to follow anyone, let him follow those who are dead, because the one that is alive is not free from Fitnah/’. The existence of such a state of affairs within the ranks of the people of these times is the beginning of a great calamity and a means of leading the masses astray. 18. It labels the Fiqhi treasure as incorrect and a collection of falsehood. It orders that this should be renovated and changed. The deeds of all the Muslims for the past 1300 years are regarded as a loss and a product of ignorance. It believes all those previous Muslims will not gain salvation. This is such a Fitnah that in whatever manner one mourns and laments, it will still not be enough. 19. Like the Mu’tazilah and Rawaafid they write on their signboards etc. “/The office of Actual Tawheed; Jamaat of Muwahhideen; The complete and true Islam./” or other similar slogans. The Mu’tazilah called themselves ‘Ashabul AdI’ (People of Justice) and Ashaabut Tawheed (People of Tawheed). The Shi’ah (Rawaafid) call themselves the ‘Lovers of the Ahle Bayt’. This will mean that those who are not amongst them, and do not belong to their group are not from the People of Justice, or the People of Unity or from amongst those who have love for the Able Bayt. The poison that these types of signboards spread in the past is evident from those historical incidents that took place between the Mu’tazilah, Khawaarij, Rawaafid etc. and the Ahius Sunnah. In the modern times too these types of incidents took place between the Ghayr Muqallids, Qur’aaniyyah, Nechris. Qadiyanis, Khaksaars etc. Each one of them used these types of signboards to attack the other group, indicating that they do not possess this quality. The Ghayr Muqallids call themselves Ahle Hadith wat Tawheed, and proclaim that the Hanafis are deprived of the Hadith of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and Tawheed. etc. Your organisation also makes the same claim, that those who do not belong to it are not faithful Muwahhids (unitarians, believers in the unity of Allah) and, as such, they do not possess complete Islam. By this the public is thrown into such confusion and disunity, that it is an open truth that the least effect it has is that those who do not join the Jamaat Islami are considered Mushriks, un-believers who will not gain salvation. It will become adamant on its own views, and will heat up the stock market of accusations, swearing, debates. Bickering, fighting, gang warfare. etc. Then the Muslim public will be beyond control and the Muslim Ummah will fall into chaos and face insurmountable difficulties. Muhtaram, Muslim India is faced with great difficulties. The difficulties and trials that they are surrounded with and are experiencing emanate from the majority group. i.e. the communalistic mind of the Hindu Mahasaba: the anti-Islamic stand of the R.S.S.; the policy of the Arya Samaj to forcibly convert all Muslims to their religion; the spiritual and materialistic degeneration of the Muslims suffering from inferiority complex; the poisonous wind and materialistic flood that is engulfing the schools and, colleges fed by the non-believing heretics of the west. etc. etc. These situations necessitate that Muslim organisations be cemented together and made stronger and stronger. A sound and accepted organisation should have been established to save the Muslims from fear, cowardice, terror, bewilderment, irreligiousness and laxity in practising religious deeds. We see that your movement is creating an air of religious and worldly degeneration. An order is created, as a result of which the whole community will become involved in this poisonous trend in the future. Therefore I feel it appropriate to advise Muslims to keep away from this movement, and refrain from reading the literature of Maududi Saheb. As for your claim that we ‘/are not concerned regarding the beliefs and thoughts of Maududi Saheb’/ we have time and again clarified our stand. It is like Mashriqi Saheb’s announcement after seeing the people objecting and becoming an obstacle to his Khaksaar movement, that we “/are creating the spirit of war and its tactics among the Muslims, and are trying to spread it and that Muslims should have nothing to do with our beliefs and publications/’. What happened subsequently? Were the members of the Khaksaar movement free from the beliefs, morals, and filthy writings of its leader? This could be heard from the tongue of Maududi Saheb himself. See ‘Al-Furqaan’ No. 2 and 3, page 9 and 10. Safar and Rabiul Awaal issue on the subject of the Khaksaar movement and Allama Mashriqi. Muhtaram, when a movement is àttributed to someone, that person will become its source of inspiration. The beliefs, morals and views of that person will surely have an effect on its members, especially when the literature of Maududi Saheb is being published with such abundance and members and non-members are induced to read it. At such times, the effects of the poisonous substances which have been included with such craftiness in such ‘inspiring’ writings cannot escape one’s thinking. My Muhtaram, taking into consideration the above points it cannot be understood what benefit will be derived from a meeting with you. I am of the orthodox Muslims and a Muqallid Hanafi, who is also a servant of the Mashaa’ikh of Tariqat. You people are of the ‘enlightened new Islam’. I wish to guide the Muslims on the path of the Salaf Saaliheen (Pious predecessors) and believe their salvation to be in it. You people wish to lead the Muslims on to the ‘New Islam’ of Maududi Saheb and are trying to reform it, a task which Mujaddid Alf Thaani, Shah Waliyullah, Sayyid Ahmed Shahid, and others were not fortunate enough to achieve, and you proclaim it as the only way to salvation for the Muslims. You are trying to salvage the Muslims by leading them on the path of those ignorant ones who opposed the Salaf Saaliheen, the pious Imaams etc. On such foundations it is possible that you may try to influence me, and I will not be able to guide you. You are running this movement for a long time and many years have passed. In this period you did not take the trouble to visit Deoband once, nor did you come to the offices of the Jamiat and exchange views with its workers so that a solution could be chalked out for the betterment of the Muslims. I am at a loss to understand today the reason for your thinking in such terms. Anyway, I am thankful for your kind attention. With all this, there is no hope of any benefit, especially when the Rampur convention has elevated your status. I can now only say, ‘/You have your Deen and I have my Deen’/, and free you from any inconveniences. I cannot think of anything else. Due to the Hyderabad convention and other commitments I could not complete this letter, when a second registered reply letter was received from you. I thank you for this letter too, as I thank you for the first one. My Muhtaram, the above matter has been taken from many reviews which in themselves are disheartening. You have complained about the articles from the Darul lftaa and have ordered that they he stopped. Regarding this, I wish to state, that the Darul lftaa of Deoband is an independent department, the head of which is Maulana Mufti Mehdi Hassen Saheb. He is an elderly, experienced researcher. About thirty to forty, or even more Istiftaas come to him daily, the replying of which is incumbent on him. When people began asking about the Jamaat Islami and Istiftaas regarding this movement began to increase, it became necessary to study Maududi Saheb’s literature and write on it. He has a considerable volume of Maududi literature. It is not in my hands to stop it. May the grace of Allah be with us. ‘/O Allah show to us the truth as the truth, and grant us the following of it. And show to us falsehood as falsehood, and grant us the strength to abstain from it’. (Aameen).
Husayn Ahmed — May Allah forgive him
Translated from Maktubaate Shaykhul islam — Part two. [Translation taken from “The Majlis” Newsletter, Vol. 2, no.3, April 1977]
Mufti Muhammad Noman Daji
My daily stroll area is my ‘square mile of inspiration’ which is adjacent to the financial district known locally as the ‘square mile’ (also known as the ‘City of London’). Both these square miles are part of Central London. My ‘square mile of inspiration’ is an oasis nestled next to the hustle and bustle of the City. It is arguably the most scenic, tranquil and beautiful part of Central London.
I pass frequently during my daily strolls by ‘The Lock’ that connects the Central Basin at St Kathrine Docks to the River Thames.
The East and West Basins are connected to the Central Basin. Hence, the Central Basin is the gateway to the River Thames. There is a parallel footbridge for people to cross over on either sides of the Central Basin. The footbridge located at the side and parallel to the East Basin is a cute, classical and replica of the original type of footbridge. The footbridge located at the West Side has a simpler but a beautiful look to it. Both the footbridges open into two halves from the middle to let the vessels moored at these side basins (East and West Basins) to pass to the Central Basin. From here they can access the River Thames via The Lock.
Allah Ta’ala diverted my mind and spiritual heart to connect and link the physical mechanism of the lock with the abstract concept of Nuzool (نُزول).
Nuzool (نُزول) is an Arabic word which literally means to come down and to descend. This coming down could be from a very high place or from a level or two up or much more. However, the Muhaqqiq Sufiya use the word to describe that state when the higher being (whoever it is, the benefactor) comes down to the lower level of the intended beneficiary so the benefit (whatever type that maybe) can be imparted. This coming down is at a conceptual and abstract level. It is not necessarily a physical activity. Also, by default it includes the raising of the level of the beneficiary as the purpose for this levelling up is to raise the level of the beneficiary and to help them grow, develop and prosper in the targeted goal. The target goal could be to connect and re-connect with the Creator; to impart practical teachings; to impart knowledge; etc.
It will all become clear and evident when I provide and furnish the examples to expand on this abstract concept. Also, the link of this concept of Nuzool (نُزول) with the lock will become clear. It will help to create a physical and visible image and layer on this abstract concept.
I was thinking how best to translate this term (Nuzool / نُزول) so it resonates with the modern readers as the literal meaning will not suffice. The meanings of ‘Creating Common Grounds’ and ‘Levelling up’ came to mind. Those who have translated the Holy Quran face this kind of challenges (as it is the most difficult type of translation) and need to decide what route they take in the translation to another language (whatever that is).
Nuzool (نُزول) is a key and structural concept I learnt (amongst many other key and structural concepts and life skills) from my beloved and compassionate mentor and guide Hazrat Moulana Masihullah Khan Jalalabadi (RA). The details mentioned in this reflection are mine but in essence is the outcome and the continuation of the benefits and blessings (فيض) from the oceans of wisdom of my beloved mentor and guide and also the outcome and result of the accepted Duas for this humble servant and follower.
A lock is a mechanical way to level up the water levels between stretches of water of different levels on a river and canal or basins waterways. The lock enables and facilitates the vessels (boats, barrages, yachts, etc) to move to and from.
In this case the lock is utilised to facilitate the vessels (boats, barrages, yachts, etc) to enter the three basins of St Katherine Docks from the River Thames and vice Verse (the vessels to enter the River Thames from the three basins.
St Katherine Docks which houses the three basins is located at a height whereas the River Thames is at a low and the water in the River Thames fluctuates about 10 metres between a high tide and a low tide. Hence, there is a significant gap between the water level in the river and the basins. The Lock helps to mechanically level the water so the transition of the vessel can occur smoothly.
On a high tide I have noticed the water in the River Thames is in par and in level with the water in the Central Basin but at low tides the difference is huge and probably is 10 metres or more.
The Lock consists of an Outer Gate which is is facing the Thames and an Inner Gate which is facing the Dock. The Lock is the space between the two gates (Inner and Outer).
The way ‘The Lock’ works is any vessel entering St Katherine Docks (from the Thames) must first pass through this lock which raises it from the river’s level to the level in the dock.
This is done by mechanically lowering the water level in the dock by draining the water into the river by opening the two way valves. When the levels of the lock and river match, the Outer Gate is lowered and the waiting vessel enters the Lock.
The Outer Gate is then raised and the water levels between the lock and the dock are equalised. This is done by drawing water through another valve. The Inner Gate is then lowered and the vessel enters the dock. The procedure is reversed to allow vessels to leave.
Similar to the mechanics of the lock to facilitate the smooth transition of the vessels from the Docks to the River Thames (and vice versa) there is a need for the higher being (the benefactor) to level up and create common grounds with the intended beneficiaries. If the higher being does not come “down” to their level and create a levelling and common ground the maximum benefit cannot be imparted, shared and transferred (or no benefit in the worst case). This levelling needs to occur. This is the beautiful concept of Nuzool (نُزول).
I will share five key areas and relationships as examples where this concept of Nuzool (نُزول) occurs or needs to be employed to maximise the transfer of benefits between the benefactor and the beneficiary. Otherwise, the maximum benefit or no benefit at all will occur in these key five relationships due to the mismatch and disconnect as the benefactor and the beneficiaries have no common ground and common protocol to transfer. The five areas and relationships are:
1) Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to Allah Ta’ala
2) Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him)
3) Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to Parents
4) Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to Teachers (Ustaz)
5) Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to Sheikh (Spiritual Mentor)
These are five key relationships we all have to some degree. They are:
5. Sheikh/Mureed (Mentor/Mentee)
I will briefly shed light on these five key areas and relationships.
1) Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to Allah Ta’ala
I want to state upfront and reiterate that when this concept of Nuzool (نُزول) is mentioned for Allah Ta’ala then the literal meaning is not implied. It is to describe a metaphorical state to bring this abstract concept within the reach of the human mind. This will help the human being appreciate the warmth, closeness and proximity that is being stated. It is our belief that Allah Ta’ala is free from time and space.
This concept of Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to Allah Ta’ala is derived from the below Hadeeth. It should become apparent and clear how the concept is derived.
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رضى الله عنه أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ يَنْزِلُ رَبُّنَا تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا حِينَ يَبْقَى ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ الآخِرُ يَقُولُ مَنْ يَدْعُونِي فَأَسْتَجِيبَ لَهُ مَنْ يَسْأَلُنِي فَأُعْطِيَهُ مَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُنِي فَأَغْفِرَ لَهُ
Hazrat Abu Hurairah (Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) said: “Our great and glorious Rabb descends to the sky closest to the Earth every single night when the last third portion of the night is remaining and He calls out: Who is there to call out to me so that I may answer him? Who is there to ask from me so that I may give him? Who is there to seek my forgiveness so that I may forgive him?” (Bukhari, Muslim)
The above Hadeeth is explicit in mentioning this concept of Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to our Creator, Allah Ta’ala in the manner explained. Allah Ta’ala is going out of His way to create this mutual connection and common ground by descending to the sky closest to the Earth.
The above Hadeeth uses the verb - يَنْزِلُ - which is derived from the Arabic root word of of Nuzool (نُزول). Hence, this concept is derived from here it seems.
2) Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him)
Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) has numerous titles. He is the Prophet of Islam. He is the Best of all Creation. He is the Mercy to the Universe. He is the Final Prophet of Allah Ta’ala. He is the Beloved of Allah Ta’ala.
Each of these titles is based on reality and is sufficient to awe and humble all other human beings. However, despite all these great titles our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) lived a life like an ordinary human being. He lived as though he was one of them. Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) did not act out or show he was special. Instead he actually highly discouraged his Companions (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) to treat him in a special way.
The books of Ahadeeth (احاديث) and Sirat (سيرة) are full of examples of this display of a humble and common attitude. I will share just three examples of how this concept of Nuzool (نُزول) manifested in the life of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him). You can slot the remaining examples mentally into this area. There are numerous examples.
Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) would frequent the bazar (market) as any ordinary human being would to avail his needs. This practice of frequenting the bazar and to shop for ones needs is the concept of Nuzool (نُزول) in action. There was no need for him to do this as he could have sat at home and ordered one of his companions or helpers to do the shopping. But this is not his beautiful and humble way.
This humility and being a common man was not liked by the disbelievers as they thought in their immature minds that staying aloof and distant from ordinary people and trying to be special by not engaging in routine tasks like shopping was a good thing.
The Holy Quran depicts this in this way.
وَقَالُوا مَالِ هَٰذَا الرَّسُولِ يَأْكُلُ الطَّعَامَ وَيَمْشِي فِي الْأَسْوَاقِ لَوْلَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مَلَكٌ فَيَكُونَ مَعَهُ نَذِيرً
They said: What sort of messenger is this. Who eats food and walks in the marketplaces? If only an angel was sent down with him, who would have been a warner along with him. (Verse 7, Al-Furqan (25), Part 19)
This example is how he lived amongst the general people (believers and disbelievers).
This concept of Nuzool (نُزول) also covers the area and sheds light on the need for messengers of Allah Ta’ala to be human beings and also to be sent from within their communities and not as angels or from other communities.
The second example is how our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) lived amongst his wives. I will quote just one Hadeeth that clearly states this concept of Nuzool (نُزول) in action.
Hazrat Hisham bin Urwah (RA) narrates from another person who had asked and enquired from Ummul Mumineen Hazrat Aishah (Allah be pleased with her) the actions of the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) in his house. She replied: “The Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) would sew or mend his clothing, repair his shoes and similar things (e.g. milk the goats, etc).” (Musnad Imam Aḥmad)
The Hadeeth is clear in how the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) blended in the home. This is the concept of Nuzool (نُزول) in action in the home setting.
The third example is how our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) lived amongst his Companions (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين). I will quote just one Hadeeth that clearly states this concept of Nuzool (نُزول) in action.
Hazrat Anas bin Malik (Allah be pleased with them both) reports: “No one was more beloved to the Sahaabah (Allah be pleased with them all) than the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him). When they saw him they did not stand up, knowing that he did not approve of it.” (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Aḥmad)
The Hadeeth is clear in how the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) blended in with his Companions (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) so they were more receptive to the teachings and other benefits and blessings.
This is the concept of Nuzool (نُزول) in action in the social environment.
میرے آقا، میرے مولا
میرے آقا، میرے مولا
میرے آقا، میرے مولا
محمّد رسول الله
محمّد رسول الله
محمّد رسول الله
3) Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to Parents
For parents to succeed in their Tarbiyah (تربية) of their children they need to come down to the level of their children first to benefit them and then gradually raise their growth so they can fly high.
The parents need to think and feel what their children will be thinking and feeling at their respective ages and train and develop them with that in mind. Hence, the method to train and nurture the growth of their children will be in line with the needs of their children based on their ages and environments (ماحول). This will bear fruits sooner or later. The children will be receptive to what the parents have to offer; it will relate to their environments and they will be able to digest and enact the guidance offered and more importantly will love, cherish and respect their caring and compassionate parents.
On the contrary when this - Nuzool / نُزول - is missing and there is a mismatch and disconnect between what the parents are thinking and the thinking level of the children then the Tarbiyah (تربية) of their children cannot occur and subsequently it cannot bear fruits. The parents have to come down to the level of their children and then raise them up, nurture them and grow them to their intended level gradually.
Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) would play with his children and grand children and would do the Tarbiyah of them in a way that would be fitting for them at their respective ages.
4) Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to Teachers (Ustaz)
Teachers (Ustaz) are similar in regards to how they do Tarbiyah (تربية) of their students with parents in respect to the Tarbiyah (تربية) of their children.
For the Ustaz/Ustazah to succeed in imparting knowledge (علم) in a meaningful and adequate way then he/she has to come down to the level of the student and to connect and communicate with them according to their current mental capacity and abilities. The Ustaz/Ustazah has to put aside their current intellectual capacities, prowess and knowledge.
When this concept of Nuzool (نُزول) is put in action with the students then the Ustaz/Ustazah will connect and communicate in a way that is relatable and employ the choice of words the students can understand and relate; the level will be at the right level; the pace will be correct and all the necessary considerations will be made to impart the knowledge to ALL the students adequately (and not just the smart and intelligent students).
On the contrary when this - Nuzool / نُزول - is missing and there is a mismatch and disconnect between what the Ustaz/Ustazah is teaching and the intellectual capacities of the students then the knowledge will not and cannot be imparted in a meaningful and productive way. The Ustaz/Ustazah has to come down to the intellectual level of the students and explain in a way all the students even the weaker ones can easily grasp and comprehend. It is no good if the level is too high that no student understands or the delivery is at a different level (higher or lower) or the weaker students are not able to grasp the lecture.
There is this phrase that is thrown about by students to describe the lectures of some Ustaz as ‘Hawai Taqreer’ (ہوائ تقریر). What this means is the Ustaz delivers a lesson, a lecture but does not correlate and solve the text (حلِّ كتاب اور حلِّ متن). The lecture is fired in the air and does not match and correlate the text on the ground. Hence, it is not of much value to the students as they need to solve the text (حلِّ كتاب اور حلِّ متن) too. This is a sign of a weak and incompetent Ustaz too and off the mark from this concept of Nuzool (نُزول). Solving the text is a key skill the Ustaz needs to deliver to be effective in his teaching role (at a Darul Uloom). Otherwise, the Ustaz/Ustazah is lacking the key and basic requirements of teaching in a Darul Uloom.
All my Asatizah (plural of Ustaz) who I have benefitted greatly possessed this skill at the highest level and those who didn’t I didn't benefit much from them. There is no levelling and common grounds between ustaz and student when the textbook is not being solved. Also, deep Islamic knowledge and deep understanding demand and require an excellent grasp of the actual texts. Everything is about the text - the words (الفاظ) and meanings (معانى).
The common ground and levelling will be different in different educational settings (Maktab, Universities, etc) and will differ based on the calibre and age of students (children, teenagers, adults, professionals, etc) and based on gender. The course and delivery style needs to match the beneficiaries and recipients.
This levelling up is what we learn from the prophetic way. For example,
our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) would employ a gradual approach; the right subjects at the right time and the method suited for the student at the time.
Hazrat Jundab ibn Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) reports: “We were with the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) (at the time) in a group of youth close to the age of maturity. We learnt what was Iman (faith) before we could learn the Quran. Thereafter, we learnt the Quran. In this way, we increased our Iman.” (Ibn Majah)
The above Hadeeth suggests one key prophetic method employed for the youth.
5) Nuzool (نُزول) in regards to Sheikh (Spiritual Mentor)
The Nuzool (نُزول) of the Sheikh (Spiritual Mentor) in regards to how they do Tarbiyah (تربية) of their Mureeds (Spiritual Mentees) is very similar to the Nuzool (نُزول) of the parents and Ustaz in regards to the Tarbiyah (تربية) of their children and students.
For the Sheikh to succeed in equipping and guiding the mureed with the right level of guidance, mentoring and coaching, the Sheikh has to come down to the level of the mureed, their mental capacity, educational background, circumstances, environments, etc and overlook the current dire state and look at the hidden and untapped potential. The Sheikh has to put aside their spiritual standing and heights to one side and teach the mureed how to take the first baby steps and then guide them on the journey ahead to materialise their untapped potential and hidden spiritual capacities.
When this concept of Nuzool (نُزول) is put in action with the mureed then the Sheikh will interact, guide, mentor and coach the mureed in a way that is perfect for the mureed at every given step, stage and level of their development journey. Each mureed will be interacted in a custom and tailored way that is suited and best for them and their spiritual states and journey.
This is what we learn from the prophetic way too. Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) would prescribe different remedies for different people for the same issues or the same questions put to him by different mureeds based on the different needs of the respective mureeds.
This was a brief explanation of the five areas and relationships in regards to expanding on the concept of Nuzool (نُزول) through these examples.
To return to the similarity given of the concept of Nuzool (نُزول) with ‘The Lock’ it should be noted that without the lock the benefits of inter-flow between the stretches of water will not be possible. The vessels moored at the basins will not be able to access and connect with the River Thames and via the River Thames will not be able to access and explore the world via the connecting seas and oceans. The vessels would be isolated and cut off. Their potential will not materialise. The lock facilitates for the vessels moored at the basins to connect with the River Thames and via the River Thames will be able to access and explore the seas, oceans and the world. Similar is the case for the above five key types of relationships. Employing Nuzool (نُزول) creates great opportunities for the beneficiaries of all these five key relationships.
In the first relationship the servant (عبد / أمة) will be able to connect and gain proximity to their Loving Creator to gain infinite blessings.
In the second relationship the follower (Ummati / امتى) will be able to maximise their potential on this earth and the Hereafter by digesting and internalising the prophetic teachings.
In the third relationship the child will be able to learn from the parents the life skills to navigate the sea of life.
In the fourth relationship the student will be able to acquire the knowledge and the required aptitude and capacities to navigate the oceans of knowledge.
In the fifth relationship the mureed will be able to internalise the inner characters to navigate the universe of spirituality and way beyond.
In a nutshell Nuzool (نُزول) sums up in one small word a chapter of knowledge (باب من العلم) and a key skill required for Tarbiyah (تربية) that encompasses a wide ranging area of Tarbiyah in a beautiful way for all the three relationships relevant for us. You can add to the examples and further aspects and dimensions for all these five relationships based on your ability and understanding.
Before I conclude this reflection I would like to touch on one aspect of the trait the last three relationships share. Saying that, the truth is all the five relationships share this trait in varying degrees.
The parents, teachers and sheikh (or Mashaikh) all fall under the category of Murabby (مربّى) which means the one who undertakes Tarbiyah. All these last three categories share in this key role of Tarbiyah (تربية).
As a side note it is worth mentioning that the level in terms of priority and respect is also in this order. Parents, then teachers (Ustaz) and then sheikh as Hakeem-Ul-Ummah Mujaddid-Ul-Millat Hazrat Moulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) stated in Bayan Al-Quran. Some scholars I have also known first hand to make a mistake in this ordering.
To conclude I would like to remember my beloved and compassionate mentor and guide Hazrat Moulana Masihullah Khan Jalalabadi (RA) again who is the hidden inspiration behind this content. My beloved and compassionate mentor and guide Hazrat Moulana Masihullah Khan Jalalabadi (RA) to his followers and disciples was a combination of the last three relationships mentioned above.
Formally, Hazrat (RA) was the Sheikh (mentor and guide) to the mureed.
In some cases, a formal Ustaz and in most cases an informal Ustaz. Under the guidance of my beloved Sheikh even non-Alims would develop incredible understanding of the Deen (تفقّه فى الدين), insights into Fiqh, Tazkiyah, etc. In some cases gaining much more insights into these areas than other well known formal scholars. This was the exceptional and unique style of my beloved mentor and guide’s Tarbiyah.
And due to the care and compassion like the compassion of a father (شفقت پدری), Hazrat (RA) was like a father figure to the mureeds. My beloved and compassionate mentor and guide (RA) was affectionately known as Abbaji (ابّاجی), Hazrat’s wife was known as Ammi Jaan (امّی جان), Hazrat’s son was known as Bhai Jan (بھائ جان) and Hazrat’s younger brother was known as Chacha Jan (چچا کان).
I feel like I should write a detailed piece on this concept of Nuzool (نُزول) to explain, expand and branch out on this concept further and detail its application to all areas and facets of our worldly and Deeni lives. I feel I have barely scratched the surface. I request the readers to pray that Allah Ta’ala grants me the taufeeq to expound on the concept of Nuzool (نُزول) in the future; to guide; to direct and to support me to write what is beneficial and needed and to grant it acceptance in His Court.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to acquire and develop this valuable trait of Nuzool (نُزول) whenever and wherever it is needed in our lives and relationships.
O Allah Ta’ala! Bless and grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to live a simple and prophetic way of life that involves simplicity and no pretence.
O Allah Ta’ala! Protect us all from the evils of the nafs and all forms of ego and vanity that stop us from enacting on this concept of Nuzool (نُزول).
آمین یارب العلمین بجاہ سیدالمرسلین علیہ الصلوۃ والتسلیم
و صلى الله على النبى الحبيب الشفيع الرؤوف الرحيم
Muhammad Noman Daji
(After Fajar, Saturday 28th November 2020 – 13th Rabi-ul-Aakhir 1442 A.H)
Note: This reflection is part of the Series of Short Reflections I have penned on a number of important and relevant Islamic concepts and life lessons.
P:S: I am a graduate of Darul Uloom Deoband. I certified as an Aalim and a Mufti at this prestigious seat of advanced Islamic learning. I thought it should be mentioned (and has been suggested) so it provides some credibility and comfort for those reading (and who don’t know me).
The Fine Art of Connecting at the Human Level - 7 Cues From the Life of The Greatest Connector (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him)
(By: Mufti Muhammad Noman Daji, Batley, UK - firstname.lastname@example.org)
(Tuesday 17th November 2020 – 2nd Rabi-ul-Aakhir 1442 A.H)
This piece discuses how to connect at a deep and meaningful level with fellow human beings. It is to connect at a human level that is not shallow and not defined and motivated by external and superficial factors.
In this piece I have derived seven cues from the conduct and interactions of the Greatest Connector, Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him).
The repeated and sincere practice of these seven cues will yield great results.
The motivation and desire to write on this great and important prophetic aspect is two folds.
The first motivation and desire is to acquire the honour to share and spread the beautiful and practical life of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him). Without doubt our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) is the best role model (Uswah Hasanah / أسوة حسنة) and his conduct and interactions are the most exemplary and most worthy of being spread, followed and emulated.
Connecting at the human level is one practical dimension and behaviour of the greatest human being ever to grace the earth. This is a man who significantly and for the better changed the course of history for all human beings. This is a man who had an enormous impact on world history and continues to impact humanity till this very day. This is the man who initiated an extraordinary sequence of events (fall of the two oppressive super powers of the time, etc) in just a short span of 23 years. This is a man whose legacy includes and not limited to having billions of followers who love him more than themselves and are deeply touched, inspired and influenced by his great teachings.
The second motivation and desire is to highlight the importance of connecting with fellow human beings first and foremost and purely at the human level. There is a strong need to put aside all other superficial boundaries (race, colour of skin, language, geography, etc) and worldly layers and dimensions (wealth, fame, positions, poverty, etc).
This practice of primarily connecting at the human level is more important and significant when it comes to those interactions that are carried out in the name of Islam (i.e. to spread or defend Islam). This includes any effort undertaken to spread the message and mission of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him). It is vital and wholly essential that the message and mission of Islam and our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) is spread employing and adopting the beautiful and practical prophetic ways. The prophetic ways are by far the most effective ways to convince and influence fellow human beings.
Note: Please note my use of ‘humans’ or ‘fellow human beings’ throughout my piece and in general in my writings. I want to drill this message to my readers of looking at people as humans and not as numbers or other superficial dimensions.
The primary target audience are each and every believer of Allah Ta’ala and follower of our most beloved Prophet, the Best of all Creation and the Most Beloved and Final Prophet of Allah Ta’ala, Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him).
Every Muslim/Muslimah has two primary dimensions. One is they are humans and the second is they are believers in the Deen of Islam.
It is important to factor this human dimension as that affects the way we behave and interact. Human beings by nature are social animals. Hence, they need and like to interact with fellow human beings at many levels. They need to interact as part of their daily life and also to discharge their additional Deeni obligations. Hence, what better way to interact with fellow human beings than the best way there is possible. That is the way (Tareeq / طريق) of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) i.e. Tareeq Muhammady (طريق محمّدى).
These seven cues from the Greatest Connector, Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) are a set of practices that will help the practitioner connect with their fellow human beings to discharge their human or Deeni obligations.
Every believer needs to employ and apply the seven cues from the Greatest Connector, Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) into their ordinary and daily interactions with their fellow human beings too (regardless of their faith, etc).
Start employing these set of seven prophetic cues with focus to connect at the human level with your spouse (wife/husband) and your children. You can then extend it to the extended family and relatives and then continue to widen the circle of application with neighbours, colleagues and every human being you meet and encounter. Every human being you come into contact deserves this sincere respect and connection at the human level.
You can and should apply these seven prophetic cues at work and in your professional life too. This trait is about building and developing the character of Ihsan (صفت احسان) in you at every level. The character of Ihsan (صفت احسان) is to execute each and every routine act, devotional act or interaction in the best manner possible. The details and application of Ihsan (صفت احسان) will vary from act to act. This character of Ihsan (صفت احسان) needs to permeate in all your actions and interactions whether directly related to worship or indirectly like interactions with fellow human beings.
The believing men (Muslim / مسلم) and believing women (Muslimah / مسلمة) have additional obligations too. This is their dimension on top of the primary dimension of being human. Based on this second dimension each and every believer by default is an ambassador of Islam and a representative of Islam in relation to fellow human beings (whether they are close relatives or strangers).
Every action of ours draws them closer to us and Islam or distances them from us and Islam. Hence, due to this additional dimension and responsibility we need to be extra careful that we employ and apply the seven prophetic cues when we are interacting with everyone and more so when we are interacting with non-Muslims.
Out of this universal group (Muslim Ummah) I also want to direct this piece to a special sub-category of believers. This special sub-category includes those who are scholars and those involved in any form of Tableegh and Dawah work to Muslims or non-Muslims via any line and effort of Deen. The line and effort of Deen could be by being an Imam of the Masjid; conducting Islamic seminars; engaging in the Jam’at and Tableegh work; engaged in Dawah work with non-Muslims; engaged in welfare, humanitarian and charitable work; etc.
It is highly essential for this special sub-category and set of believers to embody this beautiful prophetic trait for them to be effective in their line of effort, message and mission. This is a foundational trait that without it the rapport and connection cannot be built and definitely not sustained with those they are trying to influence, help and support and draw closer to the Deen.
There are two main features I include when I am writing any piece whether it is a short reflection or any reflective piece or article.
The first feature is I try to connect and build connection with the mind and spiritual heart of the targeted readers.
What I mean by connecting to the mind and spiritual heart of the targeted readers is to communicate in the language and in the style and manner that can stimulate their minds and spiritual hearts and at the same time establish mental pegs and mental holders in their minds and spiritual hearts where they can add more examples on the concept I discuss as they grow their knowledge and as they grow spirituality. I try to light the spark, light the flame, create the thirst for more and plant the seeds so the readers can nurture and grow them.
The second feature is that the vast majority (if not all) and all of my reflective pieces are action oriented. They are geared towards practice and consist of actionable items.
What that means is I am trying to share some practical pointers that are simple and can be easily adopted to one’s daily life with a teaspoon of sincerity and firm conviction.
Note: This piece has cues that are primarily for use during face to face contact but they can also be employed during telephone contact and communication. For example, calls to parents, calls to relatives, calls for Dawah purposes, etc. The human being at the other end of the line can also feel whether or not the adequate attention is being given to them during the conversation.
Definition of ‘Connecting at the Human Level
Human beings are social animals and we like to connect. However, the connection we establish with fellow human beings needs to be primarily at the basic and core human level. It should be pure and free from superficial layers and ulterior motives. It should not be based on worldly considerations and motives.
As believers the motivation to connect with fellow human beings needs to be based on showing respect to the human being we are connecting with; to fulfil and discharge our human obligations towards them and to draw people closer to Islam or into the fold of Islam.
The way I am defining ‘Connecting at the Human Level’ is to connect from the spiritual heart that is filled with respect for the human being you are connecting with purely based on humanity and compassion. This respect and compassion will manifest in your physical demeanour and interactions. The human being will feel the respect (or lack thereof). The primary goal of the interaction is to either discharge your worldly need or Deeni obligations.
The outcome of this deep humane manner of connecting will inevitably establish and build deep connections and as a result increase your influence over the other person. Influence is not the primary or end motivation. The primary and end motivation is pure. That is to get them to engage in actions that are beneficial for them in this life and in the Hereafter.
It is worth highlighting that connecting at the human level is very different from communicating with humans. Hence, out of the seven prophetic cues only one of the cues #6 - Appropriate & Compassionate Language - is related to communication. The other six cues are all non-verbal. There is a 6-1 ratio between non-verbal and verbal communication.
Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) - The Greatest Connector
This title is based on reality. This is not a believer trying to big up the prophet they believe in purely out of love for him.
If you asses this ability and skill of Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) with the definition I have given then it should be clear as day this accolade is based on reality. No other human being in the history of mankind has had this incredible level of influence that Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) has had on humanity and mankind. This incredible level of influence was not limited or only visible over his great Companions (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) who sacrificed everything for him or the believers who came after and love him and are influenced by him in every facet and sphere of life but it is evident on all of humanity.
The influence of Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) had on his great Companions (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين) and how that manifested is evident. In a short span they were successful in destroying the two oppressive super powers of the time and ruling a third of the world when if you rewind back a couple of decades the Muslims were even without a home town and lacked any visible power. They were homeless in their home town and defenceless.
میں اکیلا ہی چلا تھا جانبِ منزل مگر
لوگ ساتھ آتے گئے اور کارواں بنتا گیا
This level of incredible influence is also acknowledged by non-Muslim historians and writers. It is popularly known about Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) being ranked as #1 by Michael H. Hart in his best seller ‘The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History’.
جادو وہ جو سر چڑھ کر بولے
There are other great connectors but by far the greatest connector by an incredible wide margin is without doubt Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him).
Influence can be acquired through a range of means as the wide variety of people listed and ranked in the book ‘The 100’ indicates. However, the most meaningful and deep influence is the influence that is established and acquired by connecting with a fellow human being at the human level where there are no ulterior motives or based on superficial reasons.
This piece discusses the core and specific components to this fine art of connecting at this pure human level inspired from the life of the greatest connector, Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him).
Allah Ta’ala dropped into my heart that by ranking our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) as the #1 influential person in history there is is an implicit admission by Michael H. Hart (author of the book) that Islam is also the #1 Deen too. The Prophet of Islam, Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) and the Deen of Islam are two sides of the same coin. They are ‘one’ and they cannot be separated i.e. there is Talazum (تلازُم) between them.
Every teaching of this beautiful Deen of Islam is #1. The teaching is shown to us practically by our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him). This practical example is the best way and the #1 way to carry out any action in question.
One key thing to note is the primary inspiration of interacting with fellow human beings at this pure and humane level was the need to connect human beings to their loving and bountiful Creator. The thought of Allah Ta’ala was central and underpinned in every action and interaction.
7 Connecting Cues from The Greatest Connector
These seven prophetic connecting cues (connectors) are the components that will help you develop and master the fine art of connecting at the human level. This will pay dividends in the long term towards your message and mission.
The message and mission is to further spread, strengthen and raise the positive profile of all aspects of Islam. Also, to display humanity in all your interactions at every level of your daily life.
The non-believers you have interacted using these seven prophetic cues might not all accept Islam but they (most) will definitely come to your support and defend Islam and Muslims in your absence and in their circle of influence. That is a great victory too.
The seven connecting cues derived from the conduct and interactions (Seerat) of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) are:
1) Sincere Respect at the Core Human Level
2) Desire to Benefit (Give not Want)
3) Attention via the Body & Modest Eye Contact
4) Sincere Smile
5) Focused & Compassionate Listening
6) Appropriate & Compassionate Language
7) Care, Compassion and Supplications in Absence
I would like to mention one narration that beautifully sums up the outcome the prophetic fine art of connecting at the human level had on his Companions (رضوان الله عليهم اجمعين). Each companion (Allah be pleased with them all) felt they were the most closest to Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) due to this deep connection at the human level. This is a highly noble feature and is a scarce commodity nowadays.
Hazrat Amr ibn Al’Aas (Allah be pleased with him) reported: “The Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) gave attention, spoke and showed love to the worst person of a nation. So that, the person may feel he is being given special attention. He used to give attention and spoke to me also in a manner that I began to feel that I was the best among the community. (Therefore one day I plucked up the courage and) I asked: 'O Messenger of Allah! Am I better or is Abubakr better?' He replied: 'Abubakr'. I then asked: 'Am I better, or 'Umar?' He replied. ‘Umar'. I asked: 'Am I better or 'Usman?' He replied: 'Usman'. When I asked him these questions, the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) told me the truth. (He did not tell me I was better to keep me happy. Afterwards I felt ashamed of myself on this deed). I felt I should not have asked such a question.
The above narration clearly states the level of deep and humane connection our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) would have with fellow human beings and companions. It also clearly shows the need to be truthful at all times.
Details on the ‘7 Connecting Cues’ from The Greatest Connector
I will briefly discuss these 7 cues to give you a flavour. Hence, it is easier to understand and then apply and employ. You can always add more examples mentally (to these seven mental pegs) as you progress in your practice and as your knowledge and insights increase in this area of deep human connection.
1) Sincere Respect at the Core Human Level
It is important to sincerely respect every human being and in particular those you are interacting with at the core human level from the depths of your hearts.
What this means is you value and respect them as a human being - full stop. The value and respect you are assigning them is not based on any worldly status or superficial criteria (e.g. beauty and attractiveness, wealth, influence, fame and popularity, positions, what they can do for you, etc). The minute you assign the value and respect of the human being you are interacting with based on these superficial things then that is the moment when your interaction and message loses the sweetness, value, essence, effect and spirit.
When this authentic and genuine respect at the very basic and core level is missing you cannot connect and you will not be able to sustain the connection even if you fake it and succceed initially.
Allah Ta’ala has granted respect and honour to mankind at its core as we learn from the Holy Quran.
وَلَقَدۡ كَرَّمۡنَا بَنِىٓ ءَادَمَ
And We have certainly honoured (and dignified) the Children of Adam. (Verse 70, Al-Isra (17), Part 15)
It was highly evident in each and every interaction of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) the level of sincere, genuine, authentic and honest respect he had for every human being at this core human level. This applied to Muslims and non-Muslims, male and female, young and old and friend and foe. This is not something he just practiced by himself but also encouraged others to emulate.
I just want to refer your mind to the Hadeeth and quote the Hadeeth that emphasises respecting human beings regardless of the living or dead and regardless of faith but purely due to the human dimension.
Hazrat Qays ibn Sa‘d and Hazrat Sahl ibn Hunayf (Allah be pleased with them both) narrates: “A funeral procession passed by the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him), so he stood up. We said, “It is the funeral procession of a Jew.” He, the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) said: “Is it not a soul?”” (Bukhari, Muslim)
The human dimension is worthy of respect and dignity regardless of anything else as is evident from the above narration.
2) Desire to Benefit (Give not Want)
The chances and odds are greatly increased in your favour to connect and sustain the connection if you are connecting with someone when you are not seeking anything from them and on top of that the benefit is primarily theirs. The human being you are trying to connect with is more likely to listen, consider your message and connect and stay connected with you in this case.
If there is an ulterior motive or the intention is tainted and polluted (or turns that way) then the chances of you connecting or sustaining the connection with that human being becomes slim and will fade away.
It was the absolute slogan of all the Prophets and Messengers of Allah Ta’ala (عليهم السلام) including the leader of all prophets, our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) that the primary reason to connect with fellow human beings was not to gain anything (material) from them whatsoever.
The reality was all the Prophets and Messengers of Allah Ta’ala (عليهم السلام) were all trying to make and create a blissful life for their fellow human beings in this world and to open the door of eternal salvation (Hereafter). There was no worldly benefit for any of the Prophets and Messengers of Allah Ta’ala (عليهم السلام) including the leader of all prophets, our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him). The sole beneficiary was the human being that was addressed.
قُلۡ مَاۤ اَسۡـئَـلُكُمۡ عَلَيۡهِ مِنۡ اَجۡرٍ وَّمَاۤ اَنَا مِنَ الۡمُتَكَلِّفِيۡنَ
Say, [O Muḥammad], “I do not ask you for it [i.e., the Qur’ān] any payment (recompense), and I am not of the pretentious (pretend and fabricate things which do not exist)” (Verse 86, Sa’d (38), Part 23)
3) Attention via the Body & Modest Eye Contact
Connection with the human being you are interacting with cannot be established and achieved when the outward respect is not seen and given. Hence, it is important to display the physical and outward attention that shows you are extending towards them in the form of complete and adequate respect, dignity and attention.
The Da’ee (caller towards Islam) will not be able to connect with the human being they are trying to reach and convey the message if the Da’ee is pre-occupied mentally or physically with other things and not extending the total attention towards the human being they are addressing. The message demands it is shared with complete focus. It was the habit of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) to immerse himself totally in the address.
What we learn from the prophetic behaviour of connecting is that our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) would fully turn his body towards the person he was communicating with to show they mattered. This impact and effect of this visible display of giving full attention would be noticed and felt by the person. The deep connection it would create needs no mention. The mention of this act by the Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) clearly indicate it was well received and noticed by the companions.
Imam Tirmizi (RA) mentions in his masterpiece collection of ‘Shama’il Muhammadiyyah’ the long narration of Hazrat Ali (Allah be pleased with him) where he mentions that when the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) addressed a person he would turn his whole body towards that person. He did not only turn his face towards the person he addressed, as this is considered impolite, and sometimes, it can even denote pride. The Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) faced the person he was speaking to with his chest and body.
Also, it is narrated and recorded that during the handshake our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) would not remove his blessed hand from the other person until the other person removed it. This also displays the respect given to the other person and the humility of the one enacting this.
In regards to eye contact what we learn from the prophetic behaviour of connecting is that our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) would have modest eye contact with the person. It was there but not overpowering and neither was it non-existent.
Hazrat Abdullah ibn Umar (Allah be pleased with them both) reported that the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) did not fix his eyesight for long on anyone due to his exceeding modesty.
I’d like to relate an incident to highlight what not to do. During my extended travels across the width and breadth of India I visited one place and arranged to meet the famous scholar residing there. I was given a time when I could meet the next day. I subsequently arrived at the right time. After the initial greetings of Salam at the door the scholar sat down and immediately started to read the daily newspaper for the day and kept his head in the newspaper. I was surprised as I had arranged to meet and was given a time and the scholar had his head stuck in the newspaper. I tried to engage the scholar to talk and ask but he would answer and talk that way. I sat a few minutes then left. I was not impressed with this interaction and is contrary to any courtesy and prophetic teachings (whoever he is).
Give attention, not tension.
I noticed countless times during the after Asar public majlis of my respected and mushfique teacher Sheikh-ul-Hadeeth & Sadr-ul-Mudarriseen of Ummul Madaris (أم المدارس) and Azhar-ul-Hind (ازهر الهند) Darul Uloom Deoband Hazrat Aqdas Moulana Mufti Saeed Aḥmad Palanpuri (RA) when any visitors would come to meet our ustaz he would ask the students to make space for them as the room would be full and then would converse with them to ask their well being and why they were coming, etc before continuing with the majlis. This is in line with the prophetic ways.
4) Sincere Smile
Smile radiates a person’s face. A smile is infectious. A smile has an impact on the other person. A smile draws the other person closer and provides space to engage, converse and eventually connect in a meaningful way.
What we learn from the prophetic behaviour of connecting is that the lips of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) was always decorated with a sincere, authentic and genuine smile.
The sincere, authentic and genuine smile has the power to attract and draw people closer to you. It is a magnetic force. It forces the other person to come closer to you. It forces them to smile and relax. A sincere, authentic and genuine smile is a key arrow in the arsenal of establishing and building a genuine connection. This way the person will be more receptive to your interaction and message of Deen and you will have more ability to influence the person for their good.
On the contrary when a person has a constant frown or a grumpy face then that cannot lead to or result in establishing and building a genuine connection. It is highly important that those believers engaged in the effort of Deen are not displaying this kind of grumpy and unfriendly attitude.
There are a number of well-known and popular Ahadeeth describing the Prophetic nature of the permanent smiles. I am just quoting two popular Hadeeths.
Aldo, the modesty of the eyes that showed in the blessed and sacred face of the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) was in fact an extension of the sincere smile alongside the immense and natural modesty he possessed.
Hazrat Abdullah ibn Al-Harith (Allah be pleased with him) reported: “I have never seen anyone who smiles more than the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him).” (At-Tirmizi)
Hazrat Jarir ibn Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) reported: “The Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) never refused me permission to see him since I embraced Islam and never looked at me except with a smile (on his face).” (Muslim)
5) Focused & Compassionate Listening
Focused and deep listening is a very powerful component of connecting with a fellow human. Focused and deep listening demonstrates the person being listened to matters. It displays respect and care for them. Focused and deep listening encourages the person to open up and speak freely as they are being heard. Human beings like to be heard. Focused and deep listening fills that human need of them. There needs to be quality in the listening through the focus and deep listening.
Focused and deep listening is an incredibly powerful method to connect with human beings at the core human level.
What we learn from the life of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) is that he used to listen a lot. He used to listen, listen, listen. He used to listen to people so much that the hypocrites (Munafiqeen / منافقين) used to say in a mocking way ‘he is all ears’. The fools didn’t realise the power of deep listening to people; what impact it was having on the people being listened to and the influence it was creating and increasing of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) over them.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَقُولُواْ رَٰعِنَا وَقُولُواْ ٱنظُرْنَا
O you who believe! Do not say (while addressing the Prophet): ‘Ra'ina’ (Lend ear to us - a word used also for showing disrespect for the person addressed), but say (an equivocal phrase) ‘Unzurna’ (we beg your attention). (Verse 104, Al-Baqarah (2), Part 1)
6) Appropriate & Compassionate Language
When we interact with a fellow human being we have to use the medium of language to communicate; to convey and to express our thoughts and message. There are other non-verbal methods humans employ to communicate but language is the most clear form. Hence, human beings are defined by Classical Greek philosophers as that animal that can intelligently speak and communicate (Hewan Natiq / حيوان ناطق).
However, the challenge is to communicate effectively and to employ the best and most appropriate language and the best choice of words for the given moment. This is where many fall and fail. For ordinary humans (like us) this skill can be learnt through focus and practice.
Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) was no ordinary human. Hence, he was blessed with this ability to communicate and speak in the most effective; most impactful; most appropriate language using the best choice of words.
What we also learn that most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) used to talk less and only talk when the situation demanded. And when he spoke it was full of wisdom. The choice of words and the manner it was rendered was perfect for the occasion and moment. What this prophetic trait tells us is it is not the quantity of our words we speak but the quality and depths in our words that matter when we do open our mouth. Some people talk a lot but the outcome is zero. It adds no or very little and insignificant value.
The language employed for every occasion by this greatest man is incredible. Those who have studied the collection of prophetic sayings (Ahadeeth / احاديث) can confidently attest to this greatness.
Ten features that come to mind in the prophetic language that embed the characteristics of being appropriate and full of compassion are:
1. The language was totally full of honesty and truth. It did not have any untruth in it.
2. The language did not contain any exaggeration. This was highly disliked, discouraged and regarded tantamount to lying as we know from the prophetic teachings.
3. The language was always full of meaning and wisdom. It never consisted of nonsensical or meaningless talk. The language and conversation was always complete. It did not contain half sentences or remained incomplete.
4. The language and tone was full of love and compassion. It was the language of love. It was the language of compassion. It did not contain hate or insults. The words would nourish the hearts and minds of the listeners and would remove any pain, grief or suffering they might be experiencing (in their bodies, minds or soul) at the time.
5. The language was very clear and audible from start to end; lucid; concise and perfect for the occasion and moment. Also, the pace was not quick or too slow. And the words and sentences were repeated twice or thrice where it was required.
6. The language (choice of words); manner and tone it was rendered in; style of delivery and level of the message it was pitched at was appropriate and perfect for the occasion and to the right level of the human it was addressed to. At times of happiness the language and tone displayed happiness; at times of anger the language and tone displayed anger; when the situation demanded the message be concise then it was kept short and to the point; when the situation demanded it be detailed then it was prolonged and expanded in a meaningful way; etc. The style was authentic too.
7. The language took into consideration of the intellectual (understanding) and other capacities and capabilities (background) of the human that was being addressed.
8. The situation and context of the addressees was considered before any address. So the most effective and poignant time was chosen. So they were in a receptive mode for the teaching.
9. The language was embedded and infused with examples the person/audience could relate with and that would get the concept and message across effectively.
10. The language was free from any swear, obscene and indecent words. It was also free from any harsh and hateful tones.
These are some high level features of the prophetic language in regards to its use with fellow human beings.
I have mentioned this point above but reiterating here to emphasise the point that connecting at the human level is very different from communicating with humans. Hence, out of the seven cues only one of the cues #6 - Appropriate & Compassionate Language - this cue - is related to communication. The other six cues are all non-verbal. There is a 6-1 ratio between non-verbal and verbal communication.
Also, it is worth mentioning a good number of years ago I presented a seminar titled along the lines of “Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) - The Greatest Orator”. In the seminar I presented why our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) is the greatest orator based on proofs we have. This is a true title too.
The incredible thing is this oratory greatness is just one of numerous greatnesses of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him). Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) embodied all the greatness of all the prophets and messengers (عليهم السلام).
Inclusion of a Seerat topic in some form which also entailed discussing one specific dimension of greatness of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) was a key feature of the seminars I was organising. Hence, it is beyond doubt what Hafiz Shirazi (RA) concluded after the initial attempts at the praises by saying:
لا يمكن الثناء كما كان حقّه
La Yumkin Ath-Thana’u Kama Kana Haqquhu
It is not possible to praise you in the manner you truly deserve. (For that reason the only thing I can say to you in a nutshell is)
بعد از خدا بزرگ توئ قصہ مختصر
Ba’d Az Khuda Buzurg Tu’ee Qissah Mukhtasar
After Allah Ta’ala you most certainly are the greatest (in all aspects of greatness). That is the short of it.
7) Care, Compassion and Supplications in Absence
Inhabiting care and compassion is an integral part of connecting at the human level. The care and compassion should be a static and an integral feature in the presence and absence of the person. However, care and compassion is more powerful when it is also displayed in the absence of the person. Normal people have a disconnect in what they say or display between these two states (presence and absence).
This care and compassion in the absence of a person also sends a very powerful message and effect on those who witness this sincere and compassionate behaviour.
Supplications in their absence and when they don’t even know is one key form of care and compassion for them. When they learn of this care and compassion their hearts will melt.
The care and compassion the blessed heart of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) had for the Companions (Allah be pleased with them all), other humans at the time and for his followers to come after him in their presence or absence is unique, unparalleled and unmatched by any human being.
There are numerous examples of how our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) displayed his care and compassion in regards to his Companions (Allah be pleased with them all) by asking about them in front of them and in their absence.
I will share just two examples of care in their absence.
1. Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) noticed not seeing the lady or the man (different narrations) who would clean the Masjid Nabawi and asked of their well being. Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) was told the person had passed away. Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) asked why he was not informed so he could have prayed the Janazah Salah. The companions said they didn’t want to disturb their beloved as the death occurred at night. Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) then went to his/her grave and prayed for their forgiveness.
2. The care and compassion of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) towards the companions in question is obvious from this Hadeeth (below).
Hazrat Mu’awiyah ibn Qurrah narrates from his father, Hazrat Qurrah ibn Iyas (Allah be pleased with him) that a Sahabi would bring along his son and visit the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him). the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) asked him if he loves his son. He replied yes. Thereafter this Sahabi did not visit the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) for some time. Upon enquiry, the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) was informed that his son had passed away. the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) asked him, ‘Don’t you love [the fact that] that you will find him waiting for you at the doors of Jannah’. Another Sahabi then asked, ‘O the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala! Is this reward specifically for him or for all of us’? The Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) replie: ‘Rather this reward is for all of you’. (Sahih Ibn Hibban)
Our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) connected and established the strong connections with those followers of his that would come after him. This shows the believers to come and the Ummah in general were never far from his blessed mind and spiritual heart. The believers to come and the Ummah were always present in his blessed mind and heart.
I will share just four examples.
1. Remembering and Expressing Desire to Meet Ummati
Hazrat Anas ibn Malik (Allah be pleased with him) reported: “The Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) said: “I wish I could meet my brothers.' The Prophet’s companions (رضي الله عنهم) said: “Are we not your brothers?” The Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) said: “You are my companions, but my brothers are those who have faith in me although they never saw me.”. (Musnad Aḥmad)
2. Supplication for Generation of Followers (Ummati) to Come
Once Sayyida Aishah (Allah be pleased with her) requested that the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) make du’a for her. the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) suplicated: “O Allah! forgive all Aishah’s sins; the past and future and what was done in secrecy or in public.”
Hazrat Aishah (Allah be pleased with her) became extremely happy. The Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) said: “This is my du’a for my Ummah in every salah.” (Musnad Bazzar)
3. Animal Sacrifice (Qurbani) on Behalf of Ummati
Hazrat Abu Talhah (Allah be pleased with him) reported: “The Prophet (saw) sacrificed for the one who could not sacrifice from his Ummah, one who bore witness to the Oneness of Allah and [his] Prophethood.” (Tabarani, Ahmad)
4. Praises of Followers (Ummati) to Come
Praising someone is a good way to connect and even more powerful when it is done in the absence of the person concerned. The sincerity is evident then and more so when they cannot benefit you whatsoever.
I would like to share two examples of praises for the followers who would be coming. One is mentioned by name and the other is just attributed to a certain nation.
1. Praise for Hazrat Uwais Qarni (RA)
Hazrat Usair ibn Jabir (RA) reported that a delegation from Kufa came to Hazrat Umar (Allah be pleased with him) and there was a person amongst them who jeered at Hazrat Uwais Qarni (RA). Thereupon Hazrat Umar (Allah be pleased with him) said: “Is there anyone amongst you from the tribe of Qarn?” That person came forward and Hazrat Umar (Allah be pleased with him) said: “Verily the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) has said: “There would come to you a person from Yemen who would be called Uwais and he would leave none in Yemen (behind him) except his mother, and he would have the whiteness (due to leprosy) and he supplicated to Allah Ta’ala and it was cured except for the size of a dinar or dirham. He who amongst you meets him should ask him to supplicate for forgiveness (from Allah) for you.”” (Muslim)
The thought occurred to me that Hazrat Uwais Qarni (RA) showed great and immense love in absence as he could not attend in person to meet his most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) due to the need to take care of his mother. So our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) showed even greater kindness and love in return through these praises and directing his great companions to show utmost respect of Hazrat Uwais (RA) and ask him to supplicate for forgiveness for them. سبحان الله
2. Praise for a Believer from Faris (فارس)
Hazrat Abu Hurairah (Allah be pleased with him) reported: “While we were sitting with the the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) Surat Al-Jumu'a was revealed to him, and when the Verse, "And He (Allah) has sent him (Muhammad) also to other (Muslims)....." (62:3) was recited by the the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him), I said, "Who are they, O Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him)?” The Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) did not reply till I repeated my question thrice. At that time, Hazrat Salman Al-Farsi (Allah be pleased with him) was with us. So the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) put his hand on Hazrat Salman (Allah be pleased with him), saying: “Even if Faith were at (the place of) Ath-Thuraiya (Pleiades, the highest star), then some man or men from these people (i.e. Salman's nation) would attain it.” (Bukhari)
Faris (فارس) is interpreted to mean non-Arab or of Persian origin.
This prophetic glad tiding some scholars say fits perfectly on Imam Aa’zam Imam Abu Hanifah (RA) who was non-Arab and also had Persian ancestry.
A believer who has not witnessed the Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) cannot but be in awe, feel connected, feel attached, touched, inspired and be influenced by this greatest connector due to these incredible care and compassion in their absence.
All these seven prophetic cues as a whole and by design from this fine art of connecting at the human level in this manner exudes sincerity, authenticity, friendliness, care, compassion, positivity, non-judgement, openness and well wishing for the other person.
It is worth highlighting that in the formulation of these seven prophetic cues to connect I have tried to cover all the three components of the ‘body, mind and soul’ framework. To be an effective connector then all these three components of the human being needs to be touched and stimulated.
Numbers 3,4,5,6 (Attention via the Body & Modest Eye Contact; Sincere Smile; Focused & Compassionate Listening and Appropriate & Compassionate Language) are related to the body whilst numbers 1,2,7 (Sincere Respect at the Core Human Level; Desire to Benefit (Give not Want) and Care, Compassion and Supplications in Absence) are related to both the mind and the soul (spiritual heart). Hence, there is a holistic approach to this formulation and method.
Another way to look at the seven prophetic cues to connect is to categorise them based on the presence or absence of the person you are trying to connect with at the human level.
Numbers 3,4,5,6 (Attention via the Body & Modest Eye Contact; Sincere Smile; Focused & Compassionate Listening and Appropriate & Compassionate Language) are related to the presence aspect as you undertake these in their presence whilst numbers 1,2,7 (Sincere Respect at the Core Human Level; Desire to Benefit (Give not Want) and Care, Compassion and Supplications in Absence) are related to absence as they are primarily done in their absence and they are more important in absence even though these aspects will exist in their presence.
A third way to look at the above seven prophetic cues is from a five senses (outer) and soul (inner) perspective.
Numbers 3,4,5,6 (Attention via the Body & Modest Eye Contact; Sincere Smile; Focused & Compassionate Listening and Appropriate & Compassionate Language) are related to the five senses of the human being whilst numbers 1,2,7 (Sincere Respect at the Core Human Level; Desire to Benefit (Give not Want) and Care, Compassion and Supplications in Absence) are related to soul (inner) aspect of the human being.
It should be clear that I have tried to include and give importance to the five senses and physical aspects (outer) alongside maintaining the inner and spiritual dimension. It is key to have the right balance between the outer and the inner.
To conclude this piece I am suggesting a five step method to make it easy to recall, practice and internalise the sevens prophetic cues to connect at the human level. The five steps are:
1. Firm and Sincere Intention
Make a firm intention to want to sincerely connect at the human level with those you come into contact with on a daily or regular basis or for Deeni purposes using these seven prophetic cues derived from the life of the Greatest Connector, Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him).
2. Focus, Focus, Focus
Create the intense awareness of these seven prophetic cues in the mind and spiritual heart. So they are easily available and accessible to you when you need to apply them.
Start practicing these seven prophetic cues into your daily life. Practice the seven prophetic cues in both your face to face and telephone connections.
4. Repeat, Repeat, Repeat.
Apply the seven prophetic cues. Constantly and continuously practice and repeat these seven prophetic cues until you master them in all situations and connections.
5. Beseech Allah Ta’ala (Dua)
Pray, beg and ask with earnest and fervently from Allah Ta’ala that He blesses you with this prophetic trait so you can further the mission of Islam, mission of our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him).
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to internalise these seven prophetic cues in all our interactions with our fellow human beings.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the true love of the Best of all creation and the Beloved and Final Prophet of Allah Ta’ala, Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) that manifests through actions and observing of the Prophetic teachings and practices.
آمین یارب العلمین بجاہ سیدالمرسلین علیہ الصلوۃ والتسلیم
و صلى الله على النبى الحبيب الشفيع الرؤوف الرحيم
Muhammad Noman Daji
(After Fajar, Friday 20th November 2020 – 5th Rabi-ul-Aakhir 1442 A.H)
P:S: I am a graduate of Darul Uloom Deoband. I certified as an Aalim and a Mufti at this prestigious seat of advanced Islamic learning. I thought it should be mentioned (and has been suggested) so it provides some credibility and comfort for those reading (and who don’t know me).
Muhammad Noman Daji
(After Fajar, Tuesday 10th November 2020 – 24th Rabi-ul-Awwal 1442 A.H)
I was enjoying my daily stroll when I came near a set of trees lined up on the walkway. I had passed a few of the trees when a particular tree caught my eye and attention. This tree was very vibrant, full of colour and abundant with leaves. It had stuck out as the tree before it had lost most of its leaves and the leaves on the other trees were still mostly green.
I paused at this tree to have a good look at this incredible spectacle and a reminder of the greatness of my Creator. I noticed that this single tree had leaves that were of different colour and a range of shades. It was a beautiful sight and the mix of vibrant colours was a feast for the eyes. I stopped for a little while longer and admired the natural splendour and the vibrant beauty and looked closer at the various colours. It is autumn so the leaves have naturally started to change colour creating this vibrant infusion of colours.
The natural colour of the leaves of this tree is green. Hence, some leaves were still completely green. However, other leaves had changed its colour. Some leaves had changed to red; some to darkish purple; some to yellow and some to brown or yellowish brown. At the same time there were leaves which had a mix and infusion of colours. Some leaves had a mix of red, yellow and green whereas some leaves had a mix of purple and green and some other leaves had a mix of red, yellow and brown.
This tree and the line of similar trees were on the walkway at St Katherine Docks. The walkway is called Sun Walk and is located at the East Basin of the Docks. These line of trees (approximately ten) were planted here at this scenic and tranquil location by choice. It was known to those who designed the scenic landscape around the Docks and had suggested this type of tree (and the various other plants, flowers, etc) the changes that will occur in the leaves. These trees were planted as they are beautiful and would enhance and enrich the look of the Docks.
St Katherine Docks is Central London’s Marina. It consists of three basins (West Basin, Central Basin, East Basin). It has a range of classic and modern boats, barges and yachts of varying sizes and shapes moored at these three basins. The royal barge (Gloriana) is also regularly moored here. During the British occupation of India the ships laden with goods (loot) used to dock here as it was a functional dock then. One area of the Docks is called Commodity Quay which is located at the West Basin. The basin closest to the Tower Bridge and the Tower of London.
St Katherine Docks is a stone throw away from the iconic and one of the main defining landmarks of London i.e. Tower Bridge. It is north of the River Thames. It is worth visiting this Central but tranquil part of Central London.
I have a habit and I like to enjoy the natural scene and marvel at the beautiful creation of my Powerful Creator. I like to take particular interest and reflect at the immense power (Qudrat / قدرة) and beauty embedded in the natural creation and the subtle lessons and reminders they give. All the creation sing and display the power and beauty of the Powerful Creator. We human beings just need to slow down, pause, listen, look and open our eyes and see the natural beauty around us and within us. Besides human beings (and Jinn) all the creation are constantly in praise and awe at the Powerful Creator.
The thought that crossed my mind instantly when I looked closely at the leaves and saw the vibrant range of colours staring at me on this single tree and the beauty it was displaying was the beauty and richness that lies and is embedded in the range of races we have based on the colour of skin. This rich diversity in the colour of skin is a beautiful thing. It not only displays the power of Allah Ta’ala but it also enhances the human experience and life on Earth.
The Human Family also stem from one tree. The roots of every human being are our father Hazrat Adam (عليه السلام) and our mother Hazrat Hawwa (عليها السلام). All the human beings of any colour are the leaves of this single tree. Just as the tree I have discussed above is beautiful and pleasing to the eyes due to the range of colours and the vibrancy it has the human family with all the diversity in the colour of the skin is beautiful and an enriching factor.
It was interesting to see and notice the individual leaves on this particular tree were of the shape of a human hand. Each leaf consisted of 5 parts like the five fingers in the human hand. This makeup of the individual leaf coincides beautifully with the categorisation of mankind into five coloured races. They are: Aethiopian or Black, Caucasian or White, Mongolian or Yellow, American or Red and Malayan or Brown subgroups. All the fingers of a single hand are complimentary and are there to enhance and add strength to the power of the hand. Cutting of a finger or subjugating one or two or more fingers will only weaken the hand. It is also very interesting that the colours on the leaves on the tree are very similar to the five colours of the different colours of skin amongst humans.
I have passed these set and line up of trees numerous times but it was only this time this inspiration came glaringly to me as the right set of conditions were present. It is autumn and naturally the leaves change colour; the vibrancy existing in the colours at this particular time and then my mind and spiritual heart being open to receive this inspiration.
Similar to the colour of the skin is the case of the different languages that humans speak. They are all beautiful and enrich the human experience on top of the greatness of the Creator they display.
Allah Ta’ala by design created human beings with different colour of skin and differing languages. He knew exactly why He created this diversity. The goal was so human beings cherish this variety and appreciate its richness.
However, it also becomes a test for people if they want to abuse and create superficial barriers and setup arbitrary blocks based on the colour of skin or the language.
To use these differences to create divisions or to subjugate any race due to the colour of their skin or language or anything else (like religion) stems and is rooted in ignorance and enmity. It is also restricting the potential of human beings as a whole and is a recipe for oppression, discord and transgression in the world.
Discrimination on the basis of skin colour and various others forms of discrimination is an unfortunate reality and a cancer in our world that is on the rise the world over.
The truth is the issue and disease is not in the colour of the skin or the different language but in the mind and in the eyes who have tainted their intellect and sight. It is unfortunate that those who promote and incite hatred and divisions on these basis cannot see the beauty and the richness in this diversity and vibrancy.
Islam does not tolerate this discrimination and has condemned it in the strongest language possible. The condemnation is an integral part of the ethos of Islam and is enshrined in its holy book - The Quran - and the Prophetic sayings.
In the historic and farewell sermon by the Prophet of Islam, our most beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace, blessings and salutations be upon him) made it clear and decided this issue of race and colour once and for all for all of humanity till the Day of Judgement by stating the below historic statement.
“Certainly your Sustainer (Rabb / ربّ) is one. Your parents are one (all mankind are from Adam and Eve). An Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a Red person has no superiority over a Black person nor a Black person has any superiority over a Red person except through piety of the heart and righteousness of actions.” (Tabrani)
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to appreciate and respect these differences and to understand the beauty and richness it embeds.
O Allah Ta’ala! Grant us all the taufeeq, strength, ability and capacity to fight for fairness and justice for all so oppression is eliminated from this planet.
O Allah Ta’ala! Protect us all from looking down at anyone or thinking anyone is inferior due to these superficial differences of the colour of skin or language.
آمین یارب العلمین بجاہ سیدالمرسلین علیہ الصلوۃ والتسلیم
و صلى الله على النبى الحبيب الشفيع الرؤوف الرحيم
Note: This reflection is part of the Series of Short Reflections I have written on a number of important and relevant concepts.
P:S: I am a graduate of Darul Uloom Deoband. I certified as an Aalim and a Mufti at this prestigious seat of advanced Islamic learning. I thought it should be mentioned (and has been suggested) so it provides some credibility and comfort for those reading (and who don’t know me).
وَرَفَعْنَا لَكَ ذِكْرَكَ