This book was named 'Al-Sunan' and was called Sunan Ibn Majah attributing to the author.
Affiliation to Usool Khamsah (Five Principal Books of Hadith)
First of all, Imam Abul Fazl Muhammad bin Tahir Maqdisi (d. 507 H), in his book 'Shurootul Aaimma Al-Sittah', affiliated Sunan Ibn Majah to Usool Khamsah (the five principal books of Hadith i.e. Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawood, Jami'ut Tirmizi and Sunan Nasai.). Thereafter, these six books were known as Sihah Sittah (six most authentic books of Hadith). Some scholars of Hadith have counted Muwatta Imam Malik as the sixth one instead of Sunan Ibn Majah. Firstly, Muhaddith Razin Ibn Mu'awiyah Abdrabbi Sarqati (d. 525 H) has expressed the same view in his book 'Al-Tajreed Lis Sihah was Sunan'. Later, came Imam Ibnul Aseer who also regarded, in his book 'Jami'ul Usool', Muwatta Imam Malik as the sixth out of Sihah Sittah. While, some scholars are of the opinion that Sunan Darami deserved to be counted as the sixth one in place of Sunan Ibn Majah. Since, the traditions of Sunan Darami are better in term of authenticity and correctness that those of Sunan Ibn Majah. This view was first expressed by Hafiz Salahuddin Al-Alaai and later followed him Hafiz Ibn Hajar. .
Number of Traditions in Sunan Ibn Majah
Hafiz Ibn Kaseer introduces Sunan Ibn Majah in his book 'Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah' saying: "Sunan Ibn Majah consists of 32 books, 1500 chapters and 4000 traditions. And, all the traditions are good except some of them." But, according to Sheikh Fuwad Abdul Baqi who has done research on the Sunan mentioned the below details:
"Sunan Ibn Majah comprises of 4341 traditions while 3006 out of them are found in Usool Khamsah. The rest 1339 are not found in Usool Khamsah; 428 out of 1339 are authentic and narrated by reliable sources, 199 are Hasan and 613 are Za'eef, whereas 99 of them are extremely weak even unreliable and forged.
Sunan Ibn Majah in the Eyes of Scholars
Imam Zahabi has quoted in his book Ibn Majah saying: "I showed this Sunan to Abu Zur'ah he went through it and said: I think if people find this book they will cast aside the other books of Hadith or most of them. There will not be even 30 traditions which have some weak points."
This quotation of Abu Zur'ah is sufficient enough to throw some light at the importance of Sunan Ibn Majah. Moreover, the scholars counted it among the Sihah Sittah, though they agree that it holds the sixth position due to consisting of several Za'eef traditions. Hafiz Abul Hajjaj Al-Mizzi writes that the traditions that Ibn Majah narrates individually (not found in Usool Khamsah) are most likely Za'eef. But, this stand is not justified and scholars have criticized it, s Hafiz Ibn Hajar says: "Generally, it is not so as I have discovered, though it contains many Munkar traditions (narrated by unknown narrators)." Hafiz Ibn Hajar means that traditions individually narrated by Ibn Majah are necessarily not Za'eef, because there are many traditions that Ibn Majah only brought in his are reliable. Also, the opinion of Imam Abu Zur'ah that there are less than thirty Zae'eef traditions in Sunan Ibn Majah, is also not right. Since, the scholars have scanned his opinion and verified that the number of Za'eef traditions in Sunan Majah is more than he said. Imam Zahabi writes in his book 'Siyaru A'alamin Nubalae': "If we consider the comment of Abu Zur'ah as correct then it will imply that he meant the traditions that are entirely disapproved. As far as the matter of Za'eef traditions is concerned they might be almost thousand in number. In short, some traditions of Sunan Ibn Majah are Za'eef and 34 of them have been counted as Mauzoo' (false or forged) by Ibnul Jauzi.
Commentaries & Notes
The scholars of Ummah have served Sunan Ibn Majah and have written notes and commentaries on it. Some of these commentaries and notes are as follows:
(1) Hafiz Alauddin Mughlatai has written commentary of some parts of Sunan Ibn Majah in five volumes.
(2) Misbahuz Zujajah ala Sharh Ibn Majah (Al-Suyuti)
(3) Hafiz Burhanuddin Halabi also wrote a commentary.
(4) Al-Deebajah (in 5 volumes by Sheikh Kamaluddin bin Musa)
(5) Ibnul Mulaqqin has written a commentary of the Zawaaid (traditions of Ibn Majah that were not found in Usool Khamsah) separately which is named with 'Ma Tamussu ilaihil Hajah ala Sunan Ibn Majah'.
(6) Notes of Abul Hasan Ibn Abdul Hadi Sindhi
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
Some scholars have written that the name of Imam Nasai's book is 'Al-Mujtaba' or 'Al-Mujtana'. However, it is known as 'Al-Sunan Al-Sughra'. These three names are justified because it appears from the background story of the compilation. The story goes like this that Imam Nasai wrote a book named 'Al-Sunan' and presented it to the Emir of Ramallah. He questioned him whether all the tradition of the book are correct. Imam Nasai's reply was in negative. So, he ordered him to compile a book that contains only authentic traditions. Thus, Imam Nasai took out all the traditions from his book and named the new collection as ' Mujtaba' (selected ones). Also, it is right to call it as 'Al-Mujtana' since it also means 'selected'. This collection was named as 'Al-Sunan Al-Sughra' because it was a summary of the previous one. However, when it is called simply Sunan Nasai or if some scholar says that Imam Nasai narrates so and so, then it implies to this 'Al-Sunan Al-Sughra'. 'Al-Sunan Al-Sughra' was included in the Sihah Sittah (six most authentic books of Hadith). It is noteworthy that Imam Zahabi is of the opinion that it is Ibnus Sunni who has selected Sahih Ahadith from 'Al-Sunan Al-Sughra' and compiled 'Al-Mujtaba'. .
Position of Sunan Nasai in Sihah Sittah
The authors of books on Asmaur Rijal (biographies of the narrators) have placed Sunan Nasai on fifth position and it is commonly known. But, Imam Zahabi has written the ranking of Jami'ut Tirmizi is lesser than that of Sunan Abu Dawood and Sunan Nasai. It implies that Sunan Nasai is on the fourth position. Some Moroccan scholars have given it superiority even on Sahih Bukhari, but this is rare stand and what generally known is that Sunan Nasai holds the fifth position.
Numbers of the Traditions
The total number of traditions in this book is 5761 and most of them are authentic. Therefore, some people have called it as Sahih.
Sunan Nasai in the Eyes of Great Scholars
Abul Hasan Musiri says: "Whenever I looked it to the traditions I found that those narrated by Imam Nasai are nearer to authenticity than the traditions of others."
Hafiz Ibn Rashid has introduced Nasai with these words: "Sunan Nasai is an excellent book among Sunan as per its order and compilation. It assembled the patterns of Imam Bukhari and Muslim. Also, it contains descriptions of the points where some fault has occurred."
Muhammad bin Mu'awiyah Ahamr says: "Sunan Nasai is authentic and only some traditions are having faults, but Imam Nasai has not mentioned its weak points. The collection of traditions named with Al-Mujtaba is entirely perfect.
Most traditions of Sunan Nasai are perfect, therefore some people have regarded it as Sahih. Otherwise, all the traditions of Nasai are not Sahih. Nevertheless, the weak traditions in Sunan Nasai are less in number in comparison to other Sunan books.
Method of Sunan Nasai & Characteristics
(1) It surpasses other book as per its order and style of compilation
(2) Imam Nasai also mentions one Hadith under different chapter like Imam Bukhari.
(3) On the pattern of Imam Muslim, he writes different chains of a tradition and points out the differences in the wordings.
(4) He discusses the weak points of tradition and their reasons. Imam Nasai is known for expertise about secret weak points of narrations.
(5) If there is some confusion in the name, nickname or something else then he states it. He verified whether the narrator met his teacher or not, whether the Hadith is Muttasil or Mursal. At places, he elucidates the meaning of difficult words.
Commentaries and Notes on Sunan Nasai
Sunan Nasai was not given so homage which it deserves. There is no comprehensive commentary written on the book. However, there are some notes and commentaries:
(1) Al-Im'aan fi Sharh Sunan Al-Nasai (Sheikh Abul Hasan Ali bin Abdulah Ansari Undulusi)
(2) Sharh Ibnul Mulaqqan (Ibnul Mulaqqan has written commentary of the traditions of Sunan Nasai which are not mentioned in Sahihain, Sunan Abu Dawood and Tirmizi)
(3) Zahrur Ruba (Imam Suyuti)
(4) The notes and comments of Sheikh Abul Hasan bin Abdul Hadi Sindhi
(5) The notes and comments of Sheikh Muhammad Ataullah Hanif Bhojyani
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
This book is named 'Al-Sunan'. Also, it is called 'Sunan Abu Dawood attributing to the author. In the terms of Hadith, Suann is a book of Hadith that is compiled on the Fiqhi order. Sunan Abu Dawood has been written on Fiqhi pattern so it is called .Sunan'. It appears from the writings of Imam Abu Dawood that he also named his book with 'Sunan' as he says in his booklet written addressing the people of Makkah: "You asked me to tell you that the traditions written down in 'Al-Sunan' are the most authentic ones."
At another place he says: "There are some traditions in my book 'Al-Sunan' that are not 'Muttasil' (directly reaching to the Prophet-pbuh) but they are 'Mursal' (reaching to only a companion)."
These texts prove that Imam Abyu Dawood himself named his book as 'Al-Sunan'.
Method of Sunan Abu Dawood
Imam Abu Dawood himself has described his method with details in the booklet written for the people of Makka. He writes:
"You asked me to tell you that the traditions written down in 'Al-Sunan' are the most authentic ones, so you should know that they are most authentic. Yes, there are some traditions that are narrated by two chains; one is better as per the chain of narration and the other is better in view of the memory of the narrators. I chose the ones which were better as per the memorization. Still, there are only about ten traditions of this kind in my book. I wrote only one or two traditions under a chapter, though there were several other Sahih (authentic) traditions. I intended only to provide something beneficial for the people. If I wrote mote than one Hadith in a chapter that means that the later one comprises of additional meaning that the former does not. At places I have shortened the long traditions since it might be difficult for the people to understand why that particular Hadith was mentioned there. There is not a single Hadith in this book that is narrated by any Matrook (one who was forsaken) narrator. If there happened any Munkar Hadith I mentioned it but warned again it. I mentioned Munkar Hadith only when there were no other traditions higher in rank. In my book I have notified the traditions that were very weak; even some of them are not having authentic chain of narrator. However, the tradition about which I do not make any comment they are free from any fault. Among these traditions, some are more than authentic than others.
Concisely, the method he adopted in his book is as follows:
(1) He selects the most authentic Hadith related to the chapter.
(2) He did not mention all traditions related to the chapter but mentions only one or two of them.
(3) He shortens the long traditions and mentions only the part that is related to the chapter.
(4) He does not accept the traditions of a narrator about whom the scholars of Hadith have stated he is Matrook (one whose traditions have been forsaken by scholars of Hadith).
(5) If a Hadith is narrated by two ways and one way consists of some additions then he mentions it also.
(6) If a Hadith is narrated by several narrators then he takes the tradition of most trusted one.
(7) If he happened to mention any weak Hadith he wrote a note on it.
(8) Also, he mentions Munkar Hadith only when there is no other better Hadith present in the chapter.
(9) The traditions about which Imam Abu Dawood makes no remark and keeps silent then the Hadith is Salih.
The Ulama differ in what he meant by Salih. Imam Ibn Salah says that the traditions mentioned in Abu dawood without a comment if they are not found in Sahihain (Sahih Bukhari and Muslim) and none of the Imam of Hadith has criticized on it then we shall take that Hadith as 'Hasan' of Abu Dawood though it is not Hasan according to other scholars of Hadith. (Ibn Salah, Uloomul Hadith, 33)
But, Hafiz Ibn Hajar says that the traditions mentioned in Abu dawood without a comment cannot be said as Hasan; rather they are divided in to four sections: (a) the traditions are found in Sahihain or are merely Sahih. (b) Some of them are Hasan li Zatihi (c) some are Hasan li Ghairihi. The traditions about which Imam Abu Dawood kept mum are generally related to the second and third grades. (d) Some are Za'eef (weak), but the weakness is not so powerful; since none of the narrators of him is unanimously forsaken and rejected by scholars. (Hafiz Ibn Hajar, Al-Nukat, Vol1, P 453)
Imam Nawawi elucidated the saying of Imam Abu Dawood stating that the traditions that are mentioned in Abu Dawood without a comment and any noteworthy scholar labeled it as Hasan then we shall accept it as Hasan. And, if any trusted scholar of Hadith has labeled it as Za'eef or they pointed out any fault in the narrating chain leading to weakness and that particular fault is not removed then that Hadith will be regarded as Za'eef and the silence of Imam Abu Dawood will not be accepted. According to Hafiz Ibn Hajar, this statement of Imam Nawawi is a scholarly and research-oriented one.
Conditions of Abu Dawood for Accepting Ahadith
We have mentioned some details about the condition of Imam Abu Dawood falling under the conditions of Sahihain. Some of the remaining conditions are written below:
Hafiz Abul Fazl Muhammad bin Qahir writes the summary of the conditions in his book 'Shurootul Aaimmah Al-Sittah Page 13-16). He says that traditions of these Hadith books are of three kinds:
(1) The traditions that are mentioned in Sahihain.
(2) Traditions that are in accordance with the conditions of authors of Sunan.
(3) There are traditions which contain matters that are in a bird's view contradictory to the chapter mentioned before. But, the purpose behind it is that these traditions have not been out of the sight of these authors. They do not mean that these tradition are in fact Sahih but most of the time the authors themselves have pointed out its fault and mistake.
Some commentaries of Abu Dawood
(1) Ma'alimus Sunan (Abu Sulaiman Hamd bin Muhammad Khattabi)
(2) Mirqatus Sa'uood ila Sunan Abi Dawood (Al-Suyuti)
(3) Fathul Wadood ala Sunan Abi Dawood (Muhammad bin Abdul Hadi Sindhi)
(4) Aunul Ma'bood (Sheikh Shamsul Haq Azimabadi)
(5) Bazlul Majhood fi Hall Abi Dawood (Sheikh Khlalil Ahmad Saharanpuri)
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
This book is called with three different names:
(1) 'Al-Jami' or 'Jami'ut Tirmizi': Jami' means comprehensive. It was named so because it covers eight chapters: Jihad, Ethics, Quranic exegesis, Faith, trials, injunctions, Ashrat (signs) and Manaqib (virtues of famous personalities).
(2) 'Al-Sunan' or 'Jami'us Sunan': Sunan are called the books that were compiled on the Fiqhi order. This book was called Sunan since it was also written on the same pattern.
(3) 'Al-Jamius Sahih' or 'Al-Musnad Al-Sahih': Some scholars like Imam Hakim and Imam Khatib Baghdadi regarded it as 'Sahih'. But, according to most scholars of Hadith, can not be said as Sahih, though most of its traditions are authentic and true.
Position of Jami'ut Tirmizi
There are three opinions which differ in describing it order among the six books:
(1) It is on the third position after the Sahih Muslim and Bukhari. Those who put on the third have considered its usefulness.
(2) Some scholars who have written books on the biography of the narrators have put it on the fourth position.
(3) Imam Zahabi has counted it fifth most authentic after Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abi Dwood, Sunan Nasai.
Method of Compilation
Imam Tirmizi has compiled his book on Fiqhi pattern. First, he gives a comprehensive chapter entitled with 'Abwab' under which he mentions tradition dividing in to many subtitles. The names of titles usually are extracted from the text of the Hadith mentioned below. Thereafter, he narrates one or two Hadith. Then, he classifies the grade of the particular Hadith. Sometimes, he quotes the comments of scholars about the narrating chain and describes the status of narrators. Finally, if there are some more traditions related to the title he indicates to them saying: "there are some more traditions from so and so on."
Conditions of Imam Tirmizi for Accepting Ahadith
It is to be mentioned clearly that Imam Tirmizi or the other authors of the Hadith books did not clarify any specific conditions. The scholars of Hadith, having studied thoroughly their books, have discovered these conditions. Imam Hazimi in his book 'Shurootul Aimmah' and Imam Maqdisi in 'Shurootul Aimmah Al-Sittah' have penned down them in details. According to these scholars of Hadith the conditions of Imam Tirmizi are inferior than those of Imam Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood and Nasai. It is stated that Imam Bukhari sets the condition that the narrator is bestowed with better memory and has companied his Sheikh for a long time. Imam Muslim adheres to the conditions that the narrator should have sharp mind, he did not stick to the condition of 'companying Sheikh'. Abu Dawood and Nasai have set the condition of companying Sheikh for a long time and have not emphasized on 'sharp-mindedness' while Imam Tirmizi has not stressed on both the conditions. Also, it is worth mentioning that the meaning of the conditions that these scholars of Hadith have not gone below these conditions and have accepted traditions that were above their standard.
Sulasiyat of Jami'ut Tirmizi
'Sulasi' is a Hadith that is narrated by only a chain of three narrators reaching to the Prophet (pbuh). There is only one 'Sulasi' in Jami'ut Tirmizi. So, in this Hadith there are only three narrators between Imam Tirmizi and the Prophet (pbuh). Mulla Ali Qari has mistakenly described that there is a 'Sunai' Hadith (narrated only by two narrators). There is no such Hadith in Jami'ut Tirmizi.
False Traditions in Jami'ut Tirmizi
Imam Ibn Jauzi, in his book 'Al-Mauzuaat Al-Kubra' has counted 23 traditions of Jami'ut Tirmizi as false and forged ones. But, Imam Suyuti has defended it in his book 'Al-Qaulul Hasan fiz Zabb anil Hasan' and removed the misconceptions that were raised by Ibn Jauzi.
Importance of Jami'ut Tirmizi and Salient Features
Imam Tirmizi himself says about his book: "I compiled this book and presented it to the scholars of Hijza (Makka and Medina) they liked it, I presented it before the scholars of Iraq they also liked it, then I presented it to the scholars of Khurasan they too liked it. One who has this book in his house as if he has in his house a prophet talking. Imam Abdullah bin Muhammad Ansari says that the book of Tirmizi is more useful to him that the books of Imam Bukhari and Muslim; since, only well-versed scholar can benefit form the books of Bukhari and Muslim, but the book of Imam Tirmizi is useful for all. Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlawi writes in his book 'Bustanul Muhadditheen': "Jami'ut Tirmizi is characterized by other Hadith books for various reasons:
(1) He compiled it a better order and there is no repetition of traditions.
(2) He describes the Fiqhi stand of scholars and mentions their methods of interpretation and derivation.
(3) He gives an account of the narrators' name, nickname and other useful indications.
Sheikh Muhammad Shakir writes that the book of Imam Tirmizi includes these distinct features:
(1) After the Hadith under a chapter, he writes the names of the companions who narrated traditions having same meaning.
(2) He generally mentions the different stands of scholars of Fiqh on the matter.
(3) He pays attention to describe the weak and strong points of Hadith, and categorizes its grade. He offers a good account on the narrators.
Some commentaries of Jami'ut Tirmizi
(1) Aarizatul Ahwazi (Ibnul Arabi)
(2) Qootul Mughtazi (Al-Suyuti)
(3) Tuhfatul Ahwazi (Abdur Rahman Mubarakpuri).
(4) Taqreer-e-Tirmizi (Mahmoodul Hasan Deobandi)
(5) Dars-e-Tirmizi (Mufti Taqi Usmani)
(6) Al-Arfus Shazi (Anwar Shah Kashmiri)
(7) Naf'u Qootil Mughtazi
(8) Tuhfatul Almai (Mufti Sayeed Ahmad Palanpuri)
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
The name of the book is 'Al-Musnad Al-Sahih'. Imam Muslim himself mentions it with this name. Some people called it as 'Jami'e'. However, the book is renowned with Sahih Muslim.
Cause of Compilation
Imam Mulsim described the reason of compilation himself in the foreword of the book saying: "A person wished to acquire the teachings of Hadith regarding the fundamentals of religion, practices, reward and punishment etc, so he expressed his desire to Imam Muslim and requested him to compile a book that contains all these things without repetitions. Also, Imam Muslim was grieved at seeing people not differentiating between true and false traditions. So, Imam Muslim started this work and completed it in a span of fifteen years.
Numbers of Traditions
It is said that the number of traditions in Sahih Muslim is twelve thousand. And, with the deletion of repetitions it decreases to four thousand. Sheikh Fuwad Abdul Baqi has numbered Sahih Muslim and according to him the number of it is 3034.
Method of Compilation
Imam Muslim has compiled his Sahih on the order of 'book and chapter'. But in view of the thickness of the book, he did not write their titles. Later, the scholars of Hadith have classified it into chapters or sections with their titles. Among all these classifications, the classification of Imam Nawawi is the best.
Imam Muslim did not rely chiefly on his personal findings but consulted the great scholars of his age, as he himself says: "I did not record the Hadith that was reliable to me, but I only recorded the traditions that were agreed upon by scholars." Also, he would present all traditions to Hafiz Abu Zur'ah Razi and reject the ones about which Hafiz Abu Zur'ah indicated any defect and choose the ones which were sanctioned by Hafiz Abu Zur'ah. He says: "Whatever traditions I put in this collection are with proof and whatever I rejected are also with proof. I compiled this book selecting Ahadith from a pile of three hundred thousand traditions. He paid so exclusive attention to the compilation that he himself stated: "If the scholars of Hadith will keep on writing Ahadith for two years then also they will have to depend on this book."
Position of Sahih Muslim among Sihah Sittah
Sahih Muslim is the second among the six most authentic books of Hadith. It is believed to be second collection of truest Hadith after Sahih Bukhari. Some scholars have preferred it on Bukhari. Generally, the scholars of Maghrib (Morocco) gave preference to Sahih Muslim over Sahih Bukhari as Abu Ali Neshapuri said: "There is no book more authentic than Sahih Muslim." But, Hafiz Ibn Hajar thinks that this quotation does not mean that Sahih Muslim better than Sahih Bukhari, but it only says that both are equally authentic and perfect. Briefly, the fact is that in the sense of authenticity and accuracy Sahih Bukhari is superior, while in the sense of excellent compilation, less repetitions and much sources Sahih Muslim excels.
Some Characteristics of Sahih Muslim
Sahih Muslim is distinguished among other collections of tradition because of below mentioned reasons:
(1) Better compilation
(2) Fluent style
(3) Paying exclusive attention to 'Riwayah Bil Lafz' (narrating exact wordings)
(4) Distinguishing between 'Haddasana' and 'Akhbarana' (two different ways of narration)
(5) Recording the exact words of narrators
(6) Switching to chains of narrations with shortening them
His Ideology about 'Mu'an'an' Traditions
The traditions which are narrated with the word 'A'n' are called 'Mu'an'an'. Imam Muslim has accepted the 'Mu'an'an' traditions of the narrators who were not Mudallis (the narrator who narrates from the teacher of his teacher instead of narrating from his teacher) provided that the period of the narrator and the narrated is same and their meeting is possible. He, in the foreword of his book, sternly objected to those who conditioned that a 'proof of meeting' is compulsory.
Some commentaries of Sahih Muslim
The number of commentaries and annotations exceeds twenty. Here are the names of some well known ones:
(1) Ikmalul Muallim fi Sharh Muslim (Qazi E'yaz)
(2) Siyanah Sahih Muslim (Ibnus Salah)
(3) Al-Minhaj fi Sharh Sahih Muslim bin Hajjaj (Al-Nawawi)
(4) Al-dibaj ala Sahih Muslim bin Hajjaj (Al-Suyuti)
(5) Fathul Mulhim (Shabbir Ahmad Usmani)
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
This book of Imam Bukhari is known as ‘Sahih-ul-Bukhari’, but it original name is very long. According to Hafiz Ibn Hajar its name is: ‘Al-Jami’us Sahih Al-Musnad min Hadith Al-Rasool Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam wa Sunanihi wa Ayyamihi’. But, according to Ibn Salah the name is: ‘Al-Jami’ul Musnad Al-Sahih Al-Mukhtasar min Umoorir Rasool Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam wa Sunanihi wa Ayyamihi’
Hafiz Ibn Hajar, in the preface of his book Fathul Bari, has mentioned the compilation background of Sahih Bukhari, that are as follows:
(1) The books that were compiled before Imam Bukhari had both Za’eef and Sahih traditions, that might prove difficult for people to differentiate between Sahih and Za’eef. Therefore, he intended to write a book that contains only true and authentic traditions.
(2) Also, he was inspired to compile a book by his teacher Ishaq bin Rahwaih who asked his students: “It would be better if you collect the authentic traditions.” Imam Bukhari says that it stuck to his heart and he started compiling his Sahih.
(3) Imam Bukhari saw a dream that he is moving a fan on the Prophet (pbuh). The scholars of the age told that it meant that he shall remove the falsehood and lie surrounding the traditions of the Prophet (pbuh). Imam Bukhari says that it inspired him to write ‘Al-Jami’us Sahih’.
Extraordinary Caution & Carefulness in Compiling Sahih Bukhari
Imam Bukhari paid his utmost attention to compile his book. He says that he did not write even a single Hadith in his book without having bath and praying two Rak’ats. Some biographers also have quoted Imam Bukhari saying: “I did not include any Hadith in this book but when I consulted Allah, prayed to him and insured its authenticity.
Duration of Compilation
Imam Bukhari himself says that he has compiled this book within a period of sixteen years. He selected these traditions from among six hundred thousand ones.
Objective of Sahih Bukhari
The objective of Imam Bukhari is to collect Sahih and authentic traditions. The original name of the book indicates to it. Moreover, he described it on many places of his book as he says: “I mentioned in my book only Sahih traditions and rejected so many Sahih traditions because of their length. There is a famous quotation of him that he has mentioned only Sahih tradition in his book and the Sahih traditions he left is more than he mentioned.
This is a proof that he intended to collect only authentic traditions, but he did not intend to collect entire Sahih traditions. So, there are many Sahih traditions in other books of Hadith apart from Bukhari. It is worth mentioning that though Imam Bukhari had determination to collect authentic traditions but the Fiqhi derivations of Imam Bukhari sayings of the Companions and their successors mentioned under the titles of chapters are not as authentic as the other traditions. But, they also include many useful things.
Number of Traditions in Sahih Bukhari
Hafiz Ibn Salah said that the number of traditions in Bukhari is four thousand with repetations. But, the renowned commentator of Sahih Bukhari, Hafiz Ibn Hajar has mentioned the number of traditions in Bukhari with details:
(1) Number of Marfu’ Muttasil traditions with repititions 7394
(2) Number of Marfu’ Mu’allaq traditions with repititions 1341
(3) Mutab’aat etc. 344
(1) Number of Marfu’ Muttasil traditions without repititions 2602
(2) Number of Marfu’ Mu’allaq traditions without repititions 0159
Repetition of Traditions in Bukhari & its Reason
Sahih Bukhari is not only a collection of traditions but also it contains Fiqhi derivations and interpretative judgments. It is known to all that most of the time one Hadith contains so many meanings and matters so the particular Hadith is mentioned under various titles. Sahih Bukhari also consists of repeated traditions. But, Imam Bukhari has hardly repeated any Hadith with the same chain of narration and words. Most of the time, he mentioned the repeated Hadith with other chain of narration, while sometime he shortens it and mentions only the part concerning to the title.
Conditions of Imam Bukhari for Acceptance of HAdith in His Sahih
It is not easy to describe the conditions of Imam Bukhari and the authors of rest five Hadith books for accepting Hadith. Since, they have not clearly set up these conditions. They have only indicated it vaguely at some places in their books. Later, the scholars have derived their conditions after a thorough study of their books and the narrators' biography. There are two books on the subject that are complementary of each other. One is 'Shurootul Aaimmah Al-Khamsah' of Imam Abu Bakr Hazmi while the other 'Shurootul Aaimmah Al-Sittah' og Abul Fazl Maqdisi. The summary of Bukhari's condition is that he narrates from those who are reliable, trusted and narrate with continuous chain to the Prophet (pbuh). He preferred the traditions of more than one narrators and accepted the traditions of single narrator also provided he is reliable. For example, analyzing the terms and conditions of Sihah Sittah, we divided that students of Imam Zuhri in five categories:
1. Those who had high class Hifz (brainpower) and had accompanied Imam Zuhri for a long time.
2. Those who had high class Hifz (brainpower) but had not accompanied Imam Zuhri for a long time.
3. Those who did not have high class Hifz (brainpower) and had accompanied Imam Zuhri for a long time.
4. Those who did not have high class Hifz (brainpower) and have not accompanied Imam Zuhri for a long time.
5. Those who are weak or those about whom there is no details available.
From amongst the five categories, Imam Bukhari only relies on the first category of narrators and these narrators meet his conditions of accepting a Hadith. He sometimes mentions some selected traditions of narrators from the second category and in some cases he refers to the traditions of the narrators from second and third category for strength. Imam Muslim accepts the traditions of the narrators from first and second categories definitely and refers to the traditions of the narrators from third and forth category for strength. Imam Abu Dawood and Imam Nasai accept the traditions of the narrators from first to third categories wholeheartedly and refer to the traditions of the narrators from the forth and fifth categories for strength. Imam Tirmizi accepts the traditions of the narrators from first to fourth category and refers to the traditions of the narrators from fifth category for strength. While, Imam Ibn Majah accepts the traditions narrators from all categories.
It is noteworthy that the traditions narrated with the word 'a'n' (from) where the narrator did not mention clearly that he listened it from his sheikh, Imam Bukhari apply a condition that the meeting between the narrator and his sheikh should be proved. While, Imam Muslim set the condition that only a possibility of meeting should be found.
Fiqhi Derivations in Bukhari's Titles
First of all, Imam lays out a chapter and then mentions the Fiqhi matter that is derived from the below Hadith and sometimes mentions a part of the Hadith. This is called as 'Tarjamatul Bab' (headline). All the authors of Sihah Sittah, except Imam Muslim, adopt the same method. But, Imam Bukhari has presented it as an art and has applied his mind so artfully and thoroughly that scholars are amazed to realize it. At some places, the headline matches the text below while sometimes the relation between the title and the Hadith is quite ambiguous. Therefore, the commentators have paid exclusive attention to it, even some of them have written separate books over the topic.
Status of Sahih Bukhari & Its Significance
Sahih Bukhari holds the first position among Sihah Sittha, therefore it is called 'most authentic book after the Quran'. Hafiz Ibn Hajar, Imam Ibn Salah, Imam Nawawi, Hafiz Ibn Kaseer and other scholars of Islam have written that the Ummah has unanimously agreed that the traditions of Sahih Bukhari and Muslim are reliable and authentic except a few of them. Comparing Sahih Bukhari
Translated and partly prepared by:
Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
Imam Malik named his book on Hadith as ‘Muwatta’
and it was known with this name. There are two reasons to name the book as Muwatta:
Cause of Compiling
- 'Muwatta' means 'a thing that is made easy'. It was named Muwatta since Imam Malik made Hadith easy for people. Muhammad bin Ibrahim Kanani says that he asked Imam Abu Hatim Razi why Imam Malik’s book was named as Muwatta. He replied that Imam Malik made Hadith easy for people by writing this book. Therefore, this book is known as Muwatta.
- Muwatta also means 'a thing that is agreed upon'. The scholars of Medina approved of this book and agreed that it contains correct traditions, therefore it was named Muwatta. Imam Malik himself says: “I presented this book to seventy scholars of Fiqh at Medina and each of them approved it .
Hafiz Ibn-ul-Bar narrates from Mufazzal bin Muhammad bin Harb that in Medina, first of all, Abdul Aziz bin Abdullah bin Abi Salma compiled issues that were agreed upon. This book did not include traditions. When this book was passed on to Imam Malik he looked at it with admiration and appreciation. He remarked that had I did I would have begun it with traditions. Thus, an idea of compiling book came to his mind and later it was materialized in the shape of ‘Muwatta’. Subject of Muwatta
The subject of Muwatta is to collect the traditions of the Prophet (Sallallhu Alaihi Wasallam), the sayings of the companions and the quotations of the Tab’een. Manuscripts of Muwatta
Several students of Imam Malik narrated Muwatta from him. Their manuscripts differed in the numbers of the traditions as well as the order of the chapters. Among many manuscripts, four got popularity:
(1) Muwatta narrated by Yahya bin Yahya
(2) Muwatta narrated by Ibn Bukair
(3) Muwatta narrated by Abu Mus’ib
(4) Muwatta narrated by Ibn Wahab Numbers of Traditions in Muwatta
According to the manuscript of Yahya bin Yahya Undulusi the number of Marfoo’ traditions (narrated with a continuous chain to the Prophet) in Muwatta is 853 whereas Abu Bakr Abhari says that the number of all traditions in Muwatta is 1720. The number of Marfoo’ and Muttasil Ahadith is 600, that of Marfoo’ Mursal is 222, that of Mauqoof (sayings of the companions) is 613 and that of Maqtoo’ (sayings of the Tab'een) is 285. (Al-Suyuti, Tanwirul Hawalik, 8)
However, there are differences about the number of the traditions in Muwatta that is based on the differences between its various manuscripts. Likewise, Imam Malik himself kept on making changes and modifications in his book for a period of forty years. Duration of Compilation
After a hard work of about forty years Muwatta came in to being. Ibn Abdur Barr narrates from Umar bin Abdul Wahid that he said: We studied Muwatta before Imam Malik in forty days, so he said: "The book which I compiled in forty years, you have taken it from me in forty days.” Importance of Muwatta & Its Position
This renowned and popular book of Hadith, on one hand, is the pioneering collection of traditions and on the other hand it enjoys a high ranking as per the authenticity of the traditions and the many more advantages. One can realize the importance of the book that, according to Ibnul Hubab, Imam Malik used to narrate one hundred thousand traditions and out of which only ten thousand were recorded in Muwatta. Thereafter, he continued making modifications until it was reduced to only 500 Ahadith. Abul Hasan bin Fahar has quoted the saying of Atiq bin Yaqub that earlier Muwatta contained ten thousand traditions, but Imam Malik kept on reviewing and excluding some of the traditions until it reached to the point where it is today. Due to untiring and tremendous efforts of Imam Malik his book earned popularity. People appreciated it and regarded its traditions as correct and authentic. Imam Shaf’ee pays tribute to him saying: "Muwatta of Imam Malik is most authentic after the book of Allah.” It is to be mentioned that this saying of Imam Shaf’ee dates to the period when Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim were not compiled. However, this quotation reflects the significance of Muwatta. Apart from Imam Shaf’ee, Imam Tahtawi also has termed Muwatta as ‘Al-Sahih’. It means that some scholars have regarded all the contents of Muwatta as authentic. His sincerity and piety also played a part to popularize his book. There were some people who tried to write books on his pattern. When he was informed of them he wished to see these books. Having seen the books, he remarked: "You should know that only the things are accepted by Allah which are based on true intentions and devotion." So, today no Muwatta of that time remains except that of Imam Malik. The below story also sheds some light on his purity of intention:
When caliph Mansoor came Hejaz for Hajj pilgrimage he requested that I want to ask people to prepare copies of your book and send them to different cities and command Muslims to follow them. Imam Malik prevented him to do so saying that the traditions have reached far and wide, and people are acting accordingly. Let them follow the way of their choice.
Imam Abu Na’eem Asfahani has mentioned a similar story related to caliph Haroon Al-Rashid and Imam Malik. Imam Malik says that Haroon requested him that Muwatta should be tied to the door of Ka’bah and people should be ordered to follow it. But, Imam Malik replied: "Do not do hat, the Companions themselves have differed in smaller details of Shariah and these opinions have spread in different cities."
These stories evidently prove that Imam Malik had true intention and sincerity. Had he wished fame he would have not missed this golden chance of spreading his book and his Fiqhi School in the Islamic world. Commentaries of Muwatta
Imam Qazi I’yaz says that as much works were done on Muwatta no such works were done on any other book. He mentioned ninety scholars who have served Muwatta by any way. Some of the celebrated commentaries are:
(1) Al-Tamheed Lima fil Muwatta minal Ma’ani wal Asaneed
(2) Al-Istizkar (Summary of the above one) these two commentaries were written by Imam Ibnur Barr. These have been published and are found. It is said that there is one more commentary of him.
(3) Al-Qabas (Ibnul Arabi Maliki)
(4) Imam Suyuti also has written three books on Muwatta: (a) Kashful Mughatta fi Sharhil Muwatta (b) Tanweerul Hawalik ala Muwatta Imam Malik (c) Is’aful Mubatta fi Rijalil Muwatta
(5) Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlawi also has written two commentaries: (a) Al-Musaffa (in Persian) (b) Al-Musawwa (in Arabic)(6) Awjaz al-Masalik (Shaikhul Hadith Maulana Zakariya Kandhlawi)
Translated and partly prepared by: Mufti Obaidullah Qasmi, Maulana Afzal Qasmi, Mufti Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
by Muahammadullah Khalili Qasmi Madrasa Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur
was established in November 1866 just months after Darul Uloom Deoband was founded in May 1866. One of the aims and objectives of Darul Uloom Deoband’s establishment was to introduce such madrasas and Islamic seminaries across the country. Following this policy, a number of such madrasas were started in several cities many of them not even exist rather flourish like Madrasa Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur and Madrasa Qasmia Shahi in Moradabad. Many such madrasas were started in Delhi, Meerut, Khurja, Buland Shahar, Amroha, Saharanpur etc. But, Madrasa Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur got more popularity among all these madrasas and was prominently known by the great UIama and scholars of Hadith it produced.
Madrasa Mazahir Uloom was established by luminaries like Hadhrat Maulana Ahmad Ali Saharanpuri (Muhaddith and Commentator of Sahih Bukhari), Hadhrat Maulana Mazhar Ali Nanotawi, Hadhrat Maulana Sa’adat Ali Faqih. The Madrasa was patronized by Hadhrat Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (1829-1905). The Madrasa touched the peak of fame and name during the time when Hadhrat Maulana Khalil Ahmad Saharanpuri (185-1927) and later Shaikhul Hadith Maulana Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi (1898-1982) taught there as Shaikh al-Hadith.
The Madrasa produced a number prominent and distinguished Ulama, especially the scholars of hadith literature. The founder of Nadwatul Ulama Lucknow, Maulana Muhammad Ali (Kanpuri and later) Mongiri, Maulana Zafar Usmani of I’la al-Sunan, Maulana Badr Alam Meeruti, Maulana Idris Kandhlawi, Maulana Hayat Sambhali and Maulana Abdur Rahman Kamilpuri were products of this great seat of learning. In recent past, Maulana Yusuf Kandhlawi, Mufti Mahmood Hasan Gangohi, Hadhrat Qari Muhammad Siddiue Bandwi, Maulana Abdul Haleem Faizabad (Jaunpuri), Maulana Abrarul Haq Hardoi etc were alumni of this Madrasa. The famous Hadith commentaries like Bazl al-Majhood and Awjaz al-Masalik were written in Mazahir Uloom. Fazail Aamal was also written by Shaikh Zakariya in Mazahir Uloom.
Madrasa Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur is well known throughout Islamic world for its religious and cultural contributions. But, unfortunately this great Madrasa was also divided in 1983 and two madrasas came into being: (1) Jamia Mazahir Uloom Jadeed (2) Mazahir Uloom Waqf Qadeem. However, now both the Madrasas are actively busy in imparting high Islamic education to Muslims. Here is the websites:
· Jamia Mazahir Uloom Jadeed: http://jamiamazahiruloom.com
· Mazahir Uloom Waqf Qadeem: http://mazahiruloom.org
Here are some articles regarding the great personalities of Mazahir Uloom Saharanpur:
BY: Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi
It is the time of school examinations and subsequent summer vacation. This is an important turn in your child’s life. He or she is going to complete one year studies and is ready to stride towards the next class. At this stage of time, there are many things that should concern parents and the elder family members.
Children are the most valuable asset of a family and of a nation. They are to inherit the burden of responsibility to run a home, a society and even a nation. It is not so easy to bring up a child. It takes so much time, energy, understanding and wisdom. If the children are well-handled and well nourished they are transformed into civilized citizens and bring peace and honour to their family and country.
The children at their tender age are more vulnerable to contract physical, moral and spiritual diseases. Therefore, this age is very much significant for them and this increases the responsibility of parents many a fold. This is a stage of life from where the nature, habit and behaviour takes its direction. If the orientation of a child is not set right the same tender and little boy turns into violent and criminal man. Of course, every criminal or bad person today has surely been a child at a previous time. It is not so that only children at unhealthy and poor environment develop bad habits and criminal mentality but there are many a heinous and monstrous acts and crimes that are being perpetrated by those who have been nourished even a better and healthful environment.
ROLE OF PARENTS AND TEACHERS
Parents and teachers are the best models and ideals for a child. Undoubtedly, the first school of a child is his or her mother’s lap. From there he unconsciously is inculcated good and bad habits. With the passage of time these habits grow and gain strength. If the overall development environment for a child is better he is instilled good character, but when the home environment does not offer the necessary support structure then he takes a wrong direction.
Therefore, it is recommended that the environment of a home should be quite healthy in term of morality and spirituality. The parents should get rid of family conflicts and domestic violence. This is common problem of younger ones in this era, when at the tenderness of his and her age the child witnesses breaking of ties rather than experiencing warmth of love and sympathy. The weakening of the family unit reduces it to be no longer able to function as a support system and to be able to supply the children with a sense of stability. AAs a reaction to the stress in the environment and lack of parenting skills their physical, moral and spiritual growth is affected.
It is the parents who can know their child better. Hence, they should try to evaluate the potentiality and capability of their child and provide him with necessary support. The limits and capabilities of child should neither be underestimated nor overestimated. And, once they are identified correctly should be given full freedom to function properly.
Teachers spend so much time with their students; therefore they also play an important part in shaping the life of a child. But, it is a tragic fact of our time that student-teacher relation has been reduced to a commercial level. Teachers shirk their duty of being a role model and avoid treating their students as their children.
AVOID GIVING STRESS OR PRESSURE
Due to overloaded education system and competitive environment in school and home the children are burdened to perform better beyond their limits and energy. Sometimes, the parents and in many cases school teachers exert a pressure on students to excel. This leaves many harmful consequences upon a child. Childhood and adolescence is a time when ordinary levels of stress are heightened by physical, psychological, emotional and social changes.
It is no doubt is a universal fact that all fingers are not equal. The children vary in mental power, understanding, vision, taste and natural orientations. In schools and studies some are brilliant and sharp-minded while some are lazy and dull. But, it does not mean that the dull ones are of no use. There is not a minor thing created useless by Allah in this universe so what about a human being! It is our duty to discover the inner abilities hidden in a person and utilize it in the right direction.
Some boys or girls may be slow in studies, but they must be having some other qualities that might not exist in their brilliant fellows. So, the task of the teacher and parents is to identify their skill and deal with them accordingly. Some teachers intentionally or unintentionally end up putting a lot of pressure on youngsters. It is due to the unhealthy student teacher ratio in Indian schools. Teachers as a result fail to deal with students on an individual basis. Stress and pressure is not necessarily a bad thing; it can often push students to a better performance. But, what is needed is a positive parenting and teaching skill that opens communication channels and provides the child a chance to prosper in his or her field. We should not expect from every one the same performance.
The pressure on children to score high should be moderated, both by parents and schools. Because, when they feel like they can't fulfil their wishes and can't satisfy hopes of parents they tend to adopt escapist measures such as drugs, withdrawal, and even some succumb to the pressures of exams and competition. Suicide among teenagers was a syndrome that was known only with West till recently. But, now our own country India is witnessing an alarming upward trend of suicides among the younger generation. The highest suicide rate in the world has been reported among young women in South India. Suicide is one of the commonest causes of death among young people. Suicide is the sixth leading cause of death among children aged 5-14 years, and the third leading cause of death among all those 15-24 years old. The latest mean worldwide annual rates of suicide per 100 000 were 0.5 for females and 0.9 for males among 5-14-year-olds, and 12.0 for females and 14.2 for males among 15-24-year-olds, respectively. In most countries, males outnumber females in youth suicide statistics. Though female teens are much more likely to attempt suicide than males, male teens are four times more likely to actually kill themselves.
However, one of the main problems with our education system is that it has been made a commercial establishment rather than an educational organization. The target of education has been set fully to materialism and money-fetching industry; whereas it is more moral, spiritual and value-oriented than just earning a piece of bread. Due to this shifting of target and highly competitive society the parents and family members expect their children to surpass the competitions and overtake others.
GIVE THEM SOME TIME AND SHARE MATTERS
Today, mostly in cities and towns the parents are so busy and engaged in their daily routine that they find very little time for their children. This state of affairs is not a good thing for your child. Therefore, a generous emotional, material and intellectual support is necessary to have a child happy and confident. The lack of support and security breeds cconfusion and frustration in children. It is important to maintain open lines of communication with children. Parents need to be as open and as attentive as possible to their children's difficulties and to assure them that they can share their troubles, and gain support in the process. They should be given every opportunity to unburden their troubles and ventilate their feelings.
If you are having more than one child then any one of them should never feel that any injustice or inequality is being done against him or her. Girls deal with issues emotionally compared to boys, who handle their issues aggressively and violently. So they should not feel discouraged, controlled, rejected and abandoned. Do not let him or her unattended, but try to handle them with patience, sympathy and acceptance, and help them develop understanding.
Have you so far thought what programme you have for your child in the ongoing summer vacation? It is a precious time; either you are going to waste it in worthless things or to make it a beneficial period of time for your child. It is very important to chart out constructive programme and study materials that are helpful for developing the mental, moral and spiritual power of your child.
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi can be reached at: email@example.com
Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi 31 May is the world Tobacco day. Governments and organizations mark this day to boost awareness in the people against the dangers of smoking and tobacco consumption.
Since the discovery of tobacco in the American continent
, the epidemic of smoking has spread continually around the world. Even today, smoking is the largest addiction of the globe. There are an estimated 1.3 billion smokers. About a third of the male adult global population smokes. About 15 billion cigarettes are sold daily - or 10 million every minute. Among young teens, about one in five smokes worldwide. Between 80,000 and 100,000 children worldwide start smoking every day - roughly half of whom live in Asia. Among the Western Pacific Region - which covers East Asia and the Pacific - has the highest smoking rate, with nearly two-thirds of men smoking. About one in three cigarettes are consumed in the Western Pacific Region. The Western Pacific has one third of the world's smokers, the highest rate of male smokers and the fastest increase of smoking among children and young women. One-quarter of adults in UK smokes. Smokers puff their way through 77 billion cigarettes annually. Almost one-third of girls aged 15 and 16 smoke. People in the 20 to 24 age group smoke the most – 38 per cent of men and 34 per cent of women. Health Facts
Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death. Half of long-term smokers will die from tobacco. Every cigarette smoked cuts at least five minutes of life on average - about the time taken to smoke it. Every seven seconds, someone dies from tobacco use. Tobacco claims 4.9 million lives a year, and if the present consumption patterns continue, the number of deaths will increase by 2020 to 10 million, 70% of which will occur in developing countries. There are an estimated 1.3 billion smokers and half of them (some 650 million) are expected to die prematurely of a tobacco-related disease. Smoking related-diseases kill one in 10 adults globally, or cause four million deaths. By 2030, if current trends continue, smoking will kill one in six people.
Tobacco kills more than 3000 people each day in the Western Pacific Region. Smoking is among the leading causes of death and disease in the area. About a quarter of youth alive in the region will die from smoking. About 12 times more British people have died from smoking than from World War II. Cigarettes cause more than one in five American deaths.
Tobacco is an addictive plant containing nicotine, many carcinogens and other toxins. When transformed into products designed to deliver nicotine efficiently, its toxic effects, responsible for causing many diseases, are often magnified because the process of increasing exposure to nicotine often results in increases in exposure to many poisons in the products. While, cigarettes comprise of many poisonous ingredients of which nicotine is not the only poisonous ingredient, but includes other ingredients which are more dangerous than nicotine. From amongst its poisonous ingredients are:
- Carbon monoxide: its bad effect is well-known.
- Poisonous lead which accumulates and the body fails to break it up.
- Nicotine: This is so poisonous that a mere 50 mg of it can kill a person if injected into the arteries.
- Radio-active polonium, which settles in the lungs of the smoker and doesn't separate from it.
- Tar: a sticky yellowish substance which makes the teeth yellow, causes tooth decay and inflammation of the gums. This is one of the most harmful ingredients.
- Arsenic: This is used as an insecticide, 10% of which settles on the lung.
- Spirits and flavouring: which are added by manufacturers to keep the tobacco moist
- Benzene vapour: This plays a great role in lung cancer.
Smoking is the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature death. It is a prime factor in heart disease, stroke and chronic lung disease. It can cause cancer of the lungs, larynx, oesophagus, mouth, and bladder, and contributes to cancer of the cervix, pancreas, and kidneys. At least a quarter of all deaths from heart diseases and about three-quarters of world's chronic bronchitis are related to smoking.
In addition to the high public health costs of treating tobacco-caused diseases, tobacco kills people at the height of their productivity, depriving families of breadwinners and nations of a healthy workforce. Tobacco users are also less productive due to increased sickness. A 1994 report estimated that the use of tobacco resulted in an annual global net loss of US$ 200 billion, a third of this loss being in developing countries.
Our country India is home to over 250 million tobacco users and smokers. Smoking is on the rise in the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year in developing countries. At the current rate, the number of smokers will rise from today's 1.3 billion to 1.7 billion by 2025. In India, more than 900,000 people succumb to tobacco-related diseases every year. Researchers calculated that almost 200,000 people a year throughout India die from TB because they smoked; half of the smokers killed by TB are in their early 50s or younger. Among men aged 35-69 in India, smoking causes about half of TB deaths and about a quarter of all deaths. India may lose 2.5 million people a year by 2025 due to growing tobacco consumption that will prove to be a great hurdle to the country's economic growth, experts have warned. The dealers in death
Three of the world's five biggest tobacco firms are British and make £2.9bn in pre-tax profits. The tobacco market is controlled by just a few corporations - namely American, British and Japanese multinational conglomerates. US-based multinational Philip Morris, the world's biggest cigarette company, was the world's ninth largest advertiser in 1996, spending more than $3 billion. By advertisements, the tobacco firms try to link smoking with athletic prowess, sexual attractiveness, success, adult sophistication, adventure and self-fulfilment. Studies show teenagers are heavily influenced by tobacco advertising. The youngsters are taking to tobacco as a 'hobby' while smoking has become a lifestyle statement.
Though, realizing the dangers of smoking the government has ordained Laws to discourage smoking and even today it continues taking tobacco control measures, like bans on direct and indirect tobacco advertising, tobacco tax and price increases, smoke-free environments in all public and workplaces, but this very little head is paid to it. The cigarette packets and products carry a tiny message, somewhere at the corner, that smoking is injurious to health, but who cares? Islamic Stand on Smoking
Addiction to whatever habit is undesirable and disliked. It is a kind of slavery that one imposes upon oneself. The smokers when they do not have their daily dose go crank. Smoking is no doubt prohibited and discouraged in Islam for many reasons. In view of the vivid hazards of health that tobacco has, it is tantamount to taking slow poison. The Glorious Quran says, " Do not cast yourselves, with your own hands, into destruction.”
(Surah al-Baqarah 2:195); "...nor kill yourselves...
" (Surah al-Nisaa 4:29). Though, smoking is not exactly like committing suicide but one should fear that it resembles to it. Suicide is a major sin, in a Hadith, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: "Whosoever drinks poison, thereby killing himself, will sip this poison forever and ever in the fire of Hell
Apart from the health effects, smoking is a source of wasting one’s wealth. It is also resented by Islam. Allah says, "But spend not wastefully (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift. Verily spendthrifts are brothers of the devils
.” (Surah al-Israa’ 17:26-27) In another Hadith the Prophet (peace be upon him) said that: "Allah hates for you three things: gossiping, begging (while being able to work and earn), and wasting money."
WHO-WPRO-The facts about smoking and health.htm 30 May 2006
WHO-WPRO-Smoking Statistics.htm 28 May 2002
http://www.tobacco.org/articles/country/india/ India eNews (in), 2006-05-31
: Tobacco consumption by youths hampers economic growth
AP Health News - Statistics on TB and Smoking in India.htm AUGUST 16, 2003Muhammadullah Khalili Qasmi can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org